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gamma-linoleic acid

Jyrki K Virtanen, Jaakko Mursu, Sari Voutilainen, Tomi-Pekka Tuomainen
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: There are concerns that high intake of n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) may promote inflammation, because the end-product of n-6 PUFA metabolism, arachidonic acid, is a precursor for pro-inflammatory eicosanoids. Our aim was to investigate cross-sectional associations of the serum n-6 PUFAs, objective biomarkers for exposure, with serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP), a key inflammation marker. SUBJECTS/METHODS: The study included 1287 generally healthy men aged 42-60 years from the population-based Kuopio Ischaemic Heart Disease Risk Factor Study, examined in 1984-1989...
March 2018: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Sun Ha Jee, Minjoo Kim, Minkyung Kim, Hye Jin Yoo, Hyungyoon Kim, Keum Ji Jung, Seri Hong, Jong Ho Lee
In the prospective Korean Cancer Prevention Study-II (KCPS-II), we investigated the application of metabolomics to differentiate subjects with incident hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC group) from subjects who remained free of cancer (control group) during a mean follow-up period of 7 years with the aim of identifying valuable metabolic biomarkers for HCC. We used baseline serum samples from 75 subjects with incident HCC and 134 age- and gender-matched cancer-free subjects. Serum metabolic profiles associated with HCC incidence were investigated via metabolomics analysis...
March 2, 2018: Cancer Prevention Research
Mary Adjepong, C Austin Pickens, Raghav Jain, William S Harris, Reginald A Annan, Jenifer I Fenton
In Northern Ghana, 33% of children are stunted due to economic disparities. Dietary fatty acids (FA) are critical for growth, but whether blood FA levels are adequate in Ghanaian children is unknown. The objective of this study was to determine the association between whole blood FAs and growth parameters in Northern Ghanaian children 2-6 years of age. A drop of blood was collected on an antioxidant treated card and analyzed for FA composition. Weight and height were measured and z-scores were calculated. Relationships between FAs and growth parameters were analyzed by Spearman correlations, linear regressions, and factor analysis...
2018: PloS One
David Navarro-Herrera, Paula Aranaz, Laura Eder-Azanza, María Zabala, Cristina Hurtado, Ana Romo-Hualde, J Alfredo Martínez, Carlos J González-Navarro, José L Vizmanos
Bioactive compounds, including some fatty acids (FAs), can induce beneficial effects on body fat-content and metabolism. In this work, we have used C. elegans as a model to examine the effects of several FAs on body fat accumulation. Both omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids induced a reduction of fat content in C. elegans, with linoleic, gamma-linolenic and dihomo-gamma-linolenic acids being the most effective ones. These three FAs are sequential metabolites especially in omega-6 PUFA synthesis pathway and the effects seem to be primarily due to dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid, and independent of its transformation into omega-3 or arachidonic acid...
February 21, 2018: Food & Function
Jing Guo, Haiqin Chen, Bo Yang, Hao Zhang, Wei Chen, Yong Q Chen
Thioesterases (TEs) play an essential role in the metabolism of fatty acids (FAs). To explore the role of TEs in mediating intracellular lipid metabolism in the oleaginous fungus Mortierella alpina, the acyl-CoA thioesterase ACOT8I was overexpressed. The contents of total fatty acids (TFAs) were the same in the recombinant strains as in the wild-type M. alpina, whilst the production of free fatty acids (FFAs) was enhanced from about 0.9% (wild-type) to 2.8% (recombinant), a roughly threefold increase. Linoleic acid content in FFA form constituted about 9% of the TFAs in the FFA fraction in the recombinant strains but only about 1...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology
James F Markworth, Cameron J Mitchell, Randall F D'Souza, Kirsten M M Aasen, Brenan R Durainayagam, Sarah M Mitchell, Alex H C Chan, Andrew J Sinclair, Manohar Garg, David Cameron-Smith
Arachidonic acid (ARA), an omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), is the metabolic precursor to the eicosanoid family of lipid mediators. Eicosanoids have potent pro-inflammatory actions, but also act as important autocrine/paracrine signaling molecules in skeletal muscle growth and development. Whether dietary ARA is incorporated into skeletal muscle phospholipids and the resulting impact on intramuscular inflammatory and adaptive processes in-vivo is not known. In the current study, resistance trained men (≥1 year) received dietary supplementation with 1...
January 2018: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
Satabdi Ganguly, Arabinda Mahanty, Tandrima Mitra, Sasmita Mohanty, Basanta Kumar Das, Bimal Prasanna Mohanty
The Indian shad hilsa (Tenualosa ilisha), a commercially important food fish rich in oils, enjoys high consumer preference in the South Asian countries owing to its unique flavour and culinary properties. The present study was undertaken with the primary objective of determining the flesh quality attributes of hilsa in terms of nutritive value (gross chemical composition, amino acid, fatty acid and mineral composition), pH, water holding capacity (WHC) and expression of genes associated with fatty acid metabolism and flesh quality...
