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alpha-linolenic acid

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538363/the-effect-of-alpha-linolenic-acid-on-glycemic-control-in-individuals-with-type-2-diabetes-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-clinical-trials
#1
Elena Jovanovski, Dandan Li, Hoang Vi Thanh Ho, Vladimir Djedovic, Any de Castro Ruiz Marques, Esra Shishtar, Sonia Blanco Mejia, John L Sievenpiper, Russell J de Souza, Lea Duvnjak, Vladimir Vuksan
BACKGROUND: Polyunsaturated fats (PUFAs) have been shown to reduce type 2 diabetes (T2DM) risk and improve insulin responsiveness in T2DM subjects, but whether the plant sources of omega-3 PUFA (alpha-linolenic acid [ALA]) have an effect on glycemic control requires further investigation. METHODS: The parameters of interest were glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), fasting blood glucose (FBG), fasting blood insulin (FBI), homeostatic model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), fructosamine, and glycated albumin...
May 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520897/alpha-linolenic-acid-protects-the-developmental-capacity-of-bovine-cumulus-oocyte-complexes-matured-under-lipotoxic-conditions-in-vitro
#2
W F A Marei, J De Bie, O Mohey-Elsaeed, E Wydooghe, P E J Bols, J L M R Leroy
Elevated concentrations of free fatty acids (FFAs), predominantly palmitic, stearic and oleic acids (PSO), exert detrimental effects on oocyte developmental competence. This study examined the effects of omega-3 alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) during in vitro oocyte maturation (IVM) in the presence of PSO on subsequent embryo development and quality, and the cellular mechanisms that might be involved. Bovine cumulus oocyte complexes (COCs) were supplemented during IVM with ALA (50 μM), PSO (425 μM), or PSO+ALA...
May 18, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504119/the-ratio-of-1-3-linoleic-acid-to-alpha-linolenic-acid-is-optimal-for-oligodendrogenesis-of-embryonic-neural-stem-cells
#3
Hossein Hejr, Majid Ghareghani, Kazem Zibara, Maryam Ghafari, Farzad Sadri, Zinab Salehpour, Azadeh Hamedi, Koresh Negintaji, Hassan Azari, Amir Ghanbari
During neural development, embryonic neural stem cells (eNSCs) differentiate toward glial, oligodendrocytic, and neuronal cells. Dysregulation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) induce a wide range of neurological and developmental disorders. In this study, we investigated the effect of various concentrations and ratios of linoleic acid (LA) and alpha linolenic acid (ALA), which belong respectively to omega-6 and omega-3 PUFAs, on the proliferation and differentiation of eNSCs.Results showed that low (25 and 50μM) or high (100 and 200μM) concentrations of ALA, but not LA, and the ratio of 1:3 of LA/ALA significantly increased neurospheres size, frequency and cell numbers, in comparison to controls...
May 11, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503432/nutrient-patterns-and-risk-of-cataract-a-case-control-study
#4
Fatemeh Sedaghat, Matin Ghanavati, Parisa Nezhad Hajian, Sara Hajishirazi, Mehdi Ehteshami, Bahram Rashidkhani
AIM: To assess the relation between nutrient patterns and cataract risk. METHODS: This is a hospital-based case-control study with 97 cataract patients and 198 matched controls. Dietary consumption was collected through a valid food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Nutrient patterns were detected by applying factor analysis. Unconditional logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratio (ORs) and 95%CIs. RESULTS: We extracted 5 main nutrient patterns...
2017: International Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492102/determinants-of-fluid-intelligence-in-healthy-aging-omega-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acid-status-and-frontoparietal-cortex-structure
#5
Marta K Zamroziewicz, Erick J Paul, Chris E Zwilling, Aron K Barbey
INTRODUCTION: Accumulating evidence indicates that cognitive decline depends not only upon changes in brain health, but critically, also upon nutritional status. Decline in fluid intelligence, one of the most debilitating aspects of cognitive aging, has been linked to omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) status; however, it is not known whether this phenomenon results from specific omega-3 PUFAs acting on particular aspects of brain health. Therefore, this study aims to explore whether particular patterns of omega-3 PUFAs influence fluid intelligence by supporting specific neural structures...
May 11, 2017: Nutritional Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474397/thymol-feed-supplementation-in-quail-alters-the-percentages-of-nutritionally-relevant-egg-yolk-fatty-acids-effects-throughout-incubation
#6
Maria E Fernandez, Raul H Marin, Agustin Luna, Maria P Zunino, Maria C Labaque
BACKGROUND: PUFA are crucial components of the yolk and particularly prone to oxidative damage generating losses of nutrients for embryonic development and influencing the quality of eggs for human consumption. We evaluated whether dietary thymol (a natural antioxidant) is related to changes in quail egg yolk total, triglycerides and phospholipids fatty acid composition (T, TG, PL, respectively) at different stages of embryo development. Thus, female Japanese quail (100d) were assigned to 1 of 2 dietary treatments (12 individuals each): CON (basal diet) or THY (0...
