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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790008/compensatory-effects-following-unilateral-diaphragm-paralysis
#1
Obaid U Khurram, Gary C Sieck, Carlos B Mantilla
Injury to nerves innervating respiratory muscles such as the diaphragm muscle results in significant respiratory compromise. Electromyography (EMG) and transdiaphragmatic pressure (Pdi) measurements reflect diaphragm activation and force generation. Immediately after unilateral diaphragm denervation (DNV), ventilatory behaviors can be accomplished without impairment, but Pdi generated during higher force non-ventilatory behaviors is significantly decreased. We hypothesized that 1) the initial reduction in Pdi during higher force behaviors after DNV is ameliorated after 14 days, and 2) changes in Pdi over time after DNV are associated with concordant changes in contralateral diaphragm EMG activity and ventilatory parameters...
August 5, 2017: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776693/a-comparison-of-tracheal-scaffold-strategies-for-pediatric-transplantation-in-a-rabbit-model
#2
Elizabeth F Maughan, Colin R Butler, Claire Crowley, Gui Zhen Teoh, Margot Den Hondt, Nicholas J Hamilton, Robert E Hynds, Peggy Lange, Tahera Ansari, Luca Urbani, Samuel M Janes, Paolo De Coppi, Martin A Birchall, Martin J Elliott
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: Despite surgical advances, childhood tracheal stenosis is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Various tracheal scaffold strategies have been developed as the basis for bioengineered substitutes, but there is no consensus on which may be superior in vivo. We hypothesized that there would be no difference in morbidity and mortality between three competing scaffold strategies in rabbits. STUDY DESIGN: Pilot preclinical study. METHODS: Tracheal scaffolds were prepared by three methods that have been applied clinically and reported: preserved cadaveric ("Herberhold") allografts, detergent-enzymatically decellularized allografts, and synthetic scaffolds (nanocomposite polymer [polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane poly(carbonate-urea) urethane (POSS-PCU)])...
August 4, 2017: Laryngoscope
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776692/brassinosteroid-mediated-apoplastic-h2-o2-glutaredoxin-12-14-cascade-regulates-antioxidant-capacity-in-response-to-chilling-in-tomato
#3
Xiao-Jian Xia, Ping-Ping Fang, Xie Guo, Xiang-Jie Qian, Jie Zhou, Kai Shi, Yan-Hong Zhou, Jing-Quan Yu
Brassinosteroids (BRs) regulate plant development and stress response. Although much has been learned about their roles in plant development, the mechanisms by which BRs regulate plant stress tolerance remain unclear. Chilling is a major stress that adversely affects plant growth. Here, we report that BR positively regulates chilling tolerance in tomato. BR partial deficiency aggravated chilling-induced oxidized protein accumulation, membrane lipid peroxidation and decrease of maximum quantum efficiency of photosystem II (Fv/Fm)...
August 4, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28775098/influenza-virus-infection-alters-ion-channel-function-of-airway-and-alveolar-cells-mechanisms-and-physiological-sequelae
#4
James D Londino, Ahmed Lazrak, James F Collawn, Zsuzsanna Bebok, Kevin S Harrod, Sadis Matalon
The cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) and the amiloride-sensitive epithelial sodium channels (ENaC) are located in the apical membranes of airway and alveolar epithelial cells. These transporters play an important role in the regulation of lung fluid balance across airway and alveolar epithelia by being the conduits for chloride (Cl(-)) and bicarbonate (HCO3(-)) secretion and sodium (Na(+)) ion absorption, respectively. The functional role of these channels in the respiratory tract is to maintain the optimum volume and ionic composition of the bronchial pericilary fluid (PCL) and alveolar lining fluid (ALF) layers...
