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Christopher Lowrie, Amber L Pearson, George Thomson
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have found extensive geographic and demographic differences in tobacco use. These differences have been found to be reduced by effective public policies, including banning smoking in public spaces. Smokefree outdoor spaces reduce secondhand smoke exposure and de-normalize smoking. METHODS: After previously publishing a study of smokefree indoor and outdoor space policies, it was brought to the authors' attention that the dataset used in analyses was incomplete (Lowrie et al...
June 14, 2018: BMC Public Health
Marcio Costa, Antonio Tavares da Costa, Jun Hu, Ruqian Wu, Roberto Bechara Muniz
Ultrathin films of β-tungsten provide very promising substrates for applications in spintronics, and the possibility of incorporating them into multilayer extends such expectations.
 Our calculations indicate that it is viable to deposit a single layer of Mn on two non-equivalent (001) surfaces of β-tungsten that have easy axes along orthogonal directions [010] and [100], respectively. The ferromagnetic structure of this Mn monolayer adsorbed to either of those surfaces displays a giant in-plane magneto-crystalline anisotropy that exceeds 12 meV per Mn atom...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
Iku Suzuki, Masayuki Okuda, Maki Tanaka, Shigeru Inoue, Shigeho Tanaka, Chiaki Tanaka
BACKGROUND: An accurate description of physical activity (PA) at school is required for appropriate health interventions. We examined PA patterns of children, and identified time periods that influenced them. METHODS: Forty students in 5 Japanese primary schools were asked to wear triaxial accelerometers for at least7 days. We obtained coefficients of variance (CV) at 15 min intervals, and conducted factor analysis of the school periods. A questionnaire was used to investigate where students spent time before school, and during recesses...
June 12, 2018: Pediatrics International: Official Journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
Ismat Jabeen, Rukhsana Zuberi, Kashmira Nanji
OBJECTIVE: To determine physical activity level and its correlational factors among secondary school adolescents. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted in two public and two private schools in Jamshed Town, Karachi, from March 2012 to June 2013, comprising students aged 10-17 years. The subjects, selected by simple random sampling were students of grades VI, VII, VIII. Physical activity was measured using the Physical Activity Questionnaire for older children...
May 2018: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
Camila Elizandra Rossi, Hinnig Patrícia de Fragas, Elizabeth Nappi Corrêa, Janaina das Neves, Francisco de Assis Guedes de Vasconcelos
The aim of this article was to evaluate associations between body mass index (BMI) and use of and distance from subjects homes of elements of the food and physical activity environments and use of social assistance environment, in schoolchildren from 7 to 14 years living in Florianópolis (South Brazil), stratified by monthly family income. A cross-sectional study was conducted with a probabilistic sample of 2152 schoolchildren. Univariate and multivariate linear regression analyses were conducted to test for associations between BMI and the use of and distance from supermarkets, bakeries and farmers' markets; use of and distance from parks/playgrounds and football pitches; and use of health centers, Reference Centers for Social Assistance, instructional facilities, residents associations, religious groups and a Brazilian program for cash transfer...
May 29, 2018: Journal of Public Health
Mara Gallastegi, Anke Huss, Loreto Santa-Marina, Juan J Aurrekoetxea, Mònica Guxens, Laura Ellen Birks, Jesús Ibarluzea, David Guerra, Martin Röösli, Ana Jiménez-Zabala
INTRODUCTION: Radiofrequency (RF) fields are widely used and, while it is still unknown whether children are more vulnerable to this type of exposure, it is essential to explore their level of exposure in order to conduct adequate epidemiological studies. Personal measurements provide individualized information, but they are costly in terms of time and resources, especially in large epidemiological studies. Other approaches, such as estimation of time-weighted averages (TWAs) based on spot measurements could simplify the work...
May 24, 2018: Environment International
Shaobo Cheng, Changsong Xu, Shiqing Deng, Myung-Geun Han, Shanyong Bao, Jing Ma, Cewen Nan, Wenhui Duan, Laurent Bellaiche, Yimei Zhu, Jing Zhu
Multiferroic materials, which simultaneously have multiple orderings, hold promise for use in the next generation of memory devices. We report a novel self-assembled MnO double layer forming at the interface between a multiferroic YMnO3 film and a c -Al2 O3 substrate. The crystal structures and the valence states of this MnO double layer were studied by atomically resolved scanning transmission electron microscopy and spectroscopy, as well as density functional theory (DFT) calculations. A new type of charge ordering has been identified within this MnO layer, which also contributes to a polarization along the [001] direction...
