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gamma-linoleic acid

Ikuo Miyahisa, Hideo Suzuki, Atsushi Mizukami, Yukiya Tanaka, Midori Ono, Mark S Hixon, Junji Matsui
Delta-5 desaturase (D5D) catalyzes the conversion from dihomo-gamma linoleic acid (DGLA) to arachidonic acid (AA). DGLA and AA are common precursors of anti- and pro-inflammatory eicosanoids, respectively, making D5D an attractive drug target for inflammatory-related diseases. Despite several reports on D5D inhibitors, their biochemical mechanisms of action (MOAs) remain poorly understood, primarily due to the difficulty in performing quantitative enzymatic analysis. Herein, we report a radioligand binding assay to overcome this challenge and characterized T-3364366, a thienopyrimidinone D5D inhibitor, by use of the assay...
September 8, 2016: ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters
Aslı Doğru-Koca, Tamer Özcan, Şinasi Yıldırımlı
Paracaryum is a medium sized genus in Cynoglosseae. This study represents the most comprehensive phytochemical investigation of Paracaryum to date. The fatty acid compositions of the fruits of ten Paracaryum taxa belonging to three different subgenera were investigated for chemotaxonomic allocation using gas chromatography. The fatty acid profiles of seven Paracaryum taxa, five of which are endemic to Turkey, were recorded for the first time. Among the twenty-two analysed fatty acids, oleic, linoleic and α-linolenic acids were the major fatty acids represented...
November 2016: Phytochemistry
Jaewon Baek, Jong-Il Choi, Hyun Park, Sangyong Lim, Si Jae Park
In this study, an enhanced-lipid-producing mutant strain of the microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii was developed by gamma irradiation. To induce the mutation, C. reinhardtii was gamma irradiated at dose of 400 Gy. After irradiation, the surviving cells were stained with Nile red. The mutant (Cr-4013) accumulating 20% more lipid than the wild-type, was selected. Thin-layer chromatography revealed the triglyceride and free fatty acid contents to be markedly increased in Cr-4013. The major fatty acids identified were palmitic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid and linolenic acid...
September 2, 2016: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
T Čermák, V MuŽáková, J Matějka, J Skalický, P Laštovička, M Líbalová, R Kanďár, V Novotný, A Čegan
In coronary heart disease, the treatment of significant stenosis by percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with stent implantation elicits local and systemic inflammatory responses. This study was aimed at evaluation of the dynamics of inflammatory response and elucidation of the relationship between the fatty acid profile of red blood cell (RBC) membranes or plasma phospholipids and inflammation after PCI. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), serum amyloid A (SAA), malondialdehyde (MDA) and the fatty acid profiles were determined in patients with advanced coronary artery disease undergoing PCI before, 24 and 48 hours after drug-eluting stent implantation (n=36)...
August 19, 2016: Physiological Research
Edmond K Kabagambe, Amara E Ezeamama, David Guwatudde, Hannia Campos, Wafaie Fawzi
BACKGROUND: Fatty-acids, including n6 series, modulate immune function but their effect on CD4 cell counts, death or hospitalization in HIV-infected patients on antiretroviral therapy is unknown. METHODS: In a randomized trial for effects of multivitamins in HIV-infected patients in Uganda, we used gas chromatography to measure plasma n6-fatty acids at baseline, determined CD4 counts at baseline, 3, 6, 12 and 18 months and recorded hospitalization or death events...
August 13, 2016: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
M Ballester, M Revilla, A Puig-Oliveras, J A P Marchesi, A Castelló, J Corominas, A I Fernández, J M Folch
APOA2 is a protein implicated in triglyceride, fatty acid and glucose metabolism. In pigs, the APOA2 gene is located on pig chromosome 4 (SSC4) in a QTL region affecting fatty acid composition, fatness and growth traits. In this study, we evaluated APOA2 as a candidate gene for meat quality traits in an Iberian × Landrace backcross population. The APOA2:c.131T>A polymorphism, located in exon 3 of APOA2 and determining a missense mutation, was associated with the percentage of hexadecenoic acid [C16:1(n-9)], linoleic acid [C18:2(n-6)], α-linolenic acid [C18:3(n-3)], dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid [C20:3(n-6)] and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in backfat...
October 2016: Animal Genetics
Mansour S Al-Said, Ramzi A Mothana, Mohammed M Al-Yahya, Syed Rafatullah, Mohammed O Al-Sohaibani, Jamal M Khaled, Abdulrahman Alatar, Naiyf S Alharbi, Mine Kurkcuoglu, Husnu C Baser
Liver disease is a worldwide problem. It represents one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality in humans. Achillea biebersteinii is used as herbal remedy for various ailments including liver diseases. But the scientific basis for its medicinal use remains unknown. Thus, this research was undertaken to evaluate the efficiency of A. biebersteinii essential oil (ABEO) (0.2 mL/kg) in the amelioration of CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in rodent model. Moreover, the chemical content of the oil was investigated using GC and GC-MS...
