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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340500/respiratory-evaluation-through-volumetric-capnography-among-grade-iii-obese-and-eutrophic-individuals-a-comparative-study
#1
Débora Aparecida Oliveira Modena, Marcos Mello Moreira, Ilma Aparecida Paschoal, Mônica Corso Pereira, Luiz Cláudio Martins, Everton Cazzo, Elinton Adami Chaim
BACKGROUND: Excess trunk body fat in obese individuals influences respiratory physiological function. The aims of this study were to compare volumetric capnography findings (VCap) between severely obese patients and normal-weight subjects and to assess whether there is any association between neck circumference (NC), waist-hip ratio (WHR) and VCap among grade III obese individuals. DESIGN AND SETTING: Analytical observational case-matched cross-sectional study, University of Campinas...
January 15, 2018: São Paulo Medical Journal, Revista Paulista de Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338821/factors-influencing-regional-cerebral-oxygen-saturation-during-one-lung-ventilation-in-thoracic-surgery
#2
Ya Hong Gong, Wei Jia Wang, Wei Wei, Yu Guang Huang
Objective To identify factors influencing regional cerebral oxygen saturation (rScO2) during one-lung ventilation (OLV) in thoracic surgery. Methods Totally 33 patients with an ASA physical status of 1-3 scheduled for elective thoracic surgery with one-lung ventilation under general anesthesia were recruited. After anesthesia was induced with propofol,fentanyl/sufentanil,and rocuronium. All patients received balanced anesthesia using sevoflurane. During OLV,volume-controlled ventilation was used with a tidal volume of 6-7 ml/kg and an inspiration:expiration ratio of 1:1...
December 20, 2017: Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao. Acta Academiae Medicinae Sinicae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320309/isocapnic-buffering-phase-a-useful-indicator-of-exercise-endurance-and-prognosis-in-patients-with-coronary-artery-disease
#3
Yun-Shan Yen, Daniel Chiung Jui Su, Kuo-Shu Yuan, Po-Wei Chen, Julie Chi Chow, Willy Chou
OBJECTIVES: The significance of the isocapnic buffering (IB) phase - the period between the first ventilatory threshold (1stVT) and respiratory compensation point (RCP) - has not been adequately established in patients. This study aimed to determine the clinical significance of the IB phase in coronary artery disease (CAD) patients. METHODS: This retrospective study included data of sixty-two CAD patients after coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) or percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) performed in a single medical center between 2010-2014...
January 10, 2018: Physician and Sportsmedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239696/compression-garments-and-cerebral-blood-flow-influence-on-cognitive-and-exercise-performance
#4
Brittany A Smale, Joseph M Northey, Disa J Smee, Nathan G Versey, Ben Rattray
This study aimed to describe the effect of compression garments on middle cerebral artery blood flow velocity (MCAv) in relation to cognitive and exercise performance whilst cycling. In a randomised-controlled-cross-over design, 15 well-trained male cyclists were recruited to participate in three identical trials wearing loose fitting shorts (control), low-grade, or medium-grade compression garments. The protocol involved four 8 min increments of cycling at 30%, 50%, 70%, and 85% maximal power output and a 4 km time-trial...
December 14, 2017: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212807/the-independent-and-interactive-effects-of-incremental-heat-strain-orthostatic-stress-and-mild-hypohydration-on-cerebral-perfusion
#5
Rebekah A I Lucas, Luke C Wilson, Philip N Ainslie, Jui-Lin Fan, Kate N Thomas, James D Cotter
The purpose of this study was to identify the dose-dependent effects of heat strain and orthostasis (via lower-body negative pressure; LBNP), with and without mild hypohydration, on systemic function and cerebral perfusion. Eleven males (Mean ±SD: 27 ±7 y; body mass 77 ±6 kg), resting supine in a water-perfused suit, underwent progressive passive heating [0.5°C increments in core temperature (Tc, oesophageal to +2.0°C)] whilst euhydrated (EUH) or hypohydrated (HYPO, 1.5-2% body mass deficit). At each thermal state, mean cerebral artery blood velocity (MCAvmean, Transcranial Doppler), partial pressure of end-tidal carbon dioxide (PETCO2), heart rate (HR) and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP, photoplethysmography) were measured continuously during LBNP (0, -15, -30, -45 mm Hg)...
