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Madeline C Frost, Elena S Kuo, Lisa T Harner, Kelly R Landau, Katie Baldassar
INTRODUCTION: Regular physical activity is a vital component of child health, and schools play an important role in the promotion of physical activity among children. This paper describes the implementation and evaluation of a playground redesign involving structural and loose play equipment to increase students' physical activity at an intermediate school in Leadville, Colorado. METHODS: Direct observations were conducted during recess before the redesign in May 2014, then again at 6 months and 1 year after the redesign...
May 2018: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
Dean Dudley, Wayne Cotton, Louisa Peralta, Matthew Winslade
BACKGROUND: Increasing physical activity in children is a health priority. The Healthy Active Peaceful Playgrounds for Youth (HAPPY) study aimed to examine a multi-component playground intervention designed to increase the proportion of physical activity during recess and lunch of primary school students. METHODS: The 2016 Australian focused HAPPY Study was a 12-month, metropolitan primary school based intervention, which was evaluated using a stepped wedge design...
April 20, 2018: BMC Public Health
Lauren McNamara, Yana Lakman, Natalie Spadafora, Ken Lodewyk, Meaghan Walker
BACKGROUND: It is well-understood that children's social relationships are intrinsically linked to their overall health trajectories. Recess is the only time in the school day that children are free to play and socialize. Yet research on recess consistently indicates that many school playgrounds are challenged by a social landscape that is not conducive to meaningful play. While all children are susceptible to negative social experiences, children with disabilities are at a heightened risk for exclusion and victimization...
April 3, 2018: Disability and Health Journal
Terje Toomistu
Indonesian transgender women, locally and internationally recognised as waria, share some lifestyle patterns that have emerged under conditions of limited social acceptance. These patterns include involvement in sex work. The high number of waria who are sex workers is usually explained in economic terms. However, their presence in certain locations around the city known for waria sex work is not only for work, and quite often not even for sex. Waria street nightlife fosters waria agency, which emerges from self-affirmation through pleasurable bodily practices involving intimate (sexual partners) and both proximate (other waria and men nearby) and distant others (structuring ideals)...
April 16, 2018: Culture, Health & Sexuality
Cheryl Kerfeld, Tracy Jirikowic, Katheryn J Allyn, Murray E Maitland
BACKGROUND: Through play, children develop motor, cognitive, social, and other life skills. Play barriers can impede physical and psychosocial benefits. OBJECTIVES: We describe participation in active play, fundamental movement skills, play environment characteristics, and potential play barriers for school-aged children (6-12 years) who use lower extremity prostheses. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional questionnaire study. METHODS: A questionnaire was developed and administered online to parents of children 6-12 years who use lower extremity prostheses...
April 1, 2018: Prosthetics and Orthotics International
Shazia Qayum, Rashid Anjum, Shagufta Rather
PURPOSE: Ocular trauma is one of the most common causes of acquired blindness in children. It measures about 8%-14% of total childhood injuries. This study aims to determine the epidemiological profile of ocular trauma in the pediatric age group attending a tertiary hospital in northern India. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted in our hospital between June 2014 to July 2015 and all the children aged 0-16 years presenting with ocular trauma in eye outpatient department and emergency were enrolled in the study...
March 3, 2018: Chinese Journal of Traumatology, Zhonghua Chuang Shang za Zhi
Sarah Westcott Mccoy, Susan K Effgen, Lisa A Chiarello, Lynn M Jeffries, Alejandro G Villasante Tezanos
AIM: We explored relationships of school-based physical therapy to standardized outcomes of students receiving physical therapy. METHOD: Using a practice-based evidence research design, School Function Assessment (SFA) outcomes of 296 students with disabilities (mean age 7y 4mo [standard deviation 2y]; 166 males, 130 females), served by 109 physical therapists, were explored. After training, therapists completed 10 SFA scales on students at the beginning and end of the school year...
