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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636029/cross-impact-of-surface-and-interaction-anisotropy-in-the-self-assembly-of-organic-adsorption-monolayers-a-monte-carlo-and-transfer-matrix-study
#1
V A Gorbunov, S S Akimenko, A V Myshlyavtsev
Using a simple lattice gas model we study the features of self-assembly in adsorption layers where both "molecule-surface" and "molecule-molecule" interactions are anisotropic. Based on the example of adsorption layers of mono-functional organic molecules on the heterogeneous surface with strip-like topography, we have revealed plenty of possible self-assembled structures in this simple system, such as discrete, linear, zigzag, chess board-like, two-dimensional porous and close-packed patterns. However, the phase behavior of the adsorption layer is much richer, if the interactions between functional and non-functional parts of adjacent adsorbed molecules have comparable strength and opposite signs...
June 21, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620199/predicting-the-outcomes-of-organic-reactions-via-machine-learning-are-current-descriptors-sufficient
#2
G Skoraczyński, P Dittwald, B Miasojedow, S Szymkuć, E P Gajewska, B A Grzybowski, A Gambin
As machine learning/artificial intelligence algorithms are defeating chess masters and, most recently, GO champions, there is interest - and hope - that they will prove equally useful in assisting chemists in predicting outcomes of organic reactions. This paper demonstrates, however, that the applicability of machine learning to the problems of chemical reactivity over diverse types of chemistries remains limited - in particular, with the currently available chemical descriptors, fundamental mathematical theorems impose upper bounds on the accuracy with which raction yields and times can be predicted...
June 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615422/prognostic-factors-for-chronic-headache-a-systematic-review
#3
REVIEW
Katrin Probyn, Hannah Bowers, Fiona Caldwell, Dipesh Mistry, Martin Underwood, Manjit Matharu, Tamar Pincus
OBJECTIVE: To identify predictors of prognosis and trial outcomes in prospective studies of people with chronic headache. METHODS: This was a systematic review of published literature in peer-reviewed journals. We included (1) randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of interventions for chronic headache that reported subgroup analyses and (2) prospective cohort studies, published in English, since 1980. Participants included adults with chronic headache (including chronic headache, chronic migraine, and chronic tension-type headache with or without medication overuse headache)...
June 14, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598279/a-novel-score-to-predict-shunt-dependency-after-aneurysmal-subarachnoid-hemorrhage
#4
Dominik Diesing, Stefan Wolf, Jenny Sommerfeld, Asita Sarrafzadeh, Peter Vajkoczy, Nora F Dengler
OBJECTIVE Feasible clinical scores for predicting shunt-dependent hydrocephalus (SDHC) after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) are scarce. The chronic hydrocephalus ensuing from SAH score (CHESS) was introduced in 2015 and has a high predictive value for SDHC. Although this score is easy to calculate, several early clinical and radiological factors are required. The authors designed the retrospective analysis described here for external CHESS validation and determination of predictive values for the radiographic Barrow Neurological Institute (BNI) scoring system and a new simplified combined scoring system...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28596746/a-systematic-review-of-psychosocial-interventions-to-cancer-caregivers
#5
REVIEW
Fang Fu, Huaijuan Zhao, Feng Tong, Iris Chi
Objective: To systematically review the effect of psychosocial interventions on improving QoL, depression and anxiety of cancer caregivers. Methods: We conducted a systematic review of psychosocial interventions among adult cancer caregivers published from 2011 to 2016. PsycINFO, PubMed, Proquest, Cochrane Library, Embase, Applied Social Sciences Index and Abstracts (ASSIA), Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI) and EBSCO, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) and WANFANG were searched...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577753/cocaine-induced-chromatin-modifications-associate-with-increased-expression-and-three-dimensional-looping-of-auts2
#6
Olivia Engmann, Benoit Labonté, Amanda Mitchell, Pavel Bashtrykov, Erin S Calipari, Chaggai Rosenbluh, Yong-Hwee E Loh, Deena M Walker, Dominika Burek, Peter J Hamilton, Orna Issler, Rachael L Neve, Gustavo Turecki, Yasmin Hurd, Andrew Chess, Li Shen, Isabelle Mansuy, Albert Jeltsch, Schahram Akbarian, Eric J Nestler
BACKGROUND: Exposure to drugs of abuse alters the epigenetic landscape of the brain's reward regions, such as the nucleus accumbens. We investigated how combinations of chromatin modifications affect genes that regulate responses to cocaine. We focused on Auts2, a gene linked to human evolution and cognitive disorders, which displays strong clustering of cocaine-induced chromatin modifications in this brain region. METHODS: We combined chromosome conformation capture, circularized chromosome conformation capture, and related approaches with behavioral paradigms relevant to cocaine phenotypes...
