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Antipsychotic response

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659460/clozapine-titration-for-people-in-early-psychosis-a-chart-review-and-treatment-guideline
#1
Jacob S Ballon, Hera Ashfaq, Douglas L Noordsy
PURPOSE/BACKGROUND: The use of clozapine, particularly in young people, is often limited by early treatment-emergent adverse effects including drowsiness and lethargy. Concerns about adverse effects, medication adherence, and the need for blood monitoring often impede the use of clozapine in this population, leading to repeated trials of less effective medications. Current clozapine dosing recommendations are based on people further in the course of their illness and thus reflect different responsiveness and sensitivities to antipsychotic medication...
June 2018: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653412/sensorimotor-gating-deficits-and-effects-of-antipsychotics-on-the-hyperactivity-in-vgf-overexpressing-mice
#2
Takahiro Mizoguchi, Hiroko Minakuchi, Miyu Tanaka, Kazuhiro Tsuruma, Masamitsu Shimazawa, Hideaki Hara
BACKGROUND: VGF nerve growth factor inducible (VGF) is a neuropeptide which is expressed in neuronal cells and endocrine cells. VGF is induced by several neurotrophic factors. The expression level of VGF in patients with schizophrenia is increased in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and prefrontal cortex. In our previous study, we generated mice in which the expression level of VGF in the brain was increased. VGF-overexpressing mice exhibited abnormal behaviors including hyperactivity. However, it remains unknown whether VGF-overexpressing mice exhibit the endophenotype of schizophrenia and whether abnormal behaviors in these mice can be improved by antipsychotics...
November 22, 2017: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652308/-clinical-psychopathological-aspects-of-therapeutic-effects-of-agomelatine-valdoxan-and-its-place-in-perfection-of-methods-of-therapy-of-postschizophrenic-depressive-disorders
#3
G P Panteleyeva, L I Abramova, T E Novozhenova, N V Subbotskaya, D V Tikhonov, P E Yumatova, I Yu Nikiforova
AIM: To determine a therapeutic effect of agomelatine (valdoxan) on post-schizophrenic depression (PSD), taking into account its psychopathological structure. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 33 patients of both sexes (average age was 32.1 yrs) with symptoms of post-schizophrenic depression (F20.4 according to ICD-10) were examined by using clinical and psychometric methods in the dynamics of shift-like schizophrenia. HAMD-17, PANSS and CGI-S scales were applied...
2018: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650266/increased-sensorimotor-network-connectivity-associated-with-clozapine-eligibility-in-people-with-schizophrenia
#4
Carolyn Beth McNabb, Frederick Sundram, Ian Soosay, Robert R Kydd, Bruce Roy Russell
Schizophrenia is a heterogeneous disorder that exhibits variable responsiveness to treatment between individuals. Here we conducted a resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) study to determine whether resistance to first-line antipsychotics is reflected in resting-state connectivity. rs-fMRI data were collected from 15 people who had failed to respond to first-line antipsychotics (clozapine-eligible) and 10 first-line treatment responders (FLR). Image pre-processing and analysis were performed using FMRIB's software library (FSL)...
March 6, 2018: Psychiatry research. Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29648618/inflammation-in-schizophrenia-pathogenetic-aspects-and-therapeutic-considerations
#5
Norbert Müller
This paper discusses the current evidence from animal and human studies for a central role of inflammation in schizophrenia. In animal models, pre- or perinatal elicitation of the immune response may increase immune reactivity throughout life, and similar findings have been described in humans. Levels of pro-inflammatory markers, such as cytokines, have been found to be increased in the blood and cerebrospinal fluid of patients with schizophrenia. Numerous epidemiological and clinical studies have provided evidence that various infectious agents are risk factors for schizophrenia and other psychoses...
