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alpha-linolenic acid

Christian S Bork, Stine K Venø, Søren Lundbye-Christensen, Marianne U Jakobsen, Anne Tjønneland, Erik B Schmidt, Kim Overvad
Background: Intake of the plant-derived omega-3 (n-3) fatty acid alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) may reduce the risk of ischemic stroke. Objective: We have investigated the associations between dietary intake of ALA and the risk of ischemic stroke and ischemic stroke subtypes. Methods: This was a follow-up study. A total of 57,053 participants aged 50-64 y were enrolled into the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health cohort between 1993 and 1997. Intake of ALA was assessed by a validated semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
Arti Rani, Asha Panwar, Manjary Sathe, Karunakara Alageri Chandrashekhara, Anil Kush
Alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) deficiency and a skewed n6:n3 fatty acid ratio in the diet is a major explanation for the prevalence of cardiovascular diseases and inflammatory/autoimmune diseases. There is mounting evidence of the health benefits associated with omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC PUFA's). Although present in abundance in fish, a number of factors limit our consumption of fish based omega-3 PUFA's. To name a few, overexploitation of wild fish stocks has reduced their sustainability due to increased demand of aquaculture for fish oil and meal; the pollution of marine food webs has raised concerns over the ingestion of toxic substances such as heavy metals and dioxins; vegetarians do not consider fish-based sources for supplemental nutrition...
May 11, 2018: Transgenic Research
B Dziedzic, D Bewicz-Binkowska, E Zgorzynska, D Stulczewski, L Wieteska, B Kaza, A Walczewska
The fads2 gene encoding delta6-desaturase, the rate-limiting enzyme in the LCPUFA biosynthesis is expressed in astrocytes. Dietary fatty acids, which cross the blood-brain barrier may regulate the transcription of lipogenic enzymes through activation of transcription factors such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs). The PPARs form the transcription complex with retinoid X receptors (RXRs) that are activated by 9-cis retinol, a metabolite of vitamin A (VA). The study examines whether challenge of astrocytes with VA, prior 24-hour treatment with palmitic acid (PA), alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) or docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) has the effect on the FADS2 expression...
May 10, 2018: Physiological Research
Anita Kaliszewicz, Karolina Jarząbek, Justyna Szymańska, Kamil Karaban, Maciej Sierakowski
Hydra, as sit-and-wait predators with limited food selectivity, could serve as model organisms for the analysis of the effect of a particular dietary component on growth and reproduction. We investigated the effect of food quality and of diets enriched with palmitic (PAM) or α-linolenic acid (ALA) on the life history traits of two hydra species: Hydra oligactis and Hydra vulgaris. We tested the hypothesis that a diet enriched with polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) can stimulate growth and reproduction in simple metazoans with a sit-and-wait type of predatory strategy...
May 9, 2018: Lipids
Varadarajan Venkateshwari, Anitha Vijayakumar, Arun Kumar Vijayakumar, L Prasanna Anjaneya Reddy, Malathi Srinivasan, Ram Rajasekharan
Portulaca leaves serve as an alternative bioresource for edible PUFAs. Transcriptome data provide information to explore Portulaca as a model system for galactolipids, leaf lipid metabolism, and PUFA-rich designer lipids. Poly-unsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are gaining importance due to their innumerable health benefits, and hence, understanding their biosynthesis in plants has attained prominence in recent years. The most common source of PUFAs is of marine origin. Although reports have identified Portulaca oleracea (purslane) as a leaf source of omega-3 fatty acids in the form of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), the mechanism of ALA accumulation and its distribution into various lipids has not been elucidated...
May 7, 2018: Planta
Alex Rajna, Heather Gibling, Ousseynou Sarr, Sarthak Matravadia, Graham P Holloway, David M Mutch
Evidence shows that proteins secreted from skeletal muscle influence a broad range of metabolic signaling pathways. We previously reported that essential polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) improved whole-body glucose homeostasis in obese Zucker rats; however, the mechanisms underlying these benefits remain enigmatic. While PUFA and obesity influence skeletal muscle function, their effects on the secretome are unknown. The aim of this work was to determine if improvements in whole-body glucose homeostasis in obese Zucker rats fed diets supplemented with either linoleic acid (LA) or alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) for 12-wks are related to changes in the skeletal muscle secretome...
May 4, 2018: Physiological Genomics
Makan Pourmasoumi, Nooshin Vosoughi, Seyedeh-Masoumeh Derakhshandeh-Rishehri, Mostafa Assarroudi, Motahar Heidari-Beni
The evidence on the association between omega-3 consumption and epileptic seizure is inconsistent. Therefore, we have conducted this systematic review to clarify the possible relationship. Original articles were searched in electronic databases (PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar, Cochrane, and Ovid) and by reviewing the reference lists of retrieved articles. The main evaluated outcome was the epileptic seizures. We included the English language studies that reported the original data on the effect of omega-3 on epileptic human patients...
