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thrombocytopenia hiv

Raja K Kutty, Anil Kumar Peethambaran, Sunilkumar, M Anilkumar
Chronic subdural hematomas (CSDHs) and its management comprise a majority work in a neurosurgical specialty. The effectiveness of surgery is beyond doubt and sometimes even lifesaving in severe cases. However, the straightforward surgery is sometimes complicated by the associated comorbidities of the patient. Comorbidities in the form of coagulopathies secondary to chronic liver diseases, drugs (warfarin, ecosprin, clopidogrel), thrombocytopenia secondary to systemic illness are always a challenge to deal with in patients with CSDH...
December 1, 2016: Journal of the International Association of Providers of AIDS Care
Louise Dunphy, Elizabeth Keating, T Parke
A man aged 33 years, born in Nepal, but resident in the UK for 7 years presented to the emergency department with a 4-day history of general malaise, fever (temperature 38.6°C) and a non-productive cough. His medical history was unremarkable and no high-risk behaviour was identified. Clinical examination confirmed decreased air entry bilaterally with bibasal crackles. He was tachycardic, with a heart rate of 120 bpm. Further investigation with a 12-lead ECG confirmed supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) which was terminated with vagal manoeuvres...
November 2, 2016: BMJ Case Reports
Malorie Simons, Emmanuel Apor, James N Butera, Diana O Treaba
TAFRO syndrome is a rare constellation of symptoms: thrombocytopenia, anasarca, reticulin fibrosis of the bone marrow, renal dysfunction, and organomegaly. Its pathogenesis involves an excessive and inappropriate cytokine storm, most notably from IL-6, causing multiorgan failure; however, its etiology is undetermined. Starting in 2012, TAFRO syndrome was first identified in Japan as an atypical variant of Castleman's disease. Previous reports include various different treatment protocols with inconsistent survival outcomes...
2016: Case Reports in Hematology
Nowneet Kumar Bhat, Vivek Ahuja, Minakshi Dhar, Sohaib Ahmad, Neerul Pandita, Vibha Gupta, Smita Chandra
Adult cases of visceral leishmaniasis (VL), predominantly males, have been reported in the past decade from natives of high altitude areas of North Indian state of Uttarakhand. We report 14 pediatric cases of VL, who were diagnosed and treated successfully over the past 7 years. All these children were born and brought up in this area and had never visited any of the endemic areas. High prevalence of pallor, splenohepatomegaly, thrombocytopenia and poor association with HIV are cardinal features of VL in this region...
August 30, 2016: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
Kentaro Sakashita, Kengo Murata, Yuji Inagaki, Souichi Oota, Mikio Takamori
Thrombocytopenia (T), anasarca (A), myelofibrosis (F), renal dysfunction (R), and organomegaly (O) (TAFRO) syndrome is a variant of multicentric Castleman's disease. We describe here a 57-year-old man who presented with persistent fever, pleural effusion, and ascites. He was negative for human immunodeficiency virus and human herpes virus-8. A computed tomography scan showed an anterior mediastinal mass and small inguinal lymphadenopathy. Although a biopsy of the anterior mediastinum showed fatty tissue infiltrated with CD20 (+) and CD45RO (+) lymphocytes, a biopsy of the left inguinal lymph node revealed a hyaline vascular type of Castleman's disease...
September 2016: Respirology Case Reports
D Tominski, J Katchanov, D Driesch, M B Daley, A Liedtke, A Schneider, H Slevogt, K Arastéh, H Stocker
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to describe the characteristics of HIV-infected late presenters, opportunistic diseases at diagnosis and missed opportunities to diagnose HIV infection earlier. METHODS: In a retrospective cohort study, we reviewed the medical records of all adults with newly diagnosed HIV infection admitted to the Department of Infectious Diseases of the Vivantes Auguste-Viktoria Hospital, Berlin, Germany. RESULTS: In the 5-year period from 2009 to 2013, 270 late presenters were identified...
August 1, 2016: HIV Medicine
Gregory B Firth, Matthew Street, Yammesh Ramguthy, Linda Doedens
Snake bites occur commonly in the rural areas of South Africa. Hospitals where snake bites are uncommon should always have protocols on standby in the event of such cases presenting. This is the first reported case documenting the effect of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) on snake bite in South African children.A case report and review of relevant information about the case was undertaken.We present a case of a 1-year-old child referred from a peripheral hospital following a snake bite to the left upper limb with a compartment syndrome and features of cytotoxic envenomation...