May 5, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465188/alpha-linolenic-acid-enriched-diacylglycerol-oil-does-not-promote-tumor-development-in-tongue-and-gastrointestinal-tract-tissues-in-a-medium-term-multi-organ-carcinogenesis-bioassay-using-male-f344-rat
#7
Hiroshi Honda, Taisuke Kawamoto, Yuko Doi, Shoji Matsumura, Yuichi Ito, Norio Imai, Naohiro Ikeda, Yukinori Mera, Osamu Morita
Alpha-linolenic acid (ALA)-enriched diacylglycerol (DAG) oil is an edible oil enriched with DAG (>80%) and ALA (>50%). The present study investigated whether ALA-DAG oil promotes tumorigenesis in the tongue and gastrointestinal tract, using a rat medium-term multi-organ carcinogenesis bioassay model. Rats were treated with five genotoxic carcinogens to induce multi-organ tumorigenesis until week 4, and from 1 week after withdrawal, fed a semi-synthetic diet (AIN-93G) containing ALA-DAG oil at concentrations of 0, 13,750, 27,500, and 55,000 ppm...
April 29, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450497/integrating-3-omics-data-analyze-rat-lung-tissue-of-copd-states-and-medical-intervention-by-delineation-of-molecular-and-pathway-alterations
#8
Jiansheng Li, Peng Zhao, Liping Yang, Ya Li, Yange Tian, Suyun Li
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a serious health problem. However, molecular pathogenesis of COPD remains unknown. Here, we explored the molecular effects of cigarette smoke and bacterial infection in lung tissues of COPD rats. We also investigated therapeutic effects of aminophylline (APL) on the COPD rats, and integrated transcriptome, proteome, and metabolome data for a global view of molecular mechanisms of COPD progression. Using molecular function and pathway analyses, the genes and proteins regulated in COPD and APL-treated rats were mainly attributed to oxidoreductase, antioxidant activity, energy and fatty acid metabolism...
April 27, 2017: Bioscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439746/plasma-phosphatidylethanolamine-and-triacylglycerol-fatty-acid-concentrations-are-altered-in-major-depressive-disorder-patients-with-seasonal-pattern
#9
Yurika Otoki, Marie Hennebelle, Anthony J Levitt, Kiyotaka Nakagawa, Walter Swardfager, Ameer Y Taha
Disturbances in peripheral and brain lipid metabolism, including the omega-3 fatty acid docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), have been reported in major depressive disorder (MDD). However, these changes have yet to be confirmed in MDD with seasonal pattern (MDD-s), a subtype of recurrent MDD. The present exploratory study quantified plasma plasmalogen and diacyl-phospholipid species, and fatty acids within total phospholipids, cholesteryl esters, triacylglycerols and free fatty acids in non-medicated MDD-s participants (n = 9) during euthymia in summer or fall, and during depression in winter in order to screen for potential high sensitivity lipid biomarkers...
April 24, 2017: Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418808/effects-of-maternal-supplementation-with-omega-3-precursors-on-human-milk-composition
#10
Evelyne Mazurier, Virginie Rigourd, Paul Perez, Rachel Buffin, Leslie Couedelo, Carole Vaysse, Wafae Belcadi, Rémi Sitta, Fabienne Nacka, Delphine Lamireau, Gilles Cambonie, Jean-Charles Picaud, Claude Billeaud
BACKGROUND: Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) are important for newborn neurosensory development. Supplementation of breastfeeding mothers' diets with omega-3 PUFAs, such as alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), may increase their concentration in human milk. Research aim: This study aimed to assess human milk composition after 15-day supplementation regimens containing either omega-3 PUFAs or olive oil, which does not provide ALA. METHODS: A multicenter factorial randomized trial was conducted with four groups of breastfeeding women, with each group containing 19 to 22 women...
