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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29897284/nka-enhances-bladder-afferent-mechanosensitivity-via-urothelial-and-detrusor-activation
#1
Luke Grundy, Russ Chess-Williams, Stuart M Brierley, Kylie Mills, Kate Hilda Moore, Kylie Mansfield, Roselyn Rose'Meyer, Donna Jayne Sellers, David Grundy
Tachykinins are expressed within bladder innervating sensory afferents and have been shown to generate detrusor contraction and trigger micturition. The release of tachykinins from these sensory afferents may also activate tachykinin receptors on the urothelium, or sensory afferents directly. Here we investigated the direct and indirect influence of tachykinins on mechanosensation by recording sensory signalling from the bladder during distension, urothelial transmitter release ex-vivo, and direct responses to NKA on isolated mouse urothelial cells and bladder-innervating DRG neurons...
June 13, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29808232/modulation-of-lower-urinary-tract-smooth-muscle-contraction-and-relaxation-by-the-urothelium
#2
REVIEW
Donna Sellers, Russ Chess-Williams, Martin C Michel
The epithelial inner layer of the lower urinary tract, i.e., the urothelium, and other parts of the mucosa are not just a passive barrier but play an active role in the sensing of stretching, neurotransmitters, paracrine mediators, hormones, and growth factors and of changes in the extracellular environment. We review the molecular and cellular mechanisms enabling the urothelium to sense such inputs and how this leads to modulation of smooth muscle contraction and relaxation. The urothelium releases various mediators including ATP, acetylcholine, prostaglandins, nitric oxide, and nerve growth factor...
May 28, 2018: Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784662/ibuprofen-decreases-spontaneous-activity-and-enhances-nerve-evoked-contractions-to-minimise-mitomycin-c-induced-bladder-dysfunction
#3
Eliza G West, Ryan Lang, Donna Sellers, Russ Chess-Williams, Catherine M McDermott
Inflammation may play a causal role in urological side effects reported following intravesical mitomycin C (MMC). Our aim was to investigate the effects of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug ibuprofen (IBU) on the cytotoxic potency of MMC and the potential for IBU to protect against bladder dysfunction. Malignant (RT4, T24) and normal (UROtsa) urothelial lines were treated with MMC followed by ibuprofen, with cell viability and caspase-3 activity assessed. Female C57BL/6JArc mice (Saline/Control, MMC, Saline + IBU and MMC + IBU), received intravesical treatment (1hr) with saline or MMC (2mg/mL), with IBU (1mg/mL) delivered in drinking water (for 7-days)...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773973/comprehensive-investigation-of-white-matter-tracts-in-professional-chess-players-and-relation-to-expertise-region-of-interest-and-dmri-connectometry
#4
Mahsa Mayeli, Farzaneh Rahmani, Mohammad Hadi Aarabi
Purpose: Expertise is the product of training. Few studies have used functional connectivity or conventional diffusometric methods to identify neural underpinnings of chess expertise. Diffusometric variables of white matter might reflect these adaptive changes, along with changes in structural connectivity, which is a sensitive measure of microstructural changes. Method: Diffusometric variables of 29 professional chess players and 29 age-sex matched controls were extracted for white matter regions based on John Hopkin's Mori white matter atlas and partially correlated against professional training time and level of chess proficiency...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764913/mapping-and-characterizing-n6-methyladenine-in-eukaryotic-genomes-using-single-molecule-real-time-sequencing
#5
Shijia Zhu, John Beaulaurier, Gintaras Deikus, Tao Wu, Maya Strahl, Ziyang Hao, Guanzheng Luo, James A Gregory, Andrew Chess, Chuan He, Andrew Xiao, Robert Sebra, Eric E Schadt, Gang Fang
N6-methyladenine (m6dA) has been discovered as a novel form of DNA methylation prevalent in eukaryotes, however, methods for high resolution mapping of m6dA events are still lacking. Single-molecule real-time (SMRT) sequencing has enabled the detection of m6dA events at single-nucleotide resolution in prokaryotic genomes, but its application to detecting m6dA in eukaryotic genomes has not been rigorously examined. Herein, we identified unique characteristics of eukaryotic m6dA methylomes that fundamentally differ from those of prokaryotes...
May 15, 2018: Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761589/prevalence-and-effect-factors-of-dementia-among-the-community-elderly-in-chongqing-china
#6
Jing Deng, Cheng Cao, Yi Jiang, Bin Peng, Tingting Wang, Ke Yan, Jingxi Lian, Zengzi Wang
BACKGROUND: China is an ageing society, with around 150 million people aged 60 years or older. The prevalence of dementia will increase by more than 100% in the coming 20 years. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and effects of dementia among the community elderly in Chongqing, China. METHODS: Cluster sampling was adopted. A sample of elderly individuals aged 60 years and older was extracted as research subjects from three counties within Chongqing, China...
