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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106057/improper-electric-polarization-in-simple-perovskite-oxides-with-two-magnetic-sublattices
#1
Hong Jian Zhao, L Bellaiche, Xiang Ming Chen, Jorge Íñiguez
ABO3 perovskite oxides with magnetic A and B cations offer a unique playground to explore interactions involving two spin sublattices and the emergent effects they may drive. Of particular interest is the possibility of having magnetically driven improper ferroelectricity, as in the much studied families of rare-earth orthoferrites and orthochromites; yet, the mechanisms behind such effects remain to be understood in detail. Here we show that the strongest polar order corresponds to collinear spin configurations and is driven by non-relativistic exchange-strictive mechanisms...
January 20, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097673/schoolyard-shade-and-sun-exposure-assessment-of-personal-monitoring-during-children-s-physical-activity
#2
Jennifer K Vanos, Grant R McKercher, Kylie Naughton, Marc Lochbaum
Childhood exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is a major risk factor for the development of melanoma later in life. However, it is challenging to accurately determine personal outdoor exposure to UVR, specifically erythemally-weighted UVR (UVEry ), due to technological constraints, variable time-activity patterns, and the influence of outdoor environmental design. To address this challenge, the current study utilized mobile and stationary techniques to examine the UVEry exposures of 14 children in a schoolyard in Lubbock, TX in spring 2016...
January 18, 2017: Photochemistry and Photobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056908/an-evaluation-of-outdoor-school-environments-to-promote-physical-activity-in-delhi-india
#3
Samiksha Tarun, Monika Arora, Tina Rawal, Sara E Benjamin Neelon
BACKGROUND: Increasing physical activity in children is an important public health goal in India. Schools may be a target for physical activity promotion, but little is known about outdoor school environments. The purpose of this study was to describe characteristics of the surrounding outdoor school environments that may promote children's physical activity in Delhi, India. METHODS: For this cross-sectional study, we conducted a structured observation of outdoor school environments in a random sample of 16 private schools in Delhi, India using the Sport, Physical activity and Eating behavior: Environmental Determinants in Young people (SPEEDY) audit tool...
January 5, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042643/the-role-of-adult-perceptions-and-supervision-behavior-in-preventing-child-injury
#4
Ha T Huynh, Natalie E Demeter, Rita V Burke, Jeffrey S Upperman
Supervision is an important factor in reducing injury risk. There are multiple factors that can affect the appropriate level of supervision including risk perception, anticipation of injury, and distracted behaviors. This study examined the perceived risks of child injury among parents and child caregivers and their supervision behavior among adults in an urban playground. Participant data from 25 individuals were collected through observations and anonymous self-reported surveys. More than half of the participants indicated practice of appropriate supervisory behavior, including attentiveness to their child's behavior and proximity to their child during play...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040202/homemade-zipline-and-playground-track-ride-injuries-in-children
#5
Christine M Leeper, Christine McKenna, Barbara A Gaines
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Playground track ride and homemade zipline-related injuries are increasingly common in the emergency department, with serious injuries and even deaths reported. METHODS: Retrospective review of the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System (NEISS) database (2009-2015), followed by review of our academic pediatric trauma center's prospectively-maintained database (2005-2013). We included children ages 0-17years of age with zipline-related injuries...
December 20, 2016: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030920/sandpits-as-a-reservoir-of-potentially-pathogenic-fungi-for-children
#6
Anna Wójcik, Joanna Błaszkowska, Piotr Kurnatowski, Katarzyna Góralska
INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVE: Fungi belonging to various physiological and morphological groups present in the environment are potential human pathogens. Some of them are considered as emerging pathogens. Therefore, their presence in children's playgrounds should be regarded as health risk factor. MATERIALS AND METHOD: Sixty-eight samples of sand collected from 17 sandpits of different localities in Łódź, Poland, in autumn 2010 and 2011, and in spring 2011 and 2012 were evaluated...
23, 2016: Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine: AAEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28026961/interlayer-excitons-and-band-alignment-in-mos2-hbn-wse2-van-der-waals-heterostructures
#7
Simone Latini, Kirsten Trøstrup Winther, Thomas Olsen, Kristian S Thygesen
Van der Waals heterostructures (vdWH) provide an ideal playground for exploring light-matter interactions at the atomic scale. In particular, structures with a type-II band alignment can yield detailed insight into free carrier-to-photon conversion pro- cesses, which are central to e.g. solar cells and light emitting diodes. An important first step in describing such processes is to obtain the energies of the interlayer exciton states existing at the interface. Here we present a general first-principles method to compute the electronic quasi-particle (QP) band structure and excitonic binding en- ergies of incommensurate vdWHs...
