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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930904/computations-underlying-social-hierarchy-learning-distinct-neural-mechanisms-for-updating-and-representing-self-relevant-information
#1
Dharshan Kumaran, Andrea Banino, Charles Blundell, Demis Hassabis, Peter Dayan
Knowledge about social hierarchies organizes human behavior, yet we understand little about the underlying computations. Here we show that a Bayesian inference scheme, which tracks the power of individuals, better captures behavioral and neural data compared with a reinforcement learning model inspired by rating systems used in games such as chess. We provide evidence that the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) selectively mediates the updating of knowledge about one's own hierarchy, as opposed to that of another individual, a process that underpinned successful performance and involved functional interactions with the amygdala and hippocampus...
December 7, 2016: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906506/robustness-and-plasticity-in-development
#2
REVIEW
Patrick Bateson
Like the game of chess, the overall development of human behavior is highly regulated, and also many finer points of any particular individual life depend on early moves. The robust mechanisms that make species different from each other also impact processes that make individuals distinct from one another. Children both influence their environment and are influenced by it. As the development of any particular skill depends upon the contribution of particular environmental inputs at particular times, environmental variability can dramatically change the process...
December 1, 2016: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893959/monoallelic-gene-expression-in-mammals
#3
Andrew Chess
Monoallelic expression not due to cis-regulatory sequence polymorphism poses an intriguing problem in epigenetics because it requires the unequal treatment of two segments of DNA that are present in the same nucleus and that can indeed have absolutely identical sequences. Here, I focus on a few recent developments in the field of monoallelic expression that are of particular interest and raise interesting questions for future work. One development is regarding analyses of imprinted genes, in which recent work suggests the possibility that intriguing networks of imprinted genes exist and are important for genetic and physiological studies...
November 23, 2016: Annual Review of Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826082/spectrally-presaturated-modulation-spm-an-efficient-fat-suppression-technique-for-steam-based-cardiac-imaging-sequences
#4
Ahmed S Fahmy, El-Sayed H Ibrahim, Nael F Osman
Stimulated-echo acquisition mode (STEAM) is a key pulse sequences in MRI in general, and in cardiac imaging in particular. Fat suppression is an important feature in cardiac imaging to improve visualization and eliminate off-resonance and chemical-shift artifacts. Nevertheless, fat suppression comes at the expense of reduced temporal resolution and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). The purpose of this study is to develop an efficient fat suppression method (Spectrally-Presaturated Modulation) for STEAM-based sequences to enable imaging with high temporal-resolution, high SNR, and no increase in scan time...
November 4, 2016: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27788402/time-to-decide-diurnal-variations-on-the-speed-and-quality-of-human-decisions
#5
María Juliana Leone, Diego Fernandez Slezak, Diego Golombek, Mariano Sigman
Human behavior and physiology exhibit diurnal fluctuations. These rhythms are entrained by light and social cues, with vast individual differences in the phase of entrainment - referred as an individual's chronotype - ranging in a continuum between early larks and late owls. Understanding whether decision-making in real-life situations depends on the relation between time of the day and an individual's diurnal preferences has both practical and theoretical implications. However, answering this question has remained elusive because of the difficulty of measuring precisely the quality of a decision in real-life scenarios...
October 24, 2016: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27770253/experts-memory-superiority-for-domain-specific-random-material-generalizes-across-fields-of-expertise-a-meta-analysis
#6
Giovanni Sala, Fernand Gobet
Experts' remarkable ability to recall meaningful domain-specific material is a classic result in cognitive psychology. Influential explanations for this ability have focused on the acquisition of high-level structures (e.g., schemata) or experts' capability to process information holistically. However, research on chess players suggests that experts maintain some reliable memory advantage over novices when random stimuli (e.g., shuffled chess positions) are presented. This skill effect cannot be explained by theories emphasizing high-level memory structures or holistic processing of stimuli, because random material does not contain large structures nor wholes...
October 21, 2016: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27761244/right-parietal-source-in-mahjong-induced-seizure-a-system-epilepsy-of-focal-origin
#7
Kazuki Fukuma, Masafumi Ihara, Kotaro Miyashita, Rie Motoyama, Tomotaka Tanaka, Katsufumi Kajimoto, Akio Ikeda, Kazuyuki Nagatsuka
Mahjong, a game similar to bridge and chess in Western cultures, can cause reflex seizure. We report a case of Mahjong-induced seizures with the first documentation of ictal electroencephalography (EEG) findings, which showed secondarily generalized partial seizure of the right parietal origin.