March 30, 2018: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
William V Massey, Megan B Stellino, Sean P Mullen, Jennette Claassen, Megan Wilkison
BACKGROUND: Physical activity (PA) remains the primary behavioral outcome associated with school recess, while many other potentially relevant indicators of recess remain unexamined. Few studies have assessed observations of teacher/student interactions, peer conflict, social interactions, or safety within the recess environment. Furthermore, a psychometrically-sound instrument does not exist to examine safety, resources, student engagement, adult engagement, pro-social/anti-social behavior, and student empowerment on the playground...
March 22, 2018: BMC Public Health
Lori B Vincent, Daniel Openden, Joseph A Gentry, Lori A Long, Nicole L Matthews
The school playground provides an ideal opportunity for social inclusion; however, children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often struggle to engage in appropriate social interactions in this unstructured environment. Thus, they may spend recess time alone. The FRIEND Playground Program is a structured, play-based intervention aimed at improving social interactions of children with ASD and other social challenges during recess. The current research study employed a multiple baseline across participant design to systematically evaluate whether this intervention yields increased social engagement and initiations with peers during recess...
March 2018: Behavior Analysis in Practice
David Portehault, Simon Delacroix, Guillaume Gouget, Rémi Grosjean, Tsou-Hsi-Camille Chan-Chang
The design of inorganic nanoparticles relies strongly on the knowledge from solid-state chemistry not only for characterization techniques, but also and primarily for choosing the systems that will yield the desired properties. The range of inorganic solids reported and studied as nanoparticles is however strikingly narrow when compared to the solid-state chemistry portfolio of bulk materials. Efforts to enlarge the collection of inorganic particles are becoming increasingly important for three reasons. First, they can yield materials more performing than current ones for a range of fields including biomedicine, optics, catalysis, and energy...
March 13, 2018: Accounts of Chemical Research
Raoul Saggini, Maurizio Migliorini, Simona Maria Carmignano, Emilio Ancona, Chiara Russo, Rosa Grazia Bellomo
Background: The cause of heel pain among soccer players is multifactorial and is related to repetitive microtrauma due to impact forces involving technical moves, but also the playground, the exercise mode, the recovery time, the climatic conditions and the footwear used. Aim: To investigate the aetiology of plantar heel pain of soccer players with the objective of proposing an example of guidelines for treatment. Methods: We investigated the prevalence and characteristics of inferior heel pain of 1473 professional, semiprofessional and amateur players...
2018: BMJ Open Sport & Exercise Medicine
Yuan Cao, Valla Fatemi, Ahmet Demir, Shiang Fang, Spencer L Tomarken, Jason Y Luo, J D Sanchez-Yamagishi, K Watanabe, T Taniguchi, E Kaxiras, R C Ashoori, P Jarillo-Herrero
van der Waals heterostructures are an emergent class of metamaterials that consist of vertically stacked two-dimensional building blocks, which provide us with a vast tool set to engineer their properties on top of the already rich tunability of two-dimensional materials.1 One of the knobs, the twist angle between different layers, has a crucial role in the ultimate electronic properties of a van der Waals heterostructure and does not have a direct analogue in other systems such as MBE-grown semiconductor heterostructures...
March 5, 2018: Nature
Rachel L White, Katie Eberstein, Dawn M Scott
Children nowadays, particularly in urban areas, are more disconnected from nature than ever before, leading to a large-scale "extinction of experience" with the natural world. Yet there are many potential benefits from children interacting with nature first-hand, including via outdoor learning opportunities. Urban environmental education programmes typically aim to increase awareness and knowledge of local biodiversity and to promote positive attitudes and behaviour towards the environment. However, limited research has been conducted evaluating to what extent these interventions achieve their goals...
2018: PloS One
Alberto García-Fernández, Juan Manuel Bermúdez-García, Socorro Castro-García, Antonio Luis Llamas-Saiz, Ramón Artiaga, Jorge José López-Beceiro, Manuel Sánchez-Andújar, María Antonia Señarís-Rodríguez
We have prepared two new lead halides with the novel general formula of DMA7 Pb4 X15 (DMA = [(CH3 )2 NH2 ]+ and X = Cl- or Br- ) by using an easy route under mild conditions at room temperature. These compounds exhibit an unprecedented crystal structure, are formed by layers of distorted [PbX6 ] octahedra, which share corners and faces, and contain intercalated DMA cations. Very interestingly, they display dielectric transitions, which are related to a partial order-disorder process of the DMA cations between 160 and 260 K...
