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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920198/effects-of-breeder-age-strain-and-eggshell-temperature-on-nutrient-metabolism-of-broiler-embryos
#1
A Nangsuay, R Meijerhof, I van den Anker, M J W Heetkamp, B Kemp, H van den Brand
Breeder age and broiler strain influence the availability of nutrients and oxygen through yolk size and eggshell conductance, and the effects of these egg characteristics on nutrient metabolism might be influenced by eggshell temperature (EST). This study aims to determine effects of breeder age, strain, and EST on nutrient metabolism of embryos. A study was designed as a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial arrangement using four batches of in total 4,464 hatching eggs of 2 flock ages at 29 to 30 wk (young) and 54 to 55 wk (old) of Ross 308 and Cobb 500...
December 5, 2016: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918981/modulation-of-blood-pressure-in-response-to-low-ambient-temperature-the-role-of-dna-methylation-of-zinc-finger-genes
#2
Youn-Hee Lim, Changwoo Han, Sanghyuk Bae, Yun-Chul Hong
BACKGROUND: Blood pressure rises with a drop in external temperature, but the role of DNA methylation in such blood pressure modulation has not been studied in detail. We evaluated blood pressure and DNA methylation of vascular disease-related genes in association with low temperature. METHODS: To examine changes in blood pressure and DNA methylation associated with low temperature, we conducted repeated measures analysis among 50 participants over 3 repeated visits, and validated the association among another 52 participants...
December 2, 2016: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918041/impact-of-position-and-number-of-boron-atom-substitution-on-hydrogen-uptake-capacity-of-li-decorated-pentalene
#3
Priyanka Tavhare, Amol Deshmukh, Ajay Chaudhari
We have performed an ab initio and density functional theory study of the hydrogen adsorption on a lithium (Li)-decorated pentalene (C8H6Li2) complex. The C8H6Li2 complex can interact with a maximum of two hydrogen molecules with a H2 uptake capacity of 3.36 wt%. The effect of the number and position of boron atom substitution in the C8H6Li2 complex on the H2 uptake capacity is also studied. Two and four carbon atoms are substituted by boron atoms in the C8H6Li2 complex. Two different structures are considered for each of the two and four boron atom substitutions...
December 5, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917468/dry-skin-conditions-are-related-to-the-recovery-rate-of-skin-temperature-after-cold-stress-rather-than-to-blood-flow
#4
Yasuko Yoshida-Amano, Tomoko Nomura, Yoshinori Sugiyama, Kayoko Iwata, Yuko Higaki, Masanori Tanahashi
BACKGROUND: Cutaneous blood flow plays an important role in the thermoregulation, oxygen supply, and nutritional support necessary to maintain the skin. However, there is little evidence for a link between blood flow and skin physiology. Therefore, we conducted surveys of healthy volunteers to determine the relationship(s) between dry skin properties and cutaneous vascular function. METHODS: Water content of the stratum corneum, transepidermal water loss, and visual dryness score were investigated as dry skin parameters...
December 4, 2016: International Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915172/dark-chilling-induces-substantial-structural-changes-and-modifies-galactolipid-and-carotenoid-composition-during-chloroplast-biogenesis-in-cucumber-cucumis-sativus-l-cotyledons
#5
Joanna Skupień, Joanna Wójtowicz, Łucja Kowalewska, Radosław Mazur, Maciej Garstka, Katarzyna Gieczewska, Agnieszka Mostowska
Plants in a temperate climate are often subject to different environmental factors, chilling stress among them, which influence the growth especially during early stages of plant development. Chloroplasts are one of the first organelles affected by the chilling stress. Therefore the proper biogenesis of chloroplasts in early stages of plant growth is crucial for undertaking the photosynthetic activity. In this paper, the analysis of the cotyledon chloroplast biogenesis at different levels of plastid organization was performed in cucumber, one of the most popular chilling sensitive crops...
