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Seong-Hoon Seok, Dong-Hyuk Jeong, Il-Hwa Hong, Hee-Chun Lee, Seong-Chan Yeon
Anesthesia is an inevitably important component of diagnosis and treatments examining the health condition of wild animals. Not only does anesthesia become an essential tool in minimizing stress of the patients and providing an opportunity to deliver accurate and safe procedures, but it also ensures the safety of the medical crew members. This study was conducted to investigate the dose-response cardiorespiratory effects of isoflurane during spontaneous ventilation in ten cinereous vultures. Each bird was administered isoflurane at initial concentration of 1...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
Alcides Rocha, Flavio F Arbex, Maria Clara N Alencar, Priscila A Sperandio, Daniel M Hirai, Danilo C Berton, Denis E O'Donnell, J Alberto Neder
BACKGROUND: Exercise oscillatory ventilation (EOV) is associated with poor ventilatory efficiency and higher operating lung volumes in heart failure. These abnormalities may be particularly deleterious to dyspnea and exercise tolerance in mechanically-limited patients, e.g. those with coexistent COPD. METHODS: Ventilatory, gas exchange and sensory responses to incremental exercise were contrasted in 68 heart failure-COPD patients (12 EOV+). EOV was established by standard criteria...
September 24, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
Pengcheng Xie, Zhanfang Li, Zhongyi Tian
OBJECTIVE: Pulmonary dysfunction after laparoscopic surgery is commonly seen in the high-risk group of obese patients. To reduce or avoid this complication caused by an improper combination of mechanical ventilation parameters, we conducted the following trial of 3 factors with 3 levels of mechanical ventilation, aimed to obtain the low airway pressure with good ventilator effects. METHODS: Patients were randomly allocated as a sample of cases according to the "30≤weight/height(2)<40" obesity index...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Anesthesia
Xavier Waltz, Andrew E Beaudin, Patrick J Hanly, Georgios D Mitsis, Marc J Poulin
Cerebral autoregulation (CA) impairment may contribute to the increased risk of stroke associated with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). It is unknown if impaired CA is further exacerbated by isocapnic-hypoxia and whether it is improved by treatment of OSA with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). CA was assessed during wakefulness in 53 OSA patients (50.3 ± 9.3 years) and 21 controls (49.8 ± 8.6 years) at baseline and following a minimum of 1 month of effective CPAP therapy (OSA patients, n = 40)...
September 20, 2016: Journal of Physiology
An-Yi Wang, Chien-Hua Huang, Wei-Tien Chang, Min-Shan Tsai, Chih-Hung Wang, Wen-Jone Chen
INTRODUCTION: Monitoring the partial pressure of end-tidal carbon dioxide (PEtco2) has been advocated since 2010 as an index of resuscitation efforts. However, related research has largely focused on out-of-hospital cardiac arrest victims. In-hospital cardiac arrest (IHCA) differs in terms of etiologies and demographics, the merit of initial PEtco2 values was explored. METHODS: This was a retrospective study in a single medical center between February 2011 and August 2014...
August 27, 2016: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
Michael M Tymko, Caroline A Rickards, Rachel J Skow, Nathan C Ingram-Cotton, Michael K Howatt, Trevor A Day
Steady-state tilt has no effect on cerebrovascular reactivity to increases in the partial pressure of end-tidal carbon dioxide (PETCO2). However, the anterior and posterior cerebral circulations may respond differently to a variety of stimuli that alter central blood volume, including lower body negative pressure (LBNP). Little is known about the superimposed effects of head-up tilt (HUT; decreased central blood volume and intracranial pressure) and head-down tilt (HDT; increased central blood volume and intracranial pressure), and LBNP on cerebral blood flow (CBF) responses...
September 2016: Physiological Reports
Shawn M O'Connor, Jeremy D Wong, J Maxwell Donelan
While forcing of end-tidal gases by regulating inspired gas concentrations is a common technique for studying cardio-respiratory physiology, independently controlling end-tidal gases is technically challenging. Feedforward control methods are challenging because end-tidal values vary as a dynamic function of both inspired gases and other non-regulated physiological parameters. Conventional feedback control is limited by delays within the lungs and body tissues, and within the end-tidal forcing system itself...
