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Olaf Gefeller, Wolfgang Uter, Annette B Pfahlberg
During childhood, parents play a vital role in sun protection of their children. Their guidance is essential for avoiding excessive exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation, a risk factor for developing skin cancer in later life. In a population-based cross-sectional study conducted between October 2011 and February 2012, we assessed how 3281 parents implemented sun protection for their three- to six-year-old children in practice. In particular, clothing, shade-seeking behavior, wearing of sunhats and sunglasses, use of sunscreens and the amount of time spent outdoors were ascertained in two settings (beach, garden/playground)...
October 14, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Shashikant Srivastava, Devyani Deshpande, Jotam G Pasipanodya, Tania Thomas, Soumya Swaminathan, Eric Nuermberger, Tawanda Gumbo
Children with tuberculosis are treated with drug regimens copied from adults despite significant differences in antibiotic pharmacokinetics, pathology, and the microbial burden between childhood and adult tuberculosis. We sought to develop a new and effective oral treatment regimen specific to children of different ages. We investigated and validated the concept that target drug concentrations associated with therapy failure and death in children are different from those of adults. On that basis, we proposed a 4-step program to rapidly develop treatment regimens for children...
November 1, 2016: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
W Yu, Y Jiang, J Yang, Z L Dun, H D Zhou, Z Jiang, P Lu, W Pan
A three-dimensional (3D) Dirac semimetal (DS) is an analogue of graphene, but with linear energy dispersion in all (three) momentum directions. 3D DSs have been a fertile playground in discovering novel quantum particles, for example Weyl fermions, in solid state systems. Many 3D DSs were theoretically predicted and experimentally confirmed. We report here the results in exfoliated ZrTe5 thin flakes from the studies of aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy and low temperature magneto-transport measurements...
October 14, 2016: Scientific Reports
Takahiro Shimada, Le Van Lich, Koyo Nagano, Jian-Shan Wang, Jie Wang, Takayuki Kitamura
Topological objects of nontrivial spin or dipolar field textures, such as skyrmions, merons, and vortices, interacting with applied external fields in ferroic materials are of great scientific interest as an intriguing playground of unique physical phenomena and novel technological paradigms. The quest for new topological configurations of such swirling field textures has primarily been done for magnets with Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interactions, while the absence of such intrinsic chiral interactions among electric dipoles left ferroelectrics aside in this quest...
October 7, 2016: Scientific Reports
Samuel W Logan, Samantha Mae Ross, Melynda A Schreiber, Heather A Feldner, Michele A Lobo, Michele A Catena, Megan MacDonald, James C Galloway
BACKGROUND: Social mobility is defined as the co-occurrence of self-directed locomotion and direct peer interaction. Social mobility is a product of dynamic child-environment interactions and thus likely to vary across contexts (e.g., classroom, gymnasium, and playground). PURPOSE: The purpose of this present study was to examine differences in children's social mobility: (1) across contexts by age and (2) between non-disabled and disabled children. METHOD: Participants (n = 55 non-disabled and three disabled children; Mage = 3...
2016: Frontiers in Public Health
Thomas N Hooper, Ross Inglis, Giulia Lorusso, Jakub Ujma, Perdita E Barran, Dusan Uhrin, Jürgen Schnack, Stergios Piligkos, Marco Evangelisti, Euan K Brechin
The family of compounds of general formula [Ln(III)4TM(II)8(OH)8(L)8(O2CR)8(MeOH)y](ClO4)4 {[Gd4Zn8(OH)8(hmp)8(O2C(i)Pr)8](ClO4)4 (1a); [Y4Zn8(OH)8(hmp)8(O2C(i)Pr)8](ClO4)4 (1b); [Gd4Cu8(OH)8(hmp)8(O2C(i)Pr)8](ClO4)4 (2a); [Y4Cu8(OH)8(hmp)8(O2C(i)Pr)8](ClO4)4 (2b); [Gd4Cu8(OH)8(hep)8(O2C(i)Pr)8](ClO4)4 (3a); [Gd4Cu8(OH)8(Hpdm)8(O2C(t)Bu)8](ClO4)4 (4a); [Gd4Cu8(OH)8(ea)8(O2CMe)8](ClO4)4 (5a); [Gd4Ni8(OH)8(hmp)8(O2CEt)8(MeOH)6](ClO4)4 (6a); [Y4Ni8(OH)8(hmp)8(O2CEt)8(MeOH)6](ClO4)4 (6b); [Gd4Co8(OH)8(hmp)8(O2CEt)8(MeOH)6](ClO4)4 (7a); [Y4Co8(OH)8(hmp)8(O2CEt)8(MeOH)6](ClO4)4 (7b)} can be formed very simply and in high yields from the reaction of Ln(NO3)3·6H2O and TM(ClO4)2·6H2O and the appropriate ligand blend in a mixture of CH2Cl2 and MeOH in the presence of a suitable base...
