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alpha-linolenic acid

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934766/new-zealand-women-have-suboptimal-intakes-of-long-chain-omega-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-during-pregnancy-a-cross-sectional-study
#1
Michele Eickstaedt, Kathryn L Beck, Cathryn A Conlon
AIM: To investigate dietary intakes and food sources of polyunsaturated fatty acids in New Zealand pregnant women. METHOD: Women (n=596) 16 years plus in trimester three of pregnancy completed an online food frequency questionnaire validated for omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids. RESULTS: Estimated median [25th, 75th percentile] intakes of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids were: 1,300 [790, 2,120] mg/d alpha-linolenic acid (adequate intake 1,000mg/d); 220 [120, 520] mg/d total long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (adequate intake 115mg/d); and 110 [50, 250] mg/d docosahexaenoic acid (recommended 200mg/d)...
September 22, 2017: New Zealand Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928514/component-analysis-of-nutritionally-rich-chloroplasts-recovery-from-conventional-and-unconventional-green-plant-species
#2
Mohamed A Gedi, Rhianna Briars, Felius Yuseli, Noorazwani Zainol, Randa Darwish, Andrew M Salter, David A Gray
A study of the literature indicates that chloroplasts synthesise a range of molecules, many of which have nutritional value for humans, but the nutritional credentials of chloroplasts recovered from plant cells are not established. Chloroplast-rich-fractions (CRFs) were prepared from green plant species and the macro- and micro-nutrient composition compared with the whole leaf materials (WLMs). The results indicated that, on a dry weight basis, CRF material from a range of green biomass was enriched in lipids and proteins, and in a range of micronutrients compared with the WLM...
August 2017: Journal of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916975/flaxseed-oil-supplementation-improve-gene-expression-levels-of-ppar-%C3%AE-lp-a-il-1-and-tnf-%C3%AE-in-type-2-diabetic-patients-with-coronary-heart-disease
#3
Ali Akbar Hashemzadeh, Nikoo Nasoohi, Fariba Raygan, Esmat Aghadavod, Elmira Akbari, Mohsen Taghizadeh, Mohammad Reza Memarzadeh, Zatollah Asemi
This study was carried out to determine the effects of flaxseed oil administration on gene expression levels related to insulin, lipid and inflammation in overweight diabetic patients with coronary heart disease (CHD). This randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was conducted among 60 diabetic patients with CHD. Subjects were randomly allocated into two groups to intake either 1000 mg n-3 fatty acid from flaxseed oil containing 400 mg α-Linolenic acid [ALA (18:3n-3)] (n = 30) or placebo (n = 30) twice a day for 12 weeks...
September 15, 2017: Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899689/enhanced-expression-of-genes-related-to-xenobiotic-metabolism-in-the-skin-of-patients-with-atopic-dermatitis-but-not-with-ichthyosis-vulgaris
#4
Stefan Blunder, Sulev Kõks, Gea Kõks, Ene Reimann, Hubert Hackl, Robert Gruber, Verena Moosbrugger-Martinz, Matthias Schmuth, Sandrine Dubrac
Previous transcriptome analyses underscored the importance of immunological and skin barrier abnormalities in atopic dermatitis (AD). We sought to identify novel pathogenic pathways involved in AD by comparing the transcriptomes of AD patients stratified for filaggrin (FLG) null mutations to those of both healthy donors and patients with ichthyosis vulgaris (IV). We applied RNA-sequencing to analyze the whole transcriptome of nonlesional skin. Six-hundred and seven genes (476 up-regulated and 131 down-regulated by greater than 2-fold) and one-hundred and ninety-three genes (172 up-regulated and 21 down-regulated by greater than 2-fold) were differentially expressed when all AD or IV patients were compared to healthy donors, respectively...
September 9, 2017: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28846858/effects-of-dietary-induced-alterations-in-rat-brain-docosahexaenoic-acid-accrual-on-phospholipid-metabolism-and-mitochondrial-bioenergetics-an-in%C3%A2-vivo-31-p-mrs-study
#5
Diana M Lindquist, Ruth H Asch, Jennifer D Schurdak, Robert K McNamara
Evidence from (31)P magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((31)P MRS) studies suggest that different psychiatric disorders, which typically emerge during adolescence and young adulthood, are associated with abnormalities in mitochondrial bioenergetics and membrane phospholipid metabolism. These disorders are also associated with deficits in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA), including docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) which accumulates in mitochondrial and synaptic membranes. The present study investigated the effects of dietary-induced alterations in brain DHA accrual during adolescence on phospholipid metabolism and bioenergetics in the adult rat brain using (31)P MRS...