March 6, 2018: Inorganic Chemistry
Sophie Carenco
Designing well-defined nanoparticles and nanoalloys is a tremendous way to achieve in-depth understanding of their intrinsic properties. In particular, structure and composition of the core and the surface of nanoalloys can be investigated by a combination of state-of-the-art in situ microscopy and spectroscopy. These nanoalloys represent a playground to establish structure-properties relationships within the nano-matter. They provide a much needed understanding of the distribution of each element within the nanoparticles, depending on the environment (gaseous atmosphere, temperature, etc...
March 1, 2018: Chemical Record: An Official Publication of the Chemical Society of Japan ... [et Al.]
Michael J Morrier, Sonja M T Ziegler
Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have difficulties interacting with same-aged peers during unstructured play (e.g., on the playground). Thirty-five toddler and preschool children with and without ASD participated in a structured 15-min outdoor play curriculum. The intervention, the Buddy Game, used familiar songs, movement, and games to promote peer social interaction. A 2 × 3 ANOVA assessed changes in overall targeted social behaviors during baseline, the Buddy Game, and generalization to free-pay...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
Daniel B Straus, Cherie R Kagan
Two-dimensional (2D) hybrid perovskites are stoichiometric compounds consisting of alternating inorganic metal-halide sheets and organoammonium cationic layers. This materials class is widely tailorable in composition, structure, and dimensionality and is providing an intriguing playground for the solid-state chemistry and physics communities to uncover structure-property relationships. In this Perspective, we describe semiconducting 2D perovskites containing lead and tin halide inorganic frameworks. In these 2D perovskites, charges are typically confined to the inorganic framework because of strong quantum and dielectric confinement effects, and exciton binding energies are many times greater than kT at room temperature...
February 26, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
Suvi Määttä, Carola Ray, Henna Vepsäläinen, Elviira Lehto, Riikka Kaukonen, Anna Ylönen, Eva Roos
Parental co-participation in physical activity (PA) may be a beneficial parenting practice for diminishing children's sedentary time (ST). Less information is available, however, on the explanatory role of co-participation in PA regarding parental educational differences in children's ST. Preschool-aged children (N = 864, mean age 4.8, 52% boys) with their parents participated in a cross-sectional DAGIS (Increased Health and Wellbeing in Pre-schools) study between years 2015 and 2016. Children (N = 821) wore an accelerometer for one week...
February 20, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Jiaqiang Yan, Masayuki Ochi, Huibo Cao, Bayrammurad Saparov, Jinguang Cheng, Yoshiya Uwatoko, Ryotaro Arita, Brian C Sales, David G Mandrus
We grow millimeter-sized Nd$_5$Pb$_3$ single crystals out of a Nd-Co flux. We experimentally study the magnetic order of Nd$_5$Pb$_3$ single crystals by measuring the anisotropic magnetic properties, electrical resistivity under high pressure up to 8\,GPa, specific heat, and neutron single crystal diffraction. Two successive magnetic orders are observed at T$_{N1}$=44\,K and T$_{N2}$=8\,K. The magnetic cells can be described with a propagation vector \textit{k}=(0.5,0,0). Cooling below T$_{N1}$, Nd1 and Nd3 order forming ferromagnetic stripes along the \textit{b}-axis, and the ferromagnetic stripes are coupled antiferromagnetically along the \textit{a}-axis for the \textit{k}=(0...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
Jing Li, Yevhen Tupikov, Kenji Watanabe, Takashi Taniguchi, Jun Zhu
The E=0 octet of bilayer graphene in the filling factor range of -4<ν<4 is a fertile playground for many-body phenomena, yet a Landau level diagram is missing due to strong interactions and competing quantum degrees of freedom. We combine measurements and modeling to construct an empirical and quantitative spectrum. The single-particlelike diagram incorporates interaction effects effectively and provides a unified framework to understand the occupation sequence, gap energies, and phase transitions observed in the octet...
January 26, 2018: Physical Review Letters
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