October 17, 2016: Inorganic Chemistry
Stacy M Menz
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Pediatric Physical Therapy
Brenda Pratt, Nancy S Hartshorne, Pam Mullens, Mary Lou Schilling, Sarah Fuller, Emily Pisani
PURPOSE: To compare the effect of 2 different playground environments on the physical activity of children with ambulatory cerebral palsy during their playground play. METHODS: Five 7- to 8-year-old children with cerebral palsy (Gross Motor Functional Classification System [GMFCS] level II) participated. Using an alternating treatment, single-subject design, stride patterns were obtained using an activity monitor on an Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)-compliant and noncompliant playground...
2016: Pediatric Physical Therapy
Shaan S Shahabuddin, Steven M Smith
Our experiment examined two questions: (1) Does reinstating a studied context affect recognition of an associated word, and (2) Does reinstating a studied word affect recognition of an associated context? After encoding 75 words, each of which was shown superimposed over a different 5-sec video of an environment (e.g., a playground, a traffic scene, or a grocery store), participants were asked to recognize 50 of the words and 50 of the video scenes. On the test, half of the studied words were shown superimposed over the same video contexts that had been present at encoding, and half were shown over new scenes...
October 2016: Journal of General Psychology
Natalie Colabianchi, Jamie L Griffin, Kerry L McIver, Marsha Dowda, Russell R Pate
BACKGROUND: Numerous studies have focused on the role of environments in promoting physical activity, but few studies have examined the specific locations where children are active and whether being active in these locations is associated with physical activity levels over time. METHODS: Self-reported locations of where physical activity occurred and physical activity measured via accelerometry were obtained for a cohort of 520 children in 5(th) and 6(th) grades...
August 24, 2016: Journal of Physical Activity & Health
Jill Locke, Justin Williams, Wendy Shih, Connie Kasari
BACKGROUND: The extant literature demonstrates that children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often have difficulty interacting and socially connecting with typically developing classmates. However, some children with ASD have social outcomes that are consistent with their typically developing counterparts. Little is known about this subgroup of children with ASD. This study examined the stable (unlikely to change) and malleable (changeable) characteristics of socially successful children with ASD...
September 13, 2016: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
Geir K Resaland, Eivind Aadland, Vegard Fusche Moe, Katrine N Aadland, Turid Skrede, Mette Stavnsbo, Laura Suominen, Jostein Steene-Johannessen, Øyvind Glosvik, John R Andersen, Olav M Kvalheim, Gunn Engelsrud, Lars B Andersen, Ingar M Holme, Yngvar Ommundsen, Susi Kriemler, Willem van Mechelen, Heather A McKay, Ulf Ekelund, Sigmund A Anderssen
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of a seven-month, school-based cluster-randomized controlled trial on academic performance in 10-year-old children. METHODS: In total, 1129 fifth-grade children from 57 elementary schools in Sogn og Fjordane County, Norway, were cluster-randomized by school either to the intervention group or to the control group. The children in the 28 intervention schools participated in a physical activity intervention between November 2014 and June 2015 consisting of three components: 1) 90min/week of physically active educational lessons mainly carried out in the school playground; 2) 5min/day of physical activity breaks during classroom lessons; 3) 10min/day physical activity homework...
October 2016: Preventive Medicine
V Achilleos, A R Bishop, S Diamantidis, D J Frantzeskakis, T P Horikis, N I Karachalios, P G Kevrekidis
The dynamical behavior of a higher-order cubic Ginzburg-Landau equation is found to include a wide range of scenarios due to the interplay of higher-order physically relevant terms. We find that the competition between the third-order dispersion and stimulated Raman scattering effects gives rise to rich dynamics: this extends from Poincaré-Bendixson-type scenarios, in the sense that bounded solutions may converge either to distinct equilibria via orbital connections or to space-time periodic solutions, to the emergence of almost periodic and chaotic behavior...
