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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934167/live-attenuated-influenza-vaccine-contains-substantial-and-unexpected-amounts-of-defective-viral-genomic-rna
#1
Philip S Gould, Andrew J Easton, Nigel J Dimmock
The live attenuated influenza vaccine FluMist(®) was withdrawn in the USA by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention after its failure to provide adequate protective immunity during 2013-2016. The vaccine uses attenuated core type A and type B viruses, reconfigured each year to express the two major surface antigens of the currently circulating viruses. Here Fluenz™ Tetra, the European version of this vaccine, was examined directly for defective-interfering (DI) viral RNAs. DI RNAs are deleted versions of the infectious virus genome, and have powerful biological properties including attenuation of infection, reduction of infectious virus yield, and stimulation of some immune responses...
September 21, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928018/cardio-respirometry-disruption-in-zebrafish-danio-rerio-embryos-exposed-to-hydraulic-fracturing-flowback-and-produced-water
#2
Erik J Folkerts, Tamzin A Blewett, Yuhe He, Greg G Goss
Hydraulic fracturing to extract oil and natural gas reserves is an increasing practice in many international energy sectors. Hydraulic fracturing flowback and produced water (FPW) is a hyper saline wastewater returned to the surface from a fractured well containing chemical species present in the initial fracturing fluid, geogenic contaminants, and potentially newly synthesized chemicals formed in the fracturing well environment. However, information on FPW toxicological mechanisms of action remain largely unknown...
September 16, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923244/cardio-respiratory-function-during-exercise-in-the-cobia-rachycentron-canadum-the-impact-of-crude-oil-exposure
#3
Derek Nelson, John D Stieglitz, Georgina K Cox, Rachael M Heuer, Daniel D Benetti, Martin Grosell, Dane A Crossley
Aerobic exercise capacity is dependent on the cardiorespiratory system's ability to supply oxygen at a rate that meets energetic demands. In teleost fish crude oil exposure, with the associated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH's), reduces exercise performance and this has been hypothesized to be due to compromised cardiovascular function. In this study, we test this hypothesis by simultaneously measuring cardiovascular performance, oxygen consumption, and swim performance in a pelagic teleost, the cobia (Rachycentron canadum)...
September 15, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919320/is-selective-echocardiography-in-duodenal-atresia-the-future-standard-of-care
#4
Abid Khan, Sharman Tan Tanny, Elizabeth J Perkins, Rodney W Hunt, John M Hutson, Sebastian K King, Bryn Jones, Warwick J Teague
BACKGROUND: Duodenal atresia (DA) is associated with cardiac defects that may have perioperative care implications. Standard preoperative care includes echocardiography to identify such cardiac defects, but this dogma has been challenged. We aimed to assess selective and selective strategies for preoperative echocardiography in DA patients. METHODS: Single-center retrospective review of neonates with DA over a 16-year period was performed. Data included preoperative cardiovascular and respiratory examination, chest x-ray, and echocardiography...
September 2, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919076/mitochondrial-priming-by-cd28
#5
Ramon I Klein Geltink, David O'Sullivan, Mauro Corrado, Anna Bremser, Michael D Buck, Joerg M Buescher, Elke Firat, Xuekai Zhu, Gabriele Niedermann, George Caputa, Beth Kelly, Ursula Warthorst, Anne Rensing-Ehl, Ryan L Kyle, Lana Vandersarren, Jonathan D Curtis, Annette E Patterson, Simon Lawless, Katarzyna Grzes, Jing Qiu, David E Sanin, Oliver Kretz, Tobias B Huber, Sophie Janssens, Bart N Lambrecht, Angelika S Rambold, Edward J Pearce, Erika L Pearce
T cell receptor (TCR) signaling without CD28 can elicit primary effector T cells, but memory T cells generated during this process are anergic, failing to respond to secondary antigen exposure. We show that, upon T cell activation, CD28 transiently promotes expression of carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1a (Cpt1a), an enzyme that facilitates mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation (FAO), before the first cell division, coinciding with mitochondrial elongation and enhanced spare respiratory capacity (SRC). microRNA-33 (miR33), a target of thioredoxin-interacting protein (TXNIP), attenuates Cpt1a expression in the absence of CD28, resulting in cells that thereafter are metabolically compromised during reactivation or periods of increased bioenergetic demand...
September 1, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918000/nitric-oxide-prevents-aft1-activation-and-metabolic-remodeling-in-frataxin-deficient-yeast
#6
David Alsina, Joaquim Ros, Jordi Tamarit
Yeast frataxin homolog (Yfh1) is the orthologue of human frataxin, a mitochondrial protein whose deficiency causes Friedreich Ataxia. Yfh1 deficiency activates Aft1, a transcription factor governing iron homeostasis in yeast cells. Although the mechanisms causing this activation are not completely understood, it is assumed that it may be caused by iron-sulfur deficiency. However, several evidences indicate that activation of Aft1 occurs in the absence of iron-sulfur deficiency. Besides, Yfh1 deficiency also leads to metabolic remodeling (mainly consisting in a shift from respiratory to fermentative metabolism) and to induction of Yhb1, a nitric oxide (NO) detoxifying enzyme...
September 6, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917714/mitochondria-in-the-nervous-system-from-health-to-disease-part-i
#7
EDITORIAL
Brian M Polster, Maria Teresa Carrì, Philip M Beart
In Part I of this Special Issue on "Mitochondria in the Nervous System: From Health to Disease", the editors bring together contributions from experts in brain mitochondrial research to provide an up-to-date overview of mitochondrial functioning in physiology and pathology. The issue provides cutting edge reviews on classical areas of mitochondrial biology that include energy substrate utilization, calcium handling, mitochondria-endoplasmic reticulum communication, and cell death regulation. Additional reviews and original research articles touch upon key mitochondrial defects seen across multiple neurodegenerative conditions, including fragmentation, loss of respiratory capacity, calcium overload, elevated reactive oxygen species generation, perturbed NAD(+) metabolism, altered protein acetylation, and compromised mitophagy...
September 13, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916122/myasthenia-gravis-and-crisis-evaluation-and-management-in-the-emergency-department
#8
Jamie Roper, M Emily Fleming, Brit Long, Alex Koyfman
BACKGROUND: Myasthenia gravis (MG) is an uncommon autoimