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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182712/increased-cerebellar-gray-matter-volume-in-head-chefs
#1
Antonio Cerasa, Alessia Sarica, Iolanda Martino, Carmelo Fabbricatore, Francesco Tomaiuolo, Federico Rocca, Manuela Caracciolo, Aldo Quattrone
OBJECTIVE: Chefs exert expert motor and cognitive performances on a daily basis. Neuroimaging has clearly shown that that long-term skill learning (i.e., athletes, musicians, chess player or sommeliers) induces plastic changes in the brain thus enabling tasks to be performed faster and more accurately. How a chef's expertise is embodied in a specific neural network has never been investigated. METHODS: Eleven Italian head chefs with long-term brigade management expertise and 11 demographically-/ psychologically- matched non-experts underwent morphological evaluations...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28146562/hip-hop-dance-experience-linked-to-sociocognitive-ability
#2
Justin W Bonny, Jenna C Lindberg, Marc C Pacampara
Expertise within gaming (e.g., chess, video games) and kinesthetic (e.g., sports, classical dance) activities has been found to be linked with specific cognitive skills. Some of these skills, working memory, mental rotation, problem solving, are linked to higher performance in science, technology, math, and engineering (STEM) disciplines. In the present study, we examined whether experience in a different activity, hip hop dance, is also linked to cognitive abilities connected with STEM skills as well as social cognition ability...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28133474/managing-the-treatment-of-the-patients-with-stable-angina-like-a-chess-player-making-moves-considering-the-next-move-of-atherosclerosis
#3
Ömer Yiğiner, Mehmet Tezcan, Alptuğ Tokatlı, Gökhan Değirmencioğlu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2016: Journal of Geriatric Cardiology: JGC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122032/approaches-to-predicting-outcomes-in-patients-with-acute-kidney-injury
#4
Danielle Saly, Alina Yang, Corey Triebwasser, Janice Oh, Qisi Sun, Jeffrey Testani, Chirag R Parikh, Joshua Bia, Aditya Biswas, Chess Stetson, Kris Chaisanguanthum, F Perry Wilson
Despite recognition that Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) leads to substantial increases in morbidity, mortality, and length of stay, accurate prognostication of these clinical events remains difficult. It remains unclear which approaches to variable selection and model building are most robust. We used data from a randomized trial of AKI alerting to develop time-updated prognostic models using stepwise regression compared to more advanced variable selection techniques. We randomly split data into training and validation cohorts...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120046/music-and-mind-in-memoriam-professor-carlo-alberto-pagni-md-phd-february-13-1931-march-1-2009
#5
Klaus R H von Wild
Carlo Alberto Pagni, born in La Spezia, Italy, on February 13, 1931, was an eminent and respected professor of neurosurgery and chairman of the neurosurgical clinic of the University of Turin from 1980 to 2003. He died on March 1, 2009. As a professor of neurology and neurological surgery he was renowned as an expert on vascular, tumor, and functional neurosurgery. Beyond the Italian Neurosurgical Society, he was the doyen of functional neurosurgery, specializing in motor cortex stimulation for the treatment of focal dystonia, Parkinson's disease, and postictal spasticity and pain...
2017: Acta Neurochirurgica. Supplement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119083/methylphenidate-modafinil-and-caffeine-for-cognitive-enhancement-in-chess-a-double-blind-randomised-controlled-trial
#6
Andreas G Franke, Patrik Gränsmark, Alexandra Agricola, Kai Schühle, Thilo Rommel, Alexandra Sebastian, Harald E Balló, Stanislav Gorbulev, Christer Gerdes, Björn Frank, Christian Ruckes, Oliver Tüscher, Klaus Lieb
Stimulants and caffeine have been proposed for cognitive enhancement by healthy subjects. This study investigated whether performance in chess - a competitive mind game requiring highly complex cognitive skills - can be enhanced by methylphenidate, modafinil or caffeine. In a phase IV, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 39 male chess players received 2×200mg modafinil, 2×20mg methylphenidate, and 2×200mg caffeine or placebo in a 4×4 crossover design. They played twenty 15-minute games during two sessions against a chess program (Fritz 12; adapted to players' strength) and completed several neuropsychological tests...
January 21, 2017: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077845/when-words-were-wanted-but-woefully-wanting-we-waged-war-with-chess
#7
Burton Norman Seitler
What do you say to a child who rarely speaks? How do you work with such a youngster? What are the sine qua nons or guiding principles upon which analysts can draw? And, how do we know if we are being helpful? Sam was 9-years when I began treating him. He was extremely withdrawn and rarely spoke more than a few words. Instead, he mainly played chess. I did not know at first whether Sam's taciturn demeanor was due to shyness, limited verbal abilities, or the stultifying effects of trauma. Fortuitously, during one of many seemingly "innocent" games of chess, Sam happened to make a bold move, to which I admiringly remarked, "What a move, you're killing me...
December 2016: American Journal of Psychoanalysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056859/molecular-chess-hallmarks-of-anti-cancer-drug-resistance
#8
REVIEW
Ian A Cree, Peter Charlton
BACKGROUND: The development of resistance is a problem shared by both classical chemotherapy and targeted therapy. Patients may respond well at first, but relapse is inevitable for many cancer patients, despite many improvements in drugs and their use over the last 40 years. REVIEW: Resistance to anti-cancer drugs can be acquired by several mechanisms within neoplastic cells, defined as (1) alteration of drug targets, (2) expression of drug pumps, (3) expression of detoxification mechanisms, (4) reduced susceptibility to apoptosis, (5) increased ability to repair DNA damage, and (6) altered proliferation...
January 5, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007550/gemcitabine-selective-cytotoxicity-induction-of-inflammation-and-effects-on-urothelial-function
#9
Stefanie E Farr, Russ Chess-Williams, Catherine M McDermott
Intravesical gemcitabine has recently been introduced for the treatment of superficial bladder cancer and has a favourable efficacy and toxicity profile in comparison to mitomycin c (MMC), the most commonly used chemotherapeutic agent. The aim of this study was to assess the cytotoxic potency of gemcitabine in comparison to MMC in urothelial cell lines derived from non-malignant (UROtsa) and malignant (RT4 and T24) tissues to assess selectivity. Cells were treated with gemcitabine or mitomycin C at concentrations up to the clinical doses for 1 or 2h respectively (clinical duration)...
December 19, 2016: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005922/a-study-of-memory-effects-in-a-chess-database
#10
Ana L Schaigorodsky, Juan I Perotti, Orlando V Billoni
A series of recent works studying a database of chronologically sorted chess games-containing 1.4 million games played by humans between 1998 and 2007- have shown that the popularity distribution of chess game-lines follows a Zipf's law, and that time series inferred from the sequences of those game-lines exhibit long-range memory effects. The presence of Zipf's law together with long-range memory effects was observed in several systems, however, the simultaneous emergence of these two phenomena were always studied separately up to now...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27958229/epidemiological-study-of-sepsis-in-china-protocol-of-a-cross-sectional-survey
#11
Yi Yang, Jian-Feng Xie, Kai-Jiang Yu, Chen Yao, Jian-Guo Li, Xiang-Dong Guan, Jing Yan, Xiao-Chun Ma, Yan Kang, Cong-Shan Yang, Xiao-Qing Yao, Hong-Cai Shang, Hai-Bo Qiu
BACKGROUND: Sepsis is the leading cause of death among critically ill patients. Herein, we conducted a national survey to provide data on epidemiology and treatment of sepsis in the clinical practice in China, which has no detailed epidemiological data available on sepsis. METHODS: This was a prospective cross-sectional survey from December 1, 2015 to January 31, 2016 in all provinces/municipalities of the mainland of China. The primary outcome of this study was the incidence of sepsis, and the secondary outcome was its etiology in China...
2016: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27955689/the-effect-of-bundling-medication-assisted-treatment-for-opioid-addiction-with-mhealth-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#12
David H Gustafson, Gina Landucci, Fiona McTavish, Rachel Kornfield, Roberta A Johnson, Marie-Louise Mares, Ryan P Westergaard, Andrew Quanbeck, Esra Alagoz, Klaren Pe-Romashko, Chantelle Thomas, Dhavan Shah
BACKGROUND: Opioid dependence has devastating and increasingly widespread consequences and costs, and the most common outcome of treatment is early relapse. People who inject opioids are also at disproportionate risk for contracting the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV). This study tests an approach that has been shown to improve recovery rates: medication along with other supportive services (medication-assisted treatment, or MAT) against MAT combined with a smartphone innovation called A-CHESS (MAT + A-CHESS)...
December 12, 2016: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930904/computations-underlying-social-hierarchy-learning-distinct-neural-mechanisms-for-updating-and-representing-self-relevant-information
#13
Dharshan Kumaran, Andrea Banino, Charles Blundell, Demis Hassabis, Peter Dayan
Knowledge about social hierarchies organizes human behavior, yet we understand little about the underlying computations. Here we show that a Bayesian inference scheme, which tracks the power of individuals, better captures behavioral and neural data compared with a reinforcement learning model inspired by rating systems used in games such as chess. We provide evidence that the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) selectively mediates the updating of knowledge about one's own hierarchy, as opposed to that of another individual, a process that underpinned successful performance and involved functional interactions with the amygdala and hippocampus...
December 7, 2016: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906506/robustness-and-plasticity-in-development
#14
REVIEW
Patrick Bateson
Like the game of chess, the overall development of human behavior is highly regulated, and also many finer points of any particular individual life depend on early moves. The robust mechanisms that make species different from each other also impact processes that make individuals distinct from one another. Children both influence their environment and are influenced by it. As the development of any particular skill depends upon the contribution of particular environmental inputs at particular times, environmental variability can dramatically change the process...
January 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893959/monoallelic-gene-expression-in-mammals
#15
Andrew Chess
Monoallelic expression not due to cis-regulatory sequence polymorphism poses an intriguing problem in epigenetics because it requires the unequal treatment of two segments of DNA that are present in the same nucleus and that can indeed have absolutely identical sequences. Here, I focus on a few recent developments in the field of monoallelic expression that are of particular interest and raise interesting questions for future work. One development is regarding analyses of imprinted genes, in which recent work suggests the possibility that intriguing networks of imprinted genes exist and are important for genetic and physiological studies...
