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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447631/artificial-intelligence-chess-match-of-the-century
#1
Demis Hassabis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 26, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435464/clinical-efficacy-of-omalizumab-in-chronic-spontaneous-urticaria-is-associated-with-a-reduction-of-fc%C3%AE%C2%B5ri-positive-cells-in-the-skin
#2
Martin Metz, Petra Staubach, Andrea Bauer, Randolf Brehler, Janine Gericke, Michael Kangas, Joanna Ashton-Chess, Philip Jarvis, Panayiotis Georgiou, Janice Canvin, Rainer Hillenbrand, Veit J Erpenbeck, Marcus Maurer
Background. Treatment with omalizumab, a humanized recombinant monoclonal anti-IgE antibody, results in clinical efficacy in patients with Chronic Spontaneous Urticaria (CSU). The mechanism of action of omalizumab in CSU has not been elucidated in detail. Objectives. To determine the effects of omalizumab on levels of high affinity IgE receptor-positive (FcεRI(+)) and IgE-positive (IgE(+)) dermal cells and blood basophils. Treatment efficacy and safety were also assessed. Study design. In a double-blind study, CSU patients aged 18‑75 years were randomized to receive 300 mg omalizumab (n=20) or placebo (n=10) subcutaneously every 4 weeks for 12 weeks...
2017: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389682/-the-triumph-of-stupidity-deep-blue-s-victory-over-garri-kasparov-the-controversy-about-its-impact-on-artficial-intelligence-research
#3
Martina Heßler
The competition between the chess computer Deep Blue and the former chess world champion Garri Kasparov in 1997 was a spectacle staged for the media. However, the chess game, like other games, was also a test field for artificial intelligence research. On the one hand Deep Blue's victory was called a "milestone" for AI research, on the other hand, a dead end, since the superiority of the chess computer was based on pure computing power and had nothing to do with "real" AI.The article questions the premises of these different interpretations and maps Deep Blue and its way of playing chess into the history of AI...
April 7, 2017: NTM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358380/permission-form-synopses-to-improve-parents-understanding-of-research-a-randomized-trial
#4
C T D'Angio, H Wang, J E Hunn, G S Pryhuber, P R Chess, S Lakshminrusimha
OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that, among parents of potential neonatal research subjects, an accompanying cover sheet added to the permission form (intervention) would increase understanding of the research, when compared to a standard form (control). STUDY DESIGN: This pilot study enrolled parents approached for one of two index studies: one randomized trial and one observational study. A one-page cover sheet described critical study information. Families were randomized 1:1 to receive the cover sheet or not...
March 30, 2017: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318146/allen-newell-s-program-of-research-the-video-game-test
#5
Fernand Gobet
Newell (1973) argued that progress in psychology was slow because research focused on experiments trying to answer binary questions, such as serial versus parallel processing. In addition, not enough attention was paid to the strategies used by participants, and there was a lack of theories implemented as computer models offering sufficient precision for being tested rigorously. He proposed a three-headed research program: to develop computational models able to carry out the task they aimed to explain; to study one complex task in detail, such as chess; and to build computational models that can account for multiple tasks...
March 20, 2017: Topics in Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314154/streamlined-approach-to-mapping-the-magnetic-induction-of-skyrmionic-materials
#6
Jordan J Chess, Sergio A Montoya, Tyler R Harvey, Colin Ophus, Simon Couture, Vitaliy Lomakin, Eric E Fullerton, Benjamin J McMorran
Recently, Lorentz transmission electron microscopy (LTEM) has helped researchers advance the emerging field of magnetic skyrmions. These magnetic quasi-particles, composed of topologically non-trivial magnetization textures, have a large potential for application as information carriers in low-power memory and logic devices. LTEM is one of a very few techniques for direct, real-space imaging of magnetic features at the nanoscale. For Fresnel-contrast LTEM, the transport of intensity equation (TIE) is the tool of choice for quantitative reconstruction of the local magnetic induction through the sample thickness...
February 28, 2017: Ultramicroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280476/the-effects-of-chess-instruction-on-pupils-cognitive-and-academic-skills-state-of-the-art-and-theoretical-challenges
#7
Giovanni Sala, John P Foley, Fernand Gobet
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267547/fat-suppression-at-2d-mr-imaging-of-the-hands-dixon-method-versus-chess-technique-and-stir-sequence
#8
Thomas Kirchgesner, Vasiliki Perlepe, Nicolas Michoux, Ahmed Larbi, Bruno Vande Berg
OBJECTIVE: To compare the effectiveness of fat suppression and the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the Dixon method with those of the CHESS (Chemical Shift-Selective) technique and STIR (Short Tau Inversion Recovery) sequence in hands of normal subjects at 2D MR imaging. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 14 healthy volunteers (mean age of 29.4 years) consented to have both hands prospectively imaged with SE T1 Dixon, T1 CHESS, T2 Dixon, T2 CHESS and STIR sequences in a 1.5T MR scanner...