May 14, 2018: Psychogeriatrics: the Official Journal of the Japanese Psychogeriatric Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740305/whole-brain-functional-connectivity-pattern-homogeneity-mapping
#7
Lijie Wang, Jinping Xu, Chao Wang, Jiaojian Wang
Mounting studies have demonstrated that brain functions are determined by its external functional connectivity patterns. However, how to characterize the voxel-wise similarity of whole brain functional connectivity pattern is still largely unknown. In this study, we introduced a new method called functional connectivity homogeneity (FcHo) to delineate the voxel-wise similarity of whole brain functional connectivity patterns. FcHo was defined by measuring the whole brain functional connectivity patterns similarity of a given voxel with its nearest 26 neighbors using Kendall's coefficient concordance (KCC)...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723296/longevity-of-outstanding-sporting-achievers-mind-versus-muscle
#8
An Tran-Duy, David C Smerdon, Philip M Clarke
BACKGROUND: While there is strong evidence showing the survival advantage of elite athletes, much less is known about those engaged in mind sports such as chess. This study aimed to examine the overall as well as regional survival of International Chess Grandmasters (GMs) with a reference to the general population, and compare relative survival (RS) of GMs with that of Olympic medallists (OMs). METHODS: Information on 1,208 GMs and 15,157 OMs, respectively, from 28 countries were extracted from the publicly available data sources...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720192/the-impact-of-severe-haemophilia-and-the-presence-of-target-joints-on-health-related-quality-of-life
#9
Jamie O'Hara, Shaun Walsh, Charlotte Camp, Giuseppe Mazza, Liz Carroll, Christina Hoxer, Lars Wilkinson
BACKGROUND: Joint damage remains a major complication associated with haemophilia and is widely accepted as one of the most debilitating symptoms for persons with severe haemophilia. The aim of this study is to describe how complications of haemophilia such as target joints influence health-related quality of life (HRQOL). METHODS: Data on hemophilia patients without inhibitors were drawn from the 'Cost of Haemophilia across Europe - a Socioeconomic Survey' (CHESS) study, a cost-of-illness assessment in severe haemophilia A and B across five European countries (France, Germany, Italy, Spain, and the UK)...
May 2, 2018: Health and Quality of Life Outcomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29714180/quick-x-ray-reflectivity-using-monochromatic-synchrotron-radiation-for-time-resolved-applications
#10
H Joress, J D Brock, A R Woll
A new technique for the parallel collection of X-ray reflectivity (XRR) data, compatible with monochromatic synchrotron radiation and flat substrates, is described and applied to the in situ observation of thin-film growth. The method employs a polycapillary X-ray optic to produce a converging fan of radiation, incident onto a sample surface, and an area detector to simultaneously collect the XRR signal over an angular range matching that of the incident fan. Factors determining the range and instrumental resolution of the technique in reciprocal space, in addition to the signal-to-background ratio, are described in detail...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29699041/-characteristics-and-influencing-factors-regarding-social-relations-among-men-who-have-sex-with-men
#11
J Yang, H F Xu, W B Cheng, Y Z Gu, P Xu, Q Y Yu, P Lyu
Objective: To study the characteristics of social relations and relative factors among MSM in Guangzhou. Methods: Data was collected through a cross-sectional study in Guangzhou from November 2016 to May 2017. Sample size was estimated and participants were recruited from the voluntary counseling and testing services (VCT) which were set for MSM population, by nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Social ties and demographic characteristics of the respondents and their sexual partners were analyzed through both Chi square test and generalized estimating equations (GEE)...
April 10, 2018: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691293/immunotherapy-for-glioblastoma-playing-chess-not-checkers
#12
Christopher M Jackson, Michael Lim
Patients with glioblastoma (GBM) exhibit a complex state of immune dysfunction involving multiple mechanisms of local, regional, and systemic immune suppression and tolerance. These pathways are now being identified and their relative contributions explored. Delineating how these pathways are interrelated is paramount to effectively implementing immunotherapy for GBM.
April 24, 2018: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669348/prazosin-but-not-tamsulosin-sensitises-pc-3-and-lncap-prostate-cancer-cells-to-docetaxel
#13
Briohny H Spencer, Catherine M McDermott, Russ Chess-Williams, David Christie, Shailendra Anoopkumar-Dukie
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Docetaxel is currently the first-line chemotherapeutic agent available for the treatment of patients with advanced prostate cancer (PCa). While docetaxel has been shown to modestly improve survival times for patients; they also experience significant docetaxel-induced toxicities. If treatment failure occurs, there are currently limited alternatives that show survival benefits for patients and therefore there is an urgent need for adjunct therapies. Some quinazoline-based alpha1-adrenoceptor (ADR) antagonists have previously been shown to have cytotoxic actions in PCa cells, but there is no research into their effects on docetaxel-induced toxicity...