January 2018: Food Research International
Juan C Aristizabal, Laura I González-Zapata, Alejandro Estrada-Restrepo, Julia Monsalve-Alvarez, Sandra L Restrepo-Mesa, Diego Gaitán
Increased plasma free fatty acids (FFAs) are associated with cardiometabolic risk factors in adults with abdominal obesity (AO). However, this association remains controversial in children. This study analyzed plasma FFA concentration in children with and without AO. Twenty-nine children classified with AO were matched by age and sex with 29 non-obese individuals. Blood samples were collected after fasting for 10-12 h. Plasma concentration of glucose, insulin, triglycerides, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) were determined by automatized methods...
January 1, 2018: Nutrients
S Thiyagarajan, M Arumugam, N Senthil, S Vellaikumar, S Kathiresan
OBJECTIVES: To express a Δ6-desaturase gene and produce gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) and stearidonic acid (SDA) in prokaryotic expression system (Escherichia coli), and analyze its substrate specificity in the omega-3 fatty acid biosynthetic pathway. RESULTS: Full-length ORF (1448 bp) of Δ6Des-Iso was isolated from Isochrysis sp. and characterized using multiple sequence alignment, phylogenetic analysis, transmembrane domain, and protein tertiary structure. Δ6Des-Iso is a front-end desaturase consisting of three conserved histidine domains and a cytochrome b5 domain...
December 29, 2017: Biotechnology Letters
Juan de Toro-Martín, Frédéric Guénard, Iwona Rudkowska, Simone Lemieux, Patrick Couture, Marie-Claude Vohl
BACKGROUND: Numbers of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with fatty acid desaturase activities have been previously identified within the FADS1-FADS2 gene cluster, which encodes delta-5 (D5D) and delta-6 (D6D) desaturases, respectively. OBJECTIVE: We aimed at further characterizing the genetic variability associated with D5D and D6D activities on a genome-wide scale. METHODS: We conducted a genome-wide association study of D5D and D6D activities in a cohort of 141 individuals from the greater Quebec City metropolitan area using the Illumina HumanOmni5-Quad BeadChip...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
Spyridon Petropoulos, Ângela Fernandes, Lillian Barros, Ana Ciric, Marina Sokovic, Isabel C F R Ferreira
Okra is a vegetable crop usually used for its immature pods. The harvest stage (fruit size) depends on consumers' preferences and the fruit that does not meet market requirements is being disposed of. Considering the short time interval from the setting of the fruit to the harvest stage, the present study evaluates the nutritional value, chemical composition, and antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of okra seeds from genotypes cultivated under Mediterranean conditions, as an alternative end-use product...
December 13, 2017: Food & Function
E C Sandri, M Camêra, E M Sandri, K J Harvatine, D E De Oliveira
The trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) causes milk fat depression by downregulating expression of genes and transcription factors involved in lipogenesis and it has been proposed that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) can be inhibited by trans-10, cis-12 CLA. The PPARγ is a nuclear receptor activated by natural or synthetic ligands and promotes expression of lipogenic genes and its effect on mammary lipogenesis and the interaction with trans-10, cis-12 CLA in lactating ewes was evaluated using thiazolidinedione (TZD), a chemical PPARγ agonist...
November 10, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
F Laguzzi, U Risérus, M Marklund, M Vikström, P Sjögren, B Gigante, Z D Alsharari, M-L Hellénius, T Cederholm, P Frumento, U de Faire, K Leander
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Alcohol consumption is considered to affect circulating fatty acids (FAs) but knowledge about specific associations is limited. We aimed to assess the relation between alcohol consumption and serum FAs in 60-year-old Swedish men and women. METHODS: In a random sample of 1917 men and 2058 women residing in Stockholm county, cross-sectional associations between different categories of alcohol consumption and FAs were assessed using linear regression; β1 coefficients with 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated...
September 25, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Alessia Trimigno, Bekzod Khakimov, Josue Leonardo Castro Mejia, Mette Skau Mikkelsen, Mette Kristensen, Birthe Møller Jespersen, Søren Balling Engelsen
INTRODUCTION: Mixed-linkage (1→3),(1→4)-β-d-glucans (BG) reduce cholesterol level and insulin response in humans. Despite this, their role in human metabolism and a mode of action remains largely unknown. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effects of three structurally different BG on human fecal metabolome in a full cross-over intervention using GC-MS metabolomics. METHODS: Over three weeks of intervention, young healthy adults received food supplemented with BG from oat, two different BG from barley or a non-fiber control in a full cross-over design...
