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alpha-linolenic acid

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071699/rye-polyphenols-and-the-metabolism-of-n-3-fatty-acids-in-rats-a-dose-dependent-fatty-fish-like-effect
#1
Fayçal Ounnas, Michel de Lorgeril, Patricia Salen, François Laporte, Luca Calani, Pedro Mena, Furio Brighenti, Daniele Del Rio, Christine Demeilliers
As long-chain fatty acids (LCFA) of the n-3 series are critically important for human health, fish consumption has considerably increased in recent decades, resulting in overfishing to respond to the worldwide demand, to an extent that is not sustainable for consumers' health, fisheries economy, and marine ecology. In a recent study, it has been shown that whole rye (WR) consumption improves blood and liver n-3 LCFA levels and gut microbiota composition in rats compared to refined rye. The present work demonstrates that specific colonic polyphenol metabolites may dose dependently stimulate the synthesis of n-3 LCFA, possibly through their microbial and hepatic metabolites in rats...
January 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063950/dietary-alpha-linolenic-acid-linoleic-acid-ratios-modulate-immune-response-physical-barrier-and-related-signaling-molecules-mrna-expression-in-the-gills-of-juvenile-grass-carp-ctenopharyngodon-idella
#2
Yun-Yun Zeng, Lin Feng, Wei-Dan Jiang, Yang Liu, Pei Wu, Jun Jiang, Sheng-Yao Kuang, Ling Tang, Wu-Neng Tang, Yong-An Zhang, Xiao-Qiu Zhou
This study was conducted to explore the possible effects of dietary ALA/LNA ratios on the gill immunity, tight junction and antioxidant capacity, and the related signaling factor mRNA levels of juvenile grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella). Fish were fed diets with different ALA/LNA ratios (0.01, 0.34, 0.68, 1.03, 1.41, 1.76 and 2.15) for 60 days. The present results showed that ALA/LNA ratio of 1.03 significantly enhanced lysozyme and acid phosphatase activities, complement 3 contents, promoted mRNA levels of antimicrobial peptides (Hepcidin and liver expression antimicrobial peptide-2), anti-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin 10 and transforming growth factor β1) and inhibitor protein κBα, whereas suppressed pro-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin 1β, interleukin 8, tumor necrosis factor a and interferon γ2), and signal molecules (IκB kinase β, IκB kines γ and nuclear factor κB p65) mRNA levels in the gill, indicating that optimal dietary ALA/LNA ratio improve gill immunity of juvenile fish...
January 4, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058519/stimulation-of-glycerol-kinase-in-grass-carp-preadipocytes-by-epa
#3
Caixia Lei, Jingjing Tian, Hong Ji
This study was conducted to assess the effect of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) on grass carp preadipocyte glycerol kinase (GyK) expression, as well as to explore the mechanism. Here, we cloned partial sequence of grass carp GyK gene and analyzed its tissue distribution. The result showed that GyK gene expressed most in the liver, followed by adipose tissue and the kidney. Besides, 400 μM oleic acid (18:1n-9, OA) was used to establish a hypertrophic preadipocyte model. GyK gene expression and enzyme activity were significantly enhanced after model cells were treated with 100 μM eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3, EPA) for 6, 12, and 24 h...
January 5, 2017: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981754/identification-of-predominant-phytochemical-compounds-and-cytotoxic-activity-of-wild-olive-leaves-olea-europaea-l-ssp-sylvestris-harvested-in-south-portugal
#4
Justyna Makowska-Wąs, Agnieszka Galanty, Joanna Gdula-Argasińska, Małgorzata Tyszka-Czochara, Agnieszka Szewczyk, Ricardo Nunes, Isabel de Carvalho, Marta Michalik, Paweł Paśko
This study has been aimed at providing a qualitative and quantitative evaluation of selected phytochemicals such as phenolic acids, flavonoids, oleuropein, fatty acids profile, and volatile oil compounds, present in wild olive leaves harvested in Portugal, as well as at determining their antioxidant and cytotoxic potential against human melanoma HTB-140 and WM793, prostate cancer DU-145 and PC-3, hepatocellular carcinoma Hep G2 cell lines, as well as normal human skin fibroblasts BJ and prostate epithelial cells PNT2...