August 3, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770093/the-clinical-practice-guideline-for-the-management-of-ards-in-japan
#5
Satoru Hashimoto, Masamitsu Sanui, Moritoki Egi, Shinichiro Ohshimo, Junji Shiotsuka, Ryutaro Seo, Ryoma Tanaka, Yu Tanaka, Yasuhiro Norisue, Yoshiro Hayashi, Eishu Nango
BACKGROUND: The Japanese Society of Respiratory Care Medicine and the Japanese Society of Intensive Care Medicine provide here a clinical practice guideline for the management of adult patients with ARDS in the ICU. METHOD: The guideline was developed applying the GRADE system for performing robust systematic reviews with plausible recommendations. The guideline consists of 13 clinical questions mainly regarding ventilator settings and drug therapies (the last question includes 11 medications that are not approved for clinical use in Japan)...
2017: Journal of Intensive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28765908/serca1-attenuates-diaphragm-relaxation-and-uptake-rate-of-serca-in-rats-with-acute-sepsis
#6
Jianyou Zhang, Hui Liu, Shitong Li, Jin Wu, Jianhong Sun
The present study aimed to investigate the effects of acute sepsis on diaphragm contractility and relaxation, via examining the Ca2+‑uptake function of sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ adenosine triphosphatase (SERCA), and the protein levels of SERCA1, SERCA2 and the ryanodine receptor (RyR) of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR). A sepsis rat model was established through cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). A total of 6 and 12 h following CLP, the isometric contractile and relaxation parameters of the diaphragm were measured...
August 2, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764309/death-rate-of-dental-anaesthesia
#7
REVIEW
Hamed Mortazavi, Maryam Baharvand, Yaser Safi
Death was the most important side effect of anaesthesia in dentistry. In this article we reviewed more than 20 studies with adequate data focusing on death associated with dental procedures since 1955 and found 218 deaths out of 71,435,282 patients (3 deaths per 1,000,000 persons) with the mortality rate of 1:327,684. In addition, mortality rate per million has dropped to half (6.2 per 1,000,000 vs. 3 per 1,000,000) since 1955 till the last report in 2012 without any sex predilection. In children, most cases died in the age of two to five years...
June 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28762292/tonsillectomy-in-children-with-down-syndrome-a-national-cohort-of-inpatients
#8
Andrew B Baker, Zachary Farhood, Kathleen A Brandstetter, Ronald J Teufel, Angela LaRosa, David R White
Objective To describe the cost, length of stay, and incidence of postoperative hemorrhage associated with Down syndrome (DS) patients undergoing tonsillectomy in a national sample of inpatient children. Study Design This study uses a national cross-sectional cohort to analyze children with and without DS undergoing tonsillectomy with or without adenoidectomy. Setting 2012 Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project Kids' Inpatient Database. Subjects and Methods The database was analyzed for postoperative hemorrhage and respiratory compromise, length of stay, and total charges of hospital stay...
June 1, 2017: Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28760851/a-bacterial-stress-response-regulates-expression-of-respiratory-protein-complexes-to-control-envelope-stress-adaptation
#9
Randi L Guest, Junshu Wang, Julia L Wong, Tracy L Raivio
The Cpx envelope stress response mediates adaptation to stresses that affect protein folding within the envelope of gram-negative bacteria. Recent transcriptome analyses revealed that the Cpx response impacts genes that affect multiple cellular functions predominantly associated with the cytoplasmic membrane. In this study, we examined the connection between the Cpx response and the respiratory complexes NADH dehydrogenase I and cytochrome bo3 in enteropathogenic Escherichia coli We found that the Cpx response directly represses transcription of the nuo and cyo operons and that Cpx-mediated repression of these complexes confers adaptation to stresses that compromise envelope integrity...
July 31, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759491/the-evaluation-of-a-noninvasive-respiratory-volume-monitor-in-pediatric-patients-undergoing-general-anesthesia
#10
Andrea D Gomez-Morad, Joseph P Cravero, Brian C Harvey, Rachel Bernier, Erin Halpin, Brian Walsh, Viviane G Nasr
BACKGROUND: Pediatric patients following surgery are at risk for respiratory compromise such as hypoventilation and hypoxemia depending on their age, comorbidities, and type of surgery. Quantitative measurement of ventilation in nonintubated infants/children is a difficult and inexact undertaking. Current respiratory assessment in nonintubated patients relies on oximetry data, respiratory rate (RR) monitors, and subjective clinical assessment, but there is no objective measure of respiratory parameters that could be utilized to predict early respiratory compromise...