April 10, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627696/effects-of-the-141c-insertion-deletion-polymorphism-in-the-dopamine-d2-receptor-gene-on-the-dopamine-system-in-the-striatum-in-patients-with-schizophrenia
#6
Junya Matsumoto, Atsuko Nagaoka, Yasuto Kunii, Itaru Miura, Mizuki Hino, Shin-Ichi Niwa, Hiroyuki Nawa, Hitoshi Takahashi, Akiyoshi Kakita, Hirooki Yabe
The relationships between -141C insertion/deletion (Ins/Del) polymorphisms in the dopamine D2 receptor gene and the two dopamine system integrators, i.e., dopamine- and cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein of molecular weight 32 kDa (DARPP-32) and calcineurin (CaN), are still unclear. In this study, we assessed the effect of this polymorphism on DARPP-32 and CaN protein expression in the postmortem striatum of patients with schizophrenia and control individuals. The expression levels of truncated DARPP and CaN were lower in Del allele carriers...
March 29, 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623228/response-after-infection-associated-rise-in-clozapine-levels-in-treatment-resistant-schizoaffective-disorder
#7
Nina H Grootendorst-van Mil, Anna R M Huiskens, Sieds Dieleman, Tom K Birkenhäger
The clinical management of patients with treatment-resistant psychotic disorders is still challenging despite years of extensive research. If first-line antipsychotic treatment proves ineffective, clozapine is considered golden standard. Herein, we report on a patient with schizoaffective disorder that initially showed no response to treatment with clozapine and ECT and therefore reached a therapeutic dead end. After an unintentional exposure to supratherapeutic clozapine levels, related to a pneumonia, a significant and persistent reduction of psychotic symptoms occurred...
2018: Case Reports in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620914/effects-of-metformin-on-spatial-and-verbal-memory-in-children-with-asd-and-overweight-associated-with-atypical-antipsychotic-use
#8
Michael G Aman, Jill A Hollway, Jeremy Veenstra-VanderWeele, Benjamin L Handen, Kevin B Sanders, James Chan, Eric Macklin, L Eugene Arnold, Taylor Wong, Cassandra Newsom, Rianne Hastie Adams, Sarah Marler, Naomi Peleg, Evdokia A Anagnostou
OBJECTIVES: Studies in humans and rodents suggest that metformin, a medicine typically used to treat type 2 diabetes, may have beneficial effects on memory. We sought to determine whether metformin improved spatial or verbal memory in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and overweight associated with atypical antipsychotic use. METHODS: We studied the effects of metformin (Riomet® ) concentrate on spatial and verbal memory in 51 youth with ASD, ages 6 through 17 years, who were taking atypical antipsychotic medications, had gained significant weight, and were enrolled in a trial of metformin for weight management...
April 5, 2018: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29620636/clinical-characteristic-and-risk-factors-of-recurrent-sexual-abuse-and-delayed-reported-sexual-abuse-in-childhood
#9
Mei-Hua Hu, Go-Shine Huang, Jing-Long Huang, Chang-Teng Wu, An-Shine Chao, Fu-Sung Lo, Han-Ping Wu
Child sexual abuse (CSA) is a global problem that affects children of all ages, and the evaluation of these victims by psychologic and gynecologic experts in pediatric emergency departments is an important issue. Few data are available on the characteristics of children admitted to pediatric emergency department with recurrent CSA and delayed reported CSA. The aim of the present study was to describe the clinical features of, and risk factors for, recurrent CSA and delayed reported CSA. The study retrospectively analyzed victims of CSA who were admitted to a pediatric emergency department...
April 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618019/differential-expression-of-synapsin-i-and-ii-upon-treatment-by-lithium-and-valproic-acid-in-various-brain-regions
#10
Hetshree Joshi, Roohie Sharma, Shreya Prashar, Joella Ho, Sharon Thomson, Ram Mishra
Introduction: Due to the heterogeneity of psychiatric illnesses and overlapping mechanisms, patients with psychosis are differentially responsive to pharmaceutical drugs. In addition to having therapeutic effects for schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, antipsychotics and mood stabilizers have many clinical applications and are used unconventionally due to their direct and indirect effects on neurotransmitters. Synapsins, a family of neuronal phosphoproteins, play a key regulatory role in neurotransmitter release at synapses...
