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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324160/regulation-of-blood-oxygen-transport-in-hibernating-mammals
#1
Inge G Revsbech, Angela Fago
Along with the periodic reductions in O2 requirements of mammalian hibernators during winter, the O2 affinity of the blood of mammalian hibernators is seasonally regulated to help match O2 supply to consumption, contributing to limit tissue oxidative stress, particularly at arousals. Specifically, mammalian hibernators consistently show an overall increase in the blood-O2 affinity, which causes a decreased O2 unloading to tissues, while having similar or lower tissue O2 tensions during hibernation. This overview explores how the decreased body temperature and concentration of red blood cell 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (DPG) that occur in hibernation contribute separately or in combination to the concurrent increase in the O2 affinity of the hemoglobin, the O2 carrier protein of the blood...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322600/renal-mitochondrial-response-to-low-temperature-in-non-hibernating-and-hibernating-species
#2
George J Dugbartey, Maarten C Hardenberg, Wendelinde F Kok, Ate Boerema, Hannah V Carey, James Staples, Robert H Henning, Hjalmar Bouma
SIGNIFICANCE: Therapeutic hypothermia is commonly applied to limit ischemic injury in organ transplantation, during cardiac and brain surgery and after cardiopulmonary resuscitation. In these procedures, the kidneys are particularly at risk for ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI), likely due to their high rate of metabolism. Although hypothermia mitigates ischemic kidney injury, it is not a panacea. Residual mitochondrial failure is thought to be a key event triggering loss of cellular homeostasis, and potentially cell death...
March 21, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318305/on-demand-driver-vigilance-enhancement-without-explicit-drowsiness-detection-further-analysis-of-the-pilot-study-results
#3
R Michael Van Auken, Brad K Hagoski, Dean P Chiang, Shane Chang
OBJECTIVE: A new active safety concept that engages the driver's psychosensory pain-processing mechanism to automatically trigger vigilance enhancement on-demand was proposed in Chang ( 2012 ). This concept is based on the hypothesis that a human's pain threshold will decline as he/she becomes drowsy, consequently triggering the vigilance enhancer. The objective of this pilot study was to develop methods to test this hypothesis, the results of which could lead to further refinement of the hypothesis and methods, with the ultimate goal of developing new active safety concepts that exploit the driver's endogenous psychosensory pain-processing mechanisms...
March 20, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300133/observation-of-anomalous-hall-effect-in-a-non-magnetic-two-dimensional-electron-system
#4
D Maryenko, A S Mishchenko, M S Bahramy, A Ernst, J Falson, Y Kozuka, A Tsukazaki, N Nagaosa, M Kawasaki
Anomalous Hall effect, a manifestation of Hall effect occurring in systems without time-reversal symmetry, has been mostly observed in ferromagnetically ordered materials. However, its realization in high-mobility two-dimensional electron system remains elusive, as the incorporation of magnetic moments deteriorates the device performance compared to non-doped structure. Here we observe systematic emergence of anomalous Hall effect in various MgZnO/ZnO heterostructures that exhibit quantum Hall effect. At low temperatures, our nominally non-magnetic heterostructures display an anomalous Hall effect response similar to that of a clean ferromagnetic metal, while keeping a large anomalous Hall effect angle θAHE≈20°...
