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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807641/a-novel-partnership-disrupts-the-norm-in-early-childhood-education-and-pediatric-health-care
#1
EDITORIAL
M Denise Dowd, John D Lantos
Children living in poverty in the United States in 2016 face a devastating combination of psychological problems. Their neighborhoods are often violent. They have no place to get healthy food. It is not safe to play outside, even on playgrounds. The children who grow up in this environment, not surprisingly, have many adverse childhood experiences (ACEs). ACEs cause toxic stress. Toxic stress leads to long-term physical and psychological problems. For many pediatricians, children's hospitals, civic leaders, and public health officials, it is difficult to know how to intervene...
August 11, 2017: Current Problems in Pediatric and Adolescent Health Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760802/this-much-water-a-qualitative-study-using-behavioural-theory-to-develop-a-community-service-video-to-prevent-child-drowning-in-western-australia
#2
Mel Denehy, Justine E Leavy, Jonine Jancey, Lauren Nimmo, Gemma Crawford
OBJECTIVES: Drowning in children under the age of 5 is a frequently occurring, yet preventable event. This research used behavioural theory to test the suitability and appropriateness of a drowning prevention message in a community service video. DESIGN: This qualitative study used content analysis of focus groups. Constructs from the Health Belief Model guided the data analysis. SETTING: Community organisations and playgrounds in Perth, Western Australia...
July 31, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754662/shock-absorbing-aggregates-beneath-playground-equipment-grain-properties-and-moisture-content
#3
Tapani Jäniskangas, Kari P K Pylkkänen, Pauli Kolisoja
OBJECTIVES: To assess the influence of grain size distribution and moisture condition on aggregates' performance as an impact attenuation layer beneath playground equipment. SETTING AND METHODS: Impact attenuation of sands and gravels was tested using a guided headform with a uniaxial accelerometer inside. The result for impact attenuation was the acceleration value of the headform measured from four different drop heights and the Head Injury Criterion (HIC) calculated from it...
July 28, 2017: Injury Prevention: Journal of the International Society for Child and Adolescent Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725208/aldo-van-eyck-s-playgrounds-aesthetics-affordances-and-creativity
#4
Rob Withagen, Simone R Caljouw
After World War II, the Dutch architect Aldo van Eyck developed hundreds of playgrounds in the city of Amsterdam. These public playgrounds were located in parks, squares, and derelict sites, and consisted of minimalistic aesthetic play equipment that was supposed to stimulate the creativity of children. Over the last decades, these playgrounds have been studied by sociologists, theorists of art and architecture, and psychologists. Adopting an ecological approach to the human environment, it is argued that the abstract forms of van Eyck's play sculptures indeed stimulate the creativity of the child...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703082/dental-injuries-in-younger-emergency-department-patients
#5
Vigil James, Yona R Vandersluis, Evangeline W J Zhang, Dennis Scolnik
BACKGROUND: Dental trauma is a relatively common occurrence in childhood, with an impact exceeding that of periodontal diseases. It places a significant burden on the public health system because of its high frequency, impact on quality of life and consumption of resources. OBJECTIVES: To identify changing trends of dental injury in patients between 0-18 years of age in Canada and provide a detailed assessment of dental injury patterns in patients attending a large pediatric tertiary care hospital...
July 13, 2017: CJEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28686001/recreational-sandboxes-for-children-and-dogs-can-be-a-source-of-epidemic-ribotypes-of-clostridium-difficile
#6
Cristina Orden, Carlos Neila, José L Blanco, Sergio Álvarez-Pérez, Celine Harmanus, Ed J Kuijper, Marta E García
Different studies have suggested that the sand of public playgrounds could have a role in the transmission of infections, particularly in children. Furthermore, free access of pets and other animals to the playgrounds might increase such a risk. We studied the presence of Clostridium difficile in 20 pairs of sandboxes for children and dogs located in different playgrounds within the Madrid region (Spain). Clostridium difficile isolation was performed by enrichment and selective culture procedures. The genetic (ribotype and amplified fragment length polymorphism [AFLP]) diversity and antibiotic susceptibility of isolates was also studied...
July 7, 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28685331/heavy-metals-in-sands-of-sandboxes-health-risk-associated-with-their-quantities-and-form-of-occurrence-in-some-spas-of-poland
#7
Alicja Kicińska, Magdalena Mamak, Monika Skrzypek
The authors dealt with some hazardous elements, i.e. As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn, contained in sands of the sandboxes localized in playgrounds of seven spas in southern Poland (CEE). The following determinations were made: the total contents of metals, the most mobile metals (water-leachable fraction) and the metals available to plants and organisms (CaCl2- and EDTA-extractable fractions). The totals of the metals are below the upper limits of the values recommended for soils of the protected areas (type A)...
