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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731739/prethermalization-at-low-temperature-the-scent-of-long-range-order
#1
Vincenzo Alba, Maurizio Fagotti
Nonequilibrium time evolution in isolated many-body quantum systems generally results in thermalization. However, the relaxation process can be very slow, and quasistationary nonthermal plateaux are often observed at intermediate times. The paradigmatic example is a quantum quench in an integrable model with weak integrability breaking; for a long time, the state cannot escape the constraints imposed by the approximate integrability. We unveil a new mechanism of prethermalization, based on the presence of a symmetry of the prequench Hamiltonian, which is spontaneously broken at zero temperature and is explicitly broken by the postquench Hamiltonian...
July 7, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728403/newborn-traits-associated-with-pre-weaning-growth-and-survival-in-piglets
#2
Morakot Nuntapaitoon, Ramon Muns, Padet Tummaruk
Objective: Piglet pre-weaning mortality is an important variable indicating the efficacy of farrowing management and animal well-being during lactation. The present study determined the association of newborn traits measured soon after birth with piglet pre-weaning mortality and growth. Methods: In total, 805 piglets born from 57 multiparous sows were investigated. Their blood oxygen saturation, blood glucose and rectal temperature at 24 h after birth (RT24h) were monitored...
July 17, 2017: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725376/moving-south-effects-of-water-temperatures-on-the-larval-development-of-invasive-cane-toads-rhinella-marina-in-cool-temperate-australia
#3
Uditha Wijethunga, Matthew Greenlees, Richard Shine
The distributional limits of many ectothermic species are set by thermal tolerances of early-developmental stages in the life history; embryos and larvae often are less able to buffer environmental variation than are conspecific adults. In pond-breeding amphibians, for example, cold water may constrain viability of eggs and larvae, even if adults can find suitable thermal conditions in terrestrial niches. Invasive species provide robust model systems for exploring these questions, because we can quantify thermal challenges at the expanding range edge (from field surveys) and larval responses to thermal conditions (in the laboratory)...
October 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725290/the-discovery-of-the-flammer-syndrome-a-historical-and-personal-perspective
#4
REVIEW
Josef Flammer, Katarzyna Konieczka
This review describes the clinical and basic research that led to the description of Flammer syndrome. It is narrated from a personal perspective. This research was initiated by the observation of an increased long-term fluctuation of visual fields in a subgroup of glaucoma patients. As these patients had strikingly cold hands, peripheral blood flow was tested with a capillary microscopy, and vasospastic syndrome (VS) was diagnosed. Further studies on these patients revealed frequently weakened autoregulation of ocular blood flow and increased flow resistivity in retroocular vessels...
June 2017: EPMA Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724691/drought-induced-starvation-of-aardvarks-in-the-kalahari-an-indirect-effect-of-climate-change
#5
Benjamin Rey, Andrea Fuller, Duncan Mitchell, Leith C R Meyer, Robyn S Hetem
Aardvarks (Orycteropus afer) are elusive burrowing mammals, predominantly nocturnal and distributed widely throughout Africa except for arid deserts. Their survival may be threatened by climate change via direct and indirect effects of increasing heat and aridity. To measure their current physiological plasticity, we implanted biologgers into six adult aardvarks resident in the semi-arid Kalahari. Following a particularly dry and hot summer, five of the study aardvarks and 11 other aardvarks at the study site died...
July 2017: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718257/risk-factors-for-heat-related-deaths-during-the-june-2015-heat-wave-in-karachi-pakistan
#6
Syed Ghazanfar Saleem, Tehreem Ansari, Ashraf Shamshad Ali, Sara Fatima, Mariam Hassan Rizvi, Muhammad Abdul Samad
BACKGROUND: Mortality as a consequence of heat related illness is a public health concern. Emergency department (ED) experiences increased patients' flow and decreased survival as a consequence of heat stroke during the episodes of heat wave. The present study was conducted to identify the risk factors for mortality among victims of heat wave (17th - 23rd June), 2015 evaluated in the Emergency Department of The Indus Hospital (TIH), Karachi. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study data was retrospectively collected...
April 2017: Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad: JAMC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716150/swedish-norwegian-co-operation-in-the-treatment-of-three-hypothermia-victims-a-case-report
#7
Anders Wetting Carlsen, Nils K Skjaervold, Nils Johan Berg, Øystein Karlsen, Eli Gunnarson, Alexander Wahba
BACKGROUND: Accidental hypothermia with cardiac arrest represents a challenge for pre-hospital rescuers as well as in-hospital staff. For pre-hospital personnel, the main focus is to get the patient to the correct destination without unnecessary delay. For in-hospital personnel early information is vital to assess the possibility for resuscitation with extracorporeal re-warming. The challenge is augmented when rescuers must cross national borders to reach and/or deliver the patients. We present a case where three adolescent boys suffered severe hypothermia after a canoeing accident in Sweden...
