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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919831/neural-representation-of-cost-benefit-selections-in-rat-anterior-cingulate-cortex-in-self-paced-decision-making
#1
Shuai Wang, Yi Shi, Bao-Ming Li
The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is crucial for decision making which involves the processing of cost-benefit information. Our previous study has shown that ACC is essential for self-paced decision making. However, it is unclear how ACC neurons represent cost-benefit selections during the decision-making process. In the present study, we trained rats on the same "Do More Get More" (DMGM) task as in our previous work. In each trial, the animals stand upright and perform a sustained nosepoke of their own will to earn a water reward, with the amount of reward positively correlated to the duration of the nosepoke (i...
December 2, 2016: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919382/a-clinical-decision-support-system-for-prediction-of-pregnancy-outcome-in-pregnant-women-with-systemic-lupus-erythematosus
#2
Khadijeh Paydar, Sharareh R Niakan Kalhori, Mahmoud Akbarian, Abbas Sheikhtaheri
OBJECTIVE: Pregnancy among systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)-affected women is highly associated with poor obstetric outcomes. Predicting the risk of foetal outcome is essential for maximizing the success of pregnancy. This study aimed to develop a clinical decision support system (CDSS) to predict pregnancy outcomes among SLE-affected pregnant women. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of 149 pregnant women with SLE, who were followed at Shariati Hospital (104 pregnancies) and a specialized clinic (45 pregnancies) from 1982 to 2014...
January 2017: International Journal of Medical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918336/resident-physicians-improve-nontechnical-skills-when-on-operating-room-management-and-leadership-rotation
#3
Devon C Cole, Christopher R Giordano, Terrie Vasilopoulos, Brenda G Fahy
BACKGROUND: Anesthesiology residency primarily emphasizes the development of medical knowledge and technical skills. Yet, nontechnical skills (NTS) are also vital to successful clinical practice. Elements of NTS are communication, teamwork, situational awareness, and decision making. METHODS: The first 10 consecutive senior residents who chose to participate in this 2-week elective rotation of operating room (OR) management and leadership training were enrolled in this study, which spanned from March 2013 to March 2015...
December 1, 2016: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917691/impact-a-multifaceted-implementation-for-conversation-partner-training-in-aphasia-in-dutch-rehabilitation-settings
#4
Sandra Wielaert, Mieke W M E van de Sandt-Koenderman, Nina Dammers, Karen Sage
PURPOSE: Exploration of the clinical uptake of a novel conversation partner training (CPT) programme in aphasia in 10 Dutch rehabilitation facilities and identification of its perceived facilitators and barriers in service providers, and the evaluation of the implementation methods used. METHOD: Ten rehabilitation centres took part in a multifaceted implementation of CPT over 13 months. Each centre selected two speech and language therapists to act as knowledge brokers whose role was to raise awareness of CPT in the team and to facilitate getting partners of people with aphasia into the programme...
December 5, 2016: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917537/reproductive-biology-for-the-assessment-of-hunting-sustainability-of-rainforest-mammal-populations-through-the-participation-of-local-communities
#5
Pedro Mayor, Hani El Bizri, Richard E Bodmer, Mark Bowler
Wildlife subsistence hunting is a major source of protein for tropical rural populations and a prominent conservation issue. The intrinsic rate of natural increase (rmax ) of populations is a key reproductive parameter in the most-used assessments of hunting sustainability. However, since researchers face severe difficulties in obtaining reproductive data in the wild, these assessments often use 'classic' reproductive rates calculated mostly from captive studies conducted 30 years ago, resulting in flaws in almost 50% of studies and hampering decision-makings on wildlife management...
