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Antipsychotic response

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335658/dopamine-antagonists-for-treatment-resistance-in-autism-spectrum-disorders-review-and-focus-on-bdnf-stimulators-loxapine-and-amitriptyline
#1
Jessica A Hellings, L Eugene Arnold, Joan Han
Drug development is urgently needed for individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and psychiatric comorbidity, which often presents as aggression and self-injury. At the same time, most psychiatric medications are drugs that have been repurposed following clinical observations of efficacy for a new treatment purpose. Areas Covered: This review aims to provide an overview of dopamine antagonists, including classical and atypical, as well as unconventional antipsychotics in ASD, since they are a mainstay of treatment for such problems...
March 24, 2017: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334978/therapeutic-window-of-dopamine-d2-3-receptor-occupancy-to-treat-psychosis-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#2
Suzanne Reeves, Emma McLachlan, Julie Bertrand, Fabrizia D Antonio, Stuart Brownings, Akshay Nair, Suki Greaves, Alan Smith, David Taylor, Joel Dunn, Paul Marsden, Robert Kessler, Robert Howard
Antipsychotic drugs, originally developed to treat schizophrenia, are used to treat psychosis, agitation and aggression in Alzheimer's disease. In the absence of dopamine D2/3 receptor occupancy data to inform antipsychotic prescribing for psychosis in Alzheimer's disease, the mechanisms underpinning antipsychotic efficacy and side effects are poorly understood. This study used a population approach to investigate the relationship between amisulpride blood concentration and central D2/3 occupancy in older people with Alzheimer's disease by combining: (i) pharmacokinetic data (280 venous samples) from a phase I single (50 mg) dose study in healthy older people (n = 20, 65-79 years); (ii) pharmacokinetic, 18F-fallypride D2/3 receptor imaging and clinical outcome data on patients with Alzheimer's disease who were prescribed amisulpride (25-75 mg daily) to treat psychosis as part of an open study (n = 28; 69-92 years; 41 blood samples, five pretreatment scans, 19 post-treatment scans); and (iii) 18F-fallypride imaging of an antipsychotic free Alzheimer's disease control group (n = 10, 78-92 years), to provide additional pretreatment data...
February 4, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334045/plasma-soluble-l-selectin-in-medicated-patients-with-schizophrenia-and-healthy-controls
#3
Satyajit Mohite, Fang Yang, Pooja A Amin, Giovana Zunta-Soares, Gabriela D Colpo, Laura Stertz, Ajaykumar N Sharma, Gabriel R Fries, Consuelo Walss-Bass, Jair C Soares, Olaoluwa O Okusaga
Immune dysfunction has been implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. Leukocyte migration to the site of inflammation is a fundamental step of immune response which involves P-, E-, and L-selectins. Elevated selectin levels have been reported in un-medicated first-episode patients with schizophrenia but not in medicated patients with multi-episode schizophrenia. We measured fasting plasma soluble P-, E-, and L-selectin in 39 medicated patients with multi-episode schizophrenia and 19 healthy controls...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333365/clozapine-combined-with-different-antipsychotic-drugs-for-treatment-resistant-schizophrenia
#4
REVIEW
Sarah Barber, Uwaila Olotu, Martina Corsi, Andrea Cipriani
BACKGROUND: Between 40% and 70% of people with treatment-resistant schizophrenia do not respond to clozapine, despite adequate blood levels. For these people, a number of treatment strategies have emerged, including the prescription of a second anti-psychotic drug in combination with clozapine. OBJECTIVES: To determine the clinical effects of various clozapine combination strategies with antipsychotic drugs in people with treatment-resistant schizophrenia both in terms of efficacy and tolerability...
March 23, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321840/association-of-proton-pump-inhibitors-usage-with-risk-of-pneumonia-in-dementia-patients
#5
Sai-Wai Ho, Ying-Hock Teng, Shun-Fa Yang, Han-Wei Yeh, Yu-Hsun Wang, Ming-Chih Chou, Chao-Bin Yeh
OBJECTIVES: To determine the association between usages of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) and subsequent risk of pneumonia in dementia patients. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Taiwanese National Health Insurance Research Database. PARTICIPANTS: The study cohort consisted of 786 dementia patients with new PPI usage and 786 matched dementia patients without PPI usage. MEASUREMENTS: The study endpoint was defined as the occurrence of pneumonia...
