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alpha-linolenic acid

Zoe Herreras, Montserrat Cofán, Marta Catalan, Carlos Calvo, Montserrat Pinyol, Antonio J Amor, Rosa Gilabert, Emilio Ros, Aleix Sala-Vila, Emilio Ortega
Consistent evidence supports the pro-atherogenic properties of dietary trans-fatty acids (TFAs). However, there are no clinical data on TFA intake and atheroma plaque. We cross sectionally investigated whether the proportion of total C18:1 TFA in red blood cells (RBCs), which mirrors dietary TFA intake, independently relates to carotid plaque prevalence in subjects with new-onset type 2 diabetes mellitus without prior cardiovascular disease (n=101, 56% men, mean age 61 years) and age- and sex-matched controls (n=96)...
September 7, 2016: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
R Preston Mason, Robert F Jacob, Sandeep Shrivastava, Samuel C R Sherratt, Amitabha Chattopadhyay
Cholesterol crystalline domains characterize atherosclerotic membranes, altering vascular signaling and function. Omega-3 fatty acids reduce membrane lipid peroxidation and subsequent cholesterol domain formation. We evaluated non-peroxidation-mediated effects of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), other TG-lowering agents, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and other long-chain fatty acids on membrane fluidity, bilayer width, and cholesterol domain formation in model membranes. In membranes prepared at 1.5:1 cholesterol-to-phospholipid (C/P) mole ratio (creating pre-existing domains), EPA, glycyrrhizin, arachidonic acid, and alpha linolenic acid promoted the greatest reductions in cholesterol domains (by 65...
October 5, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Y Lee, H Lee, B Park, F Elahi, J Lee, S T Lee, C K Park, S H Hyun, E Lee
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) treatment during in vitro maturation (IVM) on nuclear maturation, intraoocyte glutathione (GSH) content, meiotic progression, and developmental competence after parthenogenesis (PA) and somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) in pigs. Medium-199 containing 10% (vol/vol) porcine follicular fluid (PFF; PPF control) or 0.4% (wt/vol) fatty acid-free BSA (BSA control) was used for IVM. The proportion of oocytes reaching the metaphase II (MII) stage was not influenced by ALA treatment at various concentrations (50, 100, and 200 μ)...
August 2016: Journal of Animal Science
Amanda B Longo, Wendy E Ward
Higher intakes of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are associated with benefits at several skeletal sites in postmenopausal women and in rodent models, but the effect of PUFA-containing oils on tooth-supporting alveolar bone of the mandible has not been studied. Moreover, direct comparison of the effect of flaxseed oil (a source of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA)) and menhaden oil (a source of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)) is unknown. One-month old female Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 48) were randomized to and fed a diet containing flaxseed oil or menhaden oil from one to six months of age...
2016: Nutrients
Ting Chen, Fahu Yuan, Hualin Wang, Yu Tian, Lei He, Yang Shao, Na Li, Zhiguo Liu
Recent experimental studies and clinical trials have shown that hepatic cholesterol metabolic disorders are closely related to the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The main goal of this study was to investigate the efficacy of the perilla oil rich in alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) against NASH and gain a deep insight into its potential mechanisms. Rats were fed a high-fat/high-cholesterol diet (HFD) supplement with perilla oil (POH) for 16 weeks. Routine blood biochemical tests and histological staining illustrated that the perilla oil administration improved HFD-induced hyperlipidemia, reduced hepatic steatosis, and inhibited hepatic inflammatory infiltration and fibrosis...
2016: BioMed Research International
Peter Masoko, Itumeleng H Mabusa, Rachmond L Howard
BACKGROUND: Sutherlandia frutescens (L) R.Br. is one of traditional herbal medicines that formed the basis of primary health care systems since the earliest days and is still widely used. Sutherlandia is prescribed for people with tuberculosis (TB), but is still not known which compound(s) acts against M. tuberculosis and its mode of action. The aim of this study was to identify and isolate antimycobacterial compounds from S. frutescens extracts against shikimate kinase, a drug target for M...
2016: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Cornelia W Twining, J Thomas Brenna, Peter Lawrence, J Ryan Shipley, Troy N Tollefson, David W Winkler
Once-abundant aerial insectivores, such as the Tree Swallow (Tachycineta bicolor), have declined steadily in the past several decades, making it imperative to understand all aspects of their ecology. Aerial insectivores forage on a mixture of aquatic and terrestrial insects that differ in fatty acid composition, specifically long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA) content. Aquatic insects contain high levels of both LCPUFA and their precursor omega-3 PUFA, alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), whereas terrestrial insects contain much lower levels of both...
