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gamma-linoleic acid

Kelly Cristina Massarolo, Taiana Denardi de Souza, Carolina Carvalho Collazzo, Eliana Badiale Furlong, Leonor Almeida de Souza Soares
This study evaluated the effect of the solid state cultivation (SSC) time of rice bran by Rhizopus oryzae on γ-oryzanol recovery and its antioxidant properties. Gamma-oryzanol was extracted with organic solvents and its extracts were characterized by GC-FID and HPLC-UV. The antioxidant capacity was assessed by DPPH and ABTS(+) assays, β-carotene/linoleic acid system, and reduction of oxidation in lipid system. The biomass showed the γ-oryzanol recovery increased by 51.5% (20.52mg/g), and 5.7% in polyunsaturated fatty acids...
August 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
Shengzhong Rong, Yang Li, Yue Guan, Lili Zhu, Qiang Zhou, Mucong Gao, Hongzhi Pan, Lina Zou, Dong Chang
Primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG) is a severe chronic neurodegenerative disease in Asia. Identification of important metabolites associated with PACG is crucial for early intervention and advancing knowledge of the disease mechanism. We applied gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) for targeted metabolomic analysis on serum samples from thirty-eight newly diagnosed PACG patients and forty-eight controls. Palmitoleic acid (PA), linoleic acid (LA), gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) and arachidonic acid (ARA) were identified as important metabolites associated with PACG...
February 18, 2017: Biomedical Chromatography: BMC
Aleksander Siger, Krzysztof Dwiecki, Wojciech Borzyszkowski, Mieczysław Turski, Magdalena Rudzińska, Małgorzata Nogala-Kałucka
A physicochemical characteristic of the cold-pressed oil obtained from seeds of common beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) has been presented. This plant may be considered as unconventional oilseeds crops because of relatively high content of fat (27.25%). The analyzed beech seeds oil has been classified as oleic-linoleic acids oil with more than 76% percentage share of those species. Beech seeds oil contains 4.2% of gamma-linolenic acid (GLA). Unique characteristic is the high content of γ-tocopherol (75.4mg/100g) and δ-tocopherol (34...
June 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
Jowy Yi Hoong Seah, Gibson Ming Wei Gay, Jin Su, E-Shyong Tai, Jian-Min Yuan, Woon-Puay Koh, Choon Nam Ong, Rob M van Dam
High arachidonic acid (AA; 20:4 n - 6) status may have adverse effects on inflammation and risk of cardiovascular diseases. Concerns about high intake of n - 6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are based on the premise that endogenous conversion from linoleic acid (LA; 18:2 n - 6) is an important source of AA, but few population-based studies have investigated dietary determinants of AA status. In this study, we examined habitual food consumption in relation to plasma concentrations of AA and other PUFAs in population-based studies...
January 31, 2017: Nutrients
Shalini Muralikumar, Umashankar Vetrivel, Angayarkanni Narayanasamy, Undurti N Das
BACKGROUND: PPARγ is an isoform of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) belonging to a super family of nuclear receptors. PPARγ receptor is found to play a crucial role in the modulation of lipid and glucose homeostasis. Its commotion has been reported to play a significant role in a broad spectrum of diseases such as type 2 diabetes mellitus, inflammatory diseases, Alzheimer's disease, and in some cancers. Hence, PPARγ is an important therapeutic target. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and their metabolites (henceforth referred to as bioactive lipids) are known to function as agonists of PPARγ...
January 21, 2017: Lipids in Health and Disease
Ruth Schübel, Anke Jaudszus, Ralf Krüger, Alexander Roth, Martin Klempt, Stephan Wilhelm Barth
The pro- or anti-inflammatory bioactivity of dietary essential linoleic acid (LA) and alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) is mainly attributed to rate-limiting delta-6 desaturase (D6D) activity. The aim of this study was to analyze mechanisms of D6D-substrates ALA, LA and D6D-product gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) under D6D-deficient conditions. Fatty acid profiles (GC-MS), D6D gene expression (real-time RT-PCR) and NFκB activity (luciferase assay) were assessed in HEK293 cells. FADS2 gene expression was approved being marginal...
December 14, 2016: International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition
Toshiyuki Nagai, Yasuyuki Honda, Yasuo Sugano, Kunihiro Nishimura, Michikazu Nakai, Satoshi Honda, Naotsugu Iwakami, Atsushi Okada, Yasuhide Asaumi, Takeshi Aiba, Teruo Noguchi, Kengo Kusano, Hisao Ogawa, Satoshi Yasuda, Toshihisa Anzai
BACKGROUND: Circulating polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) levels are associated with clinical outcomes in cardiovascular diseases including coronary artery disease and chronic heart failure (HF). However, their clinical implications in acute decompensated HF (ADHF) remain unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical roles of circulating PUFAs in patients with ADHF. METHODS: Circulating levels of PUFAs, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), arachidonic acid (AA) and dihomo-gamma linoleic acid (DGLA), were measured on admission in 685 consecutive ADHF patients...