December 6, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200828/fentanyl-induced-respiratory-depression-is-attenuated-in-pregnant-patients
#6
Xiaofei Cao, Shijiang Liu, Jie Sun, Min Yu, Yin Fang, Zhengnian Ding
Background: Respiratory depression is a complication of intravenous fentanyl administration. The effect of pregnancy on respiratory depression following opioid administration is unclear. This study investigated the effect of pregnancy on fentanyl-induced respiratory depression. Patients and methods: Female patients were divided into three groups (n=20 per group): control group (non-pregnant and scheduled for laparoscopic surgery), early pregnancy group (pregnant for 45-60 days and scheduled for abortion), and postpartum group (5-7 days postpartum scheduled for complete curettage of uterine cavity)...
2017: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189269/comparison-of-transcranial-doppler-and-ultrasound-tagged-near-infrared-spectroscopy-for-measuring-relative-changes-in-cerebral-blood-flow-in-human-subjects
#7
Michael S Lipnick, Elizabeth A Cahill, John R Feiner, Philip E Bickler
BACKGROUND: Currently, no reliable method exists for continuous, noninvasive measurements of absolute cerebral blood flow (CBF). We sought to determine how changes measured by ultrasound-tagged near-infrared spectroscopy (UT-NIRS) compare with changes in CBF as measured by transcranial Doppler (TCD) in healthy volunteers during profound hypocapnia and hypercapnia. METHODS: Ten healthy volunteers were monitored with a combination of TCD, UT-NIRS (c-FLOW, Ornim Medical), as well as heart rate, blood pressure, end-tidal PCO2 (PEtCO2), end-tidal O2, and inspired O2...
November 14, 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123389/alveolar-capillary-reserve-during-exercise-in-patients-with-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#8
Mehrdad Behnia, Courtney M Wheatley, Alberto Avolio, Bruce D Johnson
Background: Factors limiting exercise in patients with COPD are complex. With evidence for accelerated pulmonary vascular aging, destruction of alveolar-capillary bed, and hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction, the ability to functionally expand surface area during exercise may become a primary limitation. Purpose: To quantify measures of alveolar-capillary recruitment during exercise and the relationship to exercise capacity in a cohort of COPD patients. Methods: Thirty-two subjects gave consent (53% male, with mean ± standard deviation age 66±9 years, smoking 35±29 pack-years, and Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) classification of 0-4: 2...
2017: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066588/effect-of-high-flow-nasal-cannula-on-expiratory-pressure-and-ventilation-in-infant-pediatric-and-adult-models
#9
Katie R Nielsen, Laura E Ellington, Alan J Gray, Larissa I Stanberry, Lincoln S Smith, Robert M DiBlasi
BACKGROUND: Heated and humidified high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) is a widely used form of respiratory support; however, data regarding optimal flows for a given patient size or disease state are lacking. A comprehensive study of the physiologic effects of HFNC is needed to better understand the mechanisms of action. The objective of the current study was to quantify the effect of HFNC settings in age-specific, anatomically correct nasal airways and spontaneously breathing lung models...
October 24, 2017: Respiratory Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054325/use-of-ideal-alveolar-air-equations-and-corrected-end-tidal-pco2-to-estimate-arterial-pco2-and-physiological-dead-space-during-exercise-in-patients-with-heart-failure
#10
Erik H Van Iterson, Thomas P Olson
BACKGROUND: Arterial CO2 tension (PaCO2) and physiological dead space (VD) are not routinely measured during clinical cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET). Abnormal changes in PaCO2 accompanied by increased VD directly contribute to impaired exercise ventilatory function in heart failure (HF). Because arterial catheterization is not standard practice during CPET, this study tested the construct validity of PaCO2 and VD prediction models using 'ideal' alveolar air equations and basic ventilation and gas-exchangegas exchange measurements during CPET in HF...