November 28, 2016: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914963/hypothermia-in-mouse-is-caused-by-adenosine-a1-and-a3-receptor-agonists-and-amp-via-three-distinct-mechanisms
#6
Jesse Lea Carlin, Shalini Jain, Elizabeth Gizewski, Tina C Wan, Dilip K Tosh, Cuiying Xiao, John A Auchampach, Kenneth A Jacobson, Oksana Gavrilova, Marc L Reitman
Small mammals have the ability to enter torpor, a hypothermic, hypometabolic state, allowing impressive energy conservation. Administration of adenosine or adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP) can trigger a hypothermic, torpor-like state. We investigated the mechanisms for hypothermia using telemetric monitoring of body temperature in wild type and receptor knock out (Adora1(-/-)-/-, Adora3(-/-)) mice. Confirming prior data, stimulation of the A3 adenosine receptor (AR) induced hypothermia via peripheral mast cell degranulation, histamine release, and activation of central histamine H1 receptors...
November 30, 2016: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903339/-effect-of-goal-directed-haemodynamic-management-on-the-postoperative-outcome-in-elderly-patients-with-fragile-cardiac-function-undergoing-abdominal-surgery
#7
L S Zheng, E W Gu, X H Peng, L Zhang, Y Y Cao
Objective: To investigate the effect of goal-directed haemodynamic management based on stroke volume variation (SVV), cardiac index (CI) and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) on the postoperative outcome in elderly patients with fragile cardiac function undergoing gastrointestinal surgery. Methods: Ninety patients with fragile cardiac function, aged 65-90 years old, ASAⅡ or Ⅲ, NYHA Ⅱor Ⅲ, scheduled for abdominal surgery were enrolled in this study.The patients were randomly assigned to two groups: Experience anesthesia group (group E, n=45) and goal-directed hemodynamic management group (G group, n=45)...
November 22, 2016: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889831/an-ecophysiological-background-for-biogeographic-patterns-of-two-island-lizards
#8
Miguel A Carretero, Evandro P Lopes, Raquel Vasconcelos
Distributions of sedentary ectotherms are dependent on temperature and humidity due to their low homeostatic and dispersal abilities. Lizards are strongly conditioned by temperature, but hydric environment may be also important, at least in arid environments. Biotic interactions may also play a role in range patterns, but they are of minor importance in islands where native species monopolize well-delimited niche spaces. On the arid island of São Vicente (Cabo Verde), two endemic lizards display different spatial patterns...
December 2016: Die Naturwissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881897/elevated-reproduction-does-not-affect-telomere-dynamics-and-oxidative-stress
#9
Joanna Sudyka, Giulia Casasole, Joanna Rutkowska, Mariusz Cichoń
ABSTRACT: Oxidative stress and telomere dynamics are considered to be powerful biomarkers quantifying a potential trade-off between current reproduction and self-maintenance. Recent studies confirmed the negative impact of elevated reproduction on telomeres, but the evidence for the cost of reproduction in terms of oxidative stress remains equivocal. In order to induce reproductive costs, we experimentally manipulated reproductive effort by increasing brood size in captive zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata) and additionally challenged all birds by a low ambient temperature to facilitate detection of these costs...
2016: Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878513/nanoselenium-supplementation-of-heat-stressed-broilers-effects-on-performance-carcass-characteristics-blood-metabolites-immune-response-antioxidant-status-and-jejunal-morphology
#10
Morteza Safdari-Rostamabad, Seyyed Javad Hosseini-Vashan, Ali Hossein Perai, Hadi Sarir
An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary nanoselenium supplementation at 0, 0.6 and 1.2 mg/kg of diet on growth performance, serum biochemical parameters, immune response, antioxidant capacity, and jejunal morphology of 29-d-old male broilers subjected to heat stress at 37 ± 1°C for 14 d. Broilers were fed for 42 d on the experimental diets. The results showed that nanoselenium supplementation had no effect on growth performance, but it supplementation at the rate of 1.2 mg/kg diet decreased the serum concentration of cholesterol prior to the heat exposure...
