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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669348/prazosin-but-not-tamsulosin-sensitises-pc-3-and-lncap-prostate-cancer-cells-to-docetaxel
#1
Briohny H Spencer, Catherine M McDermott, Russ Chess-Williams, David Christie, Shailendra Anoopkumar-Dukie
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Docetaxel is currently the first-line chemotherapeutic agent available for the treatment of patients with advanced prostate cancer (PCa). While docetaxel has been shown to modestly improve survival times for patients; they also experience significant docetaxel-induced toxicities. If treatment failure occurs, there are currently limited alternatives that show survival benefits for patients and therefore there is an urgent need for adjunct therapies. Some quinazoline-based alpha1-adrenoceptor (ADR) antagonists have previously been shown to have cytotoxic actions in PCa cells, but there is no research into their effects on docetaxel-induced toxicity...
April 17, 2018: Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668561/a-randomized-controlled-trial-comparing-nitazoxanide-plus-lactulose-with-lactulose-alone-in-treatment-of-overt-hepatic-encephalopathy
#2
Sherief Abd-Elsalam, Ferial El-Kalla, Nadia Elwan, Rehab Badawi, Nehad Hawash, Shaimaa Soliman, Samah Soliman, Walaa Elkhalawany, Mennat-Allah ElSawaf, Asem Elfert
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a reversible spectrum of neuropsychiatric abnormalities associated with liver dysfunction. Lactulose is a nonabsorbable disaccharide presently used to treat HE. Nitazoxanide (NTZ) has a broad-spectrum activity against urease-producing bacteria, so it decreases ammonia production and is therefore expected to reverse the symptoms of HE. A previous pilot study on HE patients given NTZ and lactulose had encouraging results with regard to amelioration of the clinical picture...
April 17, 2018: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663514/combined-carotid-endarterectomy-and-transcatheter-aortic-valve-replacement-technique-and-outcomes
#3
Robert J Moraca, Anil A Shah, Stephen H Bailey, Daniel Benckart, David Lasorda, Ramzi Khalil, Bart Chess, Walter McGregor, Michael S Halbreiner
BACKGROUND: Stroke and transient ischemic attack after transcatheter aortic valve replacement results in significantly higher morbidity and mortality. Severe carotid artery disease may be a contributing factor to this increased risk. We report our technique and outcomes of combined carotid endarterectomy (CEA) with transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). METHODS: From March 2013 to November 2017 a total of 753 TAVRs were performed at our institution for symptomatic severe aortic stenosis...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Cardiac Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29597277/potential-of-silicon-amendment-for-improved-wheat-production
#4
Olga S Walsh, Sanaz Shafian, Jordan R McClintick-Chess, Kelli M Belmont, Steven M Blanscet
Many studies throughout the world have shown positive responses of various crops to silicon (Si) application in terms of plant health, nutrient uptake, yield, and quality. Although not considered an essential element for plant growth, Si has been recently recognized as a "beneficial substance" or "quasi-essential" due to its important role in plant nutrition, especially notable under stressed conditions. The goal of this study was to evaluate the effect of Si on wheat plant height, grain yield (GY), and grain protein content (GP)...
March 28, 2018: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29537256/determinants-of-ligand-subtype-selectivity-at-%C3%AE-1a-adrenoceptor-revealed-using-saturation-transfer-difference-std-nmr
#5
Kelvin J Yong, Tasneem M Vaid, Patrick J Shilling, Feng-Jie Wu, Lisa M Williams, Mattia Deluigi, Andreas Plückthun, Ross Ad Bathgate, Paul R Gooley, Daniel J Scott
α1A- and α1B-adrenoceptors (α1A-AR and α1B-AR) are closely related G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) that modulate the cardiovascular and nervous systems in response to binding epinephrine and norepinephrine. The GPCR gene super-family is made up of numerous sub-families that, like α1A-AR and α1B-AR, are activated by the same endogenous agonists but may modulate different physiological processes. A major challenge in GPCR research and drug discovery is determining how compounds interact with receptors at the molecular level, especially to assist in the optimization of drug leads...
March 14, 2018: ACS Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29530787/altered-ureteral-contractility-with-ageing-role-of-the-rho-kinase-pathway
#6
Iris Lim, Russ Chess-Williams, Donna Sellers
This study investigated the role of calcium sensitisation in the regulation of ureteral contractility with ageing. Isolated ureteral strips from young (6-month old) and older (3-year old) pigs were mounted in Krebs bicarbonate solution and contractility induced by the α1-adrenoceptor agonist phenylephrine (30 and 300 μM) and 5-HT (10 and 100 μM), recorded in the absence and presence of the rho-kinase inhibitors Y-27632 (10 μM) and fasudil (30 μM). Ureteral strips developed bursts of contractile activity which was measured as area under the curve (AUC) and frequency...