March 30, 2018: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29607408/therapeutic-effects-of-prolonged-cannabidiol-treatment-on-psychological-symptoms-and-cognitive-function-in-regular-cannabis-users-a-pragmatic-open-label-clinical-trial
#11
Nadia Solowij, Samantha J Broyd, Camilla Beale, Julie-Anne Prick, Lisa-Marie Greenwood, Hendrika van Hell, Chao Suo, Peter Galettis, Nagesh Pai, Shanlin Fu, Rodney J Croft, Jennifer H Martin, Murat Yücel
Introduction: Chronic cannabis use has been associated with impaired cognition and elevated psychological symptoms, particularly psychotic-like experiences. While Δ9 -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is thought to be primarily responsible for these deleterious effects, cannabidiol (CBD) is purported to have antipsychotic properties and to ameliorate cognitive, symptomatic, and brain harms in cannabis users. However, this has never been tested in a prolonged administration trial in otherwise healthy cannabis users...
2018: Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29602597/baseline-serum-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-levels-predict-treatment-response-to-antipsychotic-medication-in-patients-with-schizophrenia
#12
Wenhuan Xiao, Qiongqiong Zhan, Fei Ye, Xiaowei Tang, Jin Li, Hui Dong, Weiwei Sha, Xiaobin Zhang
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is implicated in angiogenesis, blood flow, and neuroplasticity, which have previously been shown to contribute to schizophrenia and the mechanisms of action of antipsychotic medication. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether baseline serum VEGF levels predict treatment responses to antipsychotic medication. Drug-free adults with schizophrenia were administered monotherapy with atypical antipsychotic drugs for 6 weeks. Participants' psychiatric symptoms were assessed using the positive and negative symptom scale (PANSS) before and after treatment...
March 27, 2018: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29594135/mitochondrial-complex-i-deficiency-in-schizophrenia-and-bipolar-disorder-and-medication-influence
#13
Brandi L Rollins, Ling Morgan, Brooke E Hjelm, Adolfo Sequeira, Alan F Schatzberg, Jack D Barchas, Francis S Lee, Rick M Myers, Stanley J Watson, Huda Akil, Steven G Potkin, William E Bunney, Marquis P Vawter
Subjects with schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar disorder (BD) show decreased protein and transcript levels for mitochondrial complex I. In vitro results suggest antipsychotic and antidepressant drugs may be responsible. We measured complex I activity in BD, SZ, and controls and presence of antipsychotic and antidepressant medications, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number, and the mtDNA "common deletion" in the brain. Complex I activity in the prefrontal cortex was decreased by 45% in SZ compared to controls ( p = 0...
February 2018: Molecular Neuropsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29589131/recent-progress-in-pharmacogenomics-of-antipsychotic-drug-response
#14
REVIEW
Jian-Ping Zhang, Anil K Malhotra
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Pharmacogenomics (PGx) of antipsychotic drug response is an active area of research in the past few years. We reviewed recent PGx studies with an emphasis of development of new methodologies and new research directions. RECENT FINDINGS: Traditional candidate gene approach continues to generate evidence to support the associations of antipsychotic response with genes coding for drug targets such as DRD2. Genome-wide association studies have found a few novel genes that may be associated with drug efficacy and adverse events...
March 27, 2018: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29581153/aicar-prevents-acute-olanzapine-induced-disturbances-in-glucose-homeostasis
#15
Natasha D Bush, Logan K Townsend, David C Wright
Olanzapine (OLZ) is an antipsychotic drug used in the treatment of schizophrenia. While effective in reducing psychoses, OLZ causes acute increases in blood glucose. The acute effects of OLZ on hyperglycaemia are likely caused by reductions in insulin secretion, insulin resistance and increased hepatic glucose production. 5'AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is an energy sensor activated during exercise that can increase insulin sensitivity and insulin-independent glucose uptake in muscle. 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleoside (AICAR) is a pharmacological agent that, among other effects, can activate AMPK in vivo...