October 2016: Clinical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27668389/gene-expression-elucidates-functional-impact-of-polygenic-risk-for-schizophrenia
#8
Menachem Fromer, Panos Roussos, Solveig K Sieberts, Jessica S Johnson, David H Kavanagh, Thanneer M Perumal, Douglas M Ruderfer, Edwin C Oh, Aaron Topol, Hardik R Shah, Lambertus L Klei, Robin Kramer, Dalila Pinto, Zeynep H Gümüş, A Ercument Cicek, Kristen K Dang, Andrew Browne, Cong Lu, Lu Xie, Ben Readhead, Eli A Stahl, Jianqiu Xiao, Mahsa Parvizi, Tymor Hamamsy, John F Fullard, Ying-Chih Wang, Milind C Mahajan, Jonathan M J Derry, Joel T Dudley, Scott E Hemby, Benjamin A Logsdon, Konrad Talbot, Towfique Raj, David A Bennett, Philip L De Jager, Jun Zhu, Bin Zhang, Patrick F Sullivan, Andrew Chess, Shaun M Purcell, Leslie A Shinobu, Lara M Mangravite, Hiroyoshi Toyoshiba, Raquel E Gur, Chang-Gyu Hahn, David A Lewis, Vahram Haroutunian, Mette A Peters, Barbara K Lipska, Joseph D Buxbaum, Eric E Schadt, Keisuke Hirai, Kathryn Roeder, Kristen J Brennand, Nicholas Katsanis, Enrico Domenici, Bernie Devlin, Pamela Sklar
Over 100 genetic loci harbor schizophrenia-associated variants, yet how these variants confer liability is uncertain. The CommonMind Consortium sequenced RNA from dorsolateral prefrontal cortex of people with schizophrenia (N = 258) and control subjects (N = 279), creating a resource of gene expression and its genetic regulation. Using this resource, ∼20% of schizophrenia loci have variants that could contribute to altered gene expression and liability. In five loci, only a single gene was involved: FURIN, TSNARE1, CNTN4, CLCN3 or SNAP91...
November 2016: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27644337/when-words-were-wanted-but-woefully-wanting-we-waged-war-with-chess
#9
Burton Norman Seitler
What do you say to a child who rarely speaks? How do you work with such a youngster? What are the sine qua nons or guiding principles upon which analysts can draw? And, how do we know if we are being helpful? Sam was 9-years when I began treating him. He was extremely withdrawn and rarely spoke more than a few words. Instead, he mainly played chess. I did not know at first whether Sam's taciturn demeanor was due to shyness, limited verbal abilities, or the stultifying effects of trauma. Fortuitously, during one of many seemingly "innocent" games of chess, Sam happened to make a bold move, to which I admiringly remarked, "What a move, you're killing me...
September 19, 2016: American Journal of Psychoanalysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27610612/daniel-wartenberg-empowering-community-epidemiology-and-risk-analysis
#10
Michael Greenberg, Caron Chess
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27586138/chess-databases-as-a-research-vehicle-in-psychology-modeling-large-data
#11
Nemanja Vaci, Merim Bilalić
The game of chess has often been used for psychological investigations, particularly in cognitive science. The clear-cut rules and well-defined environment of chess provide a model for investigations of basic cognitive processes, such as perception, memory, and problem solving, while the precise rating system for the measurement of skill has enabled investigations of individual differences and expertise-related effects. In the present study, we focus on another appealing feature of chess-namely, the large archive databases associated with the game...
September 1, 2016: Behavior Research Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27582501/prognostic-utility-of-clinical-epilepsy-severity-score-versus-pretreatment-hypsarrhythmia-scoring-in-children-with-west-syndrome
#12
Rachna Sehgal, Sheffali Gulati, Savita Sapra, Manjari Tripathi, Ravinder Mohan Pandey, Madhulika Kabra
This cross-sectional study assessed the impact of clinical epilepsy severity and pretreatment hypsarrhythmia severity on epilepsy and cognitive outcomes in treated children with West syndrome. Thirty-three children, aged 1 to 5 years, with infantile spasms were enrolled if pretreatment EEG records were available, after completion of ≥1 year of onset of spasms. Neurodevelopment was assessed by Development Profile 3 and Gross Motor Function Classification System. Epilepsy severity in the past 1 year was determined by the Early Childhood Epilepsy Severity Score (E-Chess)...
August 31, 2016: Clinical EEG and Neuroscience: Official Journal of the EEG and Clinical Neuroscience Society (ENCS)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27565772/editorial-comment
#13
Russ Chess-Williams
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 24, 2016: Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27537875/the-role-of-%C3%AE-1-adrenoceptor-antagonists-in-the-treatment-of-prostate-and-other-cancers
#14
REVIEW
Mallory Batty, Rachel Pugh, Ilampirai Rathinam, Joshua Simmonds, Edwin Walker, Amanda Forbes, Shailendra Anoopkumar-Dukie, Catherine M McDermott, Briohny Spencer, David Christie, Russ Chess-Williams
This review evaluates the role of α-adrenoceptor antagonists as a potential treatment of prostate cancer (PCa). Cochrane, Google Scholar and Pubmed were accessed to retrieve sixty-two articles for analysis. In vitro studies demonstrate that doxazosin, prazosin and terazosin (quinazoline α-antagonists) induce apoptosis, decrease cell growth, and proliferation in PC-3, LNCaP and DU-145 cell lines. Similarly, the piperazine based naftopidil induced cell cycle arrest and death in LNCaP-E9 cell lines. In contrast, sulphonamide based tamsulosin did not exhibit these effects...
