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Antipsychotic response

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431901/clozapine-reduces-toll-like-receptor-4-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-mediated-inflammatory-responses-through-inhibition-of-calcium-calmodulin-dependent-akt-activation-in-microglia
#1
Seunghyun Jeon, Se Hyun Kim, Soon Young Shin, Young Han Lee
Clozapine is an atypical antipsychotic agent used in the treatment of schizophrenia and severe mood disorders. Accumulating evidence suggests that neuroinflammation is closely associated with the pathogenesis of various neurodegenerative diseases and psychiatric disorders. Clozapine exerts anti-inflammatory activity. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the anti-inflammatory activity of clozapine is poorly understood. In this study, we found that clozapine suppressed lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced phosphorylation of IκBα at Ser-32 and of p65/RelA at Ser-468, as well as nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB)-dependent transcriptional activity in microglial cells...
April 18, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431800/genetic-predictors-of-antipsychotic-response-to-lurasidone-identified-in-a-genome-wide-association-study-and-by-schizophrenia-risk-genes
#2
Jiang Li, Akane Yoshikawa, Mark D Brennan, Timothy L Ramsey, Herbert Y Meltzer
Biomarkers which predict response to atypical antipsychotic drugs (AAPDs) increases their benefit/risk ratio. We sought to identify common variants in genes which predict response to lurasidone, an AAPD, by associating genome-wide association study (GWAS) data and changes (Δ) in Positive And Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) scores from two 6-week randomized, placebo-controlled trials of lurasidone in schizophrenia (SCZ) patients. We also included SCZ risk SNPs identified by the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium using a polygenic risk analysis...
April 18, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429622/pharmacoepigenomic-responses-of-antipsychotic-drugs-on-pharmacogenes-are-likely-to-be-modulated-by-mirnas
#3
Babu Swathy, Koramannil R Saradalekshmi, Indu V Nair, Chandrasekharan Nair, Moinak Banerjee
AIM: It is imperative to differentiate the role of host epigenetics from pharmacoepigenetics in resolving therapeutic response. Therefore, the objective was to identify how antipsychotic drugs influence epigenetic response on pharmacogenes. MATERIALS & METHODS: The study design was based on in vitro evaluation of pharmacoepigenetic response of haloperidol, clozapine and olanzapine. Post antipsychotic treatment, the alterations in expression of ABCB1, CYP1A2 and CYP3A4 were monitored, and followed up by promoter methylation and their target miRNA expression studies...
April 21, 2017: Epigenomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424378/-recognition-care-and-prevention-of-suicidal-behaviour-in-adults
#4
Zoltán Rihmer, Attila Németh, Tamás Kurimay, Dóra Perczel-Forintos, György Purebl, Péter Döme
Suicide is a major public health problem everywhere in the world and in the WHO European Region suicide accounts for over 120,000 deaths per year. 1. Recognition and diagnosis: An underlying psychiatric disorder is present in up to 90% of people who completed suicide. Comorbidity with depression, anxiety, substance abuse and personality disorders is high. In order to achieve successful prevention of suicidality, adequate diagnostic procedures and appropriate treatment for the underlying disorder are essential...
2017: Psychiatria Hungarica: A Magyar Pszichiátriai Társaság Tudományos Folyóirata
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422845/response-to-benzodiazepines-and-the-clinical-course-in-malignant-catatonia-associated-with-schizophrenia-a-case-report
#5
Kazutaka Ohi, Aki Kuwata, Takamitsu Shimada, Toshiki Yasuyama, Yusuke Nitta, Takashi Uehara, Yasuhiro Kawasaki
BACKGROUND: Malignant catatonia (MC) is a disorder consisting of catatonic symptoms, hyperthermia, autonomic instability, and altered mental status. Neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) caused by antipsychotics is considered a variant of MC. Benzodiazepine (BZD) medications are safe and effective treatments providing rapid relief from MC. This case study reports a detailed clinical course of a case of MC associated with schizophrenia initially diagnosed as NMS that responded successfully to BZDs but not to dantrolene...
April 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421439/sigma-1-receptor-antagonist-haloperidol-attenuates-ca-2-responses-induced-by-glutoxim-and-molixan-in-macrophages
#6
Z I Krutetskaya, L S Milenina, A A Naumova, S N Butov, V G Antonov, A D Nozdrachev
Using Fura-2AM microfluorimetry, we have shown for the first time that sigma-1 receptor antagonist, antipsychotic haloperidol, significantly inhibits glutoxim- and molixan-induced Ca(2+)-response in peritoneal macrophages. These results indicate possible involvement of sigma-1 receptors in the signal cascade induced by glutoxim or molixan and leading to intracellular Ca(2+) concentration increase in macrophages.
January 2017: Doklady. Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417647/mixed-states-in-bipolar-disorder-changes-in-dsm-5-and-current-treatment-recommendations
#7
Felix Betzler, Laura Apollonia Stöver, Philipp Sterzer, Stephan Köhler
OBJECTIVE: Mixed states in affective disorders represent a particular challenge in clinical routine, characterized by a complicated course of treatment and a worse treatment response. METHODS: Clinical features of mixed states and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) criteria are presented and critical discussed. We then performed a systematic review using the terms 'bipolar', 'mixed' and 'randomized' to evaluate current treatment options...