March 9, 2018: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29500822/minimum-data-set-changes-in-health-end-stage-disease-and-symptoms-and-signs-scale-a-revised-measure-to-predict-mortality-in-nursing-home-residents
#7
Jessica A Ogarek, Ellen M McCreedy, Kali S Thomas, Joan M Teno, Pedro L Gozalo
OBJECTIVES: To revise the Minimum Data Set (MDS) Changes in Health, End-stage disease and Symptoms and Signs (CHESS) scale, an MDS 2.0-based measure widely used to predict mortality in institutional settings, in response to the release of MDS 3.0. DESIGN: Development of a predictive scale using observational data from the MDS and Medicare Master Beneficiary Summary File. SETTING: All Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS)-certified nursing homes in the United States...
March 2, 2018: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29499036/an-entropic-barriers-diffusion-theory-of-decision-making-in-multiple-alternative-tasks
#8
Diego Fernandez Slezak, Mariano Sigman, Guillermo A Cecchi
We present a theory of decision-making in the presence of multiple choices that departs from traditional approaches by explicitly incorporating entropic barriers in a stochastic search process. We analyze response time data from an on-line repository of 15 million blitz chess games, and show that our model fits not just the mean and variance, but the entire response time distribution (over several response-time orders of magnitude) at every stage of the game. We apply the model to show that (a) higher cognitive expertise corresponds to the exploration of more complex solution spaces, and (b) reaction times of users at an on-line buying website can be similarly explained...
March 2, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29479436/zno-nanoparticle-preparation-route-influences-surface-reactivity-dissolution-and-cytotoxicity
#9
Catherine B Anders, Josh E Eixenberger, Nevil A Franco, Rebecca J Hermann, Katherine D Rainey, Jordan J Chess, Alex Punnoose, Denise G Wingett
ZnO nanoparticles (nZnO) are commonly used in nanotechnology applications despite their demonstrated cytotoxicity against multiple cell types. This underscores the significant need to determine the physicochemical properties that influence nZnO cytotoxicity. In this study, we analyzed six similarly sized nZnO formulations, along with SiO2 -coated nZnO, bulk ZnO and ZnSO4 as controls. Four of the nZnO samples were synthesized using various wet chemical methods, while three employed high-temperature flame spray pyrolysis (FSP) techniques...
February 1, 2018: Environmental Science. Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29477837/a-survey-of-antiepileptic-drug-responses-identifies-drugs-with-potential-efficacy-for-seizure-control-in-wolf-hirschhorn-syndrome
#10
Karen S Ho, Leah M Markham, Hope Twede, Amanda Lortz, Lenora M Olson, Xiaoming Sheng, Cindy Weng, E Robert Wassman, Tara Newcomb, E Robert Wassman, John C Carey, Agatino Battaglia
Seizures are present in over 90% of infants and children with Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome (WHS). When present, they significantly affect quality of life. The goal of this study was to use caregiver reports to describe the comparative efficacies of commonly used antiepileptic medications in a large population of individuals with WHS. A web-based, confidential caregiver survey was developed to capture seizure semiology and a chronologic record of seizure treatments as well as responses to each treatment. Adverse events for each drug were also cataloged...
February 22, 2018: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444982/the-unique-features-of-proteins-depicting-the-chicken-amniotic-fluid
#11
Mylène Da Silva, Clara Dombre, Aurélien Brionne, Philippe Monget, Magali Chessé, Marion De Pauw, Maryse Mills, Lucie Combes-Soia, Valérie Labas, Nicolas Guyot, Yves Nys, Sophie Rehault-Godbert
In many amniotes, the amniotic fluid is depicted as a dynamic milieu that participates in the protection of the embryo (cushioning, hydration, and immunity). However, in birds, the protein profile of the amniotic fluid remains unexplored, even though its proteomic signature is predicted to differ compared to human's. In fact, unlike humans, chicken amniotic fluid does not collect excretory products and its protein composition strikingly changes at mid-development due to the massive inflow of egg white proteins, which are thereafter swallowed by the embryo to support its growth...
February 14, 2018: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434043/personal-bests-as-reference-points
#12
Ashton Anderson, Etan A Green
Personal bests act as reference points. Examining 133 million chess games, we find that players exert effort to set new personal best ratings and quit once they have done so. Although specific and difficult goals have been shown to inspire greater motivation than vague pronouncements to "do your best," doing one's best can be a specific and difficult goal-and, as we show, motivates in a manner predicted by loss aversion.
February 6, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29382367/effects-of-automated-smartphone-mobile-recovery-support-and-telephone-continuing-care-in-the-treatment-of-alcohol-use-disorder-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#13
James R McKay, David H Gustafson, Megan Ivey, Fiona McTavish, Klaren Pe-Romashko, Brenda Curtis, David A Oslin, Daniel Polsky, Andrew Quanbeck, Kevin G Lynch
BACKGROUND: New smartphone communication technology provides a novel way to provide personalized continuing care support following alcohol treatment. One such system is the Addiction version of the Comprehensive Health Enhancement Support System (A-CHESS), which provides a range of automated functions that support patients. A-CHESS improved drinking outcomes over standard continuing care when provided to patients leaving inpatient treatment. Effective continuing care can also be delivered via telephone calls with a counselor...