November 22, 2016: Biological Trace Element Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875875/on-the-accuracy-of-the-mb-pol-many-body-potential-for-water-interaction-energies-vibrational-frequencies-and-classical-thermodynamic-and-dynamical-properties-from-clusters-to-liquid-water-and-ice
#11
Sandeep K Reddy, Shelby C Straight, Pushp Bajaj, C Huy Pham, Marc Riera, Daniel R Moberg, Miguel A Morales, Chris Knight, Andreas W Götz, Francesco Paesani
The MB-pol many-body potential has recently emerged as an accurate molecular model for water simulations from the gas to the condensed phase. In this study, the accuracy of MB-pol is systematically assessed across the three phases of water through extensive comparisons with experimental data and high-level ab initio calculations. Individual many-body contributions to the interaction energies as well as vibrational spectra of water clusters calculated with MB-pol are in excellent agreement with reference data obtained at the coupled cluster level...
November 21, 2016: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875662/influence-of-age-and-dose-of-african-swine-fever-virus-infections-on-clinical-outcome-and-blood-parameters-in-pigs
#12
Jacob Post, Eefke Weesendorp, Maria Montoya, Willie L Loeffen
African swine fever (ASF) is a fatal disease for domestic pigs, leading to serious economic losses in countries where ASF is endemic. Despite extensive research, efficient vaccines against ASF are lacking. Since peripheral blood cells are important mediators for vaccines, we study the impact of ASF on blood parameters in pigs with different ages and infected with different doses of ASF virus. Four different groups were studied: (1) 12 weeks of age/low virus dose; (2) 12 weeks of age/high virus dose; (3) 18 weeks of age/low virus dose; and (4) 18 weeks of age/high virus dose...
November 22, 2016: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875631/intravenous-nutrients-for-preventing-inadvertent-perioperative-hypothermia-in-adults
#13
REVIEW
Sheryl Warttig, Phil Alderson, Sharon R Lewis, Andrew F Smith
BACKGROUND: Inadvertent perioperative hypothermia (a drop in core temperature to below 36°C) occurs because normal temperature regulation is disrupted during surgery, mainly because of the effects of anaesthetic drugs and exposure of the skin for prolonged periods. Many different ways of maintaining body temperature have been proposed, one of which involves administration of intravenous nutrients during the perioperative period that may reduce heat loss by increasing metabolism, thereby increasing heat production...
November 22, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872015/self-hardening-and-thermoresponsive-alpha-tricalcium-phosphate-pluronic-pastes
#14
Yassine Maazouz, Edgar B Montufar, Julien Malbert, Montserrat Espanol, Maria-Pau Ginebra
: Although calcium phosphate cements (CPCs) are used for bone regeneration in a wide range of clinical applications, various physicochemical phenomena are known to hinder their potential use in minimally invasive surgery or in highly vascularized surgical sites, mainly because of their lack of injectability or their low washout resistance. The present work shows that the combination of CPCs with an inverse-thermoresponsive hydrogel is a good strategy for finely tuning the cohesive and rheological properties of CPCs to achieve clinical acceptable injectability to prevent phase separation during implantation and cohesion to avoid washout of the paste...
November 18, 2016: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871132/aspergillus-penicillioides-differentiation-and-cell-division-at-0-585-water-activity
#15
Andrew Stevenson, Philip G Hamill, Callum J O'Kane, Gerhard Kminek, John D Rummel, Mary A Voytek, Jan Dijksterhuis, John E Hallsworth
Water availability acts as the most-stringent constraint for life on Earth. Thus, understanding the water relations of microbial extremophiles is imperative to our ability to increase agricultural productivity (e.g., by enhancing the processing and turnover of dead organic matter in soils of arid regions); reduce human exposure to mycotoxins in buildings and our food-supply chain; prevent the spoilage of foods/animal feeds, books, museum specimens and artworks; and better control microbiology of industrial fermentations...