September 27, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Hang Su, Dan Zhou, Yuan-Xiang Pan, Xingguo Wang, Manabu T Nakamura
In mammals, because they share a single synthetic pathway, n-6/n-3 ratios of dietary PUFAs impact tissue arachidonic acid (ARA) and DHA content. Likewise, SNPs in the human fatty acid desaturase (FADS) gene cluster impact tissue ARA and DHA. Here we tested the feasibility of using heterozygous Fads2-null-mice (HET) as an animal model of human FADS polymorphisms. WT and HET mice were fed diets with linoleate/alpha-linolenate ratios of 1:1, 7:1 and 44:1 at 7% of diet. In WT liver, ARA and DHA in phospholipids varied >2x among dietary groups, reflecting precursor ratios...
September 9, 2016: Journal of Lipid Research
Nobuyuki Sakayori, Hisanori Tokuda, Kaichi Yoshizaki, Hiroshi Kawashima, Sheila M Innis, Hiroshi Shibata, Noriko Osumi
Omega-6 (n-6) and omega-3 (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are essential nutrients for normal brain development. The principal dietary n-6 and n-3 PUFAs are linoleic acid (LA) and α-linolenic acid (ALA), respectively, We have previously shown that maternal dietary imbalance between these PUFAs, i.e., rich in LA and poor in ALA, affected brain development and increased anxiety-related behavior in the mouse offspring. Here we further addressed sex difference in anxiety-related behavior in the offspring exposed to maternal LA:ALA imbalance...
2016: Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine
Waldo G Nuez-Ortín, Chris G Carter, Richard Wilson, Ira Cooke, Peter D Nichols
Marine oils are important to human nutrition as the major source of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), a key omega-3 long-chain (≥C20) polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 LC-PUFA) that is low or lacking in terrestrial plant or animal oils. The inclusion of fish oil as main source of n-3 LC-PUFA in aquafeeds is mostly limited by the increasing price and decreasing availability. Fish oil replacement with cheaper terrestrial plant and animal oils has considerably reduced the content of n-3 LC-PUFA in flesh of farmed Atlantic salmon...
2016: PloS One
Gloria Huerta-Angeles, Martina Brandejsová, Jaromír Kulhánek, Vojtěch Pavlík, Daniela Šmejkalová, Hana Vágnerová, Vladimír Velebný
In this study, hyaluronan (HA) was grafted with alpha-linolenic acid (αLNA) by benzoyl mixed anhydrides methodology, which allowed the derivatization of HA under mild reaction conditions. The reaction was optimized and transferred from laboratory to semi-scale production. The derivative revealed an unexpected cytotoxicity after oven drying and storage at 40°C. For this reason, the storage conditions of sodium linolenyl hyaluronate (αLNA-HA) were optimized in order to preserve the beneficial effect of the derivative...
November 5, 2016: Carbohydrate Polymers
T L Schumacher, T L Burrows, M E Rollo, L G Wood, R Callister, C E Collins
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Limited dietary intake tools have been validated specifically for hyperlipidaemic adults. The Australian Eating Survey (AES) Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) was adapted to include foods with cardio-protective properties (CVD-AES). The aims were to estimate dietary fatty acid (FA) intakes derived from the CVD-AES and AES and compare them with red blood cell (RBC) membrane FA content. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Dietary intake was measured using the semi-quantitative 120-item AES and 177-item CVD-AES...
August 10, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Ella J Baker, Elizabeth A Miles, Graham C Burdge, Parveen Yaqoob, Philip C Calder
Alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) is an essential fatty acid and the substrate for the synthesis of longer-chain, more unsaturated ω-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). EPA and DHA are associated with human health benefits. The primary source of EPA and DHA is seafood. There is a need for sustainable sources of biologically active ω-3 fatty acids. Certain plants contain high concentrations of ALA and stearidonic acid (SDA). Here we review the literature on the metabolism of ALA and SDA in humans, the impact of increased ALA and SDA consumption on concentrations of EPA and DHA in blood and cell lipid pools, and the extent to which ALA and SDA might have health benefits...
August 3, 2016: Progress in Lipid Research
Hyunwoo Park, Steven Weier, Fareha Razvi, Pamela A Peña, Neil A Sims, Jennica Lowell, Cory Hungate, Karma Kissinger, Gavin Key, Paul Fraser, Johnathan A Napier, Edgar B Cahoon, Tom E Clemente
Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) is sought after for both its oil and protein components. Genetic approaches to add value to either component are ongoing efforts in soybean breeding and molecular biology programs. The former is the primary vegetable oil consumed in the world. Hence, its primary usage is in direct human consumption. As a means to increase its utility in feed applications, thereby expanding the market of soybean co-products, we investigated the simultaneous displacement of marine ingredients in aquafeeds with soybean-based protein and a high omega-3 fatty acid soybean oil, enriched with alpha-linolenic and stearidonic acids, in both steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and Kampachi (Seriola rivoliana)...