2017: Metabolomics: Official Journal of the Metabolomic Society
Chia-Han Tsai, You-Cheng Shen, Haw-Wen Chen, Kai-Li Liu, Jer-Wei Chang, Pei-Yin Chen, Chen-Yu Lin, Hsien-Tsung Yao, Chien-Chun Li
Oxidative stress-induced growth inhibitor 1 (OSGIN1), a tumor suppressor, inhibits cell proliferation and induces cell death. N-6 and n-3 PUFAs protect against breast cancer, but the molecular mechanisms of this effect are not clear. We investigated the effect of n-6 and n-3 PUFAs on OSGIN1 expression and whether OSGIN1 is involved in PUFA-induced apoptosis in breast cancer cells. We used 100 μM of n-6 PUFAs including arachidonic acid, linoleic acid, and gamma-linolenic acid and n-3 PUFAs including alpha-linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)...
August 12, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Mustafa Ulubay, Mustafa Ozturk, Ozlem Ozturk, Ugur Keskin, Ulas Fidan, Erdim Sertoglu, Hakan Aydin, Ali Yilmaz, Mufit Cemal Yenen
We evaluated the free fatty acids differences in plasma between hyperemesis gravidarum(HG) and healthy pregnant in first trimester pregnancy. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to compare the plasma levels of DHA, AA and EPA, between HG patients and healthy pregnant women. DESIGN: Fifty-two pregnants were involved in the study. Twenty-six pregnants of them were HG as study group, and twenty-six pregnants were enrolled as healthy pregnant women at the similar gestational age. The saturated fatty acids C14, C15, C16, C18, C20, C22, and C24; the omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid, (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid, (DHA); the omega-6 fatty acids linoleic acid, arachidonic acid (AA), and homo-gamma-linolenic acid; and the omega-9 fatty acids oleic acid, erucic acid, and nervonic acid were analysed by gas chromatography...
2017: Open Medicine (Warsaw, Poland)
Gulgun Mustafa, Fidanci Muzaffer Kursat, Tas Ahmet, Genc Fatih Alparslan, Gunes Omer, Erdem Sertoglu, Sarı Erkan, Yesilkaya Ediz, Turker Turker, Kılıc Ayhan
OBJECTIVE: Childhood obesity is a worldwide health concern. Studies have shown autonomic dysfunction in obese children. The exact mechanism of this dysfunction is still unknown. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between erythrocyte membrane fatty acid (EMFA) levels and cardiac autonomic function in obese children using heart rate variability (HRV). METHODS: A total of 48 obese and 32 healthy children were included in this case-control study. Anthropometric and biochemical data, HRV indices, and EMFA levels in both groups were compared statistically...
July 2017: Portuguese Journal of Cardiology: An Official Journal of the Portuguese Society of Cardiology
Hala A H Khattab, Inas Z A Abdallah, Fatimah M Yousef, Etimad A Huwait
BACKGROUND: Borage (Borago officinal L.) is an annual herbaceous plant of great interest because its oil contains a high percentage of γ-linolenic acid (GLA). The present work was carried out to detect fatty acids composition of the oil extracted from borage seeds (BO) and its potential effectiveness against γ-irradiation- induced hepatotoxicity in male rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: GC-MS analysis of fatty acids methyl esters of BO was performed to identify fatty acids composition...
2017: African Journal of Traditional, Complementary, and Alternative Medicines: AJTCAM
Allen L Rodgers, Dalielah Jappie-Mahomed, Paul J van Jaarsveld
Fatty acid (FA) composition of phospholipids in plasma and red blood cells (RBC) can influence calciuria, oxaluria and renal stone formation. In this regard, the ratio of arachidonic acid (AA) and its precursor linoleic acid (LA) appears to be important. Administration of γ-linolenic acid (GLA) has been shown to increase the concentration of dihomo-gamma linoleic acid (DGLA) relative to AA indicating that it may attenuate biosynthesis of the latter. Such effects have not been investigated in race groups having difference stone occurrence rates...
June 16, 2017: Urolithiasis
J K Prasain, L S Wilson, A Arabshahi, C Grubbs, S Barnes
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of radiation on the content of animal diet constituents using global metabolomics. Aqueous methanolic extracts of control and cobalt-60-irradiated Teklad 7001 diets were comprehensively analyzed using nano-liquid chromatography-MS/MS. Among the over 2000 ions revealed by XCMS followed by data preprocessing, 94 positive and 143 negative metabolite ions had greater than 1.5-fold changes and p-values <0.01. Use of MetaboAnalyst statistical software demonstrated complete separation of the irradiated and non-radiated diets in unsupervised principal components analysis and supervised partial least squares discriminant analysis...
August 2017: Journal of Mass Spectrometry: JMS
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