December 16, 2016: Chemistry & Biodiversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27973547/regulation-of-the-omega-3-fatty-acid-biosynthetic-pathway-in-atlantic-salmon-hepatocytes
#5
Marte Avranden Kjær, Bente Ruyter, Gerd Marit Berge, Yajing Sun, Tone-Kari Knutsdatter Østbye
Limited availability of the n-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA have led to an interest in better understanding of the n-3 biosynthetic pathway and its regulation. The biosynthesis of alpha-linolenic acid to EPA and DHA involves several complex reaction steps including desaturation-, elongation- and peroxisomal beta-oxidation enzymes. The aims of the present experiments were to gain more knowledge on how this biosynthesis is regulated over time by different doses and fatty acid combinations. Hepatocytes isolated from salmon were incubated with various levels and combinations of oleic acid, EPA and DHA...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27960561/dietary-essential-%C3%AE-linolenic-acid-and-linoleic-acid-differentially-modulate-tnf%C3%AE-induced-nf%C3%AE%C2%BAb-activity-in-fads2-deficient-hek-293-cells
#6
Ruth Schübel, Anke Jaudszus, Ralf Krüger, Alexander Roth, Martin Klempt, Stephan Wilhelm Barth
The pro- or anti-inflammatory bioactivity of dietary essential linoleic acid (LA) and alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) is mainly attributed to rate-limiting delta-6 desaturase (D6D) activity. The aim of this study was to analyze mechanisms of D6D-substrates ALA, LA and D6D-product gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) under D6D-deficient conditions. Fatty acid profiles (GC-MS), D6D gene expression (real-time RT-PCR) and NFκB activity (luciferase assay) were assessed in HEK293 cells. FADS2 gene expression was approved being marginal...
December 14, 2016: International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941179/flaxseed-oil-supplementation-manipulates-correlations-between-serum-individual-mol-free-fatty-acid-levels-and-insulin-resistance-in-type-2-diabetics-insulin-resistance-and-percent-remaining-pancreatic-%C3%AE-cell-function-are-unaffected
#7
D E Barre, K A Mizier-Barre, O Griscti, K Hafez
OBJECTIVES: Elevated total serum free fatty acids (FFAs) concentrations have been suggested, controversially, to enhance insulin resistance and decrease percent remaining β-cell function. However, concentrations of individual serum FFAs have never been published in terms of their relationship (correlation) to homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and percent remaining β-cell function (HOMA-%β) in the type 2 diabetics (T2Ds). Alpha-linolenic acid consumption has a negative correlation with the insulin resistance, which in turn is negatively correlated with the remaining β-cell function...
October 1, 2016: Endocrine Regulations
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27934292/rice-koji-extract-enhances-lipid-metabolism-through-proliferator-activated-receptor-alpha-ppar%C3%AE-activation-in-mouse-liver
#8
Haruya Takahashi, Hsin-Yi Chi, Shinsuke Mohri, Kosuke Kamakari, Keiji Nakata, Noriyoshi Ichijo, Rieko Nakata, Hiroyasu Inoue, Tsuyoshi Goto, Teruo Kawada
Koji is made from grains fermented with Aspergillus oryzae and is essential for the production of many traditional Japanese foods. Many previous studies have shown that koji contributes to the improvement of dyslipidemia. However, little is known regarding the underlying mechanism of this effect. Furthermore, the compound contributing to the activation of lipid metabolism is unknown. We demonstrated that rice koji extract (RKE) induces the mRNA expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) target genes, which promotes lipid metabolism in murine hepatocytes...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926459/dietary-omega-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acid-supplementation-in-an-animal-model-of-anxiety
#9
Brian M Ross, Imran Malik, Slim Babay
A large body of evidence suggests that dietary supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids may ameliorate depressed mood. The magnitude of the effect varies between studies, however, ranging from none at all to being of clinical significance. Given that substantial comorbidity occurs between mood and anxiety disorders, suggesting that they have one or more pathophysiological mechanisms in common, we hypothesized that omega-3 fatty acids may be acting primarily to reduce anxiety rather than depression per se, a possibility which could underlie their variable effects on mood...
November 2016: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914517/effect-of-flaxseed-oil-and-microalgae-dha-on-the-production-performance-fatty-acids-and-total-lipids-of-egg-yolk-and-plasma-in-laying-hens
#10
M Neijat, O Ojekudo, J D House
The incorporation of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in the egg is dependent on both the transfer efficiency of preformed dietary omega-3 fatty acids to the eggs as well as endogenous PUFA metabolism and deposition. Employing an experimental design consisting of 70 Lohmann LSL-Classic hens (n=10/treatment) in a 6-week feeding trial, we examined the impact of graded levels of either flaxseed oil (alpha-linolenic acid, ALA) or algal DHA (preformed docosahexaenoic acid, DHA), each supplying 0.20%, 0...