May 5, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570020/coordination-driven-folding-in-multi-zn-ii-porphyrin-arrays-constructed-on-a-pillar-5-arene-scaffold
#7
Jean-Francois Nierengarten, Trinh Thi Minh Nguyet, Iwona Nierengarten, Haifa Ben Aziza, Eric Meichsner, Michel Holler, Matthieu Chessé, Rym Abidi, Christian Bijani, Yannick Coppel, Emmanuel Maisonhaute, Béatrice Delavaux-Nicot
Pillar[5]arene derivatives bearing peripheral porphyrin subunits have been efficiently prepared from a decaazide pillar[5]arene building block (17) and Zn(II)-porphyrin derivatives bearing a terminal alkyne function (9 and 16). For the resulting deca-Zn(II)-porphyrin arrays (18 and 20), variable temperature NMR studies revealed an intramolecular complexation of the peripheral Zn(II)-porphyrin moieties by 1,2,3-triazole subunits. As a result, the molecules adopt a folded conformation. This was further confirmed by UV/vis spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry...
June 1, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28569181/the-cost-of-severe-haemophilia-in-europe-the-chess-study
#8
Jamie O'Hara, David Hughes, Charlotte Camp, Tom Burke, Liz Carroll, Daniel-Anibal Garcia Diego
BACKGROUND: Severe haemophilia is associated with major psychological and economic burden for patients, caregivers, and the wider health care system. This burden has been quantified and documented for a number of European countries in recent years. However, few studies have taken a standardised methodology across multiple countries simultaneously, and sought to amalgamate all three levels of burden for severe disease. The overall aim of the 'Cost of Haemophilia in Europe: a Socioeconomic Survey' (CHESS) study was to capture the annualised economic and psychosocial burden of severe haemophilia in five European countries...
May 31, 2017: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498010/from-play-to-problem-solving-to-common-core-the-development-of-fluid-reasoning
#9
Pauline Prince
How and when does fluid reasoning develop and what does it look like at different ages, from a neurodevelopmental and functional perspective? The goal of this article is to discuss the development of fluid reasoning from a practical perspective of our children's lives: from play to problem solving to Common Core Curriculum. A review of relevant and current literature supports a connection between movement, including movement through free play, and the development of novel problem solving. As our children grow and develop, motor routines can become cognitive routines and can be evidenced not only in games, such as chess, but also in the acquisition and demonstration of academic skills...
July 2017: Applied Neuropsychology. Child
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495332/the-neural-correlates-of-theory-of-mind-and-their-role-during-empathy-and-the-game-of-chess-a-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-study
#10
Joanne L Powell, Davide Grossi, Rhiannon Corcoran, Fernand Gobet, Marta García-Fiñana
Chess involves the capacity to reason iteratively about potential intentional choices of an opponent and therefore involves high levels of explicit theory of mind [ToM] (i.e. ability to infer mental states of others) alongside clear, strategic rule-based decision-making. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used on 12 healthy male novice chess players to identify cortical regions associated with chess, ToM and empathizing. The blood-oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD) response for chess and empathizing tasks was extracted from each ToM region...
May 8, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494023/your-move-the-effect-of-chess-on-mathematics-test-scores
#11
Michael Rosholm, Mai Bjørnskov Mikkelsen, Kamilla Gumede
We analyse the effect of substituting a weekly mathematics lesson in primary school grades 1-3 with a lesson in mathematics based on chess instruction. We use data from the City of Aarhus in Denmark, combining test score data with a comprehensive data set obtained from administrative registers. We use two different methodological approaches to identify and estimate treatment effects and we tend to find positive effects, indicating that knowledge acquired through chess play can be transferred to the domain of mathematics...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477359/inhibitory-effect-of-the-urothelium-lamina-propria-on-female-porcine-urethral-contractility-effect-of-age
#12
Oladayo Seun Folasire, Russ Chess-Williams, Donna Jayne Sellers
The urethral uroepithelium has been implicated in urethral sensation and maintenance of continence. However, relatively little is known about the function of the urethral urothelium compared with that of the bladder. The aim of the study was to examine the role of the urothelium/lamina propria on contractility of the porcine urethra, along with the influence of nitric oxide, prostaglandins and ageing. Porcine urethral tissues, intact and denuded of urothelium/lamina propria, were mounted in tissue baths and contractions to noradrenaline, phenylephrine and carbachol obtained...
May 6, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Pharmacology & Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28476273/treatment-seeking-as-a-mechanism-of-change-in-a-randomized-controlled-trial-of-a-mobile-health-intervention-to-support-recovery-from-alcohol-use-disorders
#13
Joseph E Glass, James R McKay, David H Gustafson, Rachel Kornfield, Paul J Rathouz, Fiona M McTavish, Amy K Atwood, Andrew Isham, Andrew Quanbeck, Dhavan Shah
BACKGROUND: We estimated the efficacy of the Addiction-Comprehensive Health Enhancement Support System (A-CHESS) in increasing the use of services for addiction and examined the extent to which this use of services mediated the effects of A-CHESS on risky drinking days and abstinence from drinking. METHODS: We conducted secondary data analyses of the A-CHESS randomized controlled trial. Recruitment occurred in five residential treatment programs operated by two addiction treatment organizations...
