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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166656/fragmentation-modes-and-the-evolution-of-life-cycles
#1
Yuriy Pichugin, Jorge Peña, Paul B Rainey, Arne Traulsen
Reproduction is a defining feature of living systems. To reproduce, aggregates of biological units (e.g., multicellular organisms or colonial bacteria) must fragment into smaller parts. Fragmentation modes in nature range from binary fission in bacteria to collective-level fragmentation and the production of unicellular propagules in multicellular organisms. Despite this apparent ubiquity, the adaptive significance of fragmentation modes has received little attention. Here, we develop a model in which groups arise from the division of single cells that do not separate but stay together until the moment of group fragmentation...
November 22, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166614/critical-modulation-of-hematopoietic-lineage-fate-by-hepatic-leukemia-factor
#2
Martin Wahlestedt, Vasileios Ladopoulos, Isabel Hidalgo, Manuel Sanchez Castillo, Rebecca Hannah, Petter Säwén, Haixia Wan, Monika Dudenhöffer-Pfeifer, Mattias Magnusson, Gudmundur L Norddahl, Berthold Göttgens, David Bryder
A gradual restriction in lineage potential of multipotent stem/progenitor cells is a hallmark of adult hematopoiesis, but the underlying molecular events governing these processes remain incompletely understood. Here, we identified robust expression of the leukemia-associated transcription factor hepatic leukemia factor (Hlf) in normal multipotent hematopoietic progenitors, which was rapidly downregulated upon differentiation. Interference with its normal downregulation revealed Hlf as a strong negative regulator of lymphoid development, while remaining compatible with myeloid fates...
November 21, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166602/mucus-detachment-by-host-metalloprotease-meprin-%C3%AE-requires-shedding-of-its-inactive-pro-form-which-is-abrogated-by-the-pathogenic-protease-rgpb
#3
Rielana Wichert, Anna Ermund, Stefanie Schmidt, Matthias Schweinlin, Miroslaw Ksiazek, Philipp Arnold, Katharina Knittler, Frederike Wilkens, Barbara Potempa, Björn Rabe, Marit Stirnberg, Ralph Lucius, Jörg W Bartsch, Susanna Nikolaus, Maren Falk-Paulsen, Philip Rosenstiel, Marco Metzger, Stefan Rose-John, Jan Potempa, Gunnar C Hansson, Peter J Dempsey, Christoph Becker-Pauly
The host metalloprotease meprin β is required for mucin 2 (MUC2) cleavage, which drives intestinal mucus detachment and prevents bacterial overgrowth. To gain access to the cleavage site in MUC2, meprin β must be proteolytically shed from epithelial cells. Hence, regulation of meprin β shedding and activation is important for physiological and pathophysiological conditions. Here, we demonstrate that meprin β activation and shedding are mutually exclusive events. Employing ex vivo small intestinal organoid and cell culture experiments, we found that ADAM-mediated shedding is restricted to the inactive pro-form of meprin β and is completely inhibited upon its conversion to the active form at the cell surface...
November 21, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166497/epidemiologic-analysis-of-prevalence-of-the-hyperhidrosis
#4
Fernanda Alvarenga Estevan, Marina Borri Wolosker, Nelson Wolosker, Pedro Puech-Leão
BACKGROUND: The present paper aims to study the prevalence of the various manifestations of hyperhidrosis in patients who sought treatment in a specialized ambulatory in the state of São Paulo. OBJECTIVES: Opposite to previous studies, this paper studies the different combinations of sweating sites, not being restricted to the main complaint site of the patients, but taking into consideration secondary complaints patients may present. METHODS: This was a retrospective approach of a database containing more than 1200 patients in which were mapped: combination of sweating sites, age of onset, age spectrum, mean age, body mass index and gender of patients...
