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Antipsychotic response

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912058/a-systematic-review-of-the-operational-definitions-for-antipsychotic-response-in-delusional-disorder
#1
Alexandre González-Rodríguez, Francesc Estrada, José A Monreal, Diego Palao, Javier Labad
This review aimed to examine and analyse the definitions used for antipsychotic response in delusional disorder (DD) and to provide a discussion of the methodology used. A systematic review was performed using the PubMed, Scopus and PsycINFO databases (1990-October 2017) according to the PRISMA statement. In addition, reference searches were performed manually through identified studies to obtain other relevant articles. The search terms included 'antipsychotic response', 'antipsychotics', 'treatment response' and 'delusional disorder'...
June 14, 2018: International Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906787/overall-cortisol-diurnal-slope-and-stress-reactivity-in-psychosis-an-experience-sampling-approach
#2
Thomas Vaessen, Zuzana Kasanova, Dennis Hernaus, Johan Lataster, Dina Collip, Martine van Nierop, Inez Myin-Germeys
OBJECTIVE: Results from experimental studies suggest that psychosis and psychosis liability are associated with increased cortisol levels and blunted cortisol reactivity, and that use of antipsychotics may reduce these aberrations. Here, we report on overall cortisol, diurnal slope, and cortisol stress reactivity in everyday life in psychosis and psychosis liability using the experience sampling method (ESM). METHODS: Our sample consisted of individuals diagnosed with psychotic disorder currently on (MPD; n = 53) or off antipsychotic medication (NMPD; n = 20), first-degree relatives of psychotic patients (REL; n = 47), and healthy volunteers (HV; n = 67)...
June 7, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29903777/pancytopenia-in-an-adult-patient-with-thiamine-responsive-megaloblastic-anaemia
#3
Virginie Moulin, Francesco Grandoni, Julien Castioni, Henri Lu
Thiamine-responsive megaloblastic anaemia (TRMA) is a syndrome associated with megaloblastic anaemia, diabetes mellitus and sensorineural deafness, due to mutations in the SLC19A2 gene, which codes for a thiamine carrier protein. Oral thiamine supplementation is the main treatment. We report the case of a 25-year-old woman known for TRMA, who presented with pancytopenia (haemoglobin 7.6 g/dL, leucocytes 2.9×109 /L, thrombocytes 6×109 /L) revealed by dyspnoea. Investigations excluded coagulopathy, a recent viral infection, vitamin and iron deficiencies, and a malignant process...
June 14, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29902518/differential-effects-of-typical-and-atypical-antipsychotics-on-astroglial-cells-in-vitro
#4
Larissa Daniele Bobermin, Amanda da Silva, Diogo Onofre Souza, André Quincozes-Santos
Astrocytes are glial cells that are essential for the maintenance of central nervous system functions, modulating neurotransmitters, providing metabolic, trophic and antioxidant support, and producing a wide range of cytokines to modulate the inflammatory response. These cells can be targets for antipsychotics, medications used in the treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders. In this regard, several studies have shown that antipsychotics are able to modulate peripheral cytokine release, but their effects on astroglial inflammatory response need to be further investigated...
June 11, 2018: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29900592/general-practitioners-knowledge-attitudes-and-experiences-of-managing-behavioural-and-psychological-symptoms-of-dementia-a-mixed-methods-systematic-review
#5
REVIEW
Aisling A Jennings, Tony Foley, Kieran A Walsh, Alice Coffey, John P Browne, Colin P Bradley
OBJECTIVES: To synthesise the existing published literature on general practitioners (GP)'s knowledge, attitudes, and experiences of managing behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) with a view to informing future interventions. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review and synthesis of quantitative and qualitative studies that explored GPs' experiences of managing BPSD (PROSPERO protocol registration CRD42017054916). Seven electronic databases were searched from inception to October 2017...
June 13, 2018: International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29891954/variations-in-dysbindin-1-are-associated-with-cognitive-response-to-antipsychotic-drug-treatment
#6
Diego Scheggia, Rosa Mastrogiacomo, Maddalena Mereu, Sara Sannino, Richard E Straub, Marco Armando, Francesca Managò, Simone Guadagna, Fabrizio Piras, Fengyu Zhang, Joel E Kleinman, Thomas M Hyde, Sanne S Kaalund, Maria Pontillo, Genny Orso, Carlo Caltagirone, Emiliana Borrelli, Maria A De Luca, Stefano Vicari, Daniel R Weinberger, Gianfranco Spalletta, Francesco Papaleo
Antipsychotics are the most widely used medications for the treatment of schizophrenia spectrum disorders. While such drugs generally ameliorate positive symptoms, clinical responses are highly variable in terms of negative symptoms and cognitive impairments. However, predictors of individual responses have been elusive. Here, we report a pharmacogenetic interaction related to a core cognitive dysfunction in patients with schizophrenia. We show that genetic variations reducing dysbindin-1 expression can identify individuals whose executive functions respond better to antipsychotic drugs, both in humans and in mice...
