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Vanessa Rosine Nkouayep, Blandine Ngatou Tchakounté, Josué Wabo Poné
Helminthiasis and protozoans infections have been recognized as an important public health problem. The aim of the present study was to screen soil samples collected from 10 primary schools in the city of Dschang for the presence of soil-transmitted helminth eggs, cysts, and oocysts of protozoans. A total of 400 soil samples were collected around latrines, at playgrounds, and behind classrooms in each school. These samples were examined using the sucrose flotation method. From the result obtained, an overall contamination rate of 7...
2017: Journal of Parasitology Research
Florentina Villanueva, Araceli Tapia, Sonia Lara, Mariano Amo-Salas
Thirty two VOCs including alkanes, aromatic hydrocarbons, terpenes and carbonyl compounds together with NO2 were investigated in a kindergarten classroom, a primary classroom and the playground in 18 schools located in rural areas, an urban area (Ciudad Real) and an industrial area (Puertollano) in the province of Ciudad Real in central southern Spain. The most abundant pollutants at schools were the aldehydes formaldehyde and hexanal. After carbonyls, n-dodecane was the most abundant compound in the study areas...
December 3, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Catherine M Wheatley, Emma L Davies, Helen Dawes
The health benefits of exercise in school are recognized, yet physical activity continues to decline during early adolescence despite numerous interventions. In this study, we investigated whether the prototype willingness model, an account of adolescent decision making that includes both reasoned behavioral choices and unplanned responses to social environments, might improve understanding of physical activity in school. We conducted focus groups with British pupils aged 12 to 13 years and used deductive thematic analysis to search for themes relating to the model...
December 1, 2017: Qualitative Health Research
Thayse Natacha Gomes, Peter T Katzmarzyk, Donald Hedeker, Mikael Fogelholm, Martyn Standage, Vincent Onywera, Estelle V Lambert, Mark S Tremblay, Jean-Philippe Chaput, Catrine Tudor-Locke, Olga Sarmiento, Victor Matsudo, Anura Kurpad, Rebecca Kuriyan, Pei Zhao, Gang Hu, Timothy Olds, Carol Maher, José Maia
The purpose of this study was to describe children's daily compliance with moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) recommendations across a week in different parts of the world, and to identify individual- and school-level correlates that may explain differences in daily MVPA compliance. The sample included 6553 children aged 9-11 years from 12 countries, and multilevel statistical analyses were used, including both child- and school-level variables. Most children did not comply with the MVPA guidelines on a daily basis: Chinese children complied the least, whereas Finnish, Australian, Colombian, UK, and Kenyan children complied the most...
November 28, 2017: Scientific Reports
Julia V Zaikina, Van S Griffin, Susan E Latturner
Reactions of tin and manganese in a lanthanum/nickel eutectic melt in alumina crucibles produce La11Mn13-x-yNixAlySn4-δ (0 ≤ x ≤ 3.6; 2.5 ≤ y ≤ 4.9; 0.6 ≤ δ ≤ 1.1) phases with the stoichiometry dependent on the reactant ratio. These compounds crystallize in a new tetragonal structure type in space group P4/mbm, with a = 8.4197(1) Å, c = 19.2414(3) Å, and Z = 2 for La11Mn8.2Ni0.8Al4Sn3.3. The structure can be viewed as an intergrowth between La6Co11Ga3-type layers and Cr5B3-type La/Sn slabs. This system represents a unique playground to study the itinerant magnetism of diluted icosahedral Mn layers...
November 28, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
Anne K Reimers, Guido Knapp
Aim: Being outdoors is one of the strongest correlates of physical activity in children. Playgrounds are spaces especially designed to enable and foster physical activity in children. This study aimed to analyze the relationship between the spatial features of public playgrounds and the usage and physical activity levels of children playing in them. Subjects and methods: A quantitative, observational study was conducted of ten playgrounds in one district of a middle-sized town in Germany...