2016: PloS One
Ivana Tartaro Bujak, Branka Mihaljević, Carla Ferreri, Chryssostomos Chatgilialoglu
The biomimetic model of micelles of linoleic acid containing 2-mercaptoethanol and the antioxidant was examined under gamma irradiation up to 400 Gy in aerobic or deoxygenated conditions where thiyl radicals are the main reactive species. Lipid peroxidation was retarded by ascorbic acid and α-tocopherol, whereas this process was strongly inhibited by resveratrol as effectively as the ascorbic acid/α-tocopherol mixture. Furthermore, antioxidants have a much stronger inhibitory effect on the peroxidation in the presence of 2-mercaptoethanol, and at the same time show protective properties of the double bond, decreasing the cis-trans isomerization...
November 2016: Free Radical Research
Ikuo Miyahisa, Hideo Suzuki, Atsushi Mizukami, Yukiya Tanaka, Midori Ono, Mark S Hixon, Junji Matsui
Delta-5 desaturase (D5D) catalyzes the conversion from dihomo-gamma linoleic acid (DGLA) to arachidonic acid (AA). DGLA and AA are common precursors of anti- and pro-inflammatory eicosanoids, respectively, making D5D an attractive drug target for inflammatory-related diseases. Despite several reports on D5D inhibitors, their biochemical mechanisms of action (MOAs) remain poorly understood, primarily due to the difficulty in performing quantitative enzymatic analysis. Herein, we report a radioligand binding assay to overcome this challenge and characterized T-3364366, a thienopyrimidinone D5D inhibitor, by use of the assay...
September 8, 2016: ACS Medicinal Chemistry Letters
Aslı Doğru-Koca, Tamer Özcan, Şinasi Yıldırımlı
Paracaryum is a medium sized genus in Cynoglosseae. This study represents the most comprehensive phytochemical investigation of Paracaryum to date. The fatty acid compositions of the fruits of ten Paracaryum taxa belonging to three different subgenera were investigated for chemotaxonomic allocation using gas chromatography. The fatty acid profiles of seven Paracaryum taxa, five of which are endemic to Turkey, were recorded for the first time. Among the twenty-two analysed fatty acids, oleic, linoleic and α-linolenic acids were the major fatty acids represented...
November 2016: Phytochemistry
Jaewon Baek, Jong-Il Choi, Hyun Park, Sangyong Lim, Si Jae Park
In this study, an enhanced lipid-producing mutant strain of the microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii was developed by gamma irradiation. To induce the mutation, C. reinhardtii was gamma irradiated at a dose of 400 Gy. After irradiation, the surviving cells were stained with Nile red. The mutant (Cr-4013) accumulating 20% more lipid than the wild type was selected. Thin-layer chromatography revealed the triglyceride and free fatty acid contents to be markedly increased in Cr-4013. The major fatty acids identified were palmitic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid, and linolenic acid...
December 28, 2016: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
T Čermák, V MuŽáková, J Matějka, J Skalický, P Laštovička, M Líbalová, R Kanďár, V Novotný, A Čegan
In coronary heart disease, the treatment of significant stenosis by percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) with stent implantation elicits local and systemic inflammatory responses. This study was aimed at evaluation of the dynamics of inflammatory response and elucidation of the relationship between the fatty acid profile of red blood cell (RBC) membranes or plasma phospholipids and inflammation after PCI. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), serum amyloid A (SAA), malondialdehyde (MDA) and the fatty acid profiles were determined in patients with advanced coronary artery disease undergoing PCI before, 24 h and 48 h after drug-eluting stent implantation (n=36)...
December 13, 2016: Physiological Research
Edmond K Kabagambe, Amara E Ezeamama, David Guwatudde, Hannia Campos, Wafaie W Fawzi
BACKGROUND: Fatty acids, including n-6 series, modulate immune function, but their effect on CD4 cell counts, death, or hospitalization in HIV-infected patients on antiretroviral therapy is unknown. METHODS: In a randomized trial for effects of multivitamins in HIV-infected patients in Uganda, we used gas chromatography to measure plasma n-6 fatty acids at baseline; determined CD4 counts at baseline, 3, 6, 12, and 18 months; and recorded hospitalization or death events...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
M Ballester, M Revilla, A Puig-Oliveras, J A P Marchesi, A Castelló, J Corominas, A I Fernández, J M Folch
APOA2 is a protein implicated in triglyceride, fatty acid and glucose metabolism. In pigs, the APOA2 gene is located on pig chromosome 4 (SSC4) in a QTL region affecting fatty acid composition, fatness and growth traits. In this study, we evaluated APOA2 as a candidate gene for meat quality traits in an Iberian × Landrace backcross population. The APOA2:c.131T>A polymorphism, located in exon 3 of APOA2 and determining a missense mutation, was associated with the percentage of hexadecenoic acid [C16:1(n-9)], linoleic acid [C18:2(n-6)], α-linolenic acid [C18:3(n-3)], dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid [C20:3(n-6)] and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in backfat...