July 17, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706520/hypothermia-promotes-interleukin-22-expression-and-fine-tunes-its-biological-activity
#8
Evgeny Chichelnitskiy, Britta Himmelseher, Malte Bachmann, Josef Pfeilschifter, Heiko Mühl
Disturbed homeostasis as a result of tissue stress can provoke leukocyte responses enabling recovery. Since mild hypothermia displays specific clinically relevant tissue-protective properties and interleukin (IL)-22 promotes healing at host/environment interfaces, effects of lowered ambient temperature on IL-22 were studied. We demonstrate that a 5-h exposure of endotoxemic mice to 4°C reduces body temperature by 5.0° and enhances splenic and colonic il22 gene expression. In contrast, tumor necrosis factor-α and IL-17A were not increased...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703877/biochemical-and-hematological-evaluations-of-black-howler-monkeys-alouatta-pigra-in-highly-degraded-landscapes-in-mexico
#9
Luis M García-Feria, Colin A Chapman, Rosalía Pastor-Nieto, Juan Carlos Serio-Silva
BACKGROUND: Loss and fragmentation of Neotropical primates' habitat can alter the health and individual adaptation. Physiological parameters reflect health status and individuals responses to the habitat conditions. METHODS: We captured six wild adult females and six adult males of Alouatta pigra to evaluate their physical condition (body mass, respiratory and heart rate, and rectal temperature), hematology and blood chemistry on fragmentation habitat condition at southeastern Mexico...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Medical Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28703035/influence-of-body-composition-on-physiological-responses-to-post-exercise-hydrotherapy
#10
Jessica M Stephens, Shona L Halson, Joanna Miller, Gary J Slater, Christopher D Askew
This study examined the influence of body composition on temperature and blood flow responses to post-exercise cold water immersion (CWI), hot water immersion (HWI) and control (CON). Twenty-seven male participants were stratified into three groups: 1) low mass and low fat (LM-LF); 2) high mass and low fat (HM-LF); or 3) high mass and high fat (HM-HF). Experimental trials involved a standardised bout of cycling, maintained until core temperature reached 38.5°C. Participants subsequently completed one of three 15-min recovery interventions (CWI, HWI, or CON)...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699082/combat-stress-decreases-memory-of-warfighters-in-action
#11
Rosa Delgado-Moreno, José Juan Robles-Pérez, Vicente Javier Clemente-Suárez
The present research aimed to analyze the effect of combat stress in the psychophysiological response and attention and memory of warfighters in a simulated combat situation. Variables of blood oxygen saturation, heart rate, blood glucose, blood lactate, body temperature, lower body muscular strength manifestation, cortical arousal, autonomic modulation, state anxiety and memory and attention through a postmission questionnaire were analyzed before and after a combat simulation in 20 male professional Spanish Army warfighters...
August 2017: Journal of Medical Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694098/sleep-promoting-potential-of-low-dose-%C3%AE-asarone-in-rat-model
#12
Arathi Radhakrishnan, N Jayakumari, Velayudhan Mohan Kumar, Kamalesh K Gulia
Commonly used hypnotics have undesirable side-effects, especially during continuous usage. On the other hand, some herbal products, which are used for prolonged periods, are suggested to have a sleep inducing property, though the claims have not been validated scientifically. The hypnotic potential of α-Asarone, an active principle of Acorus species, was tested in the present study by first identifying the optimal dose of α-Asarone for improving sleep, followed by studies that evaluated the effect of repeated administration of this optimal dose for five days on sleep deprived rats...
July 8, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692134/dissociative-ionization-and-thermal-decomposition-of-cyclopentanone
#13
Johan Ignatius Martinus Pastoors, Andras Bodi, Patrick Hemberger, Jordy Bouwman
Despite the growing use of renewable and sustainable biofuels in transportation, their combustion chemistry is poorly understood, thus limiting our efforts to reduce harmful emissions. Here, we report on the (dissociative) ionization and the thermal decomposition mechanism of cyclopentanone, studied using imaging photoelectron photoion coincidence spectroscopy. The fragmentation of the ions is dominated by CO, C₂H₄ and C₂H₅-loss, leading to daughter ions at m/z=56 and 55. Exploring the C₅H₈O+ potential energy surface reveals hydrogen tunneling to play an important role in low-energy decarbonylation and probably also in the ethene loss processes, yielding 1-butene and ethylketene cations, respectively...
July 10, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689724/thermal-biology-in-two-syntopic-lizards-phymaturus-extrilidus-and-liolaemus-parvus-in-the-puna-region-of-argentina
#14
Rodrigo Gómez Alés, Juan Carlos Acosta, Alejandro Laspiur
Body temperature is the most important ecophysiological variable affecting reptiles' life history. Moreover, thermoregulation in ectotherms implies a struggle to reach preferred temperatures in natural conditions due to the influence of biotic and abiotic factors. Our objective was to evaluate and compare the thermal biology of two syntopic species, Phymaturus extrilidus and Liolaemus parvus, in the Puna region of San Juan, Argentina. We determined body temperature (Tb), micro-environmental temperatures (Ta and Ts) and operative temperatures (Te) in the field...