July 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Thanigachalam Dineshkumar, Jeyachandran Dhanapriya, Palanivel Jaganathan, Ramanathan Sakthirajan, Natarajan Gopalakrishnan, T Balasubramaniyan
Thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) is characterized by microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, microvascular thrombosis, and various organ dysfunctions. TMA usually occurs in a more advanced stage of HIV disease. TMA as an initial presenting feature is rare. We here report a male patient who presented with oliguric renal failure. Investigations revealed anemia, thrombocytopenia, schistocytes in peripheral smear, and HIV-positive. Renal biopsy revealed TMA. He was treated with hemodialysis and started on highly active antiretroviral therapy...
June 2016: Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine
M Sarmiento, M E Balcells, P Ramirez
BACKGROUND: We present the case of a patient with acute human immunodeficiency virus infection and a thrombotic microangiopathy as the first clinical manifestation, a presentation that has not, to the best of our knowledge, been previously reported. CASE PRESENTATION: A 35-year-old Bolivian man presented with epistaxis and thrombocytopenia. We found microangiopathic anemia, lymphopenia, elevated lactate dehydrogenase, progressive acute renal failure, negative direct antiglobulin test, and normal activity of ADAMTS13...
2016: Journal of Medical Case Reports
Yu Liu, Changqing Li, Ya Wang, Yan Zhang, Binting Wu, Ling Ke, Min Xu, Gui Liu, Zhong Liu
BACKGROUND: In most countries, the plasma for derivative production includes two types of plasma, apheresis plasma (AP) and recovered plasma (RP). However, the plasma recovered from whole blood is not permitted for manufacture in China. Because of the lack of source plasma and the surplus of RP, the Chinese government is considering allowing RP as an equivalent source for the production of plasma derivatives. It is known that human blood can be contaminated by various infectious agents...
May 2016: Transfusion
(no author information available yet)
Multicentric Castleman's disease is a rare lymphoproliferative disorder characterised by disseminated lymphadenopathy. Symptoms and outcomes differ widely from one patient to another. The median survival time is about 2.5 years. There is no consensus on treatment. Siltuximab, a monoclonal antibody that antagonises interleukin-6, has been authorised in the European Union for patients with multicentric Castleman's disease who are not infected with HIV or HHV-8. In a randomised, double-blind trial in 79 patients, most of whom had mild or moderate symptoms, the estimated one-year survival rate was 100% in the siltuximab group versus 92% in the placebo group after a median follow-up of 60 weeks...
March 2016: Prescrire International
Andrés J M Ferreri, Kate Cwynarski, Elisa Pulczynski, Maurilio Ponzoni, Martina Deckert, Letterio S Politi, Valter Torri, Christopher P Fox, Paul La Rosée, Elisabeth Schorb, Achille Ambrosetti, Alexander Roth, Claire Hemmaway, Angela Ferrari, Kim M Linton, Roberta Rudà, Mascha Binder, Tobias Pukrop, Monica Balzarotti, Alberto Fabbri, Peter Johnson, Jette Sønderskov Gørløv, Georg Hess, Jens Panse, Francesco Pisani, Alessandra Tucci, Stephan Stilgenbauer, Bernd Hertenstein, Ulrich Keller, Stefan W Krause, Alessandro Levis, Hans J Schmoll, Franco Cavalli, Jürgen Finke, Michele Reni, Emanuele Zucca, Gerald Illerhaus
BACKGROUND: Standard treatment for patients with primary CNS lymphoma remains to be defined. Active therapies are often associated with increased risk of haematological or neurological toxicity. In this trial, we addressed the tolerability and efficacy of adding rituximab with or without thiotepa to methotrexate-cytarabine combination therapy (the MATRix regimen), followed by a second randomisation comparing consolidation with whole-brain radiotherapy or autologous stem cell transplantation in patients with primary CNS lymphoma...
May 2016: Lancet Haematology
Christiana Smith, Adriana Weinberg, Jeri E Forster, Myron J Levin, Jill Davies, Jennifer Pappas, Kay Kinzie, Emily Barr, Suzanne Paul, Elizabeth J McFarland
Combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) is successfully used for prevention of perinatal HIV transmission. To investigate safety, we compared adverse events (AE) among infants exposed to different maternal cART regimens. We reviewed 158 HIV-uninfected infants born between 1997 and 2009, using logistic regression to model grade ≥1 AE and grade ≥3 AE as a function of maternal cART and confounding variables (preterm, C-section, illicit drug use, race, ethnicity, infant antiretrovirals, and maternal viremia)...
2016: Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology
Philip Bolduc, Navid Roder, Emily Colgate, Sarah H Cheeseman
Care of patients with HIV infection starts with diagnosis as soon as possible, preferably at or near the time of acute infection. Opportunistic infections, malignancies, and other conditions develop progressively over time, particularly in untreated patients. The AIDS-defining opportunistic infections most common in the United States include Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia, Candida esophagitis, toxoplasmic encephalitis, tuberculosis, disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex, cryptococcal meningitis, and cytomegalovirus retinitis...