September 2017: Anais Brasileiros de Dermatologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166410/devario-in-bangladesh-species-diversity-sibling-species-and-introgression-within-danionin-cyprinids-teleostei-cyprinidae-danioninae
#5
Sven O Kullander, Md Mizanur Rahman, Michael Norén, Abdur Rob Mollah
Four species of Devario are recorded from Bangladesh: D. aequipinnatus, D. anomalus, D. coxi, new species, and D. devario. Devario aequipinnatus has a wide distribution in northern India and Bangladesh. Devario coxi, from southeastern Bangladesh near Cox's Bazar, differs from D. aequipinnatus in mtDNA (COI, p-distance 1.8%), colouration, proportional measurements, and meristics. The minor morphological differences and low frequency of overlapping meristics suggest relatively recent separation of D. coxi from other D...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166394/maternity-care-for-trafficked-women-survivor-experiences-and-clinicians-perspectives-in-the-united-kingdom-s-national-health-service
#6
Debra Bick, Louise M Howard, Sian Oram, Cathy Zimmerman
BACKGROUND: Although trafficked women and adolescents are at risk of unprotected or forced sex, there is little research on maternity care among trafficking survivors. We explored health care needs, service use and challenges among women who became pregnant while in the trafficking situation in the United Kingdom (UK) and clinicians' perspectives of maternity care for trafficked persons. METHODS: Cross-sectional survey and qualitative interviews with trafficking survivors recruited from statutory and voluntary sector organisations in England and qualitative interviews with maternity clinicians and family doctors undertaken to offer further insight into experiences reported by these women...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166386/you-prime-what-you-code-the-faim-model-of-priming-of-pop-out
#7
Wouter Kruijne, Martijn Meeter
Our visual brain makes use of recent experience to interact with the visual world, and efficiently select relevant information. This is exemplified by speeded search when target- and distractor features repeat across trials versus when they switch, a phenomenon referred to as intertrial priming. Here, we present fAIM, a computational model that demonstrates how priming can be explained by a simple feature-weighting mechanism integrated into an established model of bottom-up vision. In fAIM, such modulations in feature gains are widespread and not just restricted to one or a few features...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166102/testing-the-limits-of-the-maxwell-distribution-of-velocities-for-atoms-flying-nearly-parallel-to-the-walls-of-a-thin-cell
#8
Petko Todorov, Daniel Bloch
For a gas at thermal equilibrium, it is usually assumed that the velocity distribution follows an isotropic 3-dimensional Maxwell-Boltzmann (M-B) law. This assumption classically implies the assumption of a "cos θ" law for the flux of atoms leaving the surface. Actually, such a law has no grounds in surface physics, and experimental tests of this assumption have remained very few. In a variety of recently developed sub-Doppler laser spectroscopy techniques for gases one-dimensionally confined in a thin cell, the specific contribution of atoms moving nearly parallel to the boundary of the vapor container becomes essential...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165989/bispentafluorophenyl-containing-additive-enhancing-efficiency-and-morphological-stability-of-polymer-solar-cells-via-hand-grabbing-like-supramolecular-pentafluorophenyl-fullerene-interactions
#9
Kai-En Hung, Che-En Tsai, Shao-Ling Chang, Yu-Ying Lai, U-Ser Jeng, Fong-Yi Cao, Chain-Shu Hsu, Chun-Jen Su, Yen-Ju Cheng
A new class of additive materials bis(pentafluorophenyl) diesters (BFEs) where the two pentafluorophenyl (C6F5) moieties are attached at the both ends of a linear aliphatic chain with tunable tether lengths (BF5, BF7, and BF13) were designed and synthesized. In the presence of the BF7 to restrict the migration of fullerene by hand-grabbing-like supramolecular interactions induced between the C6F5 groups and the surface of fullerene, the P3HT:PC61BM:BF7 device showed stable device characteristics after thermal heating at 150 oC for 25 h...