April 2017: European Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265652/chess-players-eye-movements-reveal-rapid-recognition-of-complex-visual-patterns-evidence-from-a-chess-related-visual-search-task
#9
Heather Sheridan, Eyal M Reingold
To explore the perceptual component of chess expertise, we monitored the eye movements of expert and novice chess players during a chess-related visual search task that tested anecdotal reports that a key differentiator of chess skill is the ability to visualize the complex moves of the knight piece. Specifically, chess players viewed an array of four minimized chessboards, and they rapidly searched for the target board that allowed a knight piece to reach a target square in three moves. On each trial, there was only one target board (i...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182712/increased-cerebellar-gray-matter-volume-in-head-chefs
#10
Antonio Cerasa, Alessia Sarica, Iolanda Martino, Carmelo Fabbricatore, Francesco Tomaiuolo, Federico Rocca, Manuela Caracciolo, Aldo Quattrone
OBJECTIVE: Chefs exert expert motor and cognitive performances on a daily basis. Neuroimaging has clearly shown that that long-term skill learning (i.e., athletes, musicians, chess player or sommeliers) induces plastic changes in the brain thus enabling tasks to be performed faster and more accurately. How a chef's expertise is embodied in a specific neural network has never been investigated. METHODS: Eleven Italian head chefs with long-term brigade management expertise and 11 demographically-/ psychologically- matched non-experts underwent morphological evaluations...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28146562/hip-hop-dance-experience-linked-to-sociocognitive-ability
#11
Justin W Bonny, Jenna C Lindberg, Marc C Pacampara
Expertise within gaming (e.g., chess, video games) and kinesthetic (e.g., sports, classical dance) activities has been found to be linked with specific cognitive skills. Some of these skills, working memory, mental rotation, problem solving, are linked to higher performance in science, technology, math, and engineering (STEM) disciplines. In the present study, we examined whether experience in a different activity, hip hop dance, is also linked to cognitive abilities connected with STEM skills as well as social cognition ability...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28133474/managing-the-treatment-of-the-patients-with-stable-angina-like-a-chess-player-making-moves-considering-the-next-move-of-atherosclerosis
#12
Ömer Yiğiner, Mehmet Tezcan, Alptuğ Tokatlı, Gökhan Değirmencioğlu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Journal of Geriatric Cardiology: JGC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122032/approaches-to-predicting-outcomes-in-patients-with-acute-kidney-injury
#13
Danielle Saly, Alina Yang, Corey Triebwasser, Janice Oh, Qisi Sun, Jeffrey Testani, Chirag R Parikh, Joshua Bia, Aditya Biswas, Chess Stetson, Kris Chaisanguanthum, F Perry Wilson
Despite recognition that Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) leads to substantial increases in morbidity, mortality, and length of stay, accurate prognostication of these clinical events remains difficult. It remains unclear which approaches to variable selection and model building are most robust. We used data from a randomized trial of AKI alerting to develop time-updated prognostic models using stepwise regression compared to more advanced variable selection techniques. We randomly split data into training and validation cohorts...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120046/music-and-mind-in-memoriam-professor-carlo-alberto-pagni-md-phd-february-13-1931-march-1-2009
#14
Klaus R H von Wild
Carlo Alberto Pagni, born in La Spezia, Italy, on February 13, 1931, was an eminent and respected professor of neurosurgery and chairman of the neurosurgical clinic of the University of Turin from 1980 to 2003. He died on March 1, 2009. As a professor of neurology and neurological surgery he was renowned as an expert on vascular, tumor, and functional neurosurgery. Beyond the Italian Neurosurgical Society, he was the doyen of functional neurosurgery, specializing in motor cortex stimulation for the treatment of focal dystonia, Parkinson's disease, and postictal spasticity and pain...