2016: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
Ameer Y Taha, Marie Hennebelle, Jun Yang, Daisy Zamora, Stanley I Rapoport, Bruce D Hammock, Christopher E Ramsden
Linoleic acid (LA, 18:2n-6) is the most abundant polyunsaturated fatty acid in the North American diet and is a precursor to circulating bioactive fatty acid metabolites implicated in brain disorders. This exploratory study tested the effects of increasing dietary LA on plasma and cerebral cortex metabolites derived from LA, its elongation-desaturation products dihomo-gamma linolenic (DGLA, 20:3n-6) acid and arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4n-6), as well as omega-3 alpha-linolenic (α-LNA, 18:3n-3), eicosapentaenoic (EPA, 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3)...
May 11, 2016: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
Saadat Parhizkar, Latiffah Abdul Latiff, Ali Parsa
OBJECTIVE: Menopause is the condition when regular menstrual periods cease and may be accompanied by psychological and physical symptoms. The purpose of current study was to determine Nigella sativa effects on reproductive system in experimental menopause animal models. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A series of experiments was conducted to investigate the effects of different dosages of N. sativa (first experiment), various extracts of N. sativa (second experiment) and some of its ingredients (third experiment) on selected menopausal parameters of ovariectomized (OVX) rats...
January 2016: Avicenna Journal of Phytomedicine
Duoyao Cao, Jun Luo, WenJuan Zang, Dekun Chen, Huifen Xu, Huaiping Shi, Xiaoqi Jing
Gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) and linoleic acid (LA), which are both n-6 unsaturated fatty acids, play vital roles in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation. The multi-functional protein scavenger receptor CD36 has also been shown to participate in inflammation. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the interactions between CD36 and GLA or LA in LPS-induced inflammation remain unclear. We used small interfering RNA and adenoviral systems to manipulate CD36 expression in primary goat mammary gland epithelial cells (pGMECs), and the results showed that nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) levels were significantly decreased by CD36 receptor signaling following treatment with GLA but not LA...
June 2016: Inflammation
Kangok Cho, Youngju Song, Daekeun Kwon
OBJECTIVES: This study examined whether conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) supplementation affects insulin sensitivity and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ) and glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT-4) protein expressions in the skeletal muscles of rats during endurance exercise. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sprague-Dawley male rats were randomly divided into HS (high-fat diet (HFD) sedentary group, n = 8), CS (1.0% CLA supplemented HFD sedentary group, n = 8), and CE (1...
January 2016: Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
Wenliang Zhang, Qian Sun, Wei Zhong, Xinguo Sun, Zhanxiang Zhou
BACKGROUND: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) signaling has been shown to regulate lipogenesis and lipid accumulation. Previous studies have shown that hepatic PPARγ is up-regulated in steatotic liver of both animal and human. However, the effects of hepatic PPARγ signaling on alcoholic liver disease (ALD) remain elusive. METHODS: To determine the role of hepatic PPARγ signaling on ALD, wild-type (WT) and hepatocyte-specific PPARγ knockdown (PPARγ∆Hep) mice were fed a modified Lieber-DeCarli alcohol or isocaloric maltose dextrin control liquid diet for 8 weeks to induce ALD...
May 2016: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Kristin A Marks, Phillip M Marvyn, Juan J Aristizabal Henao, Ryan M Bradley, Ken D Stark, Robin E Duncan
Data are presented on the fatty acyl composition of phospholipid from retroperitoneal white adipose tissue of female mice that were either given ad libitum access to food or fasted for 16 h overnight prior to sacrifice. Our data show that total adipose phospholipid concentrations were more than 2-fold higher in the fasted animals compared with the fed animals (33.48±7.40 versus 16.57±4.43 μg phospholipid fatty acids/100 mg tissue). Concentrations of several individual phospholipid fatty acyl species, including palmitic acid (16:0), vaccenic acid (18:1n-7), linoleic acid (18:2n-6), dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid (20:3n-6), arachidonic acid (20:4n-6), eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3), as well as total phospholipid saturated fatty acids, n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, were significantly higher in adipose tissue from the fasted animals compared with the fed animals...
June 2016: Data in Brief
Seong Ho Choi, Sung Kwon Park, Chang Weon Choi, Xiang Zi Li, Kyoung Hoon Kim, Won Young Kim, Joon Jeong, Bradley J Johnson, Linsen Zan, Stephen B Smith
We hypothesized that supplementing finishing diets with palm oil would promote adipogenic gene expression and stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) gene expression in subcutaneous (s.c.) and intramuscular (i.m.) adipose tissues of feedlot steers. Eighteen Angus and Angus crossbred steers were assigned to three groups of 6 steers and fed a basal diet (control), with 3% palm oil, or with 3% soybean oil, for 70 d, top-dressed daily. Tailhead s.c. adipose tissue was obtained by biopsy at 14 d before the initiation of dietary treatments and at 35 d of dietary treatments...