December 5, 2016: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917377/incident-management-systems-are-essential-for-effective-coordination-of-large-disease-outbreaks-perspectives-from-the-coordination-of-the-ebola-outbreak-response-in-sierra-leone
#6
Olushayo Oluseun Olu, Margaret Lamunu, Alexander Chimbaru, Ayotunde Adegboyega, Ishata Conteh, Ngoy Nsenga, Noah Sempiira, Kande-Bure Kamara, Foday Mohamed Dafae
BACKGROUND: Response to the 2014-2015 Ebola virus disease (EVD) outbreak in Sierra Leone overwhelmed the national capacity to contain it and necessitated a massive international response and strong coordination platform. Consequently, the Sierra Leone Government, with support of the international humanitarian community, established and implemented various models for national coordination of the outbreak. In this article, we review the strengths and limitations of the EVD outbreak response coordination systems in Sierra Leone and propose recommendations for improving coordination of similar outbreaks in the future...
2016: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917360/load-balancing-prediction-method-of-cloud-storage-based-on-analytic-hierarchy-process-and-hybrid-hierarchical-genetic-algorithm
#7
Xiuze Zhou, Fan Lin, Lvqing Yang, Jing Nie, Qian Tan, Wenhua Zeng, Nian Zhang
With the continuous expansion of the cloud computing platform scale and rapid growth of users and applications, how to efficiently use system resources to improve the overall performance of cloud computing has become a crucial issue. To address this issue, this paper proposes a method that uses an analytic hierarchy process group decision (AHPGD) to evaluate the load state of server nodes. Training was carried out by using a hybrid hierarchical genetic algorithm (HHGA) for optimizing a radial basis function neural network (RBFNN)...
2016: SpringerPlus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914487/factors-affecting-job-satisfaction-of-aboriginal-mental-health-workers-working-in-community-mental-health-in-rural-and-remote-new-south-wales
#8
Catherine Cosgrave, Myfanwy Maple, Rafat Hussain
Objective The aim of the present study was to identify factors affecting the job satisfaction and subsequent retention of Aboriginal mental health workers (AMHWs).Methods Five AMHWs working in New South Wales (NSW) for NSW Health in rural and remote community mental health (CMH) services participated in in-depth, semi-structured interviews to understand how employment and rural living factors affected workers' decisions to stay or leave their CMH positions.Results Using a constructivist grounded theory analysis, three aspects negatively impacting the job satisfaction of AMHWs were identified: (1) difficulties being accepted into the team and organisation; (2) culturally specific work challenges; and (3) professional differences and inequality...
December 5, 2016: Australian Health Review: a Publication of the Australian Hospital Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913152/development-and-validation-of-an-objective-scoring-tool-for-robot-assisted-radical-prostatectomy-prostatectomy-assessment-and-competency-evaluation-pace
#9
Ahmed A Hussein, Khurshid R Ghani, James Peabody, Richard Sarle, Ronney Abaza, Daniel Eun, Jim Hu, Michael Fumo, Brian Lane, Jeffrey Montgomery, Nobuyuki Hinata, Deborah Rooney, Bryan Comstock, Hei Kit Chan, Sridhar S Mane, James L Mohler, Gregory Wilding, David Miller, Khurshid A Guru
INTRODUCTION: and Background: Comprehensive training and skill acquisition by urologic surgeons are vital to optimize surgical outcomes and patient safety. We sought to develop and validate an objective and procedure specific tool to assess the quality of robot-assisted radical prostatectomy (RARP)-Prostatectomy Assessment and Competence Evaluation (PACE) METHODS: Development and content validation of PACE was performed by deconstruction of RARP into seven key domains utilizing the Delphi methodology...
November 29, 2016: Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912780/the-influence-of-cost-per-daly-information-in-health-prioritisation-and-desirable-features-for-a-registry-a-survey-of-health-policy-experts-in-vietnam-india-and-bangladesh
#10
Yot Teerawattananon, Sripen Tantivess, Inthira Yamabhai, Nattha Tritasavit, Damian G Walker, Joshua T Cohen, Peter J Neumann
BACKGROUND: Economic evaluation has been implemented to inform policy in many areas, including coverage decisions, technology pricing, and the development of clinical practice guidelines. However, there are barriers to evidence-based policy in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) that include limited stakeholder awareness, resources and data availability, as well as the lack of capacity to conduct country-specific economic evaluations. This study aims to survey health policy experts' opinions on barriers to use of cost-effectiveness data in these settings and to obtain their advice on how to make a new cost-per-DALY database being developed by Tufts Medical Center more relevant to LMICs...