January 30, 2018: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29364771/female-chess-players-outperform-expectations-when-playing-men
#14
Tom Stafford
Stereotype threat has been offered as a potential explanation of differential performance between men and women in some cognitive domains. Questions remain about the reliability and generality of the phenomenon. Previous studies have found that stereotype threat is activated in female chess players when they are matched against male players. I used data from over 5.5 million games of international tournament chess and found no evidence of a stereotype-threat effect. In fact, female players outperform expectations when playing men...
March 2018: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350296/use-of-biotechnological-devices-in-the-quantification-of-psychophysiological-workload-of-professional-chess-players
#15
Juan P Fuentes, Santos Villafaina, Daniel Collado-Mateo, Ricardo de la Vega, Narcis Gusi, Vicente Javier Clemente-Suárez
Psychophysiological requirements of chess players are poorly understood, and periodization of training is often made without any empirical basis. For this reason, the aim of the present study was to investigate the psychophysiological response and quantify the player internal load during, and after playing a chess game. The participant was an elite 33 year-old male chess player ranked among the 300 best chess players in the world. Thus, cortical arousal by critical flicker fusion threshold, electroencephalogram by the theta Fz/alpha Pz ratio and autonomic modulation by heart rate variability were analyzed...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Medical Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340855/the-relationship-between-target-joints-and-direct-resource-use-in-severe-haemophilia
#16
Jamie O'Hara, Shaun Walsh, Charlotte Camp, Giuseppe Mazza, Liz Carroll, Christina Hoxer, Lars Wilkinson
OBJECTIVES: Target joints are a common complication of severe haemophilia. While factor replacement therapy constitutes the majority of costs in haemophilia, the relationship between target joints and non drug-related direct costs (NDDCs) has not been studied. METHODS: Data on haemophilia patients without inhibitors was drawn from the 'Cost of Haemophilia across Europe - a Socioeconomic Survey' (CHESS) study, a cost assessment in severe haemophilia A and B across five European countries (France, Germany, Italy, Spain, and the United Kingdom) in which 139 haemophilia specialists provided demographic and clinical information for 1285 adult patients...
January 16, 2018: Health Economics Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339817/cooperating-with-machines
#17
Jacob W Crandall, Mayada Oudah, Tennom, Fatimah Ishowo-Oloko, Sherief Abdallah, Jean-François Bonnefon, Manuel Cebrian, Azim Shariff, Michael A Goodrich, Iyad Rahwan
Since Alan Turing envisioned artificial intelligence, technical progress has often been measured by the ability to defeat humans in zero-sum encounters (e.g., Chess, Poker, or Go). Less attention has been given to scenarios in which human-machine cooperation is beneficial but non-trivial, such as scenarios in which human and machine preferences are neither fully aligned nor fully in conflict. Cooperation does not require sheer computational power, but instead is facilitated by intuition, cultural norms, emotions, signals, and pre-evolved dispositions...
January 16, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317663/trpv1-enhances-the-afferent-response-to-p2x-receptor-activation-in-the-mouse-urinary-bladder
#18
Luke Grundy, Donna M Daly, Christopher Chapple, David Grundy, Russ Chess-Williams
Both TRPV1 and P2X receptors present on bladder sensory nerve fibres have been implicated in mechanosensation during bladder filling. The aim of this study was to determine possible interactions between these receptors in modulating afferent nerve activity. In wildtype (TRPV1+/+ ) and TRPV1 knockout (TRPV1-/- ) mice, bladder afferent nerve activity, intravesical pressure, and luminal ATP and acetylcholine levels were determined and also intracellular calcium responses of dissociated pelvic DRG neurones and primary mouse urothelial cells (PMUCs)...
January 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306338/adverse-events-in-home-care-identifying-and-responding-with-interrai-scales-and-clinical-assessment-protocols
#19
Chi-Ling Joanna Sinn, Raquel Souza Dias Betini, Jennifer Wright, Lorri Eckler, Byung Wook Chang, Sophie Hogeveen, Luke Turcotte, John P Hirdes
Outcomes of adverse events in home care are varied and multifactorial. This study tested a framework combining two health measures to identify home care recipients at higher risk of long-term care placement or death within one year. Both measures come from the Resident Assessment Instrument-Home Care (RAI-HC), a standardized comprehensive clinical assessment. Persons scoring high in the Method for Assigning Priority Levels (MAPLe) algorithm and Changes in Health, End-stage disease, Signs and Symptoms (CHESS) scale were at the greatest risk of placement or death and more than twice as likely to experience either outcome earlier than others...
March 2018: Canadian Journal on Aging, la Revue Canadienne du Vieillissement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276344/does-far-transfer-exist-negative-evidence-from-chess-music-and-working-memory-training
#20
Giovanni Sala, Fernand Gobet
Chess masters and expert musicians appear to be, on average, more intelligent than the general population. Some researchers have thus claimed that playing chess or learning music enhances children's cognitive abilities and academic attainment. We here present two meta-analyses assessing the effect of chess and music instruction on children's cognitive and academic skills. A third meta-analysis evaluated the effects of working memory training-a cognitive skill correlated with music and chess expertise-on the same variables...
December 2017: Current Directions in Psychological Science
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