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Low body temperature

S Druyan, M Ruzal, D Shinder, A Haron
The prenatal circulatory system is adaptive and capable of plasticity designed for the needs of the growing tissue. When a broiler embryo is faced with hypoxic stress, the process of angiogenesis in tissues begins. Exposure to hypoxic conditions of 17% oxygen during the chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) development (E5 to E12) affected the circulatory system and contributed to an increase in the blood oxygen carrying capacity. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of hypoxic exposure during CAM development on post-hatch performance of broilers and to examine whether hypoxic exposure improved sustainability of birds exposed to acute heat stress...
March 8, 2018: Poultry Science
Thomas Hofer, Albert Montserrat, Guenter Gruber, Valentin Gamerith, Lluis Corominas, Dirk Muschalla
Discharges of untreated wastewater from combined sewer overflows (CSOs) can affect hydraulic stress and have significant environmental impacts on receiving water bodies. Common flow rate and water level sensors for monitoring of CSO events are expensive in terms of investment costs, installation, operation and maintenance. This paper presents a novel surrogate method to detect CSO events by using two low-cost temperature sensors. The novelty is the experimental setup for installation of temperature sensors in CSO structures and an algorithm developed to automatically calculate the duration of CSO events considering the response time of the system...
March 11, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
J M Leão, S G Coelho, F S Machado, R A Azevedo, J A M Lima, J C Carneiro, C F A Lage, A L Ferreira, L G R Pereira, T R Tomich, M M Campos
The aims of this study were (1) to assess if there is phenotypical divergence for feed efficiency (FE) during the preweaning phase; (2) if FE is correlated with heat production (HP) measured by the face mask method or (3) by surface skin temperature via thermography, and (4) whether these methods are applicable to preweaned calves. Holstein × Gyr heifer calves (n = 36, birth body weight = 32.4 ± 6.6 kg) were enrolled and on trial between 4 and 12 wk of age and were classified into 2 residual feed intake (RFI) and residual body weight gain (RG) groups: high efficiency (HE; RFI, n = 10; and RG, n = 9) and low efficiency (LE; RFI, n = 10; and RG, n = 8)...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Masahiro Nishiyama, Ichiro Morioka, Mariko Taniguchi-Ikeda, Takeshi Mori, Kazumi Tomioka, Keita Nakanishi, Junya Fujimura, Noriyuki Nishimura, Kandai Nozu, Hiroaki Nagase, Kazuto Ishibashi, Akihito Ishida, Kazumoto Iijima
Objectives To identify clinical features that predict Group A streptococcal (GAS) pharyngitis in a Japanese paediatric primary emergency medical centre. Methods The prevalence of GAS pharyngitis according to age and body temperature (BT) was calculated among 3098 paediatric patients with pharyngitis. The numbers of GAS-positive and -negative patients for each clinical parameter, and each point increase in the McIsaac score were compared and likelihood ratios (LRs) were calculated. Results The prevalence of GAS pharyngitis was extremely low in patients aged < 1 (1...
January 1, 2018: Journal of International Medical Research
Nini H Sissener
'Are we what we eat?' Yes and no. Although dietary fat affects body fat, there are many modifying mechanisms. In Atlantic salmon, there is a high level of retention of the n-3 fatty acid (FA) docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) relative to the dietary content, whereas saturated FAs never seem to increase above a specified level, which is probably an adaptation to low and fluctuating body temperature. Net production of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3) and especially DHA occurs in salmon when dietary levels are low; however, this synthesis is not sufficient to maintain EPA and DHA at similar tissue levels to those of a traditional fish oil-fed farmed salmon...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Katharina Hauf, Kamran Riazi, Norbert Willenbacher, Erin Koos
We present a generic and versatile low temperature route to produce macro-porous bodies with porosity and pore size distribution that are adjustable in a wide range. Capillary suspensions, where the minor fluid is a monomer, are used as pre-cursors. The monomer is preferentially located between the particles, creating capillary bridges, resulting in a strong, percolating network. Thermally induced polymerization of these bridges at temperatures below 100 °C for less than 5 hours and subsequent removal of the bulk fluid yields macroscopic, self-supporting solid bodies with high porosity...
October 2017: Colloid and Polymer Science
Claudia Gonzalez Viejo, Sigfredo Fuentes, Kate Howell, Damir D Torrico, Frank R Dunshea
Traditional sensory tests rely on conscious and self-reported responses from participants. The integration of non-invasive biometric techniques, such as heart rate, body temperature, brainwaves and facial expressions can gather more information from consumers while tasting a product. The main objectives of this study were i) to assess significant differences between beers for all conscious and unconscious responses, ii) to find significant correlations among the different variables from the conscious and unconscious responses and iii) to develop a model to classify beers according to liking using only the unconscious responses...