May 2018: Science Advances
Sarah L Taylor, Robert J Noonan, Zoe R Knowles, Michael B Owen, Bronagh McGrane, Whitney B Curry, Stuart J Fairclough
Schools are key environments in which physical activity (PA) can be promoted. Various strategies and opportunities should be used to engage children in PA within schools. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the multi-component Active Schools: Skelmersdale (AS:Sk) pilot intervention on children's PA and sedentary time (ST). The AS:Sk intervention was implemented for eight weeks in four schools with three control schools continuing normal practice. It consisted of eight components: active breaks, bounce at the bell, 'Born To Move' videos, Daily Mile or 100 Mile Club, playground activity challenge cards, physical education teacher training, newsletters, and activity homework...
May 17, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Michele C Hlavsa, Bryanna L Cikesh, Virginia A Roberts, Amy M Kahler, Marissa Vigar, Elizabeth D Hilborn, Timothy J Wade, Dawn M Roellig, Jennifer L Murphy, Lihua Xiao, Kirsten M Yates, Jasen M Kunz, Matthew J Arduino, Sujan C Reddy, Kathleen E Fullerton, Laura A Cooley, Michael J Beach, Vincent R Hill, Jonathan S Yoder
Outbreaks associated with exposure to treated recreational water can be caused by pathogens or chemicals in venues such as pools, hot tubs/spas, and interactive water play venues (i.e., water playgrounds). During 2000-2014, public health officials from 46 states and Puerto Rico reported 493 outbreaks associated with treated recreational water. These outbreaks resulted in at least 27,219 cases and eight deaths. Among the 363 outbreaks with a confirmed infectious etiology, 212 (58%) were caused by Cryptosporidium (which causes predominantly gastrointestinal illness), 57 (16%) by Legionella (which causes Legionnaires' disease, a severe pneumonia, and Pontiac fever, a milder illness with flu-like symptoms), and 47 (13%) by Pseudomonas (which causes folliculitis ["hot tub rash"] and otitis externa ["swimmers' ear"])...
May 18, 2018: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
R Gage, N Wilson, L Signal, M Barr, C Mackay, A Reeder, G Thomson
Shade in public spaces can lower the risk of and sun burning and skin cancer. However, existing methods of auditing shade require travel between sites, and sunny weather conditions. This study aimed to evaluate the feasibility of free computer software-Google Earth-for assessing shade in urban open spaces. A shade projection method was developed that uses Google Earth street view and aerial images to estimate shade at solar noon on the summer solstice, irrespective of the date of image capture. Three researchers used the method to separately estimate shade cover over pre-defined activity areas in a sample of 45 New Zealand urban open spaces, including 24 playgrounds, 12 beaches and 9 outdoor pools...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Community Health
Edgar Hiller, Lenka Filová, Ľubomír Jurkovič, Lucia Lachká, Tatsiana Kulikova, Mária Šimurková
In this study, playground soils of kindergartens and green recreational zones in Bratislava were investigated for the occurrence and gastric bioaccessibility of arsenic (As) in the < 150 μm soil size fraction. Eighty topsoil (0-10 cm) samples were collected from playgrounds in kindergartens and green recreational zones throughout the urban area. Bioaccessibility measurements of As were performed using the Simple Bioaccessibility Extraction Test that mimics the human gastric environment, and resulting extracts were analyzed by hydride generation-atomic absorption spectrometry to assess bioaccessible As concentrations in the collected playground soils...
May 16, 2018: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Tamar Berman, Zohar Barnett-Itzhaki, Shay Reicher, Ruti Ardi, Yaniv Shammai, Lior Aruas, Maya Negev
Exposure to low levels of lead in children can cause cognitive deficits (reduced IQ) and behavioral changes such as reduced attention span and increased antisocial behavior. There are no mandatory limits on lead in paint in Israel, with the exception of paints used on toys and children's furniture. However, paints in playgrounds and public areas may be a source of exposure to lead in young children. In this study, we quantified lead concentrations in painted surfaces in public playgrounds and public areas, and in spray paints in Israel, using X-ray fluorescence (XRF)...
May 10, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Dipendra Thapaliya, Jhalka Kadariya, Mike Capuano, Haleigh Rush, Clair Yee, Mark Oet, Sapana Lohani, Tara C Smith
BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus aureus is a major public health concern due to the emergence of virulent and drug resistant strains such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Although numerous studies have been conducted to assess the environmental contamination of S. aureus in health-care and household settings, little is known about the prevalence and epidemiology of S. aureus, including MRSA, on environmental surfaces of children's playgrounds. This study investigated the prevalence and molecular epidemiology of S...