March 16, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298110/near-infrared-overtone-voh-2-%C3%A2-0-spectroscopy-of-ne-h2o-clusters
#5
Michael P Ziemkiewicz, Christian Pluetzer, Michael Wojcik, Jérôme Loreau, Ad van der Avoird, David J Nesbitt
Vibrationally state selective overtone spectroscopy and dynamics of weakly bound Ne-H2O complexes (D0((para)) = 31.67 cm(-1), D0((ortho)) = 34.66 cm(-1)) are reported for the first time, based on near infrared excitation of van der Waals cluster bands correlating with vOH = 2 ← 0 overtone transitions (|02(-)⟩←|00(+)⟩ and |02(+)⟩←|00(+)⟩) out of the ortho (101) and para (000) internal rotor states of the H2O moiety. Quantum theoretical calculations for nuclear motion on a high level ab initio potential energy surface (CCSD(T)/VnZ-f12 (n = 3,4), corrected for basis set superposition error and extrapolated to the complete basis set limit) are employed for assignment of Σ←Σ,Π←Σ, and Σ←Π infrared bands in the overtone spectra, where Σ(K = 0) and Π (K = 1) represent approximate projections (K) of the body angular momentum along the Ne-H2O internuclear axis...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294173/the-effect-of-uht-processed-dairy-milk-on-cardio-metabolic-risk-factors
#6
C K Hansen, L Klingenberg, L B Larsen, J K Lorenzen, K V Sørensen, A Astrup
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains a major cause of death worldwide. Whereas dairy generally is associated with a neutral or a beneficial CVD effect, the consumption of ultra-high temperature (UHT)-treated milk has been reported to increase levels of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) in an uncontrolled study. Our aim was to examine whether semi-skimmed UHT dairy milk increases the risk of CVD development compared with pasteurized (PAST) dairy milk in overweight healthy adults...
March 15, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288002/analytic-model-for-low-energy-excitation-states-and-phase-transitions-in-spin-ice-systems
#7
F I López-Bara, F López-Aguilar
Low energy excitation states in magnetic structures of the so-called spin-ices are produced via spin flips among contiguous tetrahedra of their crystal structure. These spin flips generate entities which mimic magnetic dipoles in every two tetrahedra according to the dumbbell model. When the temperature increases, the spin-flip processes are transmitted in the lattice, generating so-called Dirac strings, which constitute structural entities that can present mimetic behavior similar to that of magnetic monopoles...
March 13, 2017: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287614/batrachochytrium-salamandrivorans-is-the-predominant-chytrid-fungus-in-vietnamese-salamanders
#8
Alexandra E Laking, Hai Ngoc Ngo, Frank Pasmans, An Martel, Tao Thien Nguyen
The amphibian chytrid fungi, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd) and B. salamandrivorans (Bsal), pose a major threat to amphibian biodiversity. Recent evidence suggests Southeast Asia as a potential cradle for both fungi, which likely resulted in widespread host-pathogen co-existence. We sampled 583 salamanders from 8 species across Vietnam in 55 locations for Bsal and Bd, determined scaled mass index as a proxy for fitness and collected environmental data. Bsal was found within 14 of the 55 habitats (2 of which it was detected in 2013), in 5 salamandrid species, with a prevalence of 2...
March 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285958/hypoxia-during-embryonic-development-increases-energy-metabolism-in-normoxic-juvenile-chicks
#9
Lara do Amaral-Silva, Carolina da S Scarpellini, Paula Andrea Toro-Velasquez, Marcia H M R Fernandes, Luciane H Gargaglioni, Kênia C Bícego
Environmental changes during perinatal development can affect the postnatal life. In this sense, chicken embryos that experience low levels of O2 over a specific phase of incubation can have their tissue growth reduced and the ventilatory response to hypoxia blunted, at least until hatching. Additionally, exposure to low level of O2 after birth reduces the thermogenesis as well. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that hypoxia over the third week of incubation affects the thermoregulation of juvenile chicks at an age when thermogenesis is already expected to be well-developed...
March 7, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282757/increasing-heat-storage-by-wearing-extra-clothing-during-upper-body-exercise-up-regulates-heat-shock-protein-70-but-does-not-modify-the-cytokine-response
#10
Christof A Leicht, Aris Papanagopoulos, Sam Haghighat, Steve H Faulkner
Plasma heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) concentrations rise during heat stress, which can independently induce cytokine production. Upper body exercise normally results in modest body temperature elevations. The aim of this study was to investigate the impacts of additional clothing on the body temperature, cytokine and HSP70 responses during this exercise modality. Thirteen males performed 45-min constant-load arm cranking at 63% maximum aerobic power (62 ± 7%V̇O2peak) in either a non-permeable whole-body suit (intervention, INT) or shorts and T-shirt (control, CON)...