June 11, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29890508/trajectories-of-depressive-symptoms-in-the-acute-phase-of-psychosis-implications-for-treatment
#7
E Kjelby, R Gjestad, I Sinkeviciute, R A Kroken, E-M Løberg, H A Jørgensen, E Johnsen
Depression is common in schizophrenia and associated with negative outcomes. Previous studies have identified heterogeneity in treatment response in schizophrenia. We aimed to investigate different trajectories of depression in patients suffering from psychosis and predictors of change in depressive symptoms during antipsychotic treatment. Two hundred and twenty-six patients >18 years acutely admitted due to psychosis were consecutively included and the follow-up was 27 weeks. The Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia (CDSS) sum score was the primary outcome...
June 2, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29887809/blood-based-lipidomics-approach-to-evaluate-biomarkers-associated-with-response-to-olanzapine-risperidone-and-quetiapine-treatment-in-schizophrenia-patients
#8
Adriano Aquino, Guilherme L Alexandrino, Paul C Guest, Fabio Augusto, Alexandre F Gomes, Michael Murgu, Johann Steiner, Daniel Martins-de-Souza
This is the first study to identify lipidomic markers in plasma associated with response of acutely ill schizophrenia patients in response to specific antipsychotic treatments. The study population included 54 schizophrenia patients treated with antipsychotics for 6 weeks. Treatment led to significant improvement in positive and negative symptoms for 34 patients with little or no improvement for 20 patients. In addition, 37 patients showed an increase in body mass index after the 6 week treatment period, consistent with effects on metabolism and the association of such effects with symptom improvement...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29883636/expression-of-dopamine-d2-and-d3-receptors-in-the-human-retina-revealed-by-positron-emission-tomography-and-targeted-mass-spectrometry
#9
Fernando Caravaggio, Enzo Scifo, Etienne L Sibille, Sergio E Hernandez-Da Mota, Philip Gerretsen, Gary Remington, Ariel Graff-Guerrero
Dopamine D2 receptors (D2 R) are expressed in the human retina and play an important role in the modulation of neural responses to light-adaptation. However, it is unknown whether dopamine D3 receptors (D3 R) are expressed in the human retina. Using positron emission tomography (PET), we have observed significant uptake of the D3 R-preferring agonist radiotracer [11 C]-(+)-PHNO into the retina of humans in vivo. This led us to examine whether [11 C]-(+)-PHNO binding in the retina was quantifiable using reference tissue methods and if D3 R are expressed in human post-mortem retinal tissue...
June 5, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29880882/response-to-initial-antipsychotic-treatment-in-first-episode-psychosis-is-related-to-anterior-cingulate-glutamate-levels-a-multicentre-1-h-mrs-study-optimise
#10
A Egerton, B V Broberg, N Van Haren, K Merritt, G J Barker, D J Lythgoe, R Perez-Iglesias, L Baandrup, S W Düring, K V Sendt, J M Stone, E Rostrup, I E Sommer, B Glenthøj, R S Kahn, P Dazzan, P McGuire
Conventional antipsychotic medication is ineffective in around a third of patients with schizophrenia, and the nature of the therapeutic response is unpredictable. We investigated whether response to antipsychotics is related to brain glutamate levels prior to treatment. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy was used to measure glutamate levels (Glu/Cr) in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and in the thalamus in antipsychotic-naive or minimally medicated patients with first episode psychosis (FEP, n = 71) and healthy volunteers (n = 60), at three sites...
