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Antipsychotic response

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036711/impacts-of-electroconvulsive-therapy-on-1-year-outcomes-in-patients-with-schizophrenia-a-controlled-population-based-mirror-image-study
#1
Hai-Ti Lin, Shi-Kai Liu, Ming H Hsieh, Yi-Ling Chien, I-Ming Chen, Shih-Cheng Liao, Hui-Ju Tsai, Chi-Shin Wu
Objectives: Despite the decline in the use of electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) in patients with schizophrenia, ECT augmentation is still recommended for those with poor response to standard pharmacological intervention. However, the effectiveness of augmentation of antipsychotics with ECT on long-term clinical outcomes needs to be verified in an expanded sample. Methods: Patients who were hospitalized for schizophrenia and received ECT for the first time during that hospitalization were identified from the total population health insurance database in Taiwan between 2002 and 2011...
September 23, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036383/nigral-stress-induced-dopamine-release-in-clinical-high-risk-and-antipsychotic-na%C3%A3-ve-schizophrenia
#2
Huai-Hsuan Tseng, Jeremy J Watts, Michael Kiang, Ivonne Suridjan, Alan A Wilson, Sylvain Houle, Pablo M Rusjan, Romina Mizrahi
Background: Striatal dopamine (DA) synthesis capacity and release are elevated in schizophrenia (SCZ) and its putative prodrome, the clinical high risk (CHR) state. Striatal DA function results from the activity of midbrain DA neurons projecting mainly from the substantia nigra (SN). Elevated stress-induced DA release in SCZ and CHR was observed in the striatum; however, whether it is also elevated in the SN is unclear. The current study aims to determine whether nigral DA release in response to a validated stress task is altered in CHR and in antipsychotic-naïve SCZ...
June 13, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017764/dna-methylation-and-antipsychotic-treatment-mechanisms-in-schizophrenia-progress-and-future-directions
#3
REVIEW
Ellen S Ovenden, Nathaniel W McGregor, Robin A Emsley, Louise Warnich
Antipsychotic response in schizophrenia is a complex, multifactorial trait influenced by pharmacogenetic factors. With genetic studies thus far providing little biological insight or clinical utility, the field of pharmacoepigenomics has emerged to tackle the so-called "missing heritability" of drug response in disease. Research on psychiatric disorders has only recently started to assess the link between epigenetic alterations and treatment outcomes. DNA methylation, the best characterised epigenetic mechanism to date, is discussed here in the context of schizophrenia and antipsychotic treatment outcomes...
October 7, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28973626/delirium-in-older-persons-advances-in-diagnosis-and-treatment
#4
REVIEW
Esther S Oh, Tamara G Fong, Tammy T Hshieh, Sharon K Inouye
Importance: Delirium is defined as an acute disorder of attention and cognition. It is a common, serious, and often fatal condition among older patients. Although often underrecognized, delirium has serious adverse effects on the individual's function and quality of life, as well as broad societal effects with substantial health care costs. Objective: To summarize the current state of the art in diagnosis and treatment of delirium and to highlight critical areas for future research to advance the field...
September 26, 2017: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971230/effects-of-2-bromoterguride-a-dopamine-d2-receptor-partial-agonist-on-cognitive-dysfunction-and-social-aversion-in-rats
#5
Emilia Tarland, Robert T Franke, Heidrun Fink, Heinz H Pertz, Jan Brosda
RATIONALE: 2-Bromoterguride, a dopamine D2 receptor partial agonist with antagonist properties at serotonin 5-HT2A receptors and α2C-adrenoceptors, meets the prerequisites of a putative atypical antipsychotic drug (APD). We recently showed that 2-bromoterguride is effective in tests of positive symptoms of schizophrenia in rats without inducing extrapyramidal side effects or metabolic changes. OBJECTIVE: In continuation of our recent work, we now investigated the effect of 2-bromoterguride on apomorphine and phencyclidine (PCP)-induced disruptions of prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the acoustic startle response, a measure of sensory gating...