October 2016: Animal Genetics
Mansour S Al-Said, Ramzi A Mothana, Mohammed M Al-Yahya, Syed Rafatullah, Mohammed O Al-Sohaibani, Jamal M Khaled, Abdulrahman Alatar, Naiyf S Alharbi, Mine Kurkcuoglu, Husnu C Baser
Liver disease is a worldwide problem. It represents one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality in humans. Achillea biebersteinii is used as herbal remedy for various ailments including liver diseases. But the scientific basis for its medicinal use remains unknown. Thus, this research was undertaken to evaluate the efficiency of A. biebersteinii essential oil (ABEO) (0.2 mL/kg) in the amelioration of CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in rodent model. Moreover, the chemical content of the oil was investigated using GC and GC-MS...
2016: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
Ameer Y Taha, Marie Hennebelle, Jun Yang, Daisy Zamora, Stanley I Rapoport, Bruce D Hammock, Christopher E Ramsden
Linoleic acid (LA, 18:2n-6) is the most abundant polyunsaturated fatty acid in the North American diet and is a precursor to circulating bioactive fatty acid metabolites implicated in brain disorders. This exploratory study tested the effects of increasing dietary LA on plasma and cerebral cortex metabolites derived from LA, its elongation-desaturation products dihomo-gamma linolenic (DGLA, 20:3n-6) acid and arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4n-6), as well as omega-3 alpha-linolenic (α-LNA, 18:3n-3), eicosapentaenoic (EPA, 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3)...
May 11, 2016: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
Saadat Parhizkar, Latiffah Abdul Latiff, Ali Parsa
OBJECTIVE: Menopause is the condition when regular menstrual periods cease and may be accompanied by psychological and physical symptoms. The purpose of current study was to determine Nigella sativa effects on reproductive system in experimental menopause animal models. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A series of experiments was conducted to investigate the effects of different dosages of N. sativa (first experiment), various extracts of N. sativa (second experiment) and some of its ingredients (third experiment) on selected menopausal parameters of ovariectomized (OVX) rats...
January 2016: Avicenna Journal of Phytomedicine
Duoyao Cao, Jun Luo, WenJuan Zang, Dekun Chen, Huifen Xu, Huaiping Shi, Xiaoqi Jing
Gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) and linoleic acid (LA), which are both n-6 unsaturated fatty acids, play vital roles in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation. The multi-functional protein scavenger receptor CD36 has also been shown to participate in inflammation. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the interactions between CD36 and GLA or LA in LPS-induced inflammation remain unclear. We used small interfering RNA and adenoviral systems to manipulate CD36 expression in primary goat mammary gland epithelial cells (pGMECs), and the results showed that nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) levels were significantly decreased by CD36 receptor signaling following treatment with GLA but not LA...
June 2016: Inflammation
Kangok Cho, Youngju Song, Daekeun Kwon
OBJECTIVES: This study examined whether conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) supplementation affects insulin sensitivity and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ) and glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT-4) protein expressions in the skeletal muscles of rats during endurance exercise. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sprague-Dawley male rats were randomly divided into HS (high-fat diet (HFD) sedentary group, n = 8), CS (1.0% CLA supplemented HFD sedentary group, n = 8), and CE (1...
January 2016: Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
Wenliang Zhang, Qian Sun, Wei Zhong, Xinguo Sun, Zhanxiang Zhou
BACKGROUND: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) signaling has been shown to regulate lipogenesis and lipid accumulation. Previous studies have shown that hepatic PPARγ is up-regulated in steatotic liver of both animal and human. However, the effects of hepatic PPARγ signaling on alcoholic liver disease (ALD) remain elusive. METHODS: To determine the role of hepatic PPARγ signaling on ALD, wild-type (WT) and hepatocyte-specific PPARγ knockdown (PPARγ∆Hep) mice were fed a modified Lieber-DeCarli alcohol or isocaloric maltose dextrin control liquid diet for 8 weeks to induce ALD...
May 2016: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
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