June 7, 2018: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29879409/importance-of-kynurenine-3-monooxygenase-for-spontaneous-firing-and-pharmacological-responses-of-midbrain-dopamine-neurons-relevance-for-schizophrenia
#11
Maximilian Tufvesson-Alm, Lilly Schwieler, Robert Schwarcz, Michel Goiny, Sophie Erhardt, Göran Engberg
Kynurenine 3-monooxygenase (KMO) is an essential enzyme of the kynurenine pathway, converting kynurenine into 3-hydroxykynurenine. Inhibition of KMO increases kynurenine, resulting in elevated levels of kynurenic acid (KYNA), an endogenous N-methyl-D-aspartate and α*7-nicotinic receptor antagonist. The concentration of KYNA is elevated in the brain of patients with schizophrenia, possibly as a result of a reduced KMO activity.In the present study, using in vivo single cell recording techniques, we investigated the electrophysiological characteristics of ventral tegmental area dopamine (VTA DA) neurons and their response to antipsychotic drugs in a KMO knock-out (K/O) mouse model...
June 4, 2018: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29875007/a-longitudinal-study-of-alterations-of-s100b-srage-and-fas-ligand-in-association-to-olanzapine-medication-in-a-sample-of-first-episode-patients-with-schizophrenia
#12
Charilaos Gerasimou, James N Tsoporis, Nikolaos Siafakas, Erifili Hatziagelaki, Maria Kallergi, Sofia N Chatziioannou, Thomas G Parker, John Parissis, Vasileios Salpeas, Charalabos Papageorgiou, Emmanouil Rizos
Neuroinflammation has been proposed as a major mechanism in schizophrenic disorder. Specifically, an increase of the inflammatory response in the central nervous system is capable of activating microglial cells, leading to the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and thus activating apoptotic signaling. An increase in apoptosis, may underlie a potential role of immune neuropathology in the etiopathogenesis of schizophrenia and in specific at the onset of the disorder. We analyzed in whole blood, levels of S100B, the receptor for advanced end glycation products (RAGE) and the apoptotic marker Fas Ligand in a sample of 13 first episode of schizophrenia twice at baseline before the initiation of any antipsychotic medication (A) and 6 weeks later following an antipsychotic monotherapy (B) and in a sample of 10 healthy controls...
June 5, 2018: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29871707/remission-of-depression-in-patients-with-schizophrenia-and-comorbid-major-depressive-disorder-results-from-the-face-sz-cohort
#13
Guillaume Fond, Laurent Boyer, Fabrice Berna, Ophélia Godin, Ewa Bulzacka, Méja Andrianarisoa, Lore Brunel, Bruno Aouizerate, Delphine Capdevielle, Isabelle Chereau, Nathalie Coulon, Thierry D'Amato, Caroline Dubertret, Julien Dubreucq, Catherine Faget, Sylvain Leignier, Christophe Lançon, Jasmina Mallet, David Misdrahi, Christine Passerieux, Romain Rey, Aurélie Schandrin, Mathieu Urbach, Pierre Vidailhet, Marion Leboyer, Franck Schürhoff, Pierre-Michel Llorca
BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is underdiagnosed and undertreated in schizophrenia, and has been strongly associated with impaired quality of life.AimsTo determine the prevalence and associated factors of MDD and unremitted MDD in schizophrenia, to compare treated and non-treated MDD. METHOD: Participants were included in the FondaMental Expert Centers for Schizophrenia and received a thorough clinical assessment. MDD was defined by a Calgary score ≥6...
June 6, 2018: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29870957/identifying-improvable-employment-related-factors-in-schizophrenia-patients
#14
Tadashi Hasegawa, Tasuku Hashimoto, Nobuhisa Kanahara, Hiroshi Yamanaka, Minoru Ishige, Yasunori Sato, Masaomi Iyo
Although many studies report various factors related to future employment of schizophrenia patients, few identify the treatable or improvable ones. The responses to the first year of treatment and daily antipsychotic drug doses may be the treatable and improvable factors. We surveyed 235 schizophrenia outpatients in three facilities, of whom 129 and 106 were employed and unemployed, respectively. Through face-to-face interviews and medical record reviews, we investigated symptomatic and social functioning responses to the first year of treatment using the Global Assessment of Psychopathology Scale (GAPS) and the Social and Occupational Functioning Assessment Scale (SOFAS)...
May 28, 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29866014/adverse-effects-of-antidepressants-reported-by-1-431-people-from-38-countries-emotional-blunting-suicidality-and-withdrawal-effects
#15
John Read, James Williams
BACKGROUND: Studies of the adverse effects of antidepressants tend to focus on biological symptoms. The prevalence of suicidality and withdrawal effects are currently a source of controversy. OBJECTIVE: To directly ascertain the experiences of an international sample of antidepressant users. METHOD: An online survey asked adult antidepressant users whether they had experienced 20 adverse effects 'as a result of taking the antidepressant', and if so, to what degree of severity...