October 3, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28970021/dopamine-the-antipsychotic-molecule-a-perspective-on-mechanisms-underlying-antipsychotic-response-variability
#6
REVIEW
Davide Amato, Anthony C Vernon, Francesco Papaleo
All antipsychotics bind to the dopamine D2 receptor. An "optimal" level of D2 receptor blockade with antipsychotics is thought to ameliorate the positive symptoms of schizophrenia. However, persistent D2 receptor blockade is associated with a deteriorating clinical response in a subset of patients. Interestingly, antipsychotics with a weaker D2 receptor binding profile appear somewhat superior in this respect. This evidence challenges the hypothesis that D2 receptor blockade is the sole mechanism of antipsychotic efficacy and points to consistent inter-individual responses to antipsychotic treatment...
September 29, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28956328/current-understanding-of-pde10a-in-the-modulation-of-basal-ganglia-circuitry
#7
Jan-Philip Schülke, Nicholas J Brandon
The basal ganglia are a forebrain network of interconnected nuclei that are involved in action selection, reward circuits and coordinating movement. PDE10A inhibition has been proposed as a novel way to modulate basal ganglia circuitry and to ameliorate symptoms in Huntington's disease, Parkinson's disease and Schizophrenia. However, despite encouraging results from pre-clinical models, PDE10A inhibitors failed to show efficacy as an antipsychotic in several clinical trials. PDE10A is expressed in the medium spiny neurons of the striatum and works to limit cyclic nucleotide signaling in response to modulatory neurotransmitters like dopamine...
2017: Advances in Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28953799/assessing-the-critical-issues-of-atypical-antipsychotics-in-schizophrenic-inpatients
#8
Francesco Franza, Barbara Solomita, Gino Aldi, Gianfranco Del Buono
Antipsychotics are effective in reducing positive and disorganization symptoms of schizophrenia. Although SGAs initially all were believed to be more efficacious and tolerable than FGAs, several data show that the SGAs are no more effective than FGAs. In clinical practice, frequent switching of antipsychotic medications is widespread for lack of efficacy, adverse side effects, and partial or not-compliance response. This study suggested that most clinically stable inpatients with schizophrenia maintain their remission states after being switched to another atypical antipsychotic; but that at the end (after 20 years) of the observation period of our study, 11...
September 2017: Psychiatria Danubina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28952166/does-early-antipsychotic-response-predict-long-term-treatment-outcome
#9
Sean A Rasmussen, Patricia I Rosebush, Michael F Mazurek
OBJECTIVE: Early antipsychotic response within the first 2-3 weeks of treatment can predict short-term outcomes after several months. We conducted the current study to determine whether the predictive value of early antipsychotic response persists throughout long-term treatment over multiple years. METHODS: In this observational study, we conducted follow-up assessments of 64 patients with first-episode psychosis an average of 25 months after they began antipsychotic treatment...
September 26, 2017: Human Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951142/cognitive-deficit-in-patients-with-paranoid-schizophrenia-its-clinical-and-laboratory-correlates
#10
Mariia Dorofeikova, Nikolay Neznanov, Nataliia Petrova
The aim of this study was to search for correlates of cognitive impairment in patients with paranoid schizophrenia among clinical, demographic, anamnestic and biochemical markers (NSE, S100B protein, BDNF, hs-CRP). Patients with paranoid schizophrenia (n=125) were examined using the Brief Assessment of Cognitive Function in Schizophrenia, the Rey-Osterrieth Complex Figure task, and a number of clinical scales including the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. The majority of patients demonstrated cognitive impairment...
September 20, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28947383/polymorphism-of-the-snap25-gene-is-associated-with-symptom-improvement-in-schizophrenic-patients-treated-with-amisulpride
#11
Seung-Gul Kang, Ik-Seung Chee, Hun Soo Chang, Kyoung-Sae Na, Kwanghun Lee, Jonghun Lee
Synaptosomal-associated protein 25kDa (SNAP25) is a promising candidate gene related to the treatment response to antipsychotics. Thus, the present study investigated the associations between polymorphisms of SNAP25 and the treatment response to amisulpride in patients with schizophrenia. This study enrolled 154 schizophrenic patients from six university hospitals in South Korea. All patients were assessed with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and the Clinical Global Impression-Severity (CGI-S) scale at baseline and week 6 of treatment...