August 24, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844093/alpha-linolenic-acid-treatment-reduces-the-contusion-and-prevents-the-development-of-anxiety-like-behavior-induced-by-a-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-in-rats
#6
Taiza H Figueiredo, Carolina L Harbert, Volodymyr Pidoplichko, Camila P Almeida-Suhett, Hongna Pan, Katia Rossetti, Maria F M Braga, Ann M Marini
Approximately, 1.7 million Americans suffer a TBI annually and TBI is a major cause of death and disability. The majority of the TBI cases are of the mild type and while most patients recover completely from mild TBI (mTBI) about 10% result in persistent symptoms and some result in lifelong disability. Anxiety disorders are the second most common diagnosis post-TBI. Of note, TBI-induced anxiety disorders are difficult to treat and remain a chronic condition suggesting that new therapies are needed. Previous work from our laboratory demonstrated that a mild TBI induced an anxiety-like phenotype, a key feature of the human condition, associated with loss of GABAergic interneurons and hyperexcitability in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) in rodents 7 and 30 days after a controlled cortical impact (CCI) injury...
August 26, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807874/docosahexaenoic-acid-increases-the-expression-of-oxidative-stress-induced-growth-inhibitor-1-through-the-pi3k-akt-nrf2-signaling-pathway-in-breast-cancer-cells
#7
Chia-Han Tsai, You-Cheng Shen, Haw-Wen Chen, Kai-Li Liu, Jer-Wei Chang, Pei-Yin Chen, Chen-Yu Lin, Hsien-Tsung Yao, Chien-Chun Li
Oxidative stress-induced growth inhibitor 1 (OSGIN1), a tumor suppressor, inhibits cell proliferation and induces cell death. N-6 and n-3 PUFAs protect against breast cancer, but the molecular mechanisms of this effect are not clear. We investigated the effect of n-6 and n-3 PUFAs on OSGIN1 expression and whether OSGIN1 is involved in PUFA-induced apoptosis in breast cancer cells. We used 100 μM of n-6 PUFAs including arachidonic acid, linoleic acid, and gamma-linolenic acid and n-3 PUFAs including alpha-linolenic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)...
August 12, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802571/omega-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-improve-endothelial-function-in-humans-at-risk-for-atherosclerosis-a-review
#8
REVIEW
Kayla R Zehr, Mary K Walker
Epidemiology studies and clinical trials show that omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) can prevent atherosclerotic morbidity and evidence suggests this may be mediated by improving endothelial dysfunction. Endothelial dysfunction is characterized by reduced vasodilation and a pro-inflammatory, pro-thrombotic state, and is an early pathological event in the development of atherosclerosis. Flow-mediated dilation (FMD), a gold standard for assessing endothelial dysfunction, is a predictor of future cardiovascular events and coronary heart disease risk...
August 9, 2017: Prostaglandins & Other Lipid Mediators
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802112/evaluation-of-%C3%AE-linolenic-acid-for-freezability-and-in%C3%A2-vivo-fertility-of-nili-ravi-bubalus-bubalis-buffalo-semen
#9
R Ejaz, M S Ansari, B A Rakha, S Qadeer, A U Husna, S Akhter
Alpha linolenic acid (ALA) is integral component of cell membrane that protects the cell in stressful events and involves in many metabolic pathways. It was hypothesized that ALA have the ability to protect the structural and functional integrity of buffalo spermatozoa during freeze-thawing. Therefore, study was designed to evaluate ALA supplementation (0, 5, 10 and 20 ng/mL) in extender on freezability and in vivo fertility of buffalo bull spermatozoa. Semen from three adult Nili-Ravi buffalo bulls of similar age was collected with artificial vagina (42 °C) for five weeks (replicates; N = 30)...
July 27, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800093/omega-3-fatty-acids-and-cardiovascular-disease-summary-of-the-2016-agency-of-healthcare-research-and-quality-evidence-review
#10
REVIEW
Ethan M Balk, Alice H Lichtenstein
We summarize the 2016 update of the 2004 Agency of Healthcare Research and Quality's evidence review of omega-3 fatty acids and cardiovascular disease (CVD). The overall findings for the effects of marine oil supplements on intermediate CVD outcomes remain largely unchanged. There is high strength of evidence, based on numerous trials, of no significant effects of marine oils on systolic or diastolic blood pressures, but there are small, yet statistically significant increases in high density lipoprotein and low density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations...