January 1, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051724/the-effect-of-low-frequency-physiological-correction-on-the-reproducibility-and-specificity-of-resting-state-fmri-metrics-functional-connectivity-alff-and-reho
#11
Ali M Golestani, Jonathan B Kwinta, Yasha B Khatamian, J Jean Chen
The resting-state fMRI (rs-fMRI) signal is affected by a variety of low-frequency physiological phenomena, including variations in cardiac-rate (CRV), respiratory-volume (RVT), and end-tidal CO2 (PETCO2). While these effects have become better understood in recent years, the impact that their correction has on the quality of rs-fMRI measurements has yet to be clarified. The objective of this paper is to investigate the effect of correcting for CRV, RVT and PETCO2 on the rs-fMRI measurements. Nine healthy subjects underwent a test-retest rs-fMRI acquisition using repetition times (TRs) of 2 s (long-TR) and 0...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051306/peripheral-chemosensitivity-is-not-blunted-during-2%C3%A2-h-of-thermoneutral-head-out-water-immersion-in-healthy-men-and-women
#12
James R Sackett, Zachary J Schlader, Suman Sarker, Christopher L Chapman, Blair D Johnson
Carbon dioxide (CO2) retention occurs during water immersion, but it is not known if peripheral chemosensitivity is altered during water immersion, which could contribute to CO2 retention. We tested the hypothesis that peripheral chemosensitivity to hypercapnia and hypoxia is blunted during 2 h of thermoneutral head out water immersion (HOWI) in healthy young adults. Peripheral chemosensitivity was assessed by the ventilatory, heart rate, and blood pressure responses to hypercapnia and hypoxia at baseline, 10, 60, 120 min, and post HOWI and a time-control visit (control)...
November 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040312/end-tidal-carbon-dioxide-measurement-in-preterm-infants-with-low-birth-weight
#13
Hsin-Ju Lin, Ching-Tzu Huang, Hsiu-Feng Hsiao, Ming-Chou Chiang, Mei-Jy Jeng
OBJECTIVE: There are conflicting data regarding the use of end-tidal carbon dioxide (PetCO2) measurement in preterm infants. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of different dead space to tidal volume ratios (VD/VT) on the correlation between PetCO2 and arterial carbon dioxide pressure (PaCO2) in ventilated preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS). METHODS: We enrolled ventilated preterm infants (with assist control mode or synchronous intermittent mandatory mode) with RDS who were treated with surfactant in this prospective study...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029284/the-influence-of-co2-on-genioglossus-muscle-after-discharge-following-arousal-from-sleep
#14
Jennifer M Cori, Peter D Rochford, Fergal J O'Donoghue, John Trinder, Amy S Jordan
Objectives: Ventilatory after-discharge (sustained elevation of ventilation following stimulus removal) occurs during sleep but not when hypocapnia is present. Genioglossus after-discharge also occurs during sleep, but CO2 effects have not been assessed. The relevance is that postarousal after-discharge may protect against upper airway collapse. This study aimed to determine whether arousal elicits genioglossus after-discharge that persists into sleep, and whether it is influenced by CO2...
November 1, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025898/aging-is-associated-with-increased-propensity-for-central-apnea-during-nrem-sleep
#15
Susmita Chowdhuri, Sukanya Pranathiageswaran, Hillary Loomis-King, Anan Salloum, M Safwan Badr
The reason for increased sleep disordered breathing with predominance of central apneas in the elderly is unknown. We hypothesized that the propensity to central apneas is increased in older adults, manifested by a reduced carbon-dioxide (CO2) reserve in older compared to young adults during non-REM (NREM) sleep. METHODS: 10 elderly and 15 young healthy adults underwent multiple brief trials of nasal noninvasive positive pressure ventilation during stable NREM sleep. Cessation of mechanical ventilation (MV) resulted in hypocapnic central apnea or hypopnea...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982946/role-of-bronchodilation-and-pattern-of-breathing-in-increasing-expiratory-flow-during-progressive-hypercapnia-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#16
Kevin E Finucane, Bhajan Singh
Hypercapnia (HC) in-vitro relaxes airway smooth muscle; in-vivo it increases respiratory effort, tidal expiratory flows (V'exp), and, by decreasing inspiratory duration (Ti), increases elastic recoil pressure (Pel) via lung visco-elasticity; however, its effect on airway resistance is uncertain. We examined the contributions of bronchodilation, Ti and expiratory effort to increasing V'exp ̇with progressive HC in 10 COPD subjects, mean FEV1 53% predicted. Lung volumes (Vl), V'exp, esophageal pressure (Pes), Ti and end tidal PCO2 (PetCO2) were measured during 6 tidal breaths followed by an inspiratory capacity (IC), breathing air and at 3 levels of HC...