2018: International Journal of Preventive Medicine
Siri S Horn, Bente Ruyter, Theo H E Meuwissen, Borghild Hillestad, Anna K Sonesson
BACKGROUND: The replacement of fish oil (FO) and fishmeal with plant ingredients in the diet of farmed Atlantic salmon has resulted in reduced levels of the health-promoting long-chain polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids (n-3 LC-PUFA) eicosapentaenoic (EPA; 20:5n-3) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6n-3) in their filets. Previous studies showed the potential of selective breeding to increase n-3 LC-PUFA levels in salmon tissues, but knowledge on the genetic parameters for individual muscle fatty acids (FA) and their relationships with other traits is still lacking...
May 2, 2018: Genetics, Selection, Evolution: GSE
Aline Ferain, Nancy De Saeyer, Yvan Larondelle, Jean-François Rees, Cathy Debier, Karel A C De Schamphelaere
Long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) such as eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3) affect zooplankton fitness and ability to cope with environmental stressors. However, the impact of LC-PUFAs on zooplankton sensitivity to chemical stressors is unknown. Here, we aimed to document the interaction between EPA and cadmium (Cd), as model chemical stressor, in Daphnia magna. A life-history experiment was performed in which daphnid neonates were raised into adulthood on three diets of different lipid composition: (i) algae mix; (ii) algae mix supplemented with control liposomes; (iii) algae mix supplemented with liposomes containing EPA...
April 17, 2018: Chemosphere
Lizhi Chen, Lei Wang, Herong Wang, Ruhao Sun, Lili You, Yusheng Zheng, Yijun Yuan, Dongdong Li
In higher plants, ω-3 fatty acid desaturases are the key enzymes in the biosynthesis of alpha-linolenic acid (18:3), which plays key roles in plant metabolism as a structural component of both storage and membrane lipids. Here, the first ω-3 fatty acid desaturase gene was identified and characterized from oil palm. The bioinformatic analysis indicated it encodes a temperature-sensitive chloroplast ω-3 fatty acid desaturase, designated as EgFAD8. The expression analysis revealed that EgFAD8 is highly expressed in the oil palm leaves, when compared with the expression in the mesocarp...
2018: PloS One
Philippe Guesnet, Jessica Tressou, Benjamin Buaud, Noëmie Simon, Stéphane Pasteau
PURPOSE: This paper deals with the dietary daily intakes of main polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in French children and adolescents. METHODS: Dietary intakes of main PUFA were determined from a general French population of 1500 children (3-10 years) and adolescents (11-17 years) by using the most recent set of national robust data on food (National Survey INCA 2 performed in 2006 and 2007). RESULTS: Main results showed that mean daily intakes of total fat and n-6 PUFA linoleic acid (LA, 18:2n-6) were close to current recommended values for children and adolescent populations...
April 23, 2018: European Journal of Nutrition
Radoslava Vlčková, Zuzana Andrejčáková, Drahomíra Sopková, Zdenka Hertelyová, Katarzyna Kozioł, Marek Koziorowski, Soňa Gancarčíková
The aim of this study was to examine the influence of dietary flaxseed on the endocrine and ovarian functions of weanling gilts challenged with E. coli and Coronavirus infections treated with dietary probiotic cheeses and to understand the possible mechanisms of its effects on ovarian function. Probiotics were used as a natural substitution for antibiotics and 10% dietary flaxseed is an effective prebiotic which supports the action of probiotics and has other beneficial effects on the organism. Probiotics with or without flaxseed were fed to weanling gilts starting 10 days before and lasting up until 14 days after weaning...
April 18, 2018: Animal Reproduction Science
Jing Sun, Ming Chen, Mengyuan Zhu, Yu Jiang, Jiasong Meng, Daqiu Zhao, Jun Tao
The FAD8 gene catalyzes the conversion of diene fatty acids to triene fatty acids and is a key enzyme that determines the synthesis of alpha-linolenic acid. In this study, the full-length cDNAs of FAD8-1 , FAD8-2 , and FAD8-3 are cloned from Paeonia ostii T. Hong & J. X. Zhang and named as PoFAD8-1 , PoFAD8-2 , and PoFAD8-3 . Their open reading frame is 1203 bp, 1152 bp, and 1353 bp which encoded 400, 371, and 450 amino acids. The molecular weights of the amino acids are 46 kDa, 43 kDa, and 51 kDa while the isoelectric points are 7...