August 11, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760048/protective-effect-of-alpha-linolenic-acid-on-gentamicin-induced-ototoxicity-in-mice
#11
Halil Mahir Kaplan, Ergin Şingirik, Kıvılcım Eren Erdoğan, Figen Doran
Alpha-linolenic acid is one of the fatty acids known as omega 3. Previous studies have shown the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of alpha-linolenic acid, which prevented cell damage by inhibiting apoptotic pathway. Also, it is known that gentamicin activates apoptotic mediators and causes necrosis in the kidney. Due to this reason, we planned a study to evaluate the protective effects of alpha-linolenic acid on gentamicin induced ototoxicity by evaluating inflammation and apoptotic mediators. For this purpose, 100 mg/kg gentamicin (i...
July 31, 2017: Somatosensory & Motor Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753987/chemical-analysis-of-astragali-complanati-semen-and-its-hypocholesterolemic-effect-using-serum-metabolomics-based-on-gas-chromatography-mass-spectrometry
#12
Tung Ting Sham, Huan Zhang, Daniel Kam Wah Mok, Shun Wan Chan, Jianhong Wu, Songyun Tang, Chi On Chan
The hypocholesterolemic protective effect of the dried seed of Astragalus complanatus (ACS) was investigated in rats fed with normal diet, high cholesterol diet (HCD), and HCD plus 70% ethanol extract of ACS (600 mg/kg/day) by oral gavage for four weeks. ACS extract was tested to be rich in antioxidants, which may be contributed to its high content of phenolic compounds. Consumption of ACS remarkably suppressed the elevated total cholesterol (p < 0.01) and LDL-C (p < 0.001) induced by HCD. Chemical constituents of ACS extract were analyzed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization orbitrap mass spectrometry and the results showed that the ACS extract mainly consisted of phenolic compounds including flavonoids and flavonoid glycosides...
July 21, 2017: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732439/the-extract-of-portulaca-oleracea-and-its-constituent-alpha-linolenic-acid-affects-serum-oxidant-levels-and-inflammatory-cells-in-sensitized-rats
#13
Mahsa Kaveh, Akram Eidi, Ali Nemati, Mohammad Hossein Boskabady
The effects of Portulaca oleracea and its constituent, alpha linolenic acid on serum oxidant levels and inflammatory cells in sensitized rats were examined. Eight groups of rats including control, sensitized, sensitized rats treated with 1, 2 and 4 mg/mL extract of P. oleracea, 0.2 and 0.4 mg/mL alpha linolenic acid (ALA) and 1.25 μg/mL dexamethaswere studied serum levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT, thiol groups, NO2, NO3, and Malondialdehyde (MDA) as well as total and differential WBC in blood were measured...
June 2017: Iranian Journal of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716367/redefining-essential-fatty-acids-in-the-era-of-novel-intravenous-lipid-emulsions
#14
REVIEW
Lorenzo Anez-Bustillos, Duy T Dao, Gillian L Fell, Meredith A Baker, Kathleen M Gura, Bruce R Bistrian, Mark Puder
The essentiality of fatty acids was determined by the Burrs in the 1920s. It is commonly accepted that provision of linoleic (LA) and alpha-linolenic acids (ALA) prevents and reverses essential fatty acid deficiency (EFAD). Development of alternative injectable lipid emulsions (ILE) low in LA and ALA has raised concern about their ability to prevent EFAD. This review provides biochemical evidence coupled with observations from animal and human studies that aim to characterize which fatty acids are truly essential to prevent EFAD...
July 8, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634855/alpha-linolenic-acid-decreases-apoptosis-and-oxidized-phospholipids-in-cardiomyocytes-during-ischemia-reperfusion
#15
Riya Ganguly, Devin Hasanally, Aleksandra Stamenkovic, Thane G Maddaford, Rakesh Chaudhary, Grant N Pierce, Amir Ravandi
The omega-3 fatty acid, alpha linolenic acid (ALA) found in plant-derived foods induces significant cardiovascular benefits when ingested. ALA may be cardioprotective during ischemia; however, the mechanism(s) responsible for this effect is unknown. Isolated adult rat cardiomyocytes were exposed to medium containing ALA for 24 h and then exposed to non-ischemic (control), simulated ischemia (ISCH), or simulated ischemia/reperfusion (IR) conditions. Cardiomyocyte phospholipids were extracted and analyzed by an HPLC/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry system...