September 23, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943275/mifepristone-enhances-insulin-stimulated-akt-phosphorylation-and-glucose-uptake-in-skeletal-muscle-cells
#12
Izela Bernal-Sore, Mario Navarro-Marquez, César Osorio-Fuentealba, Francisco Díaz-Castro, Andrea Del Campo, Camila Donoso-Barraza, Omar Porras, Sergio Lavandero, Rodrigo Troncoso
Mifepristone is the only FDA-approved drug for glycaemia control in patients with Cushing's syndrome and type 2 diabetes. Mifepristone also has beneficial effects in animal models of diabetes and patients with antipsychotic treatment-induced obesity. However, the mechanisms through which Mifepristone produces its beneficial effects are not completely elucidated. PURPOSE: To determine the effects of mifepristone on insulin-stimulated glucose uptake on a model of L6 rat-derived skeletal muscle cells...
September 21, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942956/long-non-coding-and-endogenous-retroviral-rna-levels-are-associated-with-proinflammatory-cytokine-mrna-expression-in-peripheral-blood-cells-implications-for-schizophrenia
#13
Jennifer K Melbourne, Kayla A Chase, Benjamin Feiner, Cherise Rosen, Rajiv P Sharma
Recent research indicates that the expression of long non-coding and endogenous retroviral RNAs is coordinated with the activity of immune molecules often dysregulated in schizophrenia. We measured the expression of TMEVPG1, NRON, HERV-W env and HERV-W gag in blood cells from participants with schizophrenia and controls. We report that a) expression levels of these non-coding RNAs are correlated with proinflammatory cytokine mRNA expression in all participants, b) HERV-W transcripts are negatively correlated with atypical antipsychotic use in participants with schizophrenia, and c) that these RNAs are transcribed in response to proinflammatory stimuli in a THP-1 monocyte cell line...
September 14, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931808/electroconvulsive-therapy-induced-brain-functional-connectivity-predicts-therapeutic-efficacy-in-patients-with-schizophrenia-a-multivariate-pattern-recognition-study
#14
Peng Li, Ri-Xing Jing, Rong-Jiang Zhao, Zeng-Bo Ding, Le Shi, Hong-Qiang Sun, Xiao Lin, Teng-Teng Fan, Wen-Tian Dong, Yong Fan, Lin Lu
Previous studies suggested that electroconvulsive therapy can influence regional metabolism and dopamine signaling, thereby alleviating symptoms of schizophrenia. It remains unclear what patients may benefit more from the treatment. The present study sought to identify biomarkers that predict the electroconvulsive therapy response in individual patients. Thirty-four schizophrenia patients and 34 controls were included in this study. Patients were scanned prior to treatment and after 6 weeks of treatment with antipsychotics only (n = 16) or a combination of antipsychotics and electroconvulsive therapy (n = 13)...
May 11, 2017: NPJ Schizophrenia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919802/abcb1-and-abcc1-single-nucleotide-polymorphisms-in-patients-treated-with-clozapine
#15
Irina Piatkov, Dorgival Caetano, Yolinda Assur, Sue Lynn Lau, Trudi Jones, Steven C Boyages, Mark McLean
Clozapine (CZ) has superior efficacy to other antipsychotic agents in the treatment of schizophrenia and has been extensively used in clinical practice. ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter proteins are responsible for the distribution of various molecules as well as drugs across extracellular and intracellular membranes, including the blood-brain barrier. Genetic variations in these proteins can account for differences in treatment response. We investigated the influence of ABCB1 rs1045642 and ABCC1 rs212090 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on CZ serum level, clinical outcome, and changes in body mass index (BMI) in the first year of CZ treatment...