July 6, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682137/socioeconomic-and-racial-ethnic-disparities-in-physical-activity-environments-in-georgia-elementary-schools
#8
Miriam E Van Dyke, Patricia C Cheung, Padra Franks, Julie A Gazmararian
PURPOSE: This study aimed to characterize physical activity (PA) environments in Georgia public elementary schools and to identify socioeconomic status (SES) and racial/ethnic disparities in PA environments. DESIGN: A school setting PA survey was launched in 2013 to 2014 as a cross-sectional online survey assessing PA environment factors, including facility access and school PA practices, staff PA opportunities, parental involvement in school PA, and out-of-school PA opportunities...
January 1, 2017: American Journal of Health Promotion: AJHP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654038/rewiring-neuronal-circuits-a-new-method-for-fast-neurite-extension-and-functional-neuronal-connection
#9
Margaret H Magdesian, Madeleine Anthonisen, G Monserratt Lopez-Ayon, Xue Ying Chua, Matthew Rigby, Peter Grütter
Brain and spinal cord injury may lead to permanent disability and death because it is still not possible to regenerate neurons over long distances and accurately reconnect them with an appropriate target. Here a procedure is described to rapidly initiate, elongate, and precisely connect new functional neuronal circuits over long distances. The extension rates achieved reach over 1.2 mm/h, 30-60 times faster than the in vivo rates of the fastest growing axons from the peripheral nervous system (0.02 to 0.04 mm/h)(28) and 10 times faster than previously reported for the same neuronal type at an earlier stage of development(4)...
June 13, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653317/-osf6-x-molecular-models-for-spin-orbit-entangled-phenomena
#10
Kasper S Pedersen, Daniel N Woodruff, Saurabh Kumar Singh, Alain Tressaud, Etienne Durand, Mihail Atanasov, Panagiota Perlepe, Katharina Ollefs, Fabrice Wilhelm, Corine Mathonière, Frank Neese, Andrei Rogalev, Jesper Bendix, Rodolphe Clérac
Heavy 5d elements, like osmium, feature strong spin-orbit interactions which are at the origin of exotic physical behaviors. Revealing the full potential of, for example, novel osmium oxide materials ("osmates") is however contingent upon a detailed understanding of the local single-ion properties. Herein, two molecular osmate analogues, [OsF6 ](2-) and [OsF6 ](-) , are reported as model systems for Os(4+) and Os(5+) centers found in oxides. Using X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) techniques, combined with state-of-the-art ab initio calculations, their ground state was elucidated; mirroring the osmium electronic structure in osmates...
June 26, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628842/matching-genomic-molecular-aberrations-with-molecular-targeted-agents-are-biliary-tract-cancers-an-ideal-playground
#11
REVIEW
Loic Verlingue, Antoine Hollebecque, Valérie Boige, Michel Ducreux, David Malka, Charles Ferté
Biliary tract cancers (BTCs) are a heterogeneous group of tumours with geographical discrepancies in terms of incidence and risk factors. However, a convergent genomic and epigenetic mutational landscape emerges from the genome-wide screens of BTCs in South East Asia, Latin America and in the Western World. Specificities are observed for some alterations and anatomical subtypes: frequent fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2) and isocitrate dehydrogenase 1/2 (IDH1/2) alterations are specific to intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas (ICCs), whereas frequent ERBB2 oncogene alterations are specific to extrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas (ECCs) and gallbladder carcinomas (GBCs)...
August 2017: European Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618544/dynamics-of-a-mechanical-system-with-multiple-degrees-of-freedom-out-of-thermal-equilibrium
#12
A Feigel
Out of thermal equilibrium, an environment imposes effective mechanical forces on nanofabricated devices as well as on microscopic chemical or biological systems. Here we address the question of how to calculate these forces together with the response of the system from first principles. We show that an ideal gaslike environment, even near thermal equilibrium, can enforce a specific steady state on the system by creating effective potentials in otherwise homogeneous space. An example of stable and unstable rectifications of thermal fluctuations is presented using a modified Feynman-Smoluchowski ratchet with two degrees of freedom...
May 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609189/a-new-kid-on-the-playground-of-crispr-dmd-therapy
#13
Dongsheng Duan
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2017: Human Gene Therapy. Clinical Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592241/effect-of-major-school-playground-reconstruction-on-physical-activity-and-sedentary-behaviour-camden-active-spaces
#14
Mark Hamer, Daniel Aggio, Georgina Knock, Courtney Kipps, Aparna Shankar, Lee Smith
BACKGROUND: The physical school environment is a promising setting to increase children's physical activity although robust evidence is sparse. We examined the effects of major playground reconstruction on physical activity and sedentary time in primary schools using a quasi-experimental design (comparison group pre-test/post-test design). METHODS: Five experimental and two control schools from deprived areas of inner city London were recruited at baseline. Main outcome was physical activity and sedentary time measured from objective monitoring (Actigraph accelerometer) at one year follow up...