November 22, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165854/mmp-3-1171-5a-6a-lys45glu-variants-affect-serum-levels-of-matrix-metalloproteinase-mmp-3-and-correlate-with-severity-of-copd-a-study-of-mmp-3-mmp-7-and-mmp-12-in-a-tunisian-population
#10
Sarra Bchir, Hela Ben Nasr, Abdelhamid Garrouch, Amel Ben Anes, Ammar Abbassi, Zouhair Tabka, Karim Chahed
OBJECTIVE: The goal of this study was to examine the role of MMP-3 (-1171 5A/6A; Lys45Glu (A/G)), MMP-7 (-181) A/G and MMP-12 (-82 A/G; Asn357Ser (A/G)) variants in the development and severity of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in Tunisians. METHODS: Plethysmography was performed in all participants to measure FEV1, FVC and FEV1/FVC parameters. Genotyping of MMP-3, MMP-7 and MMP-12 polymorphisms was carried out in 138 patients with COPD and 216 healthy controls using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP)...
November 22, 2017: Journal of Gene Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165755/research-on-the-correlation-between-the-fibrinogen-%C3%AE-and-attack-of-pediatric-pneumonia
#11
G Liu, H-W Wu, Z-G Li
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the correlation of the gene polymorphism of β-148C/T of fibrinogen with the expression of fibrinogen and the attack of pediatric pneumonia. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We employed polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) to detect the gene polymorphism of beta-fibrinogen gene-148C/T (β-148C/T). The expression level of fibrinogen in plasma was measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and the expression level of fibrinogen β protein was determined using Western-blot method...
October 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165736/the-spartacus-trial-controversies-and-unresolved-issues
#12
Felix Beuschlein, Paolo Mulatero, Evelyn Asbach, Silvia Monticone, Cristiana Catena, Leonardo A Sechi, Michael Stowasser
Adrenal vein sampling (AVS) is considered the gold standard for the differential diagnosis in patients with primary aldosteronism (PA). The distinction between unilateral and bilateral disease dictates the targeted therapeutic approach with surgery for aldosterone producing adenomas and medical therapy for patients with bilateral hyperplasia. Thereby, this diagnostic step is crucial in clinical care. As AVS is an invasive, not well standardized procedure that is restricted to few specialized centers, several attempts have been made to simplify diagnostic algorithms...
November 17, 2017: Hormone and Metabolic Research, Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung, Hormones et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165720/-relationship-strain-parkinson-s-disease-gender-specific-distress-of-partners-of-patients-with-parkinson-s-disease
#13
Christoph Braukhaus, Uwe Jahnke, Tanja Zimmermann
A Parkinson's disease is attended by high strain for the patients and an obvious loss of relationship functioning. Partners of patients (N=110) were evaluated via self-assessment in terms of own depression (PHQ-9), own fear of progression (PA-F-P-KF), relationship quality (PFB) as well as perceived deficits in everyday life and nonverbal communication. 26% of women and 11% of men showed depression scores, 51% of women and 41% of men dysfunctional fear of progression and about 60% were unsatisfied with their relationship...
November 17, 2017: Psychotherapie, Psychosomatik, Medizinische Psychologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165677/being-born-too-small-and-too-early-may-alter-sleep-in-childhood
#14
Stephanie R Yiallourou, Bianca C Arena, Euan M Wallace, Alexsandria Odoi, Samantha Hollis, Aidan Weichard, Rosemary S C Horne
Study Objectives: Fetal growth restriction (FGR) occurs in up to 10% of pregnancies and is associated with increased risk of prematurity and neurodevelopmental impairment. FGR also alters sleep state distribution in utero and maturation in infancy. Currently, limited data on the long-term associations of FGR and childhood sleep exist. Accordingly, we assessed the associations between preterm birth and FGR and sleep in children aged 5-12 years. Methods: 17 children born preterm and FGR, 15 children born preterm but appropriately grown (AGA) and 20 term AGA children (controls) were studied using overnight polysomnography...
November 20, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165663/oral-contraceptives-and-cigarette-smoking-a-review-of-the-literature-and-future-directions
#15
Alicia M Allen, Andrea H Weinberger, Reagan R Wetherill, Carol L Howe, Sherry A McKee
Introduction: Evidence continues to mount indicating that endogenous sex hormones (e.g., progesterone and estradiol) play a significant role in smoking-related outcomes. Although approximately 1 out of 4 premenopausal smokers use oral contraceptives (OCs), which significantly alter progesterone and estradiol levels, relatively little is known about how OCs may influence smoking-related outcomes. Thus, the goal of this review paper is to describe the state of the literature and offer recommendations for future directions...