2017: Journal of Public Health
Melody Smith, Jamie Hosking, Alistair Woodward, Karen Witten, Alexandra MacMillan, Adrian Field, Peter Baas, Hamish Mackie
BACKGROUND: Evidence is mounting to suggest a causal relationship between the built environment and people's physical activity behaviours, particularly active transport. The evidence base has been hindered to date by restricted consideration of cost and economic factors associated with built environment interventions, investigation of socioeconomic or ethnic differences in intervention effects, and an inability to isolate the effect of the built environment from other intervention types...
November 16, 2017: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity
James W Patten, Grace Iarocci, Nis Bojin
This research looked at Biba: a suite of mobile games intended to get kids back out to playgrounds and engaging in more moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Year after year, annual national surveys report a general decline in physical activity amongst children and a corresponding increase in screen time. Further to this, time spent outside by children has been reported to be on the decline since the 1980s. Recent work has suggested that in order to 'maintain the outdoor recreation participation of children across America, park and recreation professionals may need to embrace the expanding role of technology'...
September 2017: Journal of Child Health Care: for Professionals Working with Children in the Hospital and Community
Handan Boztepe, Sevil Çınar, Ayşe Ay
In order to determine the perception of hospital experiences among school-age children's (6-12 years), a descriptive and cross-sectional study was performed in 130 children hospitalized in a pediatric hospital with different diagnoses. Data were collected using a pediatric information form, questionnaire form, scale for attitudes towards hospital and healthcare personnel, and sources of anxiety generating thoughts scale (SAGTS). Children's expectations of the nurses were to be well treated (62%), to perform painless procedures (20%), to play games together (12%), to be capable of their job (10%), and to be cheerful (10%)...
June 2017: Journal of Child Health Care: for Professionals Working with Children in the Hospital and Community
Seung Ho Chang, Kijeong Kim
Children need to participate in structured physical activities to avoid obesity and to engage in sports and games in the future. However, certain groups of our population have little access to enhance levels of physical activity. One such group is children from low-income families who are more likely to have less opportunity for participation in physical activity because of factors such as unsafe streets or limited access to playgrounds. According to the United States Department of Health and Human Services, there is a strong relationship between family income and physical activity with low-income families being the most sedentary...
August 2017: Journal of Exercise Rehabilitation
Giordano Mattoni, David J Baek, Nicola Manca, Nils Verhagen, Dirk J Groenendijk, Lena F Kourkoutis, Alessio Filippetti, Andrea D Caviglia
Interfaces between complex oxides constitute a unique playground for two-dimensional electron systems (2DESs), where superconductivity and magnetism can arise from combinations of bulk insulators. The 2DES at the LaAlO3/SrTiO3 interface is one of the most studied in this regard, and its origin is determined by the polar field in LaAlO3 as well as by the presence of point defects, like oxygen vacancies and intermixed cations. These defects usually reside in the conduction channel and are responsible for a decrease of the electronic mobility...
November 20, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Mia Bierbaum, Kate Curtis, Rebecca Mitchell
AIMS: To describe the epidemiological profile and cost of hospitalised injuries caused by playground equipment falls of children aged 0-14 years, in New South Wales, Australia. METHODS: Linked New South Wales hospitalisation data from 1 January 2010 to 30 June 2014 were used to describe the incidence of hospitalisation for playground falls, the age-standardised rate of hospitalisation per year, age group and gender, the characteristics of the injured children and the injury incident...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
Ryan Gage, Chris O'Toole, Andrew Robinson, Anthony Reeder, Louise Signal, Christina Mackay
Providing effective shade in summer recreation spaces can reduce children's risk of skin cancer. This study explored the quantity and protective quality of shade in Wellington, New Zealand playgrounds. Two researchers visited 50 randomly-selected playgrounds during peak ultraviolet radiation (UVR) hours in summer and recorded the mean shade cover of playground equipment, seats, tables and open areas. A Solarmeter was used to calculate the proportion of UVR blocked by each built structure and tree. The results found that 95% of playground equipment and 64% of sitting and eating areas had no shade protection...