2017: Acta Neurochirurgica. Supplement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119083/methylphenidate-modafinil-and-caffeine-for-cognitive-enhancement-in-chess-a-double-blind-randomised-controlled-trial
#15
Andreas G Franke, Patrik Gränsmark, Alexandra Agricola, Kai Schühle, Thilo Rommel, Alexandra Sebastian, Harald E Balló, Stanislav Gorbulev, Christer Gerdes, Björn Frank, Christian Ruckes, Oliver Tüscher, Klaus Lieb
Stimulants and caffeine have been proposed for cognitive enhancement by healthy subjects. This study investigated whether performance in chess - a competitive mind game requiring highly complex cognitive skills - can be enhanced by methylphenidate, modafinil or caffeine. In a phase IV, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 39 male chess players received 2×200mg modafinil, 2×20mg methylphenidate, and 2×200mg caffeine or placebo in a 4×4 crossover design. They played twenty 15-minute games during two sessions against a chess program (Fritz 12; adapted to players' strength) and completed several neuropsychological tests...
March 2017: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077845/when-words-were-wanted-but-woefully-wanting-we-waged-war-with-chess
#16
Burton Norman Seitler
What do you say to a child who rarely speaks? How do you work with such a youngster? What are the sine qua nons or guiding principles upon which analysts can draw? And, how do we know if we are being helpful? Sam was 9-years when I began treating him. He was extremely withdrawn and rarely spoke more than a few words. Instead, he mainly played chess. I did not know at first whether Sam's taciturn demeanor was due to shyness, limited verbal abilities, or the stultifying effects of trauma. Fortuitously, during one of many seemingly "innocent" games of chess, Sam happened to make a bold move, to which I admiringly remarked, "What a move, you're killing me...
December 2016: American Journal of Psychoanalysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056859/molecular-chess-hallmarks-of-anti-cancer-drug-resistance
#17
REVIEW
Ian A Cree, Peter Charlton
BACKGROUND: The development of resistance is a problem shared by both classical chemotherapy and targeted therapy. Patients may respond well at first, but relapse is inevitable for many cancer patients, despite many improvements in drugs and their use over the last 40 years. REVIEW: Resistance to anti-cancer drugs can be acquired by several mechanisms within neoplastic cells, defined as (1) alteration of drug targets, (2) expression of drug pumps, (3) expression of detoxification mechanisms, (4) reduced susceptibility to apoptosis, (5) increased ability to repair DNA damage, and (6) altered proliferation...
January 5, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007550/gemcitabine-selective-cytotoxicity-induction-of-inflammation-and-effects-on-urothelial-function
#18
Stefanie E Farr, Russ Chess-Williams, Catherine M McDermott
Intravesical gemcitabine has recently been introduced for the treatment of superficial bladder cancer and has a favourable efficacy and toxicity profile in comparison to mitomycin c (MMC), the most commonly used chemotherapeutic agent. The aim of this study was to assess the cytotoxic potency of gemcitabine in comparison to MMC in urothelial cell lines derived from non-malignant (UROtsa) and malignant (RT4 and T24) tissues to assess selectivity. Cells were treated with gemcitabine or mitomycin C at concentrations up to the clinical doses for 1 or 2h respectively (clinical duration)...
December 19, 2016: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005922/a-study-of-memory-effects-in-a-chess-database
#19
Ana L Schaigorodsky, Juan I Perotti, Orlando V Billoni
A series of recent works studying a database of chronologically sorted chess games-containing 1.4 million games played by humans between 1998 and 2007- have shown that the popularity distribution of chess game-lines follows a Zipf's law, and that time series inferred from the sequences of those game-lines exhibit long-range memory effects. The presence of Zipf's law together with long-range memory effects was observed in several systems, however, the simultaneous emergence of these two phenomena were always studied separately up to now...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27958229/epidemiological-study-of-sepsis-in-china-protocol-of-a-cross-sectional-survey
#20
Yi Yang, Jian-Feng Xie, Kai-Jiang Yu, Chen Yao, Jian-Guo Li, Xiang-Dong Guan, Jing Yan, Xiao-Chun Ma, Yan Kang, Cong-Shan Yang, Xiao-Qing Yao, Hong-Cai Shang, Hai-Bo Qiu
BACKGROUND: Sepsis is the leading cause of death among critically ill patients. Herein, we conducted a national survey to provide data on epidemiology and treatment of sepsis in the clinical practice in China, which has no detailed epidemiological data available on sepsis. METHODS: This was a prospective cross-sectional survey from December 1, 2015 to January 31, 2016 in all provinces/municipalities of the mainland of China. The primary outcome of this study was the incidence of sepsis, and the secondary outcome was its etiology in China...
December 20, 2016: Chinese Medical Journal
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