2017: Pharmacogenomics and Personalized Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918734/the-2016-royal-australian-and-new-zealand-college-of-psychiatrists-guidelines-for-the-management-of-schizophrenia-and-related-disorders
#16
David J Castle, Cherrie A Galletly, Frances Dark, Verity Humberstone, Vera A Morgan, Eóin Killackey, Jayashri Kulkarni, Patrick McGorry, Olav Nielssen, Nga T Tran, Assen Jablensky
The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists (RANZCP) clinical practice guidelines for the management of schizophrenia and related disorders provide evidence-based recommendations for optimising treatment and prognosis. This update to the 2005 RANZCP guidelines has a greater emphasis on psychosocial treatments, physical health comorbidities and vocational rehabilitation. Main recommendations: The guidelines advise a clinical staging approach and deliver specific recommendations for:•comprehensive treatment using second generation antipsychotic agents continuously for 2-5 years;•early treatment of comorbid substance use;•community treatment after initial contact, during crises and after discharge from hospital;•physical health monitoring and management of comorbidities, particularly metabolic health;•interventions to optimise recovery of social function and return to study or work; and•management of schizophrenia in specific populations and circumstances...
June 19, 2017: Medical Journal of Australia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918419/-about-the-association-between-antipsychotic-medication-and-cardiovascular-morbidity-epidemiology-and-possible-background-mechanisms
#17
Gabor Gaszner, Gabor Barna, Peter Dome
The history of antipsychotics began with the discovery of chlorpromazine in the 1950s. Since then this group of medications has become one of the most important element of the armamentarium of psychopharmacology. While initially these pharmacons were used in the treatment of psychotic states (including psychotic mania) in the last approximately 10-15 years new indications - such as treatment of depressive, manic and mixed states and also mood-stabilization in bipolar disorder and also the treatment of major depressive disorder - for several second-generation antipsychotic (SGA) agents have been introduced...
June 2017: Neuropsychopharmacologia Hungarica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914976/haloperidol-versus-5-ht3-receptor-antagonists-for-postoperative-vomiting-and-qtc-prolongation-a-noninferiority-meta-analysis-and-trial-sequential-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#18
REVIEW
Preet Mohinder Singh, Anuradha Borle, Jeetinder Kaur Makkar, Anjan Trikha, David Fish, Ashish Sinha
Haloperidol is an antipsychotic with well-known antiemetic potential. It is underutilized for postoperative nausea vomiting due to reported corrected QT interval (QTc) prolongation. This meta-analysis evaluates its safety and efficacy as an antiemetic in the perioperative period. Trials comparing haloperidol to 5-HT3 -receptor antagonists (5-HT3 -RA) for 24 postoperative vomiting incidences published up to May 2017 were searched in the medical database. Comparisons were made for antiemetic efficiency variables (vomiting incidence, rescue antiemetic need, and patients with complete response) during early (until 6 hours) and late postoperative phases...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906325/antidepressant-combination-versus-antidepressants-plus-second-generation-antipsychotic-augmentation-in-treatment-resistant-unipolar-depression
#19
Gabriella Gobbi, Maykel F Ghabrash, Nicolas Nuñez, John Tabaka, Jessica Di Sante, Marie Saint-Laurent, Stephen Vida, Theodore Kolivakis, Nancy Low, Pablo Cervantes, Linda Booij, Stefano Comai
Patients with treatment-resistant unipolar depression (TRD) are treated with antidepressant combinations (ADs) or with second-generation antipsychotics plus AD (SGA+AD) augmentation; however, the clinical characteristics, the factors associated independently with response to SGA+AD, and the outcome trajectories have not yet been characterized. We performed a naturalistic study on the latest stable trial (medication unchanged for about 3 months) in 86 TRD patients with resistance to at least two ADs trials, who received ADs (n=36) or SGA+AD (n=50) treatments...
September 12, 2017: International Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895758/medication-adherence-and-discontinuation-of-long-acting-injectable-versus-oral-antipsychotics-in-patients-with-schizophrenia-or-bipolar-disorder
#20
Mallik Greene, Jessie Tingjian Yan, Eunice Chang, Ann Hartry, Maëlys Touya, Michael S Broder
AIMS: To examine medication adherence and discontinuation in two separate groups of patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder (BD), who began receiving a long-acting injectable antipsychotic (LAI) versus those who changed to a different oral antipsychotic monotherapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The Truven Health Analytics MarketScan Multi-State Medicaid claims database was used to identify patients with schizophrenia; Truven Health Analytics MarketScan Commercial and Medicaid claims databases were used to identify patients with BD...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Medical Economics
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