December 2016: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914508/determinants-of-plasma-phospholipid-arachidonic-and-docosahexaenoic-acids-among-adolescent-girls-in-central-mozambique-possible-roles-of-iron-and-zinc
#11
Marja Mutanen, Riitta Freese, Bengt Vessby, Liisa Korkalo, Kerry Selvester, Sangita Kulathinal
We explored if linoleic acid (LA) and alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) will be efficiently converted to arachidonic acid (AA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in the adolescent girls (aged 15-18 years, n=145) in Mozambique consuming habitually low fat diet and if low iron and/or zinc status predicts the conversion. Total fat, LA and ALA intakes were 15-19%, 1.2-3.5% and 0.2-0.3% of energy, respectively in three areas. Iron and zinc intake varied between 9.6-12.3mg/day and 3.6-5.0mg/day. Significant negative association of plasma AA was found with plasma LA and ALA and significant positive association with serum ferritin...
December 2016: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910928/high-throughput-chinmedomics-based-prediction-of-effective-components-and-targets-from-herbal-medicine-as1350
#12
Qi Liu, Aihua Zhang, Liang Wang, Guangli Yan, Hongwei Zhao, Hui Sun, Shiyu Zou, Jinwei Han, Chung Wah Ma, Ling Kong, Xiaohang Zhou, Yang Nan, Xijun Wang
This work was designed to explore the effective components and targets of herbal medicine AS1350 and its effect on "Kidney-Yang Deficiency Syndrome" (KYDS) based on a chinmedomics strategy which is capable of directly discovering and predicting the effective components, and potential targets, of herbal medicine. Serum samples were analysed by UPLC-MS combined with pattern recognition analysis to identify the biomarkers related to the therapeutic effects. Interestingly, the effectiveness of AS1350 against KYDS was proved by the chinmedomics method and regulated the biomarkers and targeting of metabolic disorders...
December 2, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903595/lifelong-imbalanced-linoleic-alpha-linolenic-acid-intake-impairs-emotional-and-cognitive-behavior-in-adult-rats-via-changes-in-brain-endocannabinoid-system
#13
Erica Zamberletti, Fabiana Piscitelli, Valentina De Castro, Elisabetta Murru, Marina Gabaglio, Paola Colucci, Chiara Fanali, Pamela Prini, Tiziana Bisogno, Mauro Maccarrone, Patrizia Campolongo, Sebastiano Banni, Tiziana Rubino, Daniela Parolaro
Imbalanced dietary n-3 and n-6 PUFA content has been associated with a number of neurological conditions. Endocannabinoids are n-6 PUFA derivatives, whose brain concentrations are sensitive to modifications of fatty acid composition of the diet, and play a central role in the regulation of mood and cognition. As such, the endocannabinoid system appears to be an ideal candidate for mediating the effects of dietary fatty acids on mood and cognition. Lifelong administration of isocaloric alpha linolenic acid (ALA) deficient and enriched diets induced short-term memory deficits, whereas only dietary ALA enrichment altered emotional reactivity in adult male rats compared to animals fed a standard diet, balanced in ALA/linoleic (LA) ratio...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878518/comparative-efficacy-of-alpha-linolenic-acid-and-gamma-linolenic-acid-to-attenuate-valproic-acid-induced-autism-like-features
#14
Sneha Yadav, Virendra Tiwari, Manjari Singh, Rajnish K Yadav, Subhadeep Roy, Uma Devi, Swetlana Gautam, Jitendra Kumar Rawat, Mohd Nazam Ansari, Abdulaziz Sa Saeedan, Anand Prakash, Shubhini A Saraf, Gaurav Kaithwas
The present study was undertaken to elucidate the effect of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA, 18:3, ω-3) and gamma-linolenic acid (GLA, 18:3, ω-6) on experimental autism features induced by early prenatal exposure to valproic acid (VPA) in albino wistar pups. The pups were scrutinized on the accounts of behavioral, biochemical, and inflammatory markers, and the results suggested that the GLA can impart significant protection in comparison to ALA against VPA-induced autism features. When scrutinized histopathologically, the cerebellum of the GLA-treated animals was evident for more marked protection toward neuronal degeneration and neuronal loss in comparison to ALA...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814694/de-novo-transcriptome-sequencing-and-gene-expression-profiling-of-elymus-nutans-under-cold-stress
#15
Juanjuan Fu, Yanjun Miao, Linhui Shao, Tianming Hu, Peizhi Yang
BACKGROUND: Elymus nutans Griseb., is an important alpine perennial forage of Pooideae subfamily with strong inherited cold tolerance. To get a deeper insight into its molecular mechanisms of cold tolerance, we compared the transcriptome profiling by RNA-Seq in two genotypes of Elymus nutans Griseb. the tolerant Damxung (DX) and the sensitive Gannan (GN) under cold stress. RESULTS: The new E. nutans transcriptomes were assembled and comprised 200,520 and 181,331 transcripts in DX and GN, respectively...