June 4, 2018: Current Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29860382/major-depression-and-the-degree-of-suicidality-results-of-the-european-group-for-the-study-of-resistant-depression-gsrd
#16
Markus Dold, Lucie Bartova, Gernot Fugger, Alexander Kautzky, Daniel Souery, Julien Mendlewicz, George N Papadimitriou, Dimitris Dikeos, Panagiotis Ferentinos, Stefano Porcelli, Alessandro Serretti, Joseph Zohar, Stuart Montgomery, Siegfried Kasper
Background: This European multicenter study aimed to elucidate suicidality in major depressive disorder. Previous surveys suggest a prevalence of suicidality in major depressive disorder of ≥50%, but little is known about the association of different degrees of suicidality with socio-demographic, psychosocial, and clinical characteristics. Methods: We stratified 1410 major depressive disorder patients into 3 categories of suicidality based on the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression item 3 (suicidality) ratings (0=no suicidality; 1-2=mild/moderate suicidality; 3-4=severe suicidality)...
June 1, 2018: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29860329/cortical-stress-regulation-is-disrupted-in-schizophrenia-but-not-in-clinical-high-risk-for-psychosis
#17
Christin Schifani, Huai-Hsuan Tseng, Miran Kenk, Abanti Tagore, Michael Kiang, Alan A Wilson, Sylvain Houle, Pablo M Rusjan, Romina Mizrahi
While alterations in striatal dopamine in psychosis and stress have been well studied, the role of dopamine in prefrontal cortex is poorly understood. To date, no study has investigated the prefrontocortical dopamine response to stress in the psychosis spectrum, even though the dorsolateral and medial prefrontal cortices are key regions in cognitive and emotional regulation, respectively. The present study uses the high-affinity dopamine D2/3 receptor radiotracer 11C-FLB457 and PET together with a validated psychosocial stress challenge to investigate the dorsolateral and medial prefrontocortical dopamine response to stress in schizophrenia and clinical high risk for psychosis...
May 30, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29859501/relationship-between-bipolar-disorder-and-attention-deficit-hyperkinetic-disorder-an-exploratory-study
#18
Soumya Jhanda, Savita Malhotra, Sandeep Grover
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to evaluate the impact of comorbid attention deficit hyperkinetic disorder (ADHD) on Bipolar disorder (BD). METHODS: Patients aged 13-40 years with diagnosis of BD with ADHD (N = 30) were compared to those with BD without ADHD (N = 69) for clinical course, functional outcome and quality of life. RESULTS: Those with BD + ADHD had significantly lower age of onset of BD (p < 0.001), a significantly higher number of total lifetime episodes (p = 0...
May 19, 2018: Asian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29858981/drug-induced-hyperglycaemia-and-diabetes-pharmacogenomics-perspectives
#19
REVIEW
Mou-Ze Liu, Hai-Yan He, Jian-Quan Luo, Fa-Zhong He, Zhang-Ren Chen, Yi-Ping Liu, Da-Xiong Xiang, Hong-Hao Zhou, Wei Zhang
Drug-induced diabetes is widely reported in clinical conditions, and it is becoming a global issue because of its potential to increase the risk of severe cardiovascular complications. However, which drug mechanisms exert their diabetogenic effects and why the effects present significant inter-individual differences remain largely unknown. Pharmacogenomics, which is the study of how genomic variation influences drug responses, provides an explanation for individual differences in drug-induced diabetes. We highlight that pharmacogenomics can be involved in regulating the expression of genes in signaling pathways related to the pharmacokinetics or pharmacodynamics of drugs or the pathogenesis of diabetes, contributing to the differences in drug-induced glucose impairment...
June 1, 2018: Archives of Pharmacal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29858840/meta-analysis-of-placebo-response-in-randomized-clinical-trials-of-antipsychotic-drugs-using-panss-focusing-on-different-approaches-to-the-handling-of-missing-data
#20
Akiko Matsusaki, Masayuki Kaneko, Mamoru Narukawa
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Schizophrenia treatment has been shifting to resocialization by efficacious antipsychotic drugs. However, even some of the pivotal studies of approved new antipsychotic drugs with proven efficacy had failed due to high placebo response. The aim of this study was to identify the potential factors affecting placebo response by meta-analysis for randomized clinical trials for antipsychotic drugs using Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) focusing on the current methodological change in the handling of missing data [from last observation carried forward (LOCF) to mixed-effect models for repeated measures (MMRM)] for successful future clinical trials...
June 1, 2018: Clinical Drug Investigation
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