September 15, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
Sibei Chen, Ying Li, Zeguang Zheng, Qun Luo, Rongchang Chen
BACKGROUND: This study is to explore the components and related mechanism responsible for the increase of work of breathing (WB) in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. METHODS: Eight COPD patients and eight healthy volunteers were recruited in the study. The rebreathing method was used to increase end-tidal CO2 partial pressure (PetCO2) and stimulate the increase in ventilation (VE). The increase in VE, WB, and changes in the compositions of WB were observed and analyzed...
August 2016: Journal of Thoracic Disease
Yi Liu, Jing-Sheng Lou, Wei-Dong Mi, Wei-Xiu Yuan, Qiang Fu, Min Wang, Jing Qu
BACKGROUND: The settings of mechanical ventilation, like tidal volume (VT), occasionally need to be adjusted in the process of anesthesia for some special reasons. The aim of this study was therefore to assess the relationship between pulse pressure variations (PPVs) in different settings of VT in anesthetized healthy patients under mechanical ventilation. METHODS: Sixty nine ASA I-II patients scheduled for gastrointestinal surgery under general anesthesia were included in this prospective study...
2016: BMC Anesthesiology
Xiao Zhao, Shiwei Huang, Zhaomin Wang, Lianhua Chen, Shitong Li
BACKGROUND This study aimed to compare respiratory dynamics in patients undergoing general anesthesia with a laryngeal mask airway (LMA) in lithotomy and supine positions and to validate the impact of operational position on effectiveness of LMA ventilation. MATERIAL AND METHODS A total of 90 patients (age range, 18-65 years) who underwent general anesthesia were selected and divided into supine position (SP group) and lithotomy position groups (LP group). Vital signs and respiratory dynamic parameters of the 2 groups were measured at different time points and after implantation of an LMA...
2016: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Keely Smith, Ana M Gomez-Rubio, Tomika S Harris, Lauren E Brooks, Ricardo A Mosquera
We present a case of a 17-year-old Hispanic male with Arnold-Chiari Type 1 [AC-Type 1] with syringomyelia, status post decompression, who complains of exercise intolerance, headaches, and fatigue with exertion. The patient was found to have diurnal hypercapnia and nocturnal alveolar hypoventilation. Cardiopulmonary testing revealed blunting of the ventilatory response to the rise in carbon dioxide (CO2) resulting in failure of the parallel correlation between increased CO2 levels and ventilation; the expected vertical relationship between PETCO2 and minute ventilation during exercise was replaced with an almost horizontal relationship...
2016: Case Reports in Pediatrics
Lian-Xing Zhao, Chun-Sheng Li, Jun Yang, Nan Tong, Hong-Li Xiao, Le An
BACKGROUND: The success rate of resuscitation in cardiac arrest (CA) caused by pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE) is low. Furthermore, there are no large animal models that simulate clinical CA. The aim of this study was to establish a porcine CA model caused by PTE and to investigate the pathophysiology of CA and postresuscitation. METHODS: This model was induced in castrated male pigs (30 ± 2 kg; n = 21) by injecting thrombi (10-15 ml) via the left external jugular vein...
July 5, 2016: Chinese Medical Journal
Kevin Sam, John Conklin, Kenneth R Holmes, Olivia Sobczyk, Julien Poublanc, Adrian P Crawley, Daniel M Mandell, Lakshmikumar Venkatraghavan, James Duffin, Joseph A Fisher, Sandra E Black, David J Mikulis
PURPOSE: To evaluate the relationship between both dynamic and steady-state measures of cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) and the progression of age-related white matter disease. METHODS: Blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) MRI CVR scans were acquired from forty-five subjects (age range: 50-90 years, 25 males) with moderate to severe white matter disease, at baseline and one-year follow-up. To calculate the dynamic (τ) and steady-state (ssCVR) components of the BOLD signal response, the PETCO2 signal waveform was convolved with an exponential decay function...
2016: NeuroImage: Clinical
Saqib Saleem, Paul D Teal, W Bastiaan Kleijn, Philip N Ainslie, Yu-Chieh Tzeng
The dynamic regulation of cerebral blood flow (CBF) is thought to involve myogenic and chemoreflex mechanisms, but the extent to which the sympathetic nervous system also plays a role remains debated. Here we sought to identify the role of human sympathetic neurovascular control by examining cerebral pressure-flow relations using linear transfer function analysis and multivariate wavelet decomposition analysis that explicitly accounts for the confounding effects of dynamic end-tidal Pco2 (PetCO2 ) fluctuations...