October 5, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28967593/measurement-of-cerebrovascular-reactivity-as-blood-oxygen-level-dependent-magnetic-resonance-imaging-signal-response-to-a-hypercapnic-stimulus-in-mechanically-ventilated-patients
#17
Lashmi Venkatraghavan, Julien Poublanc, Jay S Han, Olivia Sobczyk, Casey Rozen, Kevin Sam, James Duffin, David J Mikulis, Joseph A Fisher
BACKGROUND: Impaired cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR) is an important prognostic marker of stroke. Most measures of CVR lack (1) a reproducible vasoactive stimulus and (2) a high time and spatial resolution measure of cerebral blood flow (CBF), particularly for mechanically ventilated patients. The aim of our study was to investigate the feasibility of measuring CVR using sequential gas delivery circuit and gas blender for precise targeting of end-tidal PCO2 (PetCO2), and blood oxygen level-dependent magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD-MRI) signal as a surrogate of CBF, in mechanically ventilated patients...
September 26, 2017: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28912128/aging-modifies-the-effect-of-cardiac-output-on-middle-cerebral-artery-blood-flow-velocity
#18
Anne-Sophie G T Bronzwaer, Jasper Verbree, Wim J Stok, Mat J A P Daemen, Mark A van Buchem, Matthias J P van Osch, Johannes J van Lieshout
An association between cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cardiac output (CO) has been established in young healthy subjects. As of yet it is unclear how this association evolves over the life span. To that purpose, we continuously recorded mean arterial pressure (MAP; finger plethysmography), CO (pulse contour; CO-trek), mean blood flow velocity in the middle cerebral artery (MCAV; transcranial Doppler ultrasonography), and end-tidal CO2 partial pressure (PetCO2) in healthy young (19-27 years), middle-aged (51-61 years), and elderly subjects (70-79 years)...
September 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28855556/continuous-coloured-light-altered-human-brain-haemodynamics-and-oxygenation-assessed-by-systemic-physiology-augmented-functional-near-infrared-spectroscopy
#19
A J Metz, S D Klein, F Scholkmann, U Wolf
Exposure to artificial coloured light is unavoidable in our modern life, but we are only just beginning to understand the impact of coloured light on human physiology. The aim of the present study was to determine effects of coloured light exposure on human systemic and brain physiology using systemic physiology augmented functional near-infrared spectroscopy (SPA-fNIRS). We measured changes in haemoglobin concentrations and tissue oxygen saturation in the left and right prefrontal cortices (L-PFC, R-PFC) by fNIRS, and also recorded skin conductance (SC), partial pressure of end-tidal CO2 (PETCO2), and heart-rate variability variables...
August 30, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28843675/aerosol-furosemide-for-dyspnea-high-dose-controlled-delivery-does-not-improve-effectiveness
#20
Robert B Banzett, Richard M Schwartzstein, Robert W Lansing, Carl R O'Donnell
Published studies have shown great variability in response when aerosolized furosemide has been tested as a palliative treatment for dyspnea. We hypothesized that a higher furosemide dose with controlled aerosol administration would produce consistent dyspnea relief. We optimized deposition by controlling inspiratory flow (300-500mL/s) and tidal volume (15% predicted vital capacity) while delivering 3.4μm aerosol from either saline or 80mg of furosemide. We induced dyspnea in healthy subjects by varying inspired PCO2 while restricting minute ventilation...
August 24, 2017: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
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