December 3, 2016: Health Research Policy and Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910173/facilitators-and-barriers-to-person-centred-care-in-child-and-young-people-mental-health-services-a-systematic-review
#11
Dawid Gondek, Julian Edbrooke-Childs, Tjasa Velikonja, Louise Chapman, Felicity Saunders, Daniel Hayes, Miranda Wolpert
: Implementation of person-centred care has been widely advocated across various health settings and patient populations, including recent policy for child and family services. Nonetheless, evidence suggests that service users are rarely involved in decision-making, whilst their preferences and goals may be often unheard. The aim of the present research was to systematically review factors influencing person-centred care in mental health services for children, young people and families examining perspectives from professionals, service users and carers...
December 2, 2016: Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909972/can-we-estimate-short-and-intermediate-term-survival-in-patients-undergoing-surgery-for-metastatic-bone-disease
#12
Jonathan A Forsberg, Rikard Wedin, Patrick J Boland, John H Healey
BACKGROUND: Objective means of estimating survival can be used to guide surgical decision-making and to risk-stratify patients for clinical trials. Although a free, online tool ( www.pathfx.org ) can estimate 3- and 12-month survival, recent work, including a survey of the Musculoskeletal Tumor Society, indicated that estimates at 1 and 6 months after surgery also would be helpful. Longer estimates help justify the need for more durable and expensive reconstructive options, and very short estimates could help identify those who will not survive 1 month and should not undergo surgery...
December 1, 2016: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909361/an-exploration-of-canadian-physiotherapists-decisions-about-whether-to-supervise-physiotherapy-students-results-from-a-national-survey
#13
Mark Hall, Cheryl Poth, Patricia Manns, Lauren Beaupre
Purpose: To explore Canadian physiotherapists' perceptions of the factors that influence their decisions whether to supervise students in clinical placements. Methods: Using accepted survey development methodology, a survey was developed and administered to 18,110 physiotherapists to identify which factors contribute to the decision to supervise students. The survey also gave respondents opportunities to provide comments; these were analyzed via directed content analysis, using the factors identified in an exploratory factor analysis as an organizing structure...
2016: Physiotherapy Canada. Physiothérapie Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908503/cobalt-60-machines-and-medical-linear-accelerators-competing-technologies-for-external-beam-radiotherapy
#14
B J Healy, D van der Merwe, K E Christaki, A Meghzifene
Medical linear accelerators (linacs) and cobalt-60 machines are both mature technologies for external beam radiotherapy. A comparison is made between these two technologies in terms of infrastructure and maintenance, dosimetry, shielding requirements, staffing, costs, security, patient throughput and clinical use. Infrastructure and maintenance are more demanding for linacs due to the complex electric componentry. In dosimetry, a higher beam energy, modulated dose rate and smaller focal spot size mean that it is easier to create an optimised treatment with a linac for conformal dose coverage of the tumour while sparing healthy organs at risk...