April 18, 2017: International Journal of Psychiatry in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417559/asenapine-modulates-mood-related-behaviors-and-5-ht1a-7-receptors-mediated-neurotransmission
#8
Sarah Delcourte, Erika Abrial, Adeline Etiévant, Renaud Rovera, Jørn Arnt, Michael Didriksen, Nasser Haddjeri
AIM: Asenapine is a new atypical antipsychotic prescribed for the treatment of psychosis/bipolar disorders that presents higher affinity for serotonergic than dopaminergic receptors. The objective of this study was to investigate its antidepressant-like and antimanic-like properties on relevant animal models of depression and mania and to assess the acute and chronic effect of Asenapine on dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) 5-HT cell firing activity. METHODS: We assessed the effects of Asenapine using in vivo electrophysiological and behavioral assays in rats...
April 17, 2017: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414178/short-and-long-term-effects-of-risperidone-on-catalepsy-sensitisation-and-acquisition-of-conditioned-avoidance-response-adolescent-vs-adult-rats
#9
Aung Aung Kywe Moe, Gregory A Medely, Timothy Reeks, Thomas H J Burne, Darryl W Eyles
The effects of antipsychotic drugs (APDs) on the adolescent brain are poorly understood despite a dramatic increase in prescription of these drugs in adolescents over the past twenty years. Neuronal systems continue to be remodeled during adolescence. Therefore, when given in adolescence, antipsychotic drugs (APDs) have the potential to affect this remodeling. In this study we investigated the effects of chronic 22-day risperidone treatment (1.3mg/kg/day) in both adolescent and adult rats. We examined short- and long-term changes in behaviour (catalepsy, locomotion and conditioned avoidance response (CAR)), and dopaminergic and serotonergic neurochemistry in the striatum and the nucleus accumbens...
April 13, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412306/time-dependent-sensitization-of-antipsychotic-effect-in-adolescent-male-and-female-rats
#10
Xiaojing Ding, Xiaonan Li, Qing Shu, Ruiyong Wu, Gang Hu, Ming Li
Many behavioral and biological effects of a psychoactive drug often undergo time-dependent change following even one single drug exposure. The present study examined whether one or two exposures of haloperidol, olanzapine or clozapine would also induce a time-dependent change in their behavioral effects in adolescent rats and whether such a change vary between sexes. Adolescent Sprague-Dawley rats (<40days old) were first treated with one single injection of haloperidol (0.05 and 0.1mg/kg, sc), clozapine (10...
April 12, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411574/risperidone-versus-olanzapine-in-the-acute-treatment-of-persistent-delusional-disorder-a-retrospective-analysis
#11
Karishma Kulkarni, Rashmi Arasappa, Krishna Prasad M, Amit Zutshi, Prabhat K Chand, Pratima Murthy, Mariamma Philip, Kesavan Muralidharan
There is a dearth of prospective trials studying treatment response in Persistent Delusional Disorder (PDD) to guide clinical practice. Available retrospective data indicate good response to second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs). We selected the data of patients prescribed either olanzapine or risperidone from a retrospective chart review of PDD (n=455) at our centre. We compared the two groups olanzapine (n =86) versus risperidone (n =280) on dose, drug adherence, response and adverse effects. The two groups were comparable on socio-demographic and clinical characteristics of PDD...
April 9, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410959/the-involvement-of-bdnf-creb-signaling-pathways-in-the-pharmacological-mechanism-of-combined-ssri-antipsychotic-treatment-in-schizophrenia
#12
Reef Einoch, Orly Weinreb, Nina Mandiuk, Moussa B H Youdim, Warren Bilker, Henry Silver
Previous studies into the mechanism of SSRI-antipsychotic synergism in our laboratory identified unique changes in the brain, particularly in the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-A receptor and its modulators. This study examined the role of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)-cAMP response element binding (CREB) protein signaling pathways, including protein kinase B (AKT), glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3β and related molecules in the molecular response to haloperidol, fluvoxamine, combined haloperidol+fluvoxamine and clozapine treatments in rat frontal cortex, hippocampus and primary cortical neuronal cultures...
April 11, 2017: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408348/design-and-in-vivo-evaluation-of-solid-lipid-nanoparticulate-systems-of-olanzapine-for-acute-phase-schizophrenia-treatment-investigations-on-antipsychotic-potential-and-adverse-effects
#13
Emil Joseph, Satish Reddi, Vibhu Rinwa, Garima Balwani, Ranendra Saha
The present paper discusses the design, characterization and in vivo evaluation of glyceryl monostearate nanoparticles of Olanzapine, an atypical antipsychotic drug for acute schizophrenia treatment, during which hospitalization is mandatory and adverse effects are at its peak. The solid lipid nanoparticulate system was obtained by emulsification-ultra sonication technique wherein three factors such as solid lipid content, concentration of surfactant and drug: solid lipid ratio were selected at three different levels in order to study their influence on significant characteristic responses such as particle size, encapsulation efficiency and drug content...