July 2016: Physical Review. E
Chris Lonsdale, Taren Sanders, Kristen E Cohen, Philip Parker, Michael Noetel, Tim Hartwig, Diego Vasoncellos, Morwenna Kirwan, Philip Morgan, Jo Salmon, Marj Moodie, Heather McKay, Andrew Bennie, Ron Plotnikoff, Renata L Cinelli, David Greene, Louisa R Peralta, Dylan P Cliff, Gregory S Kolt, Jennifer M Gore, Lan Gao, David R Lubans
BACKGROUND: Despite the health benefits of regular physical activity, most children are insufficiently active. Schools are ideally placed to promote physical activity; however, many do not provide children with sufficient in-school activity or ensure they have the skills and motivation to be active beyond the school setting. The aim of this project is to modify, scale up and evaluate the effectiveness of an intervention previously shown to be efficacious in improving children's physical activity, fundamental movement skills and cardiorespiratory fitness...
August 24, 2016: BMC Public Health
Michael A Pizzi
Obesity is a complex, multidimensional challenge that compromises occupational participation for children and families. Children who are overweight or obese are at serious risk for being stigmatized, bullied, or marginalized, and they often are medically compromised. They cope daily with occupational participation issues at home, in school, on playgrounds, and in their communities. Prevention and health promotion assessment and intervention in occupational therapy are imperative for the profession to make a significant and sustainable difference in the lives of these children and families...
September 2016: American Journal of Occupational Therapy: Official Publication of the American Occupational Therapy Association
Chimere C Collins, Laura Villa-Torres, Lattice D Sams, Leslie P Zeldin, Kimon Divaris
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Despite the widespread acknowledgement of the importance of childhood oral health, little progress has been made in preventing early childhood caries. Limited information exists regarding specific daily-life and community-related factors that impede optimal oral hygiene, diet, care, and ultimately oral health for children. We sought to understand what parents of young children consider important and potentially modifiable factors and resources influencing their children's oral health, within the contexts of the family and the community...
2016: PloS One
Judy Robertson, Ruth Jepson, Andrew Macvean, Stuart Gray
Many public health interventions are less effective than expected in 'real life settings', yet little work is undertaken to understand the reasons why. The effectiveness of complex public health interventions can often be traced back to a robust programme theory (how and why an intervention brings about a change in outcome(s)) and assumptions that are made about the context in which it is implemented. Understanding whether effectiveness (or lack thereof) is due to the intervention or the context is hugely helpful in decisions about whether to a) modify the intervention; b) modify the context; c) stop providing the intervention...
2016: PloS One
Kirsten K Davison, Jo N Charles, Neha Khandpur, Timothy J Nelson
Purpose Examine fathers' perceived reasons for their lack of inclusion in pediatric research and strategies to increase their participation. Description We conducted expert interviews with researchers and practitioners (N = 13) working with fathers to inform the development of an online survey. The survey-which measured fathers' perceived reasons for their underrepresentation in pediatric research, recommended recruitment venues, and research personnel and study characteristics valued by fathers-was distributed online and in-person to fathers...
July 29, 2016: Maternal and Child Health Journal
Seho Yi, Hunpyo Lee, Jin-Ho Choi, Jun-Hyung Cho
Semiconductor surfaces with narrow surface bands provide unique playgrounds to search for Mott-insulating state. Recently, a combined experimental and theoretical study of the two-dimensional (2D) Sn atom lattice on a wide-gap SiC(0001) substrate proposed a Mott-type insulator driven by strong on-site Coulomb repulsion U within a single-band Hubbard model. However, our systematic density-functional theory (DFT) study with local, semilocal, and hybrid exchange-correlation functionals shows that the Sn dangling-bond state largely hybridizes with the substrate Si 3p and C 2p states to split into three surface bands due to the crystal field...
2016: Scientific Reports
Patrizia Tortella, Monika Haga, Håvard Loras, Hermundur Sigmundsson, Guido Fumagalli
This study examined the effects and specificity of structured and unstructured activities played at the playground Primo Sport 0246 in Northern Italy on motor skill competence in five years old children. The playground was specifically designed to promote gross motor skills in preschool children; in this study 71 children from local kindergartens came to the park once a week for ten consecutive weeks and were exposed to 30 minutes of free play and 30 minutes of structured activities. Before and after the ten visits, each child completed nine tests to assess levels of motor skills, three for fine-motor skills and six for gross-motor skills...
2016: PloS One
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