May 2017: Journal of Human Lactation: Official Journal of International Lactation Consultant Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410665/impact-of-dietary-precursor-ala-versus-preformed-dha-on-fatty-acid-profiles-of-eggs-liver-and-adipose-tissue-and-expression-of-genes-associated-with-hepatic-lipid-metabolism-in-laying-hens
#11
M Neijat, P Eck, J D House
Dietary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA), including alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) and preformed longer chain PUFA (LCPUFA, particularly docosahexaenoic acid, DHA) differ in their egg LCPUFA enrichment efficiency. However, mechanisms leading to these differences are unclear. To this end, omega-3 PUFA contents in different lipid classes, including triacylglycerol (TAG) and total phospholipid (PL) in yolk, liver and adipose, as well as the expression of key hepatic enzymes in lipid metabolism were evaluated in laying hens in response to changes in dietary supply...
April 2017: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409336/dietary-docosahexaenoic-acid-and-trans-10-cis-12-conjugated-linoleic-acid-differentially-alter-oxylipin-profiles-in-mouse-periuterine-adipose-tissue
#12
Yuriko Adkins, Benjamin J Belda, Theresa L Pedersen, Dawn M Fedor, Bruce E Mackey, John W Newman, Darshan S Kelley
Diets containing high n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) decrease inflammation and the incidence of chronic diseases including cardiovascular disease and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease while trans-fatty acids (TFA) intake increases the incidence of these conditions. Some health benefits of n-3 PUFA are mediated through the impact of their oxygenated metabolites, i.e. oxylipins. The TFA, trans-10, cis-12-conjugated linoleic acid (CLA; 18:2n-6) is associated with adipose tissue (AT) inflammation, oxidative stress, and wasting...
April 13, 2017: Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398239/genetic-risk-score-of-nine-type-2-diabetes-risk-variants-that-interact-with-erythrocyte-phospholipid-alpha-linolenic-acid-for-type-2-diabetes-in-chinese-hans-a-case-control-study
#13
Ju-Sheng Zheng, Kelei Li, Tao Huang, Yanqiu Chen, Hua Xie, Danfeng Xu, Jianqin Sun, Duo Li
Modulation of n-3 fatty acids on genetic susceptibility to type 2 diabetes (T2D) is still not clear. In a case-control study of 622 Chinese T2D patients and 293 healthy controls, a genetic risk score (GRS) was created based on nine T2D genetic variants. Logistic regression was used to examine the interaction of the GRS with erythrocyte phospholipid n-3 fatty acids for T2D risk. Every 1-unit (corresponding to 1 risk allele) increase in GRS was associated with 12% (Odds ratio (OR): 1.12; 95% confidence intervals (CI): 1...
April 11, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395666/hydroxytyrosol-prevents-reduction-in-liver-activity-of-%C3%AE-5-and-%C3%AE-6-desaturases-oxidative-stress-and-depletion-in-long-chain-polyunsaturated-fatty-acid-content-in-different-tissues-of-high-fat-diet-fed-mice
#14
Rodrigo Valenzuela, Francisca Echeverria, Macarena Ortiz, Miguel Ángel Rincón-Cervera, Alejandra Espinosa, María Catalina Hernandez-Rodas, Paola Illesca, Alfonso Valenzuela, Luis A Videla
BACKGROUND: Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, C20:5n-3), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6n-3) and arachidonic acid (AA, C20:4n-6) are long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFAs) with relevant roles in the organism. EPA and DHA are synthesized from the precursor alpha-linolenic acid (ALA, C18:3n-3), whereas AA is produced from linoleic acid (LA, C18:2n-6) through the action of Δ5 and Δ6-desaturases. High-fat diet (HFD) decreases the activity of both desaturases and LCPUFA accretion in liver and other tissues...
April 11, 2017: Lipids in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391893/red-blood-cell-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-and-mortality-in-the-women-s-health-initiative-memory-study
#15
William S Harris, Juhua Luo, James V Pottala, Mark A Espeland, Karen L Margolis, Joann E Manson, Lu Wang, Theodore M Brasky, Jennifer G Robinson
BACKGROUND: The prognostic value of circulating polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) levels is unclear. OBJECTIVES: To determine the associations between red blood cell (RBC) PUFA levels and risk for death. METHODS: This prospective cohort study included 6501 women aged 65 to 80 years who participated in the Women's Health Initiative Memory Study (enrolment began 1996). RBC PUFA levels were measured at baseline and expressed as a percent of total RBC PUFAs...