April 2016: FP Essentials
Shigeto Nagao, Takayuki Kondo, Takashi Nakamura, Tomokazu Nakagawa, Sadayuki Matsumoto
We report a case of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection that showed subacute progressive cerebellar ataxia without HIV encephalopathy or other encephalopathies, including progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy or encephalitis of other human herpes virus (HHV) infections. A 43-year-old man exhibited unsteady gait. Neurological examination disclosed ataxia of the trunk and lower extremities. Personality change and dementia were absent. Magnetic resonance imaging did not reveal any abnormal finding, including of the cerebellum...
April 28, 2016: Rinshō Shinkeigaku, Clinical Neurology
Clémence Hollande, Vincent Mallet, Stéphane Darbeda, Anaïs Vallet-Pichard, Hélène Fontaine, Virginie Verkarre, Philippe Sogni, Benoit Terris, Hervé Gouya, Stanislas Pol
HIV-associated obstructive portopathy (HIVOP) is an obstruction of the hepatic microvasculature of unknown origin. The purpose of this study was to describe the clinical and paraclinical presentation of the disease and its impact in terms of morbidity. Twenty-nine HIV1-infected patients (average 12 years of infection, nadir of CD4 210/mm, including 7 patients with a history of opportunistic infection) with a biopsy-proven or likely HIVOP have been followed up for an average of 6.1 years. Modes of revelation of the HIVOP were: cytolysis and/or cholestasis (60%), occult (14%) or symptomatic (37%) portal hypertension (esophageal varices 17%, ascites 10%, cytopenia 10%), or fortuitous (8%)...
March 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
A Rivero-Juarez, R Gonzalez, M Frias, B Manzanares-Martín, D Rodriguez-Cano, I Perez-Camacho, A Gordon, F Cuenca, A Camacho, J A Pineda, J Peña, A Rivero
Our aim was to evaluate the killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) as a marker for the development of thrombocytopenia secondary to Peg-interferon (IFN) therapy in a cohort of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/hepatitis C virus (HCV) co-infected patients. Patients were naive to HCV treatment, receiving a first course of Peg-IFN/Ribavirin combination therapy. Total platelet count (cells ml(-1)) was determined at each visit, determining platelet decline from baseline to weeks 1, 2, 4, 8 and 12 after starting therapy...
March 15, 2016: Pharmacogenomics Journal
Tetsuya Horino, Fumiya Sato, Tetsuro Kato, Yumiko Hosaka, Akihiro Shimizu, Shinji Kawano, Tokio Hoshina, Kazuhiko Nakaharai, Yasushi Nakazawa, Koji Yoshikawa, Masaki Yoshida, Seiji Hori
OBJECTIVES: This study was conducted to clarify the rate of late diagnosis of HIV infection and to identify relationships between the reasons for HIV testing and a late diagnosis. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study was conducted among HIV-positive patients at the Jikei University Hospital between 2001 and 2014. Patient characteristics from medical records, including age, sex, sexuality, the reason for HIV testing and the number of CD4-positive lymphocytes at HIV diagnosis, were assessed...
February 2016: Clinics
Aya Sugimoto, Shoichi Nakazuru, Yuko Sakakibara, Kumiko Nishio, Takuya Yamada, Hisashi Ishida, Keishiro Yajima, Tomoko Uehira, Kiyoshi Mori, Eiji Mita
Since the introduction of combination antiretroviral therapy (ART), the life expectancy has increased for patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). This has been associated with reductions in the incidences of some AIDS-defining malignancies, such as Kaposi sarcoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma, but has coincided with an increased incidence of non-AIDS-defining malignancies, such as anal cancer. However, anal cancers are rare in patients with HIV in Japan. We report the case of an HIV-infected patient with anal cancer treated with chemoradiotherapy...
2016: Nihon Shokakibyo Gakkai Zasshi, the Japanese Journal of Gastro-enterology
H M Sebitloane
UNLABELLED:  Background. Thrombocytopenia (TCP) complicates 5 - 8% of pregnancies. Most cases of TCP are gestational, and the condition is usually mild and occurs in the latter part of pregnancy. Apart from pregnancy-associated medical complications such as pre-eclampsia, HIV infection is a recognised cause of TCP, and a relatively high prevalence of TCP during pregnancy would be expected in a setting with a high antenatal seroprevalence of HIV. METHODS: This was a sub-analysis of the data from a prospective trial in which the incidence of postpartum sepsis in HIV-infected women was compared with that in HIV-uninfected women...
February 2016: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
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