February 28, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
J A Pempek, E Holder, K L Proudfoot, M Masterson, G Habing
The inherent disease susceptibility of veal calves results in frequent antimicrobial use. Improvements in antimicrobial stewardship necessitate alternative therapies to improve calf health and growth, while reducing the need for antimicrobials important to human health. This study investigated the effect of 2 alternative therapies, lactoferrin (an iron-binding protein found in colostrum) and cinnamaldehyde (an essential oil of the cinnamon plant) on growth, disease incidence, and mortality risk in special-fed veal calves...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Kalyan De, Davendra Kumar, Anoop Kumar Singh, Artabandhu Sahoo, Syed Mohammed Khursheed Naqvi
Microclimatic factors are of crucial aspect for the welfare of animals. Therefore, a study was conducted to assess the effect of altered ambient temperature through shelter modifications on physiological indicators of Malpura lambs reared in the semi-arid region during winter. Twenty-one Malpura lambs of 3-5 week age and average body weight 9.97 ± 0.51 kg were used in the present study. The lambs were divided into three groups (eg. G1, G2, and G3) and were kept in the different microenvironment by manipulation of shelter design...
February 2018: Journal of Thermal Biology
Pablo E Videla, Peter J Rossky, Daniel Laria
By combining path-integrals molecular dynamics simulations with the accurate MB-pol potential energy surface, we investigate the role of alternative potential models on isotopic fractionation ratios between H and D atoms at dangling positions in water clusters at low temperatures. Our results show clear stabilizations of the lighter isotope at dangling sites, characterized by free energy differences ΔG that become comparable to or larger than kB T for temperatures below ∼75 K. The comparison between these results to those previously reported using the empirical q-TIP4P/F water model [P...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
Dajeong Lee, Hyuk Soon Kim, Eunju Shin, Seon-Gil Do, Chong-Kil Lee, Young Mi Kim, Min Bum Lee, Keun Young Min, Jimo Koo, Su Jeong Kim, Seung Taek Nam, Hyun Woo Kim, Young Hwan Park, Wahn Soo Choi
An allergic reaction occurs when the immune system overreacts to harmless substance called allergen that gains access to the body. Food allergy is a hypersensitive immune reaction to food proteins and the number of patients with food allergy has recently increased. Aloe Vera is used for wellness and medicinal purposes. In particular, Aloe vera has been reported to enhance immunity. However, the effect of Aloe vera on food allergy is not yet known. In this study, we investigated the effects of processed Aloe vera gel (PAG) containing low molecular weight Aloe polysaccharide (AP) on ovalbumin (OVA)-induced food allergy in mice...
February 26, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Steven A Giannos, Edward R Kraft, Zhen-Yang Zhao, Kevin H Merkley, Jiyang Cai
PURPOSE: Studies were conducted to investigate dilute solutions of the monoclonal antibody (mAb) bevacizumab, mAb fragment ranibizumab and fusion protein aflibercept, develop common procedures for formulation of low concentration mAbs and identify a stabilizing formulation for anti-VEGF mAbs for use in in vitro permeation studies. METHODS: Excipient substitutions were screened. The most stabilizing formulation was chosen. Standard dilutions of bevacizumab, ranibizumab and aflibercept were prepared in PBS, manufacturer's formulation, and the new formulation...
February 28, 2018: Pharmaceutical Research
Paolo Calzavacca, Lindsea C Booth, Yugeesh R Lankadeva, Simon R Bailey, Louise M Burrell, Michael Bailey, Rinaldo Bellomo, Clive N May
INTRODUCTION: Supra-clinical doses of clonidine appear beneficial in experimental sepsis, but there is limited understanding of the effects of clonidine at clinically relevant doses. METHODS: In conscious sheep, with implanted renal and pulmonary artery flow probes, sepsis was induced by infusion of live Escherichia coli. At 24 hours, a high clinical dose of clonidine (HCDC) [1.0 μg/kg/h], a low clinical dose of clonidine (LCDC) [0.25 μg/kg/h] or vehicle, was infused for 8 hours...
February 27, 2018: Shock
Yun Su, Jie Yang, Guowen Song, Rui Li, Chunhui Xiang, Jun Li
This paper aims to develop a numerical model to predict heat stress of firefighter under low-level thermal radiation. The model integrated a modified multi-layer clothing model with a human thermoregulation model. We took the coupled radiative and conductive heat transfer in the clothing, the size-dependent heat transfer in the air gaps, and the controlling active and controlled passive thermal regulation in human body into consideration. The predicted core temperature and mean skin temperature from the model showed a good agreement with the experimental results...