November 4, 2016: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806134/associations-of-whole-blood-n-3-and-n-6-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-with-blood-pressure-in-children-and-adolescents-results-from-the-idefics-i-family-cohort
#16
Maike Wolters, Valeria Pala, Paola Russo, Patrizia Risé, Luis A Moreno, Stefaan De Henauw, Kirsten Mehlig, Toomas Veidebaum, Denés Molnár, Michael Tornaritis, Claudio Galli, Wolfgang Ahrens, Claudia Börnhorst
BACKGROUND: Polyunsaturated n-3 and n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are precursors of biologically active metabolites that affect blood pressure (BP) regulation. This study investigated the association of n-3 and n-6 PUFA and BP in children and adolescents. METHODS: In a subsample of 1267 children aged 2-9 years at baseline of the European IDEFICS (Identification and prevention of dietary- and lifestyle-induced health effects in children and infants) cohort whole blood fatty acids were measured by a validated gas chromatographic method...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27796616/human-milk-fatty-acid-composition-comparison-of-novel-dried-milk-spot-versus-standard-liquid-extraction-methods
#17
Michael C Rudolph, Bridget E Young, Kristina Harris Jackson, Nancy F Krebs, William S Harris, Paul S MacLean
Accurate assessment of the long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) content of human milk (HM) provides a powerful means to evaluate the FA nutrient status of breastfed infants. The conventional standard for FA composition analysis of HM is liquid extraction, trans-methylation, and analyte detection resolved by gas chromatography. This standard approach requires fresh or frozen samples, storage in deep freeze, organic solvents, and specialized equipment in processing and analysis. Further, HM collection is often impractical for many studies in the free living environment, particularly for studies in developing countries...
December 2016: Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27732912/the-proportion-of-total-c18-1-trans-fatty-acids-in-red-blood-cell-membranes-relates-to-carotid-plaque-prevalence
#18
Zoe Herreras, Montserrat Cofán, Marta Catalan, Carlos Calvo, Montserrat Pinyol, Antonio J Amor, Rosa Gilabert, Emilio Ros, Aleix Sala-Vila, Emilio Ortega
Consistent evidence supports the pro-atherogenic properties of dietary trans-fatty acids (TFAs). However, there are no clinical data on TFA intake and atheroma plaque. We cross sectionally investigated whether the proportion of total C18:1 TFA in red blood cells (RBCs), which mirrors dietary TFA intake, independently relates to carotid plaque prevalence in subjects with new-onset type 2 diabetes mellitus without prior cardiovascular disease (n=101, 56% men, mean age 61 years) and age- and sex-matched controls (n=96)...
September 7, 2016: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27718370/eicosapentaenoic-acid-reduces-membrane-fluidity-inhibits-cholesterol-domain-formation-and-normalizes-bilayer-width-in-atherosclerotic-like-model-membranes
#19
R Preston Mason, Robert F Jacob, Sandeep Shrivastava, Samuel C R Sherratt, Amitabha Chattopadhyay
Cholesterol crystalline domains characterize atherosclerotic membranes, altering vascular signaling and function. Omega-3 fatty acids reduce membrane lipid peroxidation and subsequent cholesterol domain formation. We evaluated non-peroxidation-mediated effects of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), other TG-lowering agents, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and other long-chain fatty acids on membrane fluidity, bilayer width, and cholesterol domain formation in model membranes. In membranes prepared at 1.5:1 cholesterol-to-phospholipid (C/P) mole ratio (creating pre-existing domains), EPA, glycyrrhizin, arachidonic acid, and alpha linolenic acid promoted the greatest reductions in cholesterol domains (by 65...
December 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27695771/alpha-linolenic-acid-treatment-during-oocyte-maturation-enhances-embryonic-development-by-influencing-mitogen-activated-protein-kinase-activity-and-intraoocyte-glutathione-content-in-pigs
#20
Y Lee, H Lee, B Park, F Elahi, J Lee, S T Lee, C K Park, S H Hyun, E Lee
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) treatment during in vitro maturation (IVM) on nuclear maturation, intraoocyte glutathione (GSH) content, meiotic progression, and developmental competence after parthenogenesis (PA) and somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) in pigs. Medium-199 containing 10% (vol/vol) porcine follicular fluid (PFF; PPF control) or 0.4% (wt/vol) fatty acid-free BSA (BSA control) was used for IVM. The proportion of oocytes reaching the metaphase II (MII) stage was not influenced by ALA treatment at various concentrations (50, 100, and 200 μ)...
August 2016: Journal of Animal Science
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