May 9, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Yuval Ronen, Yonatan Cohen, Daniel Banitt, Moty Heiblum, Vladimir Umansky
Electronic systems harboring one-dimensional helical modes, where spin and momentum are locked, have lately become an important field of its own. When coupled to a conventional superconductor, such systems are expected to manifest topological superconductivity; a unique phase hosting exotic Majorana zero modes. Even more interesting are fractional helical modes, yet to be observed, which open the route for realizing generalized parafermions. Possessing non-abelian exchange statistics, these quasiparticles may serve as building blocks in topological quantum computing...
April 2018: Nature Physics
M Choobineh, F Mikaeili, S M Sadjjadi, S Ebrahimi, S Iranmanesh
Human toxocariasis, a worldwide parasitic disease, is caused by the larval stage of intestinal nematodes of dogs and cats, namely Toxocara canis and Toxocara cati. Human infection occurs by the accidental ingestion of embryonated eggs present in the soil, vegetables or on other contaminated surfaces, as well as via consumption of uncooked paratenic hosts, such as bird meat and giblets. The objective of this study was to evaluate the contamination of soil in public parks and playgrounds in Shiraz using microscopy and molecular methods...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Helminthology
Júlia Prestes da Rocha Silva, Fernanda Junqueira Salles, Isabelle Nogueira Leroux, Ana Paula Sacone da Silva Ferreira, Agnes Soares da Silva, Nilson Antonio Assunção, Adelaide Cassia Nardocci, Ana Paula Sayuri Sato, Fernando Barbosa, Maria Regina Alves Cardoso, Kelly Polido Kaneshiro Olympio
BACKGROUND: A previous study observed high blood lead levels (BLL) in preschool children attending 50 day care centers (DCC) in São Paulo, Brazil. OBJECTIVE: To identify whether lead levels found in both homes and DCC environments are associated with high blood lead levels. METHODS: Children attending 4 DCCs, quoted here as NR, VA, PS and PF, were divided into two groups according to BLL: high exposure (HE: ≥13.9 μg/dL; 97.5 percentile of the 2013 year sample) and low exposure (LE: <5 μg/dL)...
April 28, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Esra Türker, Nida Demirçak, Ahu Arslan-Yildiz
Three-dimensional (3D) cell culture has emerged as a pioneering methodology and is increasingly utilized for tissue engineering, 3D bioprinting, cancer model studies and drug development studies. The 3D cell culture methodology provides artificial and functional cellular constructs serving as a modular playground prior to animal model studies, which saves substantial efforts, time and experimental costs. The major drawback of current 3D cell culture methods is their dependency on biocompatible scaffolds, which often require tedious syntheses and fabrication steps...
April 27, 2018: Biomaterials Science
Madeline C Frost, Elena S Kuo, Lisa T Harner, Kelly R Landau, Katie Baldassar
INTRODUCTION: Regular physical activity is a vital component of child health, and schools play an important role in the promotion of physical activity among children. This paper describes the implementation and evaluation of a playground redesign involving structural and loose play equipment to increase students' physical activity at an intermediate school in Leadville, Colorado. METHODS: Direct observations were conducted during recess before the redesign in May 2014, then again at 6 months and 1 year after the redesign...
May 2018: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
Dean Dudley, Wayne Cotton, Louisa Peralta, Matthew Winslade
BACKGROUND: Increasing physical activity in children is a health priority. The Healthy Active Peaceful Playgrounds for Youth (HAPPY) study aimed to examine a multi-component playground intervention designed to increase the proportion of physical activity during recess and lunch of primary school students. METHODS: The 2016 Australian focused HAPPY Study was a 12-month, metropolitan primary school based intervention, which was evaluated using a stepped wedge design...
April 20, 2018: BMC Public Health
Lauren McNamara, Yana Lakman, Natalie Spadafora, Ken Lodewyk, Meaghan Walker
BACKGROUND: It is well-understood that children's social relationships are intrinsically linked to their overall health trajectories. Recess is the only time in the school day that children are free to play and socialize. Yet research on recess consistently indicates that many school playgrounds are challenged by a social landscape that is not conducive to meaningful play. While all children are susceptible to negative social experiences, children with disabilities are at a heightened risk for exclusion and victimization...
April 3, 2018: Disability and Health Journal
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