August 2017: Journal of Thermal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689722/genetic-components-in-a-thermal-developmental-plasticity-of-the-beetle-tribolium-castaneum
#15
Marcin Czarnoleski, Paulina Kramarz, Dariusz Małek, Szymon M Drobniak
Low developmental temperatures cause ectotherms to retard growth, postpone maturation, and emerge at either larger or smaller adult size. In this study, we explored how these thermal responses evolved, focusing on their genetic basis. We applied a full diallel breeding design on inbred lines of the flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum. To assess the proportional contributions of genetic and non-genetic effects, each genotype, a unique combination of parental haplotypes, was reared from an egg to imago at five developmental temperatures...
August 2017: Journal of Thermal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689720/thermal-acclimation-in-american-alligators-effects-of-temperature-regime-on-growth-rate-mitochondrial-function-and-membrane-composition
#16
Edwin R Price, Tushar S Sirsat, Sarah K G Sirsat, Gurdeep Kang, Jantana Keereetaweep, Mina Aziz, Kent D Chapman, Edward M Dzialowski
We investigated the ability of juvenile American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) to acclimate to temperature with respect to growth rate. We hypothesized that alligators would acclimate to cold temperature by increasing the metabolic capacity of skeletal muscles and the heart. Additionally, we hypothesized that lipid membranes in the thigh muscle and liver would respond to low temperature, either to maintain fluidity (via increased unsaturation) or to maintain enzyme reaction rates (via increased docosahexaenoic acid)...
August 2017: Journal of Thermal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689719/the-thermal-environment-of-the-nest-affects-body-and-cell-size-in-the-solitary-red-mason-bee-osmia-bicornis-l
#17
Justyna Kierat, Hajnalka Szentgyörgyi, Marcin Czarnoleski, Michał Woyciechowski
Many ectotherms grow larger at lower temperatures than at higher temperatures. This pattern, known as the temperature-size rule, is often accompanied by plastic changes in cell size, which can mechanistically explain the thermal dependence of body size. However, the theory predicts that thermal plasticity in cell size has adaptive value for ectotherms because there are different optimal cell-membrane-to-cell-volume ratios at different temperatures. At high temperatures, the demand for oxygen is high; therefore, a large membrane surface of small cells is beneficial because it allows high rates of oxygen transport into the cell...
August 2017: Journal of Thermal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689715/exploration-of-low-temperature-microrna-function-in-an-anoxia-tolerant-vertebrate-ectotherm-the-red-eared-slider-turtle-trachemys-scripta-elegans
#18
Kyle K Biggar, Kenneth B Storey
As a model for vertebrate long-term survival in oxygen-restricted environments, the red-eared slider turtle (Trachemys scripta elegans) can adapt at the biochemical level to survive in oxygen-free (anoxic) cold water (<10°C). This impressive ability is enabled through a coordinated suppression of energy-expensive, non-essential, cell processes. This study explored the anoxia-responsive expression of several microRNA species (miR-1a, -133, -17, -107, -148a, -21, -103, -210, -20a, -365 and -29b) in adult turtles exposed to 5h and 20h anoxia (at 5±1°C)...
August 2017: Journal of Thermal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689349/extreme-longevity-in-a-deep-sea-vestimentiferan-tubeworm-and-its-implications-for-the-evolution-of-life-history-strategies
#19
Alanna Durkin, Charles R Fisher, Erik E Cordes
The deep sea is home to many species that have longer life spans than their shallow-water counterparts. This trend is primarily related to the decline in metabolic rates with temperature as depth increases. However, at bathyal depths, the cold-seep vestimentiferan tubeworm species Lamellibrachia luymesi and Seepiophila jonesi reach extremely old ages beyond what is predicted by the simple scaling of life span with body size and temperature. Here, we use individual-based models based on in situ growth rates to show that another species of cold-seep tubeworm found in the Gulf of Mexico, Escarpia laminata, also has an extraordinarily long life span, regularly achieving ages of 100-200 years with some individuals older than 300 years...
August 2017: Die Naturwissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688893/the-effects-of-temperature-activity-and-convection-on-the-plastron-po2-of-the-aquatic-bug-aphelocheirus-aestivalis-hemiptera-aphelocheiridae
#20
Karl K Jones, Stefan K Hetz, Roger S Seymour
The aquatic bug Aphelocheirus aestivalis (Fabricius 1794) utilises a plastron, a thin bubble layer on the surface of its body to extract O2 from the water. Millions of tiny hairs keep the bubble from collapsing, enabling the bug to remain submerged indefinitely. The development of fibre optic O2-probes has allowed measurements of O2 pressure (PO2) surrounding the plastron, and within the plastron although only for short periods. Here we developed methods to continuously measure plastron PO2, and investigate how it is affected by temperature (15, 20, 25°C), activity, and water circulation...
July 5, 2017: Journal of Insect Physiology
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