September 26, 2016: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280806/constructing-accurate-interaction-potentials-to-describe-the-microsolvation-of-protonated-methane-by-helium-atoms
#11
Dennis Kuchenbecker, Felix Uhl, Harald Forbert, Georg Jansen, Dominik Marx
Protonated methane, CH5(+), is not only subject to quasi-rigid vibrational motion which describes its unprotonated parent, CH4, but is dominated by large-amplitude motion even in its quantum ground state. This fluxional behavior leads to hydrogen scrambling which sensitively depends on the underlying flat potential energy surface. Yet, it is largely unknown how fluxional species, such as CH5(+), respond to perturbations arising from microsolvation by weakly interacting species, such as those commonly used as tags in messenger-based vibrational action spectroscopies...
March 10, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277950/chickadees-faced-with-unpredictable-food-increase-fat-reserves-but-certain-components-of-their-immune-function-decline
#12
Emily A Cornelius, François Vézina, Lyette Regimbald, Fanny Hallot, Magali Petit, Oliver P Love, William H Karasov
In winter, temperate resident birds are often faced with periodic low natural food availability. This reduction or unpredictability in resource availability might then have a negative impact on immune function, given that immune system support is highly resource dependent. We investigated the balance between energetic and immune management in captive black-capped chickadees (Poecile atricapilus) by manipulating the predictability of resources. The control group received food ad lib. every day, while the experimental group received a reduced amount of food on random days and food ad lib...
March 2017: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272029/intraoperative-continuous-intestinal-loop-warming-technique-a-prospective-randomised-trial
#13
Francesco Rulli, Mario Stefani, Myftar Torba, Arvin Dibra, Erina Alushi, Filadelfo Coniglione, Mostafa Shalaby, Pierpaolo Sileri
AIM: The aim of this study is to evaluate if the Intraoperative Continuous Intestinal Loop Warming (ICLW) is a valid trick to decrease the postoperative paralytic ileus. METHODS: The subjects were patients who underwent emergency open abdominal surgery for either benign or malignant diseases. Patients were divided into two groups; group A patients who was secluded for ICLW, and a control group B who was not secluded for ICLW. The primary outcomes were the time of recovery of bowel movement, 30 days postoperative mortality and morbidity, morbidity was graded by the Clavien-Dindo classification of surgical complications...
March 8, 2017: Annali Italiani di Chirurgia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28269662/in-vitro-evaluation-of-the-long-term-stability-of-pedot-pss-coated-microelectrodes-for-chronic-recording-and-electrical-stimulation-of-neurons
#14
A Schander, T Tesmann, S Strokov, H Stemmann, A K Kreiter, W Lang
For the chronic application of neural prostheses long-term stable microelectrodes for electrical stimulation are essential. In recent years many developments were done to investigate different appropriate materials for these electrodes. One of these materials is the electrical conductive polymer PEDOT, which has low impedance and high charge injection capacity. However, the long-term stability of this polymer is still unclear. Thus this paper reports on the in-vitro evaluation of the long-term stability of PEDOT coated gold microelectrodes...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266289/non-complicated-acute-appendicitis-in-adults-treated-successfully-by-conservative-treatment-without-recurrences
#15
Anestis Charalampopoulos, Ioannis Dimopoulos, Nikolaos Koliakos, Konstantinos Kopanakis, Theodoros Liakakos And
Backround: Surgical treatment of appendicitis remains the standard treatment, but many cases respond conservatively. Our purpose was the clarification of the clinical, laboratory and imaging characteristics of uncomplicated cases undergoing successful conservative treatment without recurrence. Methods: 105 adult patients (66 female, 39 male) with non-complicated acute appendicitis. Symptom duration, clinical abdominal examination, body temperature, inflammatory markers, imaging studies results and in-hospital treatment were recorded...