November 7, 2017: Photochemistry and Photobiology
Anne Dippel
This article looks at how games and play contribute to the big data-driven production of knowledge in High-Energy Physics, with a particular focus on the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN), where the author has been conducting anthropological fieldwork since 2014. The ludic (playful) aspect of knowledge production is analyzed here in three different dimensions: the Symbolic, the Ontological, and the Epistemic. The first one points towards CERN as place where a cosmological game of probability is played with the help of Monte-Carlo simulations...
December 2017: NTM
Mohammad Nazrul Islam, Young-Tae Jo, Seon-Yong Chung, Jeong-Hun Park
Soil samples from school playground of Gwangju City were analyzed for 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and the soil contamination status and the potential cancer risk for students and adults were investigated. Soil samples were collected from 57 sites from 5 districts of Gwangju City in the summer of 2013. Regardless of the sampling site, the ∑PAHs concentrations ranged from 13.2 to 145.5 ng/g (mean 51.2 ng/g). Four and five-ring PAHs were predominant in the soil samples while the fraction of two-ring PAHs was the lowest...
October 26, 2017: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Christopher Lim, Andrew M Donovan, Nevin J Harper, Patti-Jean Naylor
The majority of Canadian children are not physically active enough for healthy development. School playgrounds are a primary location to promote physical activity and motor skill practice. The benefits of children's play in nature have also been highlighted, but few studies have evaluated children's access and exposure to nature for play on school grounds. This study examined children's access to nature on school grounds and the opportunities afforded by those natural elements for motor skill practice. RESULTS: Extensive naturescapes (multiple nature elements in one setting) were not common, and natural elements were limited, ranging from 1...
October 24, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Nick Wilson, Louise Signal, George Thomson
OBJECTIVE: Drinking fountains are a public amenity that may help counter the obesogenic environment (sugary beverages) and reduce the risk of heat stroke during heat waves. As a case study, we aimed to survey all public fountains in a city: Wellington, New Zealand, and to determine the utility of Google Street View in studying drinking fountains. METHODS: Using a sample of all public drinking fountains in a City Council map, a field observer assessed their exact location and tap functionality, and photographed them...
October 18, 2017: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Public Health
Maria Martínez-Andrés, Raquel Bartolomé-Gutiérrez, Beatriz Rodríguez-Martín, Maria Jesus Pardo-Guijarro, Vicente Martínez-Vizcaíno
The aim of the study was to know the factors that influence boys and girls' perceptions for performing physical activity during playground recess from their own perspective. Ninety-eight schoolchildren aged 8-11 years from five schools from Cuenca (Spain) participated in 22 focus groups and carried out 98 drawings following the socioecological model as a theoretical framework. A content analysis of the transcripts from the focus groups and drawings was carried out by three researchers. Results showed that, in spite of boys and girls identified same barriers, there were gender differences in their perceptions...
2017: International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being
Iris H Valido, Elio Padoan, Teresa Moreno, Xavier Querol, Oriol Font, Fulvio Amato
Dust is a mixture of natural and anthropogenic particles originated from multiple sources, which can represent an hazard for human health. Playgrounds are a site of particularly concern, due to sand dust ingestion by toddlers and inhalation. In this study, 37 sands used in public playgrounds in the city of Barcelona were physico-chemically characterized also in relation to routine maintenance activities such as disinfection and sand renewal. The analyzed sands show a felsic mineralogy dominated by Na-feldspar, quartz, and, to a lesser extent, K-feldspar, with minor amounts of clay minerals, carbonates and hematite...
September 25, 2017: Chemosphere
Le Van Lich, Takahiro Shimada, Jie Wang, Takayuki Kitamura
Topological field structures, such as skyrmions, merons, and vortices, are important features found in ordered systems with spontaneously broken symmetry. A plethora of topological field structures have been discovered in magnetic and ordered soft matter systems due to the presence of inherent chiral interactions, and this has provided a fruitful platform for unearthing additional groundbreaking functionalities. However, despite being one of the most important classes of ordered systems, ferroelectrics scarcely form topological polarization structures due to their lack of intrinsic chiral interactions...
October 19, 2017: Nanoscale
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