March 26, 2018: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29579587/a-systematic-review-of-clozapine-induced-myocarditis
#16
Brandi L Bellissima, Malcolm D Tingle, Aleksandar Cicović, Mohammed Alawami, Christopher Kenedi
BACKGROUND: Clozapine is an atypical antipsychotic that is beneficial to some patients who failed to have an adequate clinical response to other antipsychotic drugs. Its clinical use is limited due to several potentially fatal adverse reactions including myocarditis. Careful monitoring of patients on clozapine is required. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review of the literature on myocarditis associated with clozapine therapy. The search engines used to identify cases were MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO and Cochrane reviews...
May 15, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29570608/antioxidative-effect-of-quetiapine-on-acute-ultraviolet-b-induced-skin-and-hacat-cell-damage
#17
Pengcheng Xu, Min Zhang, Xueer Wang, Yuan Yan, Yinghua Chen, Wei Wu, Lu Zhang, Lin Zhang
Quetiapine is a new type of antipsychotic drug, with effective protection of pheochromocytoma PC12 cells from oxidative stress-induced apoptosis. Ultraviolet-B radiation can increase reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, resulting in significant inflammatory responses in damaged skin. Thus, the purpose of this study is to explore whether quetiapine protects the skin from intermediate-wave ultraviolet (UVB)-induced damage through antioxidant stress. In vivo, we found quetiapine treatment was able to significantly decrease skin thickness, erythema, and edema, as well as inflammation compared to control group...
March 23, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29559890/blood-gene-expression-profile-predicts-response-to-antipsychotics
#18
Jesus Sainz, Carlos Prieto, Fulgencio Ruso-Julve, Benedicto Crespo-Facorro
Antipsychotic drugs are one of the largest types of prescribed drugs and have large inter-individual differences in efficacy, but there is no methodology to predict their clinical effect. Here we show a four-gene blood expression profile to predict the response to antipsychotics in schizophrenia patients before treatment. We sequenced total mRNA from blood samples of antipsychotic naïve patients who, after 3 months of treatment, were in the top 40% with the best response (15 patients) and in the bottom 40% with the worst response (15 patients) according to the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS)...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29558528/efficacy-and-tolerability-of-short-term-duloxetine-treatment-in-adults-with-generalized-anxiety-disorder-a-meta-analysis
#19
Xinyuan Li, Lijun Zhu, Chunkui Zhou, Jing Liu, Heqian Du, Chenglin Wang, Shaokuan Fang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the efficacy and tolerability of duloxetine during short-term treatment in adults with generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). METHODS: We conducted a comprehensive literature review of the PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Web of Science, and ClinicalTrials databases for randomized controlled trials(RCTs) comparing duloxetine or duloxetine plus other antipsychotics with placebo for the treatment of GAD in adults...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29552429/influence-of-acute-antipsychotic-treatment-on-cardiorespiratory-coupling-and-heart-rate-variability
#20
Roboam R Aguirre, Mixel Z Mustafa, Alessandra Dumenigo, Steffen Schulz, Andreas Voss, Bishoy Goubran, Rhaisa Dumenigo, Marcos A Sanchez-Gonzalez
A major contributing factor associated with increased cardiac mortality in patients with schizophrenia (SCZ) seems to be a dysfunction of the autonomic nervous system (ANS). The link between ANS dysfunction and SCZ is multifactorial, but some reports suggest that the use of antipsychotics could be implicated. This case illustrates the time course of autonomic improvement in response to antipsychotic treatment in an inpatient with SCZ in acute psychosis. To this end, we documented markers of autonomic function during hospitalization...
January 15, 2018: Curēus
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