August 6, 2016: Plant Biotechnology Journal
Francoise Proust, Louise Johnson-Down, Line Berthiaume, Karine Greffard, Pierre Julien, Elizabeth Robinson, Michel Lucas, Éric Dewailly
BACKGROUND: Indigenous peoples have traditionally relied on foods hunted and gathered from their immediate environment. The Eastern James Bay Cree people consume wild game and birds, and these are believed to provide health as well as cultural benefits. OBJECTIVE: To determine the fatty acid (FA) composition of traditional game and bird meats hunted in the Eastern James Bay area. DESIGN: Harvested traditional game and birds were analysed for FA composition...
2016: International Journal of Circumpolar Health
Lionel Ulmann, Vincent Blanckaert, Virginie Mimouni, Mats X Andersson, Benoît Schoefs, Benoît Chénais
The fatty acids of seed plants and microalgae stored in triglyceride are all produced in the plastid and incorporated into triglycerides by a complex biochemical exchange between the plastid envelope and the endoplasmic reticulum. The oils of seed plants provide the basis for vegetal fat production and the microalgal fats represent an important part of the basal food web of the marine environment. The health-promoting properties of these various sources of fats and in particular the long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids of marine microalgae are widely recognized...
July 22, 2016: Mini Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry
Yasutoshi Ando, Shinichiro Saito, Sachiko Oishi, Nami Yamanaka, Masanobu Hibi, Noriko Osaki, Yoshihisa Katsuragi
Alpha linolenic acid-enriched diacylglycerol (ALA-DAG) reduces visceral fat area and body fat in rodents and humans compared to conventional triacylglycerol (TAG). Although ALA-DAG increases dietary fat utilization as energy in rodents, its effects in humans are not known. The present study was a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, crossover intervention trial performed to clarify the effect of ALA-DAG on postprandial energy metabolism in humans. Nineteen healthy subjects participated in this study, and postprandial energy metabolism was evaluated using indirect calorimetry followed by 14-d repeated pre-consumption of TAG (rapeseed oil) as a control or ALA-DAG...
August 1, 2016: Journal of Oleo Science
Jing Shi, Lan Wang, Yan Lu, Yue Ji, Yaqing Wang, Ke Dong, Xiangqing Kong, Wei Sun
Radiation-induced gastrointestinal syndrome, including nausea, diarrhea and dehydration, contributes to morbidity and mortality after medical or industrial radiation exposure. No safe and effective radiation countermeasure has been approved for clinical therapy. In this study, we aimed to investigate the potential protective effects of seabuckthorn pulp and seed oils against radiation-induced acute intestinal injury. C57/BL6 mice were orally administered seabuckthorn pulp oil, seed oil and control olive oil once per day for 7 days before exposure to total-body X-ray irradiation of 7...
July 15, 2016: Journal of Radiation Research
Mieke Cabout, Marjan Alssema, Giel Nijpels, Coen D A Stehouwer, Peter L Zock, Ingeborg A Brouwer, Amany K Elshorbagy, Helga Refsum, Jacqueline M Dekker
PURPOSE: Data on the relation between linoleic acid (LA) and alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) risk are scarce and inconsistent. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of serum LA and ALA with fasting and 2 h post-load plasma glucose and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c). METHOD: This study included 667 participants from third examination (2000) of the population-based Hoorn study in which individuals with glucose intolerance were overrepresented...
July 14, 2016: European Journal of Nutrition
Hai-Tao Su, Xin Li, De-Sheng Liang, Xian-Rong Qi
Low density lipoprotein (LDL), which is a principal carrier for the delivery of cholesterol, has been used as a great candidate for the delivery of drugs to tumor based on the great requirements for cholesterol of many cancer cells. Mimicking the structure and composition of LDL, we designed a synthetic low-density lipoprotein (sLDL) to encapsulate paclitaxel-alpha linolenic acid (PALA) for tumor therapy. The PALA loaded sLDL (PALA-sLDL) and PALA-loaded microemulsion (PALA-ME, without the binding domain for LDLR) displayed uniform sizes with high drug loading efficiency (> 90%)...
July 8, 2016: Oncotarget
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