April 10, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407198/chlorpromazine-dose-for-people-with-schizophrenia
#14
REVIEW
Katharine Dudley, Xiaomeng Liu, Saskia De Haan
BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization (WHO) Model Lists of Essential Medicines lists chlorpromazine as one of its five medicines used in psychotic disorders. OBJECTIVES: To determine chlorpromazine dose response and dose side-effect relationships for schizophrenia and schizophrenia-like psychoses. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia Group's Study-Based Register of Trials (December 2008; 2 October 2014; 19 December 2016)...
April 13, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403623/lithium-a-classic-drug-frequently-discussed-but-sadly-seldom-prescribed
#15
Olga Zivanovic
OBJECTIVE: Distinguished authors in the field have repeatedly alerted psychiatrists of the alarming trends in the treatment of bipolar disorders: decline of lithium use, paralleled by the increase of prescribing anticonvulsants and second-generation antipsychotic drugs. Research has been conducted in order to explore the factors that led to this development and to provide arguments for the need to reverse this trend. METHOD: This paper represents a narrative review of the literature containing retrieved research articles focusing on the efficacy of lithium...
April 1, 2017: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402033/metabolic-syndrome-in-antipsychotic-naive-african-patients-with-severe-mental-illness-in-usual-care
#16
Shamima Saloojee, Jonathan K Burns, Ayesha A Motala
BACKGROUND: To determine the prevalence and incidence of metabolic syndrome in individuals with a first episode of severe mental illness from South Africa. METHODS: Antipsychotic naïve study subjects with a first episode of severe mental illness and control subjects were recruited at baseline for a prospective study. Individuals without metabolic syndrome at baseline were followed up for 12 months after antipsychotic medication was initiated. Metabolic syndrome was determined at baseline and at the 12-month follow-up using the Joint Interim Statement criteria...
April 12, 2017: Early Intervention in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399440/altered-effective-brain-connectivity-at-early-response-of-antipsychotics-in-first-episode-schizophrenia-with-auditory-hallucinations
#17
Leilei Zheng, Weibo Liu, Wei He, Shaohua Yu, Guodong Zhong
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to examine the alterations of cortical connectivity in first-episode schizophrenia (FES) with auditory hallucinations at early response of antipsychotics. METHODS: This was a nonexperimental control of medication study. We measured the cortical activity of 20 medicated patients with FES (medicated group), 19 nonmedicated patients with FES (nonmedicated group), and 22 healthy controls using electroencephalogram during eye-open resting state...
February 20, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398342/two-subgroups-of-antipsychotic-naive-first-episode-schizophrenia-patients-identified-with-a-gaussian-mixture-model-on-cognition-and-electrophysiology
#18
N Bak, B H Ebdrup, B Oranje, B Fagerlund, M H Jensen, S W Düring, M Ø Nielsen, B Y Glenthøj, L K Hansen
Deficits in information processing and cognition are among the most robust findings in schizophrenia patients. Previous efforts to translate group-level deficits into clinically relevant and individualized information have, however, been non-successful, which is possibly explained by biologically different disease subgroups. We applied machine learning algorithms on measures of electrophysiology and cognition to identify potential subgroups of schizophrenia. Next, we explored subgroup differences regarding treatment response...
April 11, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395245/validation-of-a-dried-blood-spot-method-for-therapeutic-drug-monitoring-of-citalopram-mirtazapine-and-risperidone-and-its-active-metabolite-9-hydroxyrisperidone-using-hplc-ms
#19
Johanna Weber, Stefanie Oberfeld, Andrea Bonse, Klaus Telger, Rainer Lingg, Georg Hempel
Citalopram, mirtazapine and risperidone are frequently prescribed for psychiatric illnesses such as depression and psychosis or for aggressive behavior in elderly patients with dementia. The plasma concentrations vary greatly between patients, especially in elderly patients. Thus, therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) increases the safety of antipsychotic treatment and a more rapid response to treatment may be achieved. To facilitate TDM, the objectives of this study were to develop and validate a reliable dried blood spot method to simultaneously quantify citalopram, mirtazapine and risperidone including its active metabolite 9-hydroxyrisperidone...
June 5, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389140/sex-differences-in-aripiprazole-sensitization-from-adolescence-to-adulthood
#20
Elizabeth Freeman, Joanne Lin, Shinnyi Chow, Collin Davis, Ming Li
The present study investigated the potential sex differences in repeated aripiprazole (ARI) treatment-induced behavioral sensitization from adolescence to adulthood, and to determine whether ARI sensitization can be transferred to olanzapine (OLZ) and/or clozapine (CLZ) using the conditioned avoidance response (CAR) and phencyclidine-induced (PCP) hyperlocomotion tests of antipsychotic activity. Male and female Sprague-Dawley adolescence rats (P46) were first treated with ARI (10mg/kg) for 5 consecutive days (P46-50) and tested for avoidance response and ARI-induced inhibition of PCP-induced hyperlocomotion...
April 4, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
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