March 21, 2017: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321467/-sexual-dysfunction-associated-with-psychotropic-drugs-and-treatment-options
#6
M Berner
BACKGROUND: Sexual dysfunction associated with psychotropic drugs is a threat to patient quality of life and a major reason for non-compliance. Psychotropic agents can impair the sexual response in different ways due to their neurobiological mode of action. OBJECTIVE: Presentation of the frequencies of sexual functional disorders for selected psychopharmacological groups and the available treatment modalities. METHODS: Literature search, selection and review of relevant studies...
March 20, 2017: Der Nervenarzt
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318897/efficacy-of-off-label-augmentation-in-unipolar-depression-a-systematic-review-of-the-evidence
#7
REVIEW
Julia Kleeblatt, Felix Betzler, Laura L Kilarski, Tom Bschor, Stephan Köhler
Treatment of unipolar depression with currently available antidepressants is still unsatisfactory. Augmentation with lithium or second generation antipsychotics is an established practice in non-responders to antidepressant monotherapy, but is also associated with a substantial non-response rate and with non-tolerance. Based on a systematic review of the literature, including meta-analyses, randomized controlled trials (RCTs), non-randomized comparative studies and case studies, off-label augmentation agents (administered in addition to an antidepressant, without FDA approval for treatment of MDD) were identified and evaluated regarding their efficacy using levels of evidence...
March 16, 2017: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314680/a-novel-approach-to-measuring-response-and-remission-in-schizophrenia-in-clinical-trials
#8
Ahmed Aboraya, Stefan Leucht, Henry H Nasrallah, Myrto Samara, Josep Maria Haro, Ahmed Elshazly, Masood Zangeneh
BACKGROUND: Pharmaceutical companies conduct clinical trials to show the efficacy and safety of new medications for the treatment of schizophrenia. After the new medications are marketed, clinicians treating patients with schizophrenia discover that a considerable number of patients do not respond to these new medications. The goals of the review are to examine the methodology and design of recent antipsychotic clinical trials, identify common flaws, and propose guidelines to fix the flaws and improve the quality of future clinical trials of antipsychotic medications...
March 14, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314679/an-analysis-of-the-rewarding-and-aversive-associative-properties-of-nicotine-in-the-neonatal-quinpirole-model-effects-on-glial-cell-line-derived-neurotrophic-factor-gdnf
#9
Russell W Brown, Seth L Kirby, Adam R Denton, John M Dose, Elizabeth D Cummins, Wesley Drew Gill, Katherine C Burgess
This study analyzed the associative properties of nicotine in a conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigm in adolescent rats neonatally treated with quinpirole (NQ) or saline (NS). NQ produces dopamine D2 receptor supersensitivity that persists throughout the animal's lifetime, and therefore has relevance towards schizophrenia. In two experiments, rats were ip administered quinpirole (1mg/kg) or saline from postnatal day (P)1-21. After an initial preference test at P42-43, animals were conditioned for eight consecutive days with saline or nicotine (0...
March 14, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294137/relationship-between-duration-of-untreated-psychosis-and-intrinsic-corticostriatal-connectivity-in-patients-with-early-phase-schizophrenia
#10
Deepak K Sarpal, Delbert G Robinson, Christina Fales, Todd Lencz, Miklos Argyelan, Katherine H Karlsgodt, Juan A Gallego, Majnu John, John M Kane, Philip R Szeszko, Anil K Malhotra
Patients with first-episode psychosis experience psychotic symptoms for a mean of up to two years prior to initiation of treatment, and long duration of untreated psychosis (DUP) is associated with poor clinical outcomes. Meanwhile, evidence compiled from numerous studies suggests that longer DUP is not associated with structural brain abnormalities. To date, few studies have examined the relationship between DUP and functional neuroimaging measures. In the present study, we used seed-based resting-state functional connectivity to examine the impact of DUP on corticostriatal circuitry...