September 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Alex A Bhogal, Jill B De Vis, Jeroen C W Siero, Esben T Petersen, Peter R Luijten, Jeroen Hendrikse, Marielle E P Philippens, Hans Hoogduin
Blood Oxygenation Level Dependent (BOLD) imaging in combination with vasoactive stimuli can be used to probe cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR). Characterizing the healthy, age-related changes in the BOLD-CVR response can provide a reference point from which to distinguish abnormal CVR from the otherwise normal effects of ageing. Using a computer controlled gas delivery system, we examine differences in BOLD-CVR response to progressive hypercapnia between 16 young (28±3years, 9 female) and 30 elderly subjects (66±4years, 13 female)...
June 9, 2016: NeuroImage
Monu Yadav, Elmati Praveen Reddy, Ashima Sharma, Dilip Kumar Kulkarni, Ramachandran Gopinath
BACKGROUND: As per American Society of Anesthesiologists guidelines, continuous monitoring of end tidal carbon dioxide (PETCO2) is recommended as standard II basics of anesthetic monitoring especially to ensure adequate ventilation during all anesthetics. Continuous monitoring of PETCO2 can also be used as a guide to maintain the partial pressure of carbon dioxide in arterial blood (PaCO2) to desired level during the surgery. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To study the effect of position on PaCO2 and PETCO2 during cervical spine surgery in prone position...
June 3, 2016: Journal of Neurosurgical Anesthesiology
Saro D Farra, Cathie Kessler, James Duffin, Greg D Wells, Ira Jacobs
Exercise- and hypoxia-induced hyperventilation decreases the partial pressure of end-tidal carbon dioxide (PETCO2), which in turn exerts many physiological effects. Several breathing circuits that control PETCO2 have been previously described, but their designs are not satisfactory for exercise studies where changes in inspired oxygen (FIO2) may be desired. This study is the first report of a breathing system that can maintain PETCO2 constant within a single session of graded submaximal exercise and graded hypoxia...
September 2016: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
Lindsey M Boulet, Mike Stembridge, Michael M Tymko, Joshua C Tremblay, Glen E Foster
In humans, coronary blood flow is tightly regulated by microvessels within the myocardium to match myocardial energy demand. However, evidence regarding inherent sensitivity of the microvessels to changes in arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide and oxygen is conflicting because of the accompanied changes in myocardial energy requirements. This study aimed to investigate the changes in coronary blood velocity while manipulating partial pressures of end-tidal CO2 (Petco2) and O2 (Peto2). It was hypothesized that an increase in Petco2 (hypercapnia) or decrease in Peto2 (hypoxia) would result in a significant increase in mean blood velocity in the left anterior descending artery (LADVmean) due to an increase in both blood gases and energy demand associated with the concomitant cardiovascular response...
August 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
Jean-Marc Vallier, Mehdi Rouissi, Laurent Mely, Mathieu Gruet
PURPOSE: The modified shuttle test (MST) is increasingly used in clinical practice to assess functional capacity in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the physiological responses of the MST in adults with CF as compared with the gold standard cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET). METHODS: Participants performed an MST and a CPET on a cycle ergometer in random order. Oxygen (O2) uptake ((Equation is included in full-text article...
July 2016: Journal of Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation and Prevention
Ali M Golestani, Luxi L Wei, J Jean Chen
In conventional neuroimaging, cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) is quantified primarily using the blood-oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) functional MRI (fMRI) signal, specifically, as the BOLD response to intravascular carbon dioxide (CO2) modulations, in units of [%ΔBOLD/mmHg]. While this method has achieved wide appeal and clinical translation, the tolerability of CO2-related tasks amongst patients and the elderly remains a challenge in more routine and large-scale applications. In this work, we propose an improved method to quantify CVR by exploiting intrinsic fluctuations in CO2 and corresponding changes in the resting-state BOLD signal (rs-qCVR)...
September 2016: NeuroImage
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