December 27, 2016: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025767/residential-neighborhood-amenities-and-physical-activity-among-u-s-children-with-special-health-care-needs
#8
Ruopeng An, Yan Yang, Kaigang Li
Objectives Children with special health care needs (SHCN) have or are at elevated risk for chronic physical, developmental, behavioral or emotional conditions and therefore require specialized health care services. This study examines the relationship between residential neighborhood amenities and physical activity among U.S. children with SHCN. Methods A nationally representative sample of 113,767 children aged 6-17 years was taken from National Survey of Children's Health (NSCH) 2007-2008 and 2011-2012. Residential neighborhood amenities were defined by parent-reported presence or absence of sidewalks, parks/playgrounds, and recreation center...
December 26, 2016: Maternal and Child Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012313/typologies-of-neighbourhood-environments-and-children-s-physical-activity-sedentary-time-and-television-viewing
#9
Anna Timperio, David Crawford, Kylie Ball, Jo Salmon
This study examined cross-sectional and prospective associations between clusters of neighbourhood attributes (typologies) and non-school moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, sedentary time (objectively measured) and proxy-reported television viewing among children aged 5-6 and 10-12 years. Four distinct clusters were identified from seven objectively-measured neighbourhood attributes (land use mix, traffic exposure, playgrounds, sports venues, intersections and cul-de-sacs within 800m, crime/postcode). Some cross-sectional associations with behavior were found...
December 21, 2016: Health & Place
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995981/iron-arsenides-with-three-dimensional-feas-layer-networks-can-n-1-2-fe1-xptx-2-3n-ptn-n-1-2as-n-1-n-2-2-n%C3%A2-%C3%A2-2-3
#10
Naoyuki Katayama, Seiichiro Onari, Kazuyuki Matsubayashi, Yoshiya Uwatoko, Hiroshi Sawa
We report the comprehensive studies between synchrotron X-ray diffraction, electrical resistivity and magnetic susceptibility experiments for the iron arsenides Can(n+1)/2(Fe1-xPtx)(2+3n)Ptn(n-1)/2As(n+1)(n+2)/2 for n = 2 and 3. Both structures crystallize in the monoclinic space group P21/m (#11) with three-dimensional FeAs structures. The horizontal FeAs layers are bridged by inclined FeAs planes through edge-sharing FeAs5 square pyramids, resulting in triangular tunneling structures rather than the simple layered structures found in conventional iron arsenides...
December 20, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27984464/power-up-exploration-and-play-in-a-novel-modified-ride-on-car-for-standing
#11
Samuel W Logan, Michele A Lobo, Heather A Feldner, Melynda Schreiber, Megan MacDonald, Haylee N Winden, Tracy Stoner, James Cole Galloway
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to compare the physical activity and play behaviors of preschoolers without disabilities and 1 preschooler with physical disability. METHODS: Participants were 42 preschoolers without disabilities and 1 preschooler with physical disability (Child A). Child A used either crutches or a modified ride-on car while in the gymnasium and playground. RESULTS: In the gymnasium, Child A engaged in less solitary play and more parallel play while using the modified ride-on car compared with crutches...
January 2017: Pediatric Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939267/are-children-living-on-dead-end-streets-more-active-near-home-street-patterns-and-school-going-children-s-time-spent-outdoors-in-dhaka-bangladesh
#12
Muntazar Monsur, Mohaimen Mansur, Mohammed Zakiul Islam
This study aimed to investigate relationships between near-home street patterns and children's time spent outdoors (TSO). Participants were 60 (n=60) school-age Dhaka children, 7-11years old (16 girls and 44 boys) selected by a two-phase cluster sampling method. Data were collected from September 2010 to June 2011 by visiting each of 60 children's homes. Children's mean TSOs (in minutes) were reported by parents' face-to-face interviews, and near-home street pattern data were collected by systematic direct observations...
December 6, 2016: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932193/associations-between-built-environment-and-physical-activity-of-7-8-year-old-children-cross-sectional-results-from-the-lithuanian-cosi-study
#13
Vilma Žaltauskė, Aušra Petrauskienė
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Research shows that regular engagement in physical activity in childhood is associated with multiple physical and psychosocial health benefits. The data on associations between children physical activity level and built environment in Lithuania are limited. The built environment is one of many variables thought to affect children physical activity level. But consequently there is growing interest in how physical environment influences physical activity of school age children...
2016: Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932053/green-and-lean-is-neighborhood-park-and-playground-availability-associated-with-youth-obesity-variations-by-gender-socioeconomic-status-and-race-ethnicity
#14
S Morgan Hughey, Andrew T Kaczynski, Stephanie Child, Justin B Moore, Dwayne Porter, James Hibbert
Parks and park features are important for promoting physical activity and healthy weight, especially for low-income and racial/ethnic minority youth who have disproportionately high obesity rates. This study 1) examined associations between neighborhood park and playground availability and youth obesity, and 2) assessed whether these associations were moderated by youth race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status (SES). In 2013, objectively measured height and weight were collected for all 3rd-5th grade youth (n=13...