January 2017: Chirurgia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264561/self-assembly-behavior-of-emissive-urea-benzene-derivatives-enables-heat-induced-accumulation-in-tumor-tissue
#16
Takeru Araki, Shuhei Murayama, Kazuteru Usui, Takashi Shimada, Ichio Aoki, Satoru Karasawa
In this study we describe the construction of a system composed of thermally responsive molecules that can be induced to accumulate in tumor tissues by heating. EgX molecules consisting of an urea-benzene framework and oligoethylene glycol (OEG) functional groups with an emissive aminoquinoline formed nanoparticles (NPs) ∼10 nm in size at 23 °C with a fluorescence quantum yield of 7-10%. At higher temperatures, additional self-assembly occurred as a result of OEG dehydration, and the NPs grew to over 1000 nm in size; this was accompanied by low critical solution temperature behavior...
March 7, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261459/winter-behavior-of-bats-and-the-progression-of-white-nose-syndrome-in-the-southeastern-united-states
#17
Riley F Bernard, Gary F McCracken
Understanding the winter behavior of bats in temperate North America can provide insight into how bats react to perturbations caused by natural disturbances such as weather, human-induced disturbances, or the introduction of disease. This study measured the activity patterns of bats outside of their hibernaculum and asked how this winter activity varied by time, temperature, bat species, body condition, and WNS status. Over the course of three winters (2011-2013), we collected acoustic data and captured bats outside of five hibernacula in Tennessee, United States...
March 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253325/cholera-forecast-for-dhaka-bangladesh-with-the-2015-2016-el-ni%C3%A3-o-lessons-learned
#18
Pamela P Martinez, Robert C Reiner, Benjamin A Cash, Xavier Rodó, Mohammad Shahjahan Mondal, Manojit Roy, Mohammad Yunus, A S G Faruque, Sayeeda Huq, Aaron A King, Mercedes Pascual
A substantial body of work supports a teleconnection between the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and cholera incidence in Bangladesh. In particular, high positive anomalies during the winter (Dec-Feb) in sea surface temperatures (SST) in the tropical Pacific have been shown to exacerbate the seasonal outbreak of cholera following the monsoons from August to November. Climate studies have indicated a role of regional precipitation over Bangladesh in mediating this long-distance effect. Motivated by this previous evidence, we took advantage of the strong 2015-2016 El Niño event to evaluate the predictability of cholera dynamics for the city in recent times based on two transmission models that incorporate SST anomalies and are fitted to the earlier surveillance records starting in 1995...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250344/a-plga-peg-plga-thermosensitive-gel-enabling-sustained-delivery-of-ropivacaine-hydrochloride-for-postoperative-pain-relief
#19
Xudong Fu, Huilin Zeng, Jiaping Guo, Hong Liu, Zhen Shi, Huhai Chen, Dezong Li, Xiangyang Xie, Changchun Kuang
Postoperative pain is a complex physiological response to disease and tissue injury. Moderate-to-severe pain typically occurs within 48 h after surgery. Amino amide local anesthetics are widely applied to manage postoperative pain, and they have high efficacy, a low risk for addiction and limited side effects. However, these anesthetics also have short half-lives, often necessitating continuous injection to obtain satisfactory pain relief. In the current work, we used a poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA)-polyethylene glycol (PEG)-PLGA (PLGA-PEG-PLGA) temperature-sensitive gel to deliver a local anesthetic, ropivacaine hydrochloride (RP), to prolong its analgesic effect...
2017: Chemical & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250178/effect-of-diet-quality-and-ambient-temperature-on-the-use-of-torpor-by-two-species-of-neotropical-nectar-feeding-bats
#20
Jorge Ayala-Berdon, Rommy Vázquez-Fuerte, René Beamonte-Barrientos, Jorge E Schondube
Neotropical bats use torpor as a strategy to save energy when they experience a low energy intake and/or low ambient temperature (Ta). Digestive physiology limits the energy intake of several glossophaginid bats, and could play an important role in the onset of torpor in these tropical animals. We measured the effect that diet quality and Ta had on the use of torpor by the nectar-feeding bats Glossophaga soricina and Leptonycteris yerbabuenae Captive bats were fed with 5% (low) or 35% (high) sucrose solutions while exposed to two different Ta (17...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
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