April 17, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Ah Young Lee, Myoung Hee Lee, Sanghyun Lee, Eun Ju Cho
Therapeutic approaches for neurodegeneration, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), have been widely studied. One of the critical hallmarks of AD is accumulation of amyloid beta (Aβ). Aβ induces neurotoxicity and releases inflammatory mediators or cytokines through activation of glial cell, and these pathological features are observed in AD patient's brain. The purpose of this study is to investigate the protective effect of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) on Aβ25-35 -induced neurotoxicity in C6 glial cells. Exposure of C6 glial cells to 50 μM 25-35 caused cell death, over-production of nitric oxide (NO), and pro-inflammatory cytokines release [interleukin (IL)-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α], while treatment of ALA increased cell viability and markedly attenuated Aβ25-35 -induced excessive production of NO and those inflammatory cytokines...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
M Al-Hinai, A Baylin, M M Tellez-Rojo, A Cantoral, A Ettinger, M Solano-González, K E Peterson, W Perng
This study investigates relations of maternal N-3 and N-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) intake during pregnancy with offspring body mass index (BMI), height z-score and metabolic risk (fasting glucose, C-peptide, leptin, lipid profile) during peripuberty (8-14 years) among 236 mother-child pairs in Mexico. We used food frequency questionnaire data to quantify trimester-specific intake of N-3 alpha-linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA); N-6 linoleic acid and arachidonic acid (AA); and N-6:N-3 (AA:EPA+DHA), which accounts for the fact that the two PUFA families have opposing effects on physiology...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
Alba du Toit, Maryna de Wit, Arno Hugo
Mucilage extracted from cactus pear cladodes is a hydrocolloid gum. It is a novel, natural, low-kilojoule, cost-effective texture-modifying ingredient in functional food products. Yet, the cultivar with the most optimal nutrient content and the preferred harvest times are as yet unknown. For this reason, mucilage from three Opuntia ficus-indica (Algerian, Morado and Gymno-Carpo) and one Opuntia robusta (Robusta) cultivar were investigated to determine their nutrient content over six months. Nutrients that contribute energy (10...
April 16, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Aline Ferain, Chloé Bonnineau, Ineke Neefs, Krishna Das, Yvan Larondelle, Jean-François Rees, Cathy Debier, Benjamin Lemaire
Lipids, and their constitutive fatty acids, are key nutrients for fish health as they provide energy, maintain cell structure, are precursors of signalling molecules and act as nuclear receptor ligands. These specific roles may be of crucial importance in a context of exposure to pollutants. We recently showed that the fatty acid profile of rainbow trout liver cell phospholipids modulates sensitivity to an acute methylmercury challenge. In order to investigate mechanisms of effects, we herein tested whether specific polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) may protect cells from methylmercury through decreasing intracellular mercury accumulation and/or enhancing cellular defences (e...
March 22, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
Ah Young Lee, Ji Myung Choi, Myoung Hee Lee, Jaemin Lee, Sanghyun Lee, Eun Ju Cho
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Oxidative stress plays a key role in neuronal cell damage, which is associated with neurodegenerative disease. The aim of present study was to investigate the neuroprotective effects of perilla oil (PO) and its active component, alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), against hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 )-induced oxidative stress in SH-SY5Y neuronal cells. MATERIALS/METHODS: The SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells exposed to 250 µM H2 O2 for 24 h were treated with different concentrations of PO (25, 125, 250 and 500 µg/mL) and its major fatty acid, ALA (1, 2...
April 2018: Nutrition Research and Practice
Junhui Guo, Yun Zhao, Xingpeng Jiang, Rui Li, Hao Xie, Leixin Ge, Bo Xie, Xu Yang, Luoping Zhang
Exposure to Formaldehyde (FA) results in many pathophysiological symptoms, however the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. Given the complicated modulatory role of intestinal microbiota on human health, we hypothesized that interactions between FA and the gut microbiome may account for FA's toxicity. Balb/c mice were allocated randomly to three groups: a control group, a methanol group (0.1 and 0.3 ng/mL MeOH subgroups), and an FA group (1 and 3 ng/mL FA subgroups). Groups of either three or six mice were used for the control or experiment...
April 3, 2018: Genes
Mengna Hou, Tiankuo Liu, Bo Zhang, Boru Chen, Qing Li, Xiaoxue Liu, Chao Lu, Zhanzhong Wang, Leping Dang
α-Linolenic acid (ALA)-loaded microemulsion (ME) was prepared from isoamyl acetate, polyoxyethylene ether 35 (EL-35), ethanol and water. The dynamic phase behaviour was simulated using dissipative particle dynamics (DPD), which showed that spherical ME was formed at water/oil ratios of 1:9 and 9:1, while a lamellar structure with distinctive water-course and oil layer appeared at ratios of 3:7, 5:5, and 7:3. Phase stabilizing and anti-oxidation effect of environmental stresses on ALA-loaded microemulsion were investigated...
August 1, 2018: Food Chemistry
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