July 27, 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757834/anesthesia-for-minimally-invasive-chest-wall-reconstructive-surgeries-our-experience-and-review-of-literature
#11
REVIEW
Shagun Bhatia Shah, Uma Hariharan, Ajay Kumar Bhargava, Laleng M Darlong
Minimal access procedures have revolutionized the field of surgery and opened newer challenges for the anesthesiologists. Pectus carinatum or pigeon chest is an uncommon chest wall deformity characterized by a protruding breast bone (sternum) and ribs caused by an overgrowth of the costal cartilages. It can cause a multitude of problems, including severe pain from an intercostal neuropathy, respiratory dysfunction, and psychologic issues from the cosmetic disfigurement. Pulmonary function indices, namely, forced expiratory volume over 1 s, forced vital capacity, vital capacity, and total lung capacity are markedly compromised in pectus excavatum...
July 2017: Saudi Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752448/assessing-structure-function-relations-in-mice-using-the-forced-oscillation-technique-and-quantitative-histology
#12
Harikrishnan Parameswaran, Béla Suki
The structure and function of the lung gradually becomes compromised during the progression of emphysema. In this chapter, we first describe how to assess and evaluate lung function using the forced oscillation technique. Next, we provide details on how to use the Flexivent system to measure respiratory mechanical parameters in mice. We also describe the outlines of how to set up a homemade forced oscillatory system and use it to measure respiratory mechanics. To characterize the structure from standard histological images, we describe a method that is highly sensitive to early emphysema...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28746932/morbidity-and-functional-outcomes-following-free-jejunal-flap-reconstruction-for-head-and-neck-cancer
#13
Song Ni, Yiming Zhu, Dong Qu, Jian Wang, Dezhi Li, Bin Zhang, Zhengang Xu, Shaoyan Liu
AIM: To evaluate the morbidity and fundamental functional outcomes (swallow and speech) after free jejunal flap (FJF) reconstruction following total pharyngolaryngo-esophagectomy (PLE) in China. METHODS: 18 patients with FJF reconstruction after total PLE were retrospectively reviewed. Scheduled barium swallow test was performed 7-10 days postoperatively. Rehabilitation of swallowing and speech for patients was assessed by the Performance Status Scale for Head and Neck Cancer Patients...
July 27, 2017: ORL; Journal for Oto-rhino-laryngology and its related Specialties
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738167/methylene-blue-improves-mitochondrial-respiration-and-decreases-oxidative-stress-in-a-substrate-dependent-manner-in-diabetic-rat-hearts
#14
Oana M Duicu, Andreea Privistirescu, Adrian Wolf, Alexandra Petrus, Maria D Dănilă, Corina Ratiu, Danina M Muntean, Adrian Sturza
Diabetic cardiomyopathy has been systematically associated with compromised mitochondrial energetics and increased generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that underlie its progression to heart failure. Methylene blue is a redox-drug with reported protective effects mainly on brain mitochondria. The present study was purported to characterize the effects of acute administration of methylene blue on mitochondrial respiration, H2O2 production, and calcium sensitivity in rat heart mitochondria isolated from healthy and 2 months (streptozotocin-induced) diabetic rats...