November 23, 2016: Annual Review of Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826082/spectrally-presaturated-modulation-spm-an-efficient-fat-suppression-technique-for-steam-based-cardiac-imaging-sequences
#16
Ahmed S Fahmy, El-Sayed H Ibrahim, Nael F Osman
Stimulated-echo acquisition mode (STEAM) is a key pulse sequences in MRI in general, and in cardiac imaging in particular. Fat suppression is an important feature in cardiac imaging to improve visualization and eliminate off-resonance and chemical-shift artifacts. Nevertheless, fat suppression comes at the expense of reduced temporal resolution and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). The purpose of this study is to develop an efficient fat suppression method (Spectrally-Presaturated Modulation) for STEAM-based sequences to enable imaging with high temporal-resolution, high SNR, and no increase in scan time...
November 5, 2016: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27788402/time-to-decide-diurnal-variations-on-the-speed-and-quality-of-human-decisions
#17
María Juliana Leone, Diego Fernandez Slezak, Diego Golombek, Mariano Sigman
Human behavior and physiology exhibit diurnal fluctuations. These rhythms are entrained by light and social cues, with vast individual differences in the phase of entrainment - referred as an individual's chronotype - ranging in a continuum between early larks and late owls. Understanding whether decision-making in real-life situations depends on the relation between time of the day and an individual's diurnal preferences has both practical and theoretical implications. However, answering this question has remained elusive because of the difficulty of measuring precisely the quality of a decision in real-life scenarios...
October 24, 2016: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27770253/experts-memory-superiority-for-domain-specific-random-material-generalizes-across-fields-of-expertise-a-meta-analysis
#18
Giovanni Sala, Fernand Gobet
Experts' remarkable ability to recall meaningful domain-specific material is a classic result in cognitive psychology. Influential explanations for this ability have focused on the acquisition of high-level structures (e.g., schemata) or experts' capability to process information holistically. However, research on chess players suggests that experts maintain some reliable memory advantage over novices when random stimuli (e.g., shuffled chess positions) are presented. This skill effect cannot be explained by theories emphasizing high-level memory structures or holistic processing of stimuli, because random material does not contain large structures nor wholes...
October 21, 2016: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27761244/right-parietal-source-in-mahjong-induced-seizure-a-system-epilepsy-of-focal-origin
#19
Kazuki Fukuma, Masafumi Ihara, Kotaro Miyashita, Rie Motoyama, Tomotaka Tanaka, Katsufumi Kajimoto, Akio Ikeda, Kazuyuki Nagatsuka
Mahjong, a game similar to bridge and chess in Western cultures, can cause reflex seizure. We report a case of Mahjong-induced seizures with the first documentation of ictal electroencephalography (EEG) findings, which showed secondarily generalized partial seizure of the right parietal origin.
October 2016: Clinical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27668389/gene-expression-elucidates-functional-impact-of-polygenic-risk-for-schizophrenia
#20
Menachem Fromer, Panos Roussos, Solveig K Sieberts, Jessica S Johnson, David H Kavanagh, Thanneer M Perumal, Douglas M Ruderfer, Edwin C Oh, Aaron Topol, Hardik R Shah, Lambertus L Klei, Robin Kramer, Dalila Pinto, Zeynep H Gümüş, A Ercument Cicek, Kristen K Dang, Andrew Browne, Cong Lu, Lu Xie, Ben Readhead, Eli A Stahl, Jianqiu Xiao, Mahsa Parvizi, Tymor Hamamsy, John F Fullard, Ying-Chih Wang, Milind C Mahajan, Jonathan M J Derry, Joel T Dudley, Scott E Hemby, Benjamin A Logsdon, Konrad Talbot, Towfique Raj, David A Bennett, Philip L De Jager, Jun Zhu, Bin Zhang, Patrick F Sullivan, Andrew Chess, Shaun M Purcell, Leslie A Shinobu, Lara M Mangravite, Hiroyoshi Toyoshiba, Raquel E Gur, Chang-Gyu Hahn, David A Lewis, Vahram Haroutunian, Mette A Peters, Barbara K Lipska, Joseph D Buxbaum, Eric E Schadt, Keisuke Hirai, Kathryn Roeder, Kristen J Brennand, Nicholas Katsanis, Enrico Domenici, Bernie Devlin, Pamela Sklar
Over 100 genetic loci harbor schizophrenia-associated variants, yet how these variants confer liability is uncertain. The CommonMind Consortium sequenced RNA from dorsolateral prefrontal cortex of people with schizophrenia (N = 258) and control subjects (N = 279), creating a resource of gene expression and its genetic regulation. Using this resource, ∼20% of schizophrenia loci have variants that could contribute to altered gene expression and liability. In five loci, only a single gene was involved: FURIN, TSNARE1, CNTN4, CLCN3 or SNAP91...
November 2016: Nature Neuroscience
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