February 26, 2018: Scientific Reports
Brandi West, Sarah Rodriguez Castillo, Alicia Sit, Sabria Mohamad, Bethany Lowe, Christine Joblin, Andras Bodi, Paul M Mayer
Imaging photoelectron photoion coincidence spectroscopy was employed to explore the unimolecular dissociation of the ionized polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) acenaphthylene, fluorene, cyclopenta[d,e,f]phenanthrene, pyrene, perylene, fluoranthene, dibenzo[a,e]pyrene, dibenzo[a,l]pyrene, coronene and corannulene. The primary reaction is always hydrogen atom loss, with the smaller species also exhibiting loss of C2 H2 to varying extents. Combined with previous work on smaller PAH ions, trends in the reaction energies (E0 ) for loss of H from sp2 -C and sp3 -C centres, along with hydrocarbon molecule loss were found as a function of the number of carbon atoms in the ionized PAHs ranging in size from naphthalene to coronene...
February 26, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Emily A O'Brien, Tarah T Colaizy, Jane E Brumbaugh, Gretchen A Cress, Karen J Johnson, Jonathan M Klein, Edward F Bell
OBJECTIVE: Hypothermia occurs frequently in the first minutes after birth in preterm infants. Hyperthermia also occurs, often as a consequence of efforts to provide thermal support. Both hypothermia and hyperthermia are potentially harmful. Our objective was to examine the distribution of admission temperatures of very low birth weight (VLBW) infants, the effect of gestational age on admission temperatures, and the time required for correction of low temperatures. METHODS: Admission axillary temperatures were retrieved from the medical records for all VLBW infants born in our hospital during a 5-year period...
February 25, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Ernesto Solis, Anum Afzal, Eugene A Kiyatkin
Oxycodone is a semi-synthetic opioid drug that is used to alleviate acute and chronic pain. However, oxycodone is often abused and, when taken at high doses, can induce powerful CNS depression that manifests in respiratory abnormalities, hypotension, coma, and death. Here, we employed several measurement techniques to examine the effects of intravenous oxycodone at a wide range of doses on various metabolism-related parameters in awake, freely-moving rats. High-speed amperometry was used to assess how oxycodone affects oxygen and glucose levels in the nucleus accumbens (NAc)...
February 21, 2018: Neuropharmacology
Jinxin Li, Bin Xue, Xiaoyu Cheng, Jiahuan Hu, Jinsheng Hu, Jianghai Tian, Fanchi Li, Xiaohua Yu, Bing Li
Silkworm, Bombyx mori (L.; Lepidoptera: Bombycidae), is an economically important insect, which is sensitive to the environment and susceptible to oxidative damages at high temperature. Low concentrations of TiO2 NPs (titanium dioxide nanoparticles) can scavenge reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by oxidative damages in vivo. To explore whether TiO2 NPs could alleviate oxidative damages of high temperature, the effects of TiO2 NPs treatment on silkworm growth, the levels of ROS and H2O2, as well as the transcription level of antioxidant-related genes were studied at 30°C...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
Hongliang Tang, Xiongjiang Wang, Zhangsong Nong, Kailong Wang, Jun Pang
The design of a clip-on moxibustion instrument which could adjust the directions and absorb harmful granules of moxa smoke was introduced in this paper. It was designed to solve the problems in home health care and clinical treatment, such as the inconvenience of adjustment of moxibustion directions and temperature, more dust and granules of moxa smoke and inconvenience of moxibustion placement. The main part of moxibustion instrument was made up of moxibustion box, bracket and base clamp. The moxibustion box could fix moxa stick and absorb smoke granules; the bracket could be twisted to adjust the direction of moxibustion box; the base clamp was aimed to fix moxibustion box on the edge of the object to save space...
February 12, 2018: Zhongguo Zhen Jiu, Chinese Acupuncture & Moxibustion
Lachlan P Lindoy, Gavin S Huang, Meredith J T Jordan
Quantum thermodynamic parameters can be determined using path integral Monte Carlo (PIMC) simulations. These simulations, however, become computationally demanding as the quantum nature of the system increases, although their efficiency can be improved by using higher order approximations to the thermal density matrix, specifically the action. Here we compare the standard, primitive approximation to the action (PA) and three higher order approximations, the Takahashi-Imada action (TIA), the Suzuki-Chin action (SCA) and the Chin action (CA)...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
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