March 15, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294132/5-ht2c-agonists-modulate-schizophrenia-like-behaviors-in-mice
#11
Vladimir M Pogorelov, Ramona M Rodriguiz, Jianjun Cheng, Mei Huang, Claire M Schmerberg, Herbert Y Meltzer, Bryan L Roth, Alan P Kozikowski, William C Wetsel
All FDA-approved antipsychotic drugs (APDs) target primarily dopamine D2 or serotonin (5-HT2A) receptors, or both; however, these medications are not universally effective, they may produce undesirable side-effects, and provide only partial amelioration of negative and cognitive symptoms. The heterogeneity of pharmacological responses in schizophrenic patients suggests additional drug-targets may be effective in improving aspects of this syndrome. Recent evidence suggests that 5-HT2C receptors may be a promising target for schizophrenia since their activation reduces mesolimbic nigrostriatal dopamine release (which conveys antipsychotic action), they are expressed almost exclusively in CNS, and have weight-loss promoting capabilities...
March 15, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294084/continuous-circular-cycling-as-a-predictor-of-treatment-response-in-bipolar-disorders-a-comprehensive-review-of-the-current-literature
#12
Antonio Tundo, Paola Cavalieri
Evidence from the literature suggests that, on average, 27% of patients with a bipolar disorder (BD) experience a continuous cycling course (CCC) and that this subgroup differs significantly from patients with a noncontinuous cycling course (N-CCC) with respect to sociodemographic characteristics and clinical presentation. The aim of the present paper is to review the studies that evaluated short- and long-term treatment responses in BD patients with CCC. The retrieved studies indicate that CCC is a significant predictor of poor response to long-term treatment with lithium (the odds of a response in the CCC group were 57% less than in the N-CCC group; p<0...
March 15, 2017: CNS Spectrums
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291971/can-gut-microbes-play-a-role-in-mental-disorders-and-their-treatment
#13
Klara Latalova, Miroslav Hajda, Jan Prasko
The gut microbes, collectively called microbiota, are linked to the brain through a bidirectional system that involves the vagus nerve, the immune system, and various neurotransmitters. Stress response, memory functions, social behavior, and mood are modulated by microbiota. Furthermore, microbiota play a role in the development of the central nervous system. These features, established largely in rodent studies, have informed hypotheses about the role of microbiota in human psychiatric disorders. Microbiota affect phenomena that are known to be parts of the depression phenotype, such as exaggerated response to stress and inflammatory features...
March 2017: Psychiatria Danubina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291690/social-cognitive-brain-function-and-connectivity-during-visual-perspective-taking-in-autism-and-schizophrenia
#14
Shaun M Eack, Jessica A Wojtalik, Matcheri S Keshavan, Nancy J Minshew
BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and schizophrenia are neurodevelopmental conditions that are characterized by significant social impairment. Emerging genomic and neurobiological evidence has increasingly pointed to shared pathophysiologic mechanisms in the two disorders. Overlap in social impairment may reflect similar underlying neural dysfunction in social-cognitive brain networks, yet few studies have directly compared brain function and communication between those with ASD and schizophrenia...
March 10, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289280/biochemical-physiological-and-clinical-effects-of-l-methylfolate-in-schizophrenia-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#15
J L Roffman, L J Petruzzi, A S Tanner, H E Brown, H Eryilmaz, N F Ho, M Giegold, N J Silverstein, T Bottiglieri, D S Manoach, J W Smoller, D C Henderson, D C Goff
Folic acid supplementation confers modest benefit in schizophrenia, but its effectiveness is influenced by common genetic variants in the folate pathway that hinder conversion to its active form. We examined physiological and clinical effects of l-methylfolate, the fully reduced and bioactive form of folate, in schizophrenia. In this randomized, double-blind trial, outpatients with schizophrenia (n=55) received l-methylfolate 15 mg or placebo for 12 weeks. Patients were maintained on stable doses of antipsychotic medications...