June 20, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629180/bioavailability-of-dietary-omega-3-fatty-acids-added-to-a-variety-of-sausages-in-healthy-individuals
#16
Anton Köhler, Johanna Heinrich, Clemens von Schacky
A low Omega-3 Index (eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in erythrocytes) is associated with cardiac, cerebral, and other health issues. Intake of EPA and DHA, but not of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), increases the Omega-3 Index. We investigated bioavailability, safety, palatability and tolerability of EPA and DHA in a novel source: a variety of sausages. We screened 96 healthy volunteers, and recruited 44 with an Omega-3 Index <5%. Participants were randomly assigned to receive a variety of sausages enriched with approximately 250 mg EPA and DHA per 80 g (n = 22) daily for 8 weeks, or matching placebo sausages (n = 22)...
June 19, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588266/rumen-fluid-metabolomics-analysis-associated-with-feed-efficiency-on-crossbred-steers
#17
Virginia M Artegoitia, Andrew P Foote, Ronald M Lewis, Harvey C Freetly
The rumen has a central role in the efficiency of digestion in ruminants. To identify potential differences in rumen function that lead to differences in average daily gain (ADG), rumen fluid metabolomic analysis by LC-MS and multivariate/univariate statistical analysis were used to identify differences in rumen metabolites. Individual feed intake and body-weight was measured on 144 steers during 105 d on a high concentrate ration. Eight steers with the greatest ADG and 8 steers with the least-ADG with dry matter intake near the population average were selected...
June 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28583073/does-the-presence-of-cardiovascular-disease-risk-factors-or-established-disease-influence-the-dietary-intake-of-affected-adults-and-their-children-residing-in-the-same-household-a-secondary-analysis-of-the-australian-health-survey-2011-2013
#18
Jolene Thomas, Lily Chan, Amanda Wray, Jacqueline Miller, Kaye Mehta, Alison Yaxley, Kacie Dickinson, Louisa Matwiejczyk, Kathryn Jackson, Michelle Miller
BACKGROUND: Diet is an important contributor to risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and integral in management and delaying progression. Little is known however about whether increased CVD risk or established CVD has any influence on dietary intakes of Australian adults or children residing in the same household. This study aimed to determine whether the presence of CVD or CVD risk factors influences dietary intake of Australian adults and if the presence of an adult with increased CVD risk influences the dietary intake of a child living in the same household...
June 5, 2017: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570944/oral-feeding-with-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-fosters-hematopoiesis-and-thrombopoiesis-in-healthy-and-bone-marrow-transplanted-mice
#19
Kedar Limbkar, Ankita Dhenge, Dipesh D Jadhav, Hirekodathakallu V Thulasiram, Vaijayanti Kale, Lalita Limaye
Hematopoietic stem cells play the vital role of maintaining appropriate levels of cells in blood. Therefore, regulation of their fate is essential for their effective therapeutic use. Here we report the role of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in regulating hematopoiesis which has not been explored well so far. Mice were fed daily for 10 days with n-6/n-3 PUFAs, viz. linoleic acid (LA), arachidonic acid (AA), alpha-linolenic acid and docosahexanoic acid (DHA) in four separate test groups with phosphate-buffered saline fed mice as control set...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566642/modulatory-effect-of-an-isolated-triglyceride-from-fenugreek-seed-oil-on-of-%C3%AE-amylase-lipase-and-ace-activities-liver-kidney-functions-and-metabolic-disorders-of-diabetic-rats
#20
Khaled Hamden, Henda Keskes, Othman Elgomdi, Abdelfattah Feki, Noureddine Alouche
This study was designed to examine physicochemical characteristics, chemical compositions and biological activities of fenugreek seed oil (FSO) and its pure triglyceride (TG). One fenugreek TG was purified using a bioassay-guided fractionation and administrated to surviving diabetic rats. The free fatty acids percentage as well as, the peroxide, the saponification and the iodine values were 2%, 12 mequiv. O2/kg of oil, 189 (mg KOH/g) and 110 (g/100 g of oil), respectively. Linolenic acid (C18:3 26.14%), Linoleic acid (C18:2 41...
2017: Journal of Oleo Science
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