January 2017: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390839/validation-of-an-equation-predicting-highly-unsaturated-fatty-acid-hufa-compositions-of-human-blood-fractions-from-dietary-intakes-of-both-hufas-and-their-precursors
#16
Sarah E Strandjord, Bill Lands, Joseph R Hibbeln
Proportions of omega-3 (n-3) and omega-6 (n-6) in 20- and 22-carbon highly unsaturated fatty acids with 3 or more double bonds (HUFA) accumulated in tissue HUFA (e.g., the %n-6 in HUFA) are biomarkers reflecting intakes of n-6 and n-3 fatty acids. An empirical equation, referred to here as the Lands' Equation, was developed previously to use dietary intakes of n-6 and n-3 HUFA and their 18-carbon precursors to estimate the %n-6 in HUFA of humans. From the PubMed database, we identified clinical trials reporting (a) dietary intake of at least linoleic acid (18:2n-6) and alpha-linolenic acid (18:3n-3), and (b) the amounts of at least arachidonic acid (20:4n-6), eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3), and docosahexaenoic acid (22:6n-3) in lipids of plasma, serum, or red blood cell...
March 8, 2017: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369919/highly-sensitive-method-for-the-quantification-of-trans-linolenic-acid-isomers-in-trilinolenin-of-edible-oils-using-an-ionic-liquid-capillary-column
#17
Qin Guo, Fan Jiang, Jing Jin, Qingpeng Li, Feng Wang, Qiang Wang, Yiming Ha
BACKGROUND: The polarities of linolenic acid isomers are very similar, and only a few studies to date have attempted to separate α-linolenic acid (ALA) isomers completely. The aim of this study was to fill this gap by developing and validating an accurate method for the analysis of ALA isomers in trilinolenin at 200, 220 and 240 °C using a gas chromatograph-flame ionization detector equipped with an SLB-IL111 capillary column. RESULTS: Results showed that eight ALA isomer standards were separated effectively using these optimized gas chromatographic conditions...
March 30, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325998/glucomannan-and-glucomannan-plus-spirulina-enriched-pork-affect-liver-fatty-acid-profile-ldl-receptor-expression-and-antioxidant-status-in-zucker-fa-fa-rats-fed-atherogenic-diets
#18
Laura González-Torres, Cátia Matos, Miguel Vázquez-Velasco, Jorge A Santos-López, Iria Sánchez-Martínez, Camino García-Fernández, Sara Bastida, Juana Benedí, Francisco J Sánchez-Muniz
We evaluated the effects of glucomannan or glucomannan plus spirulina-restructured pork (RP) on liver fatty acid profile, desaturase/elongase enzyme activities and oxidative status of Zucker fa/fa rats for seven weeks. Control (C), glucomannan (G) and glucomannan/spirulina (GS)-RP; HC (cholesterol-enriched control), HG and HGS (cholesterol-enriched glucomannan and glucomannan/spirulina-RP) experimental diets were tested. Increased metabolic syndrome markers were found in C, G and GS rats. Cholesterol feeding increased liver size, fat, and cholesterol and reduced antioxidant enzyme levels and expressions...
2017: Food & Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299384/impairment-of-systemic-dha-synthesis-affects-macrophage-plasticity-and-polarization-implications-for-dha-supplementation-during-inflammation
#19
Emanuela Talamonti, Anna M Pauter, Abolfazl Asadi, Alexander W Fischer, Valerio Chiurchiù, Anders Jacobsson
Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) is an omega-3 fatty acid obtained from the diet or synthesized from alpha-linolenic acid through the action of fatty acid elongases (ELOVL) and desaturases. DHA plays important roles in the central nervous system as well as in peripheral organs and is the precursor of several molecules that regulate resolution of inflammation. In the present study, we questioned whether impaired synthesis of DHA affected macrophage plasticity and polarization both in vitro and in vivo models. For this we investigated the activation status and inflammatory response of bone marrow-derived M1 and M2 macrophages obtained from mice deficient of Elovl2 (Elovl2(-/-)), a key enzyme for DHA synthesis in mammals...
March 15, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294699/chia-oil-enriched-restructured-pork-effects-on-oxidative-and-inflammatory-status-of-aged-rats-fed-high-cholesterol-high-fat-diets
#20
Jorge Arturo Santos-López, Alba Garcimartín, María Elvira López-Oliva, Mirandeli Bautista-Ávila, María José González-Muñoz, Sara Bastida, Juana Benedí, Francisco José Sánchez-Muniz
Chia oil has the highest recognized α-linolenic acid (ALA) content. ALA is associated with beneficial changes in plasma lipids and the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. Present article aims to analyze the effect of Chia oil-enriched restructured pork (RP) on aged rats in a nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) model. Groups of six male Wistar rats (1-year old) were fed the experimental diets: control RP diet (C) noncholesterol high saturated; cholesterol-enriched high-saturated fat/high-cholesterol control RP diet (HC) with added cholesterol and cholic acid; and Chia oil- or Hydroxytyrosol RP cholesterol-enriched high-saturated fat/high cholesterol (CHIA and HxT)...
May 2017: Journal of Medicinal Food
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