March 14, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285024/shorter-telomere-length-in-people-with-schizophrenia-a-preliminary-study-from-australia
#16
Cherrie Galletly, Varinderpal S Dhillon, Dennis Liu, Ryan P Balzan, Lisa A Hahn, Michael F Fenech
Schizophrenia is a complex mental illness affecting the normal functioning of the brain, interfering with the ability to think, feel and act. It can be conceptualised as a syndrome of accelerated ageing, with early onset of cardiovascular disease and high rates of premature mortality. Telomere attrition increases with oxidative stress and is considered a biomarker of ageing. Previous studies have assessed abnormalities in telomere length in schizophrenia, but the results are inconsistent. The present study used a case-control design to assess whether people with schizophrenia have shortened telomeres, indicative of accelerated ageing...
March 8, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283227/clozapine-as-the-most-efficacious-antipsychotic-for-activating-erk-1-2-kinases-role-of-5-ht2a-receptor-agonism
#17
Stefano Aringhieri, Shivakumar Kolachalam, Claudio Gerace, Marco Carli, Valeria Verdesca, Maria Giulia Brunacci, Chiara Rossi, Chiara Ippolito, Anna Solini, Giovanni U Corsini, Marco Scarselli
Antipsychotics (APDs) are divided into first-generation antipsychotics (FGAs) and second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) based on the concept that SGAs have reduced motor side effects. With this premise, this study examined in HeLa and other cell lines the effects of different APDs on the activation of ERK1/2 (Extracellular signal-regulated kinases) and AKT (Protein Kinase B) kinases, which may be affected in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Among the SGAs, Clozapine clearly resulted as the most effective drug inducing ERK1/2 phosphorylation with potency in the low micromolar range...
March 7, 2017: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283114/the-varieties-of-psychosis-in-multiple-sclerosis-a-systematic-review-of-cases
#18
REVIEW
Carlos R Camara-Lemarroy, Beatriz E Ibarra-Yruegas, Rene Rodriguez-Gutierrez, Idanis Berrios-Morales, Carolina Ionete, Peter Riskind
OBJECTIVES: Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is known to be associated with a wide range of psychiatric symptoms, particularly with affective disorders. However, a link to psychotic disorders has not been fully established. METHODS: A systematic review of the PubMed/MEDLINE database was performed to identify cases of MS presenting with psychotic symptoms. Variables analyzed included patient demographics, clinical presentation, imaging characteristics and treatment. RESULTS: Ninety-one cases were identified...
February 2017: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277876/the-use-of-adjunctive-antipsychotics-to-treat-depression-in-uk-primary-care
#19
F X Lamy, D Saragoussi, M E Johnson, A Guiraud-Diawara, K T Jørgensen, J Y Loze, A Maguire
OBJECTIVE: Adjunctive antipsychotic therapy can be prescribed to patients with depression who have inadequate response to antidepressants. This study aimed to describe the use of adjunctive antipsychotics over a time period that includes the authorization in 2010 of prolonged-release quetiapine as the first adjunct antipsychotic to be used in major depressive disorder in the UK. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Adults with an episode of depression between January 1, 2005 and July 31, 2013 were identified from antidepressant prescriptions and depression diagnoses in the UK Clinical Practice Research Datalink...
March 15, 2017: Current Medical Research and Opinion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277565/pharmacogenetic-analysis-of-functional-glutamate-system-gene-variants-and-clinical-response-to-clozapine
#20
Danielle L Taylor, Arun K Tiwari, Jeffrey A Lieberman, Steven G Potkin, Herbert Y Meltzer, Joanne Knight, Gary Remington, Daniel J Müller, James L Kennedy
Altered glutamate neurotransmission is implicated in the etiology of schizophrenia (SCZ) and the pharmacogenetics of response to clozapine (CLZ), which is the drug of choice for treatment-resistant SCZ. Response to antipsychotic therapy is highly variable, although twin studies suggest a genetic component. We investigated the association of 10 glutamate system gene variants with CLZ response using standard genotyping procedures. GRM2 (rs4067 and rs2518461), SLC1A2 (rs4354668, rs4534557, and rs2901534), SLC6A9 (rs12037805, rs1978195, and rs16831558), GRIA1 (rs2195450), and GAD1 (rs3749034) were typed in 163 European SCZ/schizoaffective disorder patients deemed resistant or intolerant to previous pharmacotherapy...
February 2017: Molecular Neuropsychiatry
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