November 21, 2016: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866376/reduction-in-dietary-acrylamide-exposure-impact-of-potatoes-with-low-acrylamide-potential
#16
Nga L Tran, Leila M Barraj, Susan Collinge
Acrylamide forms primarily from a reaction between reducing sugars (e.g., glucose and fructose) and an amino acid (asparagine, Asn) formed naturally in foods, including potatoes. This reaction occurs when carbohydrate-rich foods are heated at temperatures above 120 °C. Multiple potato varieties were transformed with potato genomic DNA that results in down-regulation of the expression of the asparagine synthetase-1 gene (Asn1), significantly reducing synthesis of free Asn, and consequently lowering the potential to form acrylamide during cooking...
November 20, 2016: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864078/inappropriate-translation-inhibition-and-p-body-formation-cause-cold-sensitivity-in-tryptophan-auxotroph-yeast-mutants
#17
Lidia Ballester-Tomás, Jose A Prieto, Paula Alepuz, Asier González, Elena Garre, Francisca Randez-Gil
In response to different adverse conditions, most eukaryotic organisms, including Saccharomyces cerevisiae, downregulate protein synthesis through the phosphorylation of eIF2α (eukaryotic initiation factor 2α) by Gcn2, a highly conserved protein kinase. Gcn2 also controls the translation of Gcn4, a transcription factor involved in the induction of amino acid biosynthesis enzymes. Here, we have studied the functional role of Gcn2 and Gcn2-regulating proteins, in controlling translation during temperature downshifts of TRP1 and trp1 yeast cells...
November 15, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861258/septic-participation-in-cardiogenic-shock-exposure-to-bacterial-endotoxin
#18
Paula Ramirez, Esther Villarreal, Monica Gordon, María Dolores Gómez, Luis de Hevia, Karla Vacacela, Teresa Gisbert, Adrian Quinzá, Jesús Ruiz, Ricardo Alonso, Juan Bonastre, Jordi Vila
OBJECTIVE: In cardiogenic shock (CS), presence of fever, leukocytosis, relatively low systemic vascular resistances and high serum procalcitonin levels are quite frequent and recurrently involve the search for an infectious complication. We hypothesized that endotoxin exposure in CS could explain this sepsis-like syndrome. DESIGN AND SETTING: Prospective observational study of consecutive CS patients admitted to our intensive care unit (ICU). Patients were followed during the first three days after SC onset...
November 15, 2016: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859915/transcriptome-based-phylogeny-of-endemic-lake-baikal-amphipod-species-flock-fast-speciation-accompanied-by-frequent-episodes-of-positive-selection
#19
Sergey A Naumenko, Maria D Logacheva, Nina V Popova, Anna V Klepikova, Aleksey A Penin, Georgii A Bazykin, Anna E Etingova, Nikolai S Mugue, Alexey S Kondrashov, Lev Y Yampolsky
Endemic species flocks inhabiting ancient lakes, oceanic islands and other long-lived isolated habitats are often interpreted as adaptive radiations. Yet molecular evidence for directional selection during species flocks radiation is scarce. Using partial transcriptomes of 64 species of Lake Baikal (Siberia, Russia) endemic amphipods and two non-endemic outgroups, we report a revised phylogeny of this species flock, and analyze evidence for positive selection within the endemic lineages. We confirm two independent invasions of amphipods into Baikal and demonstrate that several morphological features of Baikal amphipods, such as body armor and reduction of appendages and sensory organs, evolved in several lineages in parallel...
November 17, 2016: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857955/non-thermal-modulation-of-sudomotor-function-during-static-exercise-and-the-impact-of-intensity-and-muscle-mass-recruitment
#20
Christopher J Gordon, Joanne N Caldwell, Nigel A S Taylor
Aim: Static muscle activation elicits intensity-dependent, non-thermal sweating that is presumably controlled by feedforward (central command) mechanisms. However, it is currently unknown how the size of the recruited muscle mass interacts with that mechanism. To investigate the possible muscle-size dependency of that non-thermal sweating, the recruitment of two muscle groups of significantly different size was investigated in individuals within whom steady-state thermal sweating had been established and clamped...
April 2016: Temperature: Multidisciplinary Biomedical Journal
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