June 2017: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452201/six-suggestions-for-research-on-games-in-cognitive-science
#14
Christopher F Chabris
Games are more varied and occupy more of daily life than ever before. At the same time, the tools available to study game play and players are more powerful than ever, especially massive data sets from online platforms and computational engines that can accurately evaluate human decisions. This essay offers six suggestions for future cognitive science research on games: (1) Don't forget about chess, (2) Look beyond action games and chess, (3) Use (near)-optimal play to understand human play and players, (4) Investigate social phenomena, (5) Raise the standards for studies of games as treatments, (6) Talk to real experts...
April 2017: Topics in Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450582/intersection-of-diverse-neuronal-genomes-and-neuropsychiatric-disease-the-brain-somatic-mosaicism-network
#15
REVIEW
Michael J McConnell, John V Moran, Alexej Abyzov, Schahram Akbarian, Taejeong Bae, Isidro Cortes-Ciriano, Jennifer A Erwin, Liana Fasching, Diane A Flasch, Donald Freed, Javier Ganz, Andrew E Jaffe, Kenneth Y Kwan, Minseok Kwon, Michael A Lodato, Ryan E Mills, Apua C M Paquola, Rachel E Rodin, Chaggai Rosenbluh, Nenad Sestan, Maxwell A Sherman, Joo Heon Shin, Saera Song, Richard E Straub, Jeremy Thorpe, Daniel R Weinberger, Alexander E Urban, Bo Zhou, Fred H Gage, Thomas Lehner, Geetha Senthil, Christopher A Walsh, Andrew Chess, Eric Courchesne, Joseph G Gleeson, Jeffrey M Kidd, Peter J Park, Jonathan Pevsner, Flora M Vaccarino
Neuropsychiatric disorders have a complex genetic architecture. Human genetic population-based studies have identified numerous heritable sequence and structural genomic variants associated with susceptibility to neuropsychiatric disease. However, these germline variants do not fully account for disease risk. During brain development, progenitor cells undergo billions of cell divisions to generate the ~80 billion neurons in the brain. The failure to accurately repair DNA damage arising during replication, transcription, and cellular metabolism amid this dramatic cellular expansion can lead to somatic mutations...
April 28, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447631/artificial-intelligence-chess-match-of-the-century
#16
Demis Hassabis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 26, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435464/clinical-efficacy-of-omalizumab-in-chronic-spontaneous-urticaria-is-associated-with-a-reduction-of-fc%C3%AE%C2%B5ri-positive-cells-in-the-skin
#17
Martin Metz, Petra Staubach, Andrea Bauer, Randolf Brehler, Janine Gericke, Michael Kangas, Joanna Ashton-Chess, Philip Jarvis, Panayiotis Georgiou, Janice Canvin, Rainer Hillenbrand, Veit J Erpenbeck, Marcus Maurer
Background. Treatment with omalizumab, a humanized recombinant monoclonal anti-IgE antibody, results in clinical efficacy in patients with Chronic Spontaneous Urticaria (CSU). The mechanism of action of omalizumab in CSU has not been elucidated in detail. Objectives. To determine the effects of omalizumab on levels of high affinity IgE receptor-positive (FcεRI(+)) and IgE-positive (IgE(+)) dermal cells and blood basophils. Treatment efficacy and safety were also assessed. Study design. In a double-blind study, CSU patients aged 18‑75 years were randomized to receive 300 mg omalizumab (n=20) or placebo (n=10) subcutaneously every 4 weeks for 12 weeks...
2017: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389682/-the-triumph-of-stupidity-deep-blue-s-victory-over-garri-kasparov-the-controversy-about-its-impact-on-artficial-intelligence-research
#18
Martina Heßler
The competition between the chess computer Deep Blue and the former chess world champion Garri Kasparov in 1997 was a spectacle staged for the media. However, the chess game, like other games, was also a test field for artificial intelligence research. On the one hand Deep Blue's victory was called a "milestone" for AI research, on the other hand, a dead end, since the superiority of the chess computer was based on pure computing power and had nothing to do with "real" AI.The article questions the premises of these different interpretations and maps Deep Blue and its way of playing chess into the history of AI...
April 7, 2017: NTM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358380/permission-form-synopses-to-improve-parents-understanding-of-research-a-randomized-trial
#19
C T D'Angio, H Wang, J E Hunn, G S Pryhuber, P R Chess, S Lakshminrusimha
OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that, among parents of potential neonatal research subjects, an accompanying cover sheet added to the permission form (intervention) would increase understanding of the research, when compared to a standard form (control). STUDY DESIGN: This pilot study enrolled parents approached for one of two index studies: one randomized trial and one observational study. A one-page cover sheet described critical study information. Families were randomized 1:1 to receive the cover sheet or not...
June 2017: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318146/allen-newell-s-program-of-research-the-video-game-test
#20
Fernand Gobet
Newell (1973) argued that progress in psychology was slow because research focused on experiments trying to answer binary questions, such as serial versus parallel processing. In addition, not enough attention was paid to the strategies used by participants, and there was a lack of theories implemented as computer models offering sufficient precision for being tested rigorously. He proposed a three-headed research program: to develop computational models able to carry out the task they aimed to explain; to study one complex task in detail, such as chess; and to build computational models that can account for multiple tasks...
March 20, 2017: Topics in Cognitive Science
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