March 2016: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
Jalil Ghassemi Nejad, Bae-Hun Lee, Byong-Wan Kim, Sang-Jip Ohh, Kyung Il Sung
The objective of this study was to determine the effects of chromium methionine (Cr-Met) chelate supplementation on blood metabolites and fatty acid profile of beef from Holstein steers during late fattening period. Fifteen Holstein steers were allotted randomly into two groups including the control (non Cr-Met feeding, NCM, ave. body weight [BW] = 483±25.7 kg) and the treatment (Cr-Met feeding for 4 months, 4CM, ave. BW = 486±27.5 kg) group. The feeding amount of Cr-Met to animals was limited to 400 ppb/cow/d and was supplemented to total mixed ration...
March 2016: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
Juliana Bermúdez-Cardona, Claudia Velásquez-Rodríguez
The study evaluated the profile of circulating fatty acids (FA) in obese youth with and without metabolic syndrome (MetS) to determine its association with nutritional status, lifestyle and metabolic variables. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 96 young people, divided into three groups: obese with MetS (OBMS), obese (OB) and appropriate weight (AW). FA profiles were quantified by gas chromatography; waist circumference (WC), fat folds, lipid profile, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, glucose, insulin, the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA index), food intake and physical activity (PA) were assessed...
February 2016: Nutrients
Haiqiang Jiang, Zhenzhen Shen, Yanjun Chu, Yunlun Li, Jihua Li, Xiaoming Wang, Wenqing Yang, Xinya Zhang, Jianqing Ju, Jingwen Xu, Chuanhua Yang
A HPLC/TOF-MS-based metabolomic study was conducted to investigate the holistic therapeutic effects of Tengfu Jiangya Tablet (TJT) on spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). The SHRs were divided into valsartan (VST) group, TJT group and model group, in addition, the Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY) were taken as normal control. Serum samples were separated and identified by HPLC/TOF-MS, while the obtained data was further processed by partial least-squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). A clear cluster among the four groups was observed, and we identified thirteen biomarkers involved involved in sphingolipid metabolism (sphinganine, lysosphingomyelin, ceramide), glycerophospholipid metabolism (phosphatidylcholines, phosphatidylethanolamine, lysophosphatidylcholines), arginine and proline metabolism (l-proline, citrulline), tryptophan metabolism (xanthuiulrenic acid, l-kynurenine, l-tryptophan), arachidonic acid metabolism(leukotriene D4), and linoleic acid metabolism (gamma-linolenic acid)...
October 1, 2015: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
J M B Ezequiel, J B D Sancanari, O R Machado Neto, Z F da Silva, M T C Almeida, D A V Silva, F O S van Cleef, E H C B van Cleef
An increasing worldwide interest in alternative fuel sources and in a more diversified energy matrix has provided incentives for the biodiesel industry, generating large amounts of the by-product crude glycerin, a potential alternative feed for dairy cows. A replicated 3×3 Latin square study was conducted to evaluate the effects of high concentrations of crude glycerin on dry matter intake, milk yield and composition, milk fatty acid profile, and blood metabolites of medium-yield cows. Ruminally cannulated Holstein cows (n=6; 587 ± 39 kg of body weight; 114 ± 29 d in milk; and 20 ± 1...
November 2015: Journal of Dairy Science
Julianne Beam, Amy Botta, Jiayu Ye, Hesham Soliman, Brieanne J Matier, Mary Forrest, Kathleen M MacLeod, Sanjoy Ghosh
Controversy exists on the benefits versus harms of n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-6 PUFA). Although n-6 PUFA demonstrates anti-atherosclerotic properties, survival following cardiac remodeling may be compromised. We hypothesized that n-6 PUFA like linoleic acid (LA) or other downstream PUFAs like γ-linolenic acid or arachidonic acid alter the transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ)-collagen axis in the heart. Excess dietary LA increased the collagen I/III ratio in the mouse myocardium, leading to cardiac "stiffening" characterized by impaired transmitral flow indicative of early diastolic dysfunction within 5 weeks...
September 18, 2015: Journal of Biological Chemistry
S Jubie, S P Dhanabal, M V N L Chaitanya
BACKGROUND: Isolation of methyl gamma linolenate from Spirulina platensis using flash chromatography and its apoptosis inducing effect against human lung carcinoma A- 549 cell lines. METHODS: Gamma linolenic acid is an important omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) of medicinal interest was isolated from microalgae Spirulina platensis using flash chromatography system (Isolera system) as its methyl ester. The isolated methyl gamma linolenate was characterized by IR, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR and mass spectral analysis and the data were consistent with the structure...
2015: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
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