July 24, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735156/adaptive-periodic-paralysis-allows-weaning-deep-sedation-overcoming-the-drowning-syndrome-in-ecmo-patients-bridged-for-lung-transplantation-a-case-series
#15
Irina Timofte, Michael Terrin, Erik Barr, June Kim, Joseph Rinaldi, Nicholas Ladikos, Jay Menaker, Ali Tabatabai, Zachary Kon, Bartley Griffith, Richard Pierson, Si Pham, Aldo Iacono, Daniel Herr
PURPOSE: Sedation in extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is challenging. Patients require deep sedation because of extremely high respiratory rates and increased work of breathing ("Drowning Syndrome") resulting in altered intra-thoracic pressure and reduced pump flow associated with hemodynamic compromise and decreased oxygenation. However, deep sedation impedes essential active rehabilitation with physical therapy. METHODS: We reviewed data on 3 ECMO patients for whom we used a novel approach to replace continuous drips with periodic sedation/paralysis...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734692/respiratory-arrest-at-the-onset-of-idiopathic-childhood-occipital-epilepsy-of-gastaut
#16
Keiko Funata, Tatsuhiko Shike, Toshiki Takenouchi, Yukio Yamashita, Takao Takahashi
Occipital lobe epilepsy of childhood includes two entities: Panayiotopoulos syndrome in pre-school children, and idiopathic childhood occipital epilepsy of Gastaut (ICOEG) in school-age children. The typical initial manifestation of the former is vomiting, and that of the latter is visual hallucinations. Ictal cardiopulmonary arrest at initial presentation has been reported for Panayiotopoulos syndrome, but not for ICOEG. We document a 7-year-old previously healthy girl who experienced an acute elemental visual hallucination of seeing insects, followed by a new-onset generalized seizure...
July 19, 2017: Brain & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727104/a-major-gene-for-host-response-to-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-is-not-unfavorably-associated-with-overall-performance-under-nonchallenging-conditions-in-commercial-pig-lines
#17
J R Dunkelberger, P K Mathur, M S Lopes, E F Knol, J C M Dekkers
A QTL for host response to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) was identified in a previous study. The SNP WUR10000125 (WUR) is used as a tag SNP for this QTL. The favorable (B) allele at this SNP is in low frequency in commercial populations, possibly because this allele is unfavorably associated with an important trait under nonchallenging conditions and, therefore, may have been selected against. Therefore, objectives of this study were to estimate the effect of WUR on traits under selection in commercial lines under nonchallenging conditions and to estimate the effect of WUR genotype of parents on performance of crossbred progeny in a commercial-like environment...
July 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721327/two-catastrophes-in-one-patient-drug-reaction-with-eosinophilia-and-systemic-symptoms-and-toxic-shock-syndrome
#18
Moayed Ibrahim, Diana L Nunley
A 70-year-old, immunocompromised patient presented to the emergency room (ER) five weeks after she was started on clopidogrel. She complained of skin eruption, mouth ulcers, fatigue, and myalgia over the past two weeks. Labs showed severe hyponatremia, acute kidney injury, rhabdomyolysis, hyperkalemia, and elevated liver enzymes. She was treated with steroids and discharged after her condition improved. However, a month later, she returned to the ER, complaining of nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, dizziness, chills, and shortness of breath over the past two days...
June 15, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719515/anaesthetic-management-of-patients-with-myopathies
#19
Mark Schieren, Jerome Defosse, Andreas Böhmer, Frank Wappler, Mark U Gerbershagen
: The anaesthetic management of patients with myopathies is challenging. Considering the low incidence and heterogeneity of these disorders, most anaesthetists are unfamiliar with key symptoms, associated co-morbidities and implications for anaesthesia. The pre-anaesthetic assessment aims at the detection of potentially undiagnosed myopathic patients and, in case of known or suspected muscular disease, on the quantification of disease progression. Ancillary testing (e.g. echocardiography, ECG, lung function testing etc...
July 15, 2017: European Journal of Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717172/evolution-of-the-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-mutational-resistome-in-an-international-cystic-fibrosis-clone
#20
Carla López-Causapé, Lea Mette Sommer, Gabriel Cabot, Rosa Rubio, Alain A Ocampo-Sosa, Helle Krogh Johansen, Joan Figuerola, Rafael Cantón, Timothy J Kidd, Soeren Molin, Antonio Oliver
Emergence of epidemic clones and antibiotic resistance development compromises the management of Pseudomonas aeruginosa cystic fibrosis (CF) chronic respiratory infections. Whole genome sequencing (WGS) was used to decipher the phylogeny, interpatient dissemination, WGS mutator genotypes (mutome) and resistome of a widespread clone (CC274), in isolates from two highly-distant countries, Australia and Spain, covering an 18-year period. The coexistence of two divergent CC274 clonal lineages was revealed, but without evident geographical barrier; phylogenetic reconstructions and mutational resistome demonstrated the interpatient transmission of mutators...
July 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
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