April 17, 2018: Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668561/a-randomized-controlled-trial-comparing-nitazoxanide-plus-lactulose-with-lactulose-alone-in-treatment-of-overt-hepatic-encephalopathy
#14
Sherief Abd-Elsalam, Ferial El-Kalla, Nadia Elwan, Rehab Badawi, Nehad Hawash, Shaimaa Soliman, Samah Soliman, Walaa Elkhalawany, Mennat-Allah ElSawaf, Asem Elfert
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a reversible spectrum of neuropsychiatric abnormalities associated with liver dysfunction. Lactulose is a nonabsorbable disaccharide presently used to treat HE. Nitazoxanide (NTZ) has a broad-spectrum activity against urease-producing bacteria, so it decreases ammonia production and is therefore expected to reverse the symptoms of HE. A previous pilot study on HE patients given NTZ and lactulose had encouraging results with regard to amelioration of the clinical picture...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663514/combined-carotid-endarterectomy-and-transcatheter-aortic-valve-replacement-technique-and-outcomes
#15
Robert J Moraca, Anil A Shah, Stephen H Bailey, Daniel Benckart, David Lasorda, Ramzi Khalil, Bart Chess, Walter McGregor, Michael S Halbreiner
BACKGROUND: Stroke and transient ischemic attack after transcatheter aortic valve replacement results in significantly higher morbidity and mortality. Severe carotid artery disease may be a contributing factor to this increased risk. We report our technique and outcomes of combined carotid endarterectomy (CEA) with transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). METHODS: From March 2013 to November 2017 a total of 753 TAVRs were performed at our institution for symptomatic severe aortic stenosis...
May 2018: Journal of Cardiac Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29597277/potential-of-silicon-amendment-for-improved-wheat-production
#16
Olga S Walsh, Sanaz Shafian, Jordan R McClintick-Chess, Kelli M Belmont, Steven M Blanscet
Many studies throughout the world have shown positive responses of various crops to silicon (Si) application in terms of plant health, nutrient uptake, yield, and quality. Although not considered an essential element for plant growth, Si has been recently recognized as a "beneficial substance" or "quasi-essential" due to its important role in plant nutrition, especially notable under stressed conditions. The goal of this study was to evaluate the effect of Si on wheat plant height, grain yield (GY), and grain protein content (GP)...
March 28, 2018: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29537256/determinants-of-ligand-subtype-selectivity-at-%C3%AE-1a-adrenoceptor-revealed-using-saturation-transfer-difference-std-nmr
#17
Kelvin J Yong, Tasneem M Vaid, Patrick J Shilling, Feng-Jie Wu, Lisa M Williams, Mattia Deluigi, Andreas Plückthun, Ross A D Bathgate, Paul R Gooley, Daniel J Scott
α1A - and α1B -adrenoceptors (α1A -AR and α1B -AR) are closely related G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) that modulate the cardiovascular and nervous systems in response to binding epinephrine and norepinephrine. The GPCR gene superfamily is made up of numerous subfamilies that, like α1A -AR and α1B -AR, are activated by the same endogenous agonists but may modulate different physiological processes. A major challenge in GPCR research and drug discovery is determining how compounds interact with receptors at the molecular level, especially to assist in the optimization of drug leads...
April 20, 2018: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29530787/altered-ureteral-contractility-with-ageing-role-of-the-rho-kinase-pathway
#18
Iris Lim, Russ Chess-Williams, Donna Sellers
This study investigated the role of calcium sensitisation in the regulation of ureteral contractility with ageing. Isolated ureteral strips from young (6-month old) and older (3-year old) pigs were mounted in Krebs bicarbonate solution and contractility induced by the α1-adrenoceptor agonist phenylephrine (30 and 300 μM) and 5-HT (10 and 100 μM), recorded in the absence and presence of the rho-kinase inhibitors Y-27632 (10 μM) and fasudil (30 μM). Ureteral strips developed bursts of contractile activity which was measured as area under the curve (AUC) and frequency...
April 2018: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29500822/minimum-data-set-changes-in-health-end-stage-disease-and-symptoms-and-signs-scale-a-revised-measure-to-predict-mortality-in-nursing-home-residents
#19
Jessica A Ogarek, Ellen M McCreedy, Kali S Thomas, Joan M Teno, Pedro L Gozalo
OBJECTIVES: To revise the Minimum Data Set (MDS) Changes in Health, End-stage disease and Symptoms and Signs (CHESS) scale, an MDS 2.0-based measure widely used to predict mortality in institutional settings, in response to the release of MDS 3.0. DESIGN: Development of a predictive scale using observational data from the MDS and Medicare Master Beneficiary Summary File. SETTING: All Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS)-certified nursing homes in the United States...
March 2, 2018: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29499036/an-entropic-barriers-diffusion-theory-of-decision-making-in-multiple-alternative-tasks
#20
Diego Fernandez Slezak, Mariano Sigman, Guillermo A Cecchi
We present a theory of decision-making in the presence of multiple choices that departs from traditional approaches by explicitly incorporating entropic barriers in a stochastic search process. We analyze response time data from an on-line repository of 15 million blitz chess games, and show that our model fits not just the mean and variance, but the entire response time distribution (over several response-time orders of magnitude) at every stage of the game. We apply the model to show that (a) higher cognitive expertise corresponds to the exploration of more complex solution spaces, and (b) reaction times of users at an on-line buying website can be similarly explained...
March 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
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