June 7, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588104/a-content-analysis-of-outdoor-non-alcoholic-beverage-advertisements-in-ghana
#15
Marie A Bragg, Tamara Hardoby, Natasha G Pandit, Yemi R Raji, Gbenga Ogedegbe
OBJECTIVES: This was a two-part descriptive study designed to (1) assess the marketing themes and sugar content of beverages promoted in outdoor advertisements (ads) within a portion of Accra, Ghana and (2) quantify the types of ads that appeared along the Accra-Cape Coast Highway. SETTING: A 4.7 km(2) area of Accra, Ghana and a 151 km region along the highway represented the target areas for collecting photos of outdoor beverage ads. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Number and types of beverage ads, sugar content of beverage products featured in ads and marketing themes used in ads...
June 6, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575784/exposure-to-extremely-low-and-intermediate-frequency-magnetic-and-electric-fields-among-children-from-the-inma-gipuzkoa-cohort
#16
Mara Gallastegi, Ana Jiménez-Zabala, Loreto Santa-Marina, Juan J Aurrekoetxea, Mikel Ayerdi, Jesús Ibarluzea, Hans Kromhout, Julián González, Anke Huss
Detailed assessment of exposure to extremely low frequency (ELF) and intermediate frequency (IF) fields is essential in order to conduct informative epidemiological studies of the health effects from exposure to these fields. There is limited information available regarding ELF electric fields and on both magnetic and electric field exposures of children in the IF range. The aim of this study was to characterize ELF and IF exposure of children in the Spanish INMA cohort. A combination of spot and fixed measurements was carried out in 104 homes, 26 schools and their playgrounds and 105 parks...
August 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28557736/change-of-school-playground-environment-on-bullying-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#17
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Victoria L Farmer, Sheila M Williams, Jim I Mann, Grant Schofield, Julia C McPhee, Rachael W Taylor
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether increasing risk and challenge in primary school playgrounds influences interactions between children. METHODS: In a 2-year cluster-randomized controlled trial, 8 control schools were asked to not change their play environment, whereas 8 intervention schools increased opportunities for risk and challenge (eg, rough-and-tumble play), reduced rules, and added loose parts (eg, tires). Children (n = 840), parents (n = 635), and teachers (n = 90) completed bullying questionnaires at baseline, 1 (postintervention), and 2 (follow-up) years...
May 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28553741/use-of-two-test-methods-to-ensure-accurate-surface-firmness-and-stability-measurements-for-accessibility
#18
Peter W Axelson, Seanna L Hurley
PURPOSE: The firmness and stability of indoor and outdoor surfacing are critical to the accessibility and safety of all environments for people with mobility impairments and/or who use mobility devices. ASTM F1951 laboratory test procedures include pass/fail criteria for determining playground surface accessibility by comparing the work to propel up a 1:14 (7.1%) grade ramp to that of the test surface in a wheelchair. A portable instrumented surface indenter (ISI) was developed to validate that accessibility results obtained in the laboratory are maintained in the field where the surface is installed and used...
May 27, 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation. Assistive Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550943/microbiome-on-a-chip-new-frontiers-in-plant-microbiota-research
#19
Claire E Stanley, Marcel G A van der Heijden
An enigmatic concoction of interactions between microbes and hosts takes place below ground, yet the function(s) of the individual components in this complex playground are far from understood. This Forum article highlights how microfluidic - or 'Microbiome-on-a-Chip' - technology could help to shed light on such relationships, opening new frontiers in plant-microbiota research.
May 24, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549470/rationale-and-protocol-paper-for-the-healthy-active-peaceful-playgrounds-for-youth-happy-study
#20
Wayne Cotton, Dean Dudley, Kirsten Jackson, Matthew Winslade, Janice Atkin
BACKGROUND: A growing body of evidence suggest an association between physical activity levels and students psychological well-being. A number of research studies have evaluated playground interventions that aim to increase physical activity levels, decrease conflict and bullying, and improve students behaviour. The HAPPY Study will evaluate the success of an intervention combining environmental modifications, teacher development, and peer support that can culminate in an easy to implement, low cost and effective model for increasing physical activity, and improving psychological well-being for children...
May 26, 2017: BMC Public Health
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