November 18, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165650/evaluation-of-1-25-dihydroxyvitamin-d3-pathway-in-patients-with-chronic-urticaria
#16
Rasoul Nasiri-Kalmarzi, Mohammad Abdi, Javad Hosseini, Erfan Babaei, Aram Mokarizadeh, Zakaria Vahabzadeh
BACKGROUND: Previous studies showed the role of vitamin D (Vit D) on the progression of chronic urticaria. To the best of our knowledge, there are no other results regarding the contribution of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the vitamin D receptor (VDR) and vitamin D binding protein (VDBP) genes in Chronic Urticaria (CU). AIM: In the present study, we investigated the Vit pathway and the association between VDR and VDBP gene polymorphisms and CU risk in Iranian population...
November 20, 2017: QJM: Monthly Journal of the Association of Physicians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165642/the-corticospinal-reserve-capacity-reorganization-of-motor-area-and-excitability-as-a-novel-pathophysiological-concept-in-cervical-myelopathy
#17
Anna Zdunczyk, Vera Schwarzer, Michael Mikhailov, Brendon Bagley, Tizian Rosenstock, Thomas Picht, Peter Vajkoczy
BACKGROUND: In degenerative cervical myelopathy (DCM), the dynamics of disease progression and the outcome after surgical decompression vary interindividually and do not necessarily correlate with radiological findings. OBJECTIVE: To improve diagnostic power in DCM by better characterization of the underlying pathophysiology using navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (nTMS). METHODS: Eighteen patients with DCM due to cervical spinal canal stenosis were examined preoperatively with nTMS...
November 18, 2017: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165631/instrumental-variables-estimation-under-a-structural-cox-model
#18
Torben Martinussen, Ditte Nørbo Sørensen, Stijn Vansteelandt
Instrumental variable (IV) analysis is an increasingly popular tool for inferring the effect of an exposure on an outcome, as witnessed by the growing number of IV applications in epidemiology, for instance. The majority of IV analyses of time-to-event endpoints are, however, dominated by heuristic approaches. More rigorous proposals have either sidestepped the Cox model, or considered it within a restrictive context with dichotomous exposure and instrument, amongst other limitations. The aim of this article is to reconsider IV estimation under a structural Cox model, allowing for arbitrary exposure and instruments...
November 20, 2017: Biostatistics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165595/con-the-role-of-diet-for-people-with-advanced-stage-5-ckd
#19
Graham Woodrow
Restriction of dietary protein intake has been used in the management of chronic kidney disease (CKD) for many decades, yet remains controversial, with marked variations in its application in clinical practice. There is extensive literature on the subject, with some expert opinion advocating the use of protein restriction based on the balance of the available evidence. The largest randomized trial of low-protein diets is the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease study. Despite multiple secondary analyses, the essential intention-to-treat analysis failed to demonstrate a benefit in the primary outcome of rate of decline of glomerular filtration rate...
November 17, 2017: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165589/ns3-helicase-from-dengue-virus-specifically-recognizes-viral-rna-sequence-to-ensure-optimal-replication
#20
Crystall M D Swarbrick, Chandrakala Basavannacharya, Kitti W K Chan, Shu-Ann Chan, Daljit Singh, Na Wei, Wint Wint Phoo, Dahai Luo, Julien Lescar, Subhash G Vasudevan
The protein-RNA interactions within the flavivirus replication complex (RC) are not fully understood. Our structure of dengue virus NS3 adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase)/helicase bound to the conserved 5' genomic RNA 5'-AGUUGUUAGUCU-3' reveals that D290 and R538 make specific interactions with G2 and G5 bases respectively. We show that single-stranded 12-mer RNA stimulates ATPase activity of NS3, however the presence of G2 and G5 leads to significantly higher activation. D290 is adjacent to the DEXH motif found in SF2 helicases like NS3 and interacts with R387, forming a molecular switch that activates the ATPase site upon RNA binding...
November 20, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
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