November 28, 2016: Clinical Oncology: a Journal of the Royal College of Radiologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907138/barriers-to-modern-contraceptive-use-in-kinshasa-drc
#15
Mbadu Muanda, Parfait Gahungu Ndongo, Leah D Taub, Jane T Bertrand
Recent research from Kinshasa, DRC, has shown that only one in five married women uses modern contraception; over one quarter have an unmet need for family planning; and almost 400 health facilities across Kinshasa report that they provide modern contraception. This study addresses the question: with reasonable physical access and relatively high unmet need, why is modern contraceptive prevalence so low? To this end, the research team conducted 6 focus groups of women (non-users of any method, users of traditional methods, and users of modern methods) and 4 of husbands (of users of traditional methods and in non-user unions) in health zones with relatively strong physical access to FP services...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906766/prescription-of-post-exposure-prophylaxis-for-hiv-1-in-the-emergency-room-correct-transmission-risk-assessment-remains-challenging
#16
Alex Marzel, Henriette Heinrich, Lukas Schilliger, Jan S Fehr, Huldrych F Günthard, Roger Kouyos, Silvana K Rampini
BACKGROUND: Limited data are available about the accuracy of PEP prescription in the emergency rooms. Here, we evaluated PEP prescription decision-making with respect to the risk of sexual HIV transmission and the exposed person`s fear vis-à-vis HIV. METHODS: Using a risk-assessment algorithm, we retrospectively evaluated the adequacy of PEP prescription for all persons presenting at the emergency room of the University Hospital Zurich after consensual sex from 2007 to 2013...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905926/understanding-clinical-and-non-clinical-decisions-under-uncertainty-a-scenario-based-survey
#17
Vlad V Simianu, Margaret A Grounds, Susan L Joslyn, Jared E LeClerc, Anne P Ehlers, Nidhi Agrawal, Rafael Alfonso-Cristancho, Abraham D Flaxman, David R Flum
BACKGROUND: Prospect theory suggests that when faced with an uncertain outcome, people display loss aversion by preferring to risk a greater loss rather than incurring certain, lesser cost. Providing probability information improves decision making towards the economically optimal choice in these situations. Clinicians frequently make decisions when the outcome is uncertain, and loss aversion may influence choices. This study explores the extent to which prospect theory, loss aversion, and probability information in a non-clinical domain explains clinical decision making under uncertainty...
December 1, 2016: BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905202/care-in-subsequent-pregnancies-following-stillbirth-an-international-survey-of-parents
#18
A M Wojcieszek, F M Boyle, J M Belizán, J Cassidy, P Cassidy, Jjhm Erwich, L Farrales, M M Gross, Aep Heazell, S H Leisher, T Mills, M Murphy, K Pettersson, C Ravaldi, J Ruidiaz, D Siassakos, R M Silver, C Storey, A Vannacci, P Middleton, D Ellwood, V Flenady
OBJECTIVE: To assess the frequency of additional care, and parents' perceptions of quality, respectful care, in pregnancies subsequent to stillbirth. DESIGN: Multi-language web-based survey. SETTING: International. POPULATION: A total of 2716 parents, from 40 high- and middle-income countries. METHODS: Data were obtained from a broader survey of parents' experiences following stillbirth. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics and stratified by geographic region...
November 30, 2016: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904854/legal-issues-related-to-postoperative-pulmonary-thromboembolism-in-korea
#19
Bo Young Park, Min Ji Kim, So Ra Kang, Seung Eun Hong
PURPOSE: Currently, development of pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE) after surgery is frequently being followed by legal action in Korea, as consequences may be fatal. In the current study, we assessed possible countermeasures that medical teams can take when faced with conflicting opinions on responsibility for PTE. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of claims handled by the Supreme Court and subordinate courts, from 1999 to 2015, was performed. We analyzed the type of procedure, associated complications, and critical legal points from the recorded judgments along with any liability limitations on surgeons...
December 2016: Annals of Surgical Treatment and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903252/shifting-tides-in-the-emigration-patterns-of-canadian-physicians-to-the-united-states-a-cross-sectional-secondary-data-analysis
#20
Thomas R Freeman, Stephen Petterson, Sean Finnegan, Andrew Bazemore
BACKGROUND: The relative ease of movement of physicians across the Canada/US border has led to what is sometimes referred to as a 'brain drain' and previous analysis estimated that the equivalent of two graduating classes from Canadian medical schools were leaving to practice in the US each year. Both countries fill gaps in physician supply with international medical graduates (IMGs) so the movement of Canadian trained physicians to the US has international ramifications. Medical school enrolments have been increased on both sides of the border, yet there continues to be concerns about adequacy of physician human resources...
December 1, 2016: BMC Health Services Research
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