December 6, 2016: Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899709/the-art-of-camouflage-gender-differences-in-the-social-behaviors-of-girls-and-boys-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#15
Michelle Dean, Robin Harwood, Connie Kasari
This study examined the extent to which gender-related social behaviors help girls with autism spectrum disorder to seemingly mask their symptoms. Using concurrent mixed methods, we examined the social behaviors of 96 elementary school children during recess (autism spectrum disorder = 24 girls and 24 boys, typically developing = 24 girls and 24 boys). Children with autism spectrum disorder had average intelligence (IQ ⩾ 70), a confirmed diagnosis, and were educated in the general education classroom...
November 29, 2016: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889649/heavy-metal-burdens-of-public-primary-school-children-related-to-playground-soils-and-classroom-dusts-in-ibadan-north-west-local-government-area-nigeria
#16
F Akinwunmi, T F Akinhanmi, Z A Atobatele, O Adewole, K Odekunle, L A Arogundade, O O Odukoya, O M Olayiwola, O Ademuyiwa
Information about heavy metal burden of children in Nigeria related to playground soils and classroom dusts is lacking. Playground soil, classroom dust, blood and spot urine samples (n=253) were collected from 6 urban and 2 semi-rural public schools in Ibadan North-West, Nigeria. Samples were analysed for Pb, Cu, Zn, Fe and Mn. Mean blood Pb levels in urban area (male, 41.66±8.78μg/dl vs. female, 40.64±5.46μg/dl) were twice as high as those in semi-rural area (male, 19.71±3.73μg/dl vs. female, 20.65±2...
November 19, 2016: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883013/thermally-induced-magnetic-relaxation-in-square-artificial-spin-ice
#17
M S Andersson, S D Pappas, H Stopfel, E Östman, A Stein, P Nordblad, R Mathieu, B Hjörvarsson, V Kapaklis
The properties of natural and artificial assemblies of interacting elements, ranging from Quarks to Galaxies, are at the heart of Physics. The collective response and dynamics of such assemblies are dictated by the intrinsic dynamical properties of the building blocks, the nature of their interactions and topological constraints. Here we report on the relaxation dynamics of the magnetization of artificial assemblies of mesoscopic spins. In our model nano-magnetic system - square artificial spin ice - we are able to control the geometrical arrangement and interaction strength between the magnetically interacting building blocks by means of nano-lithography...
November 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872802/park-use-is-associated-with-less-sedentary-time-among-low-income-parents-and-their-preschool-child-the-net-works-study
#18
Simone A French, Nancy E Sherwood, Nathan R Mitchell, Yingling Fan
INTRODUCTION: Parks are an important component of the neighborhood environment, and their presence is believed to support higher levels of physical activity among residents. The present study examined park use frequency among a sample of 534 low-income parents of preschool aged children. Associations with child and parent physical activity, neighborhood characteristics and physical characteristics of the block immediately surrounding the home were examined. METHODS: Data are from baseline measurements completed in 2012-2014 as part of larger study (NET-Works: Now Everybody Together for Amazing and Healthy Kids) targeting low-income preschool children and their parents (N = 534 parent-child dyads)...
March 2017: Preventive Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864965/attempted-drug-facilitated-sexual-assault-xylazine-intoxication-in-a-child
#19
Hilke Andresen-Streichert, Stefanie Iwersen-Bergmann, Alexander Mueller, Sven Anders
There are only a few cases of drug-facilitated sexual assaults on children reported in the literature so far. Here, a case of a four-year-old boy is presented. He was unconscious, and the accompanying adults reported that the child had been at a playground on his own. Returning home, he complained of having been stung and collapsed immediately. Urine and serum samples of the child were investigated. In the toxicological analysis, xylazine, a sedative and muscle relaxant used in animals, was detected. Subsequent quantification by GC/MS after solid-phase extraction revealed 0...
January 2017: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819276/children-s-caregivers-and-public-playgrounds-potential-reservoirs-of-infection-of-hand-foot-and-mouth-disease
#20
Pengyuan Li, Tao Li, Qiuyun Gu, Xiaomin Chen, Jiahui Li, Xiashi Chen, Yan Chen, Danwei Zhang, Rong Gao, Zhenjian He, Xun Zhu, Wangjian Zhang, Yuantao Hao, Dingmei Zhang
Hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD) is a common infectious disease, which has led to millions of clinical cases and hundreds of deaths every year in China. This study aimed to exploring the effects on HFMD transmission of children's caregivers and public area, as well as trying to locate the potential reservoirs of infections in primary cases. Total children's 257 samples (98 children's caregivers and 159 environmental samples) were tested for the presence of universal enterovirus, enterovirus 71, coxsackie virus A6 and A16 by real-time fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR)...
November 7, 2016: Scientific Reports
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