2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27531585/5-ht2a-receptor-enhancement-of-contractile-activity-of-the-porcine-urothelium-and-lamina-propria
#15
Christian Moro, Lily Edwards, Russ Chess-Williams
OBJECTIVES: To examine the effect of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT; serotonin) on the contractile properties of the urothelium and lamina propria, as a better understanding of bladder physiology might aid the development of new treatments. METHODS: Strips of porcine urothelium and lamina propria were suspended in gassed Krebs-bicarbonate solution, and cumulative concentration-response curves for 5-HT were generated in the absence and presence of 5-HT antagonists, Nω-nitro-l-arginine and indomethacin...
August 16, 2016: International Journal of Urology: Official Journal of the Japanese Urological Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27517959/cellular-effects-of-pyocyanin-a-secreted-virulence-factor-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa
#16
REVIEW
Susan Hall, Catherine McDermott, Shailendra Anoopkumar-Dukie, Amelia J McFarland, Amanda Forbes, Anthony V Perkins, Andrew K Davey, Russ Chess-Williams, Milton J Kiefel, Devinder Arora, Gary D Grant
Pyocyanin has recently emerged as an important virulence factor produced by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The redox-active tricyclic zwitterion has been shown to have a number of potential effects on various organ systems in vitro, including the respiratory, cardiovascular, urological, and central nervous systems. It has been shown that a large number of the effects to these systems are via the formation of reactive oxygen species. The limitations of studies are, to date, focused on the localized effect of the release of pyocyanin (PCN)...
2016: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27388294/the-prevalence-and-health-consequences-of-frailty-in-a-population-based-older-home-care-cohort-a-comparison-of-different-measures
#17
Michael A Campitelli, Susan E Bronskill, David B Hogan, Christina Diong, Joseph E Amuah, Sudeep Gill, Dallas Seitz, Kednapa Thavorn, Walter P Wodchis, Colleen J Maxwell
BACKGROUND: Evaluating different approaches to identifying frail home care clients at heightened risk for adverse health outcomes is an important but understudied area. Our objectives were to determine the prevalence and correlates of frailty (as operationally defined by three measures) in a home care cohort, the agreement between these measures, and their predictive validity for several outcomes assessed over one year. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study with linked population-based administrative and clinical (Resident Assessment Instrument [RAI]) data for all long-stay home care clients (aged 66+) assessed between April 2010-2013 in Ontario, Canada (n = 234,552)...
2016: BMC Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27312827/insights-from-two-dimensional-mapping-of-otolith-chemistry
#18
K E Limburg, M Elfman
Non-destructive microbeam-based methods were used for 2-D mapping of trace elements to gain a greater appreciation of otolith composition and spatial configuration. Based on studies of a wide variety of fish taxa, this approach more fully captures the nature of otolith chemical heterogeneity. Such variations may be due to a number of factors, including differences in crystallization, genetics, growth or even sample preparation or contamination. Examples presented here highlight research conducted at the Lund Ion Beam Analysis Facility (LIBAF) and at the Cornell High-Energy Synchrotron Source (CHESS)...
June 17, 2016: Journal of Fish Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27294500/proteomic-analysis-of-egg-white-heparin-binding-proteins-towards-the-identification-of-natural-antibacterial-molecules
#19
Nicolas Guyot, Valérie Labas, Grégoire Harichaux, Magali Chessé, Jean-Claude Poirier, Yves Nys, Sophie Réhault-Godbert
The chicken egg resists most environmental microbes suggesting that it potentially contains efficient antimicrobial molecules. Considering that some heparin-binding proteins in mammals are antibacterial, we investigated the presence and the antimicrobial activity of heparin-binding proteins from chicken egg white. Mass spectrometry analysis of the proteins recovered after heparin-affinity chromatography, revealed 20 proteins, including known antimicrobial proteins (avidin, lysozyme, TENP, ovalbumin-related protein X and avian bêta-defensin 11)...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27281424/the-us-regulatory-and-pharmacopeia-response-to-the-global-heparin-contamination-crisis
#20
Anita Y Szajek, Edward Chess, Kristian Johansen, Gyöngyi Gratzl, Elaine Gray, David Keire, Robert J Linhardt, Jian Liu, Tina Morris, Barbara Mulloy, Moheb Nasr, Zachary Shriver, Pearle Torralba, Christian Viskov, Roger Williams, Janet Woodcock, Wesley Workman, Ali Al-Hakim
The contamination of the widely used lifesaving anticoagulant drug heparin in 2007 has drawn renewed attention to the challenges that are associated with the characterization, quality control and standardization of complex biological medicines from natural sources. Heparin is a linear, highly sulfated polysaccharide consisting of alternating glucosamine and uronic acid monosaccharide residues. Heparin has been used successfully as an injectable antithrombotic medicine since the 1930s, and its isolation from animal sources (primarily porcine intestine) as well as its manufacturing processes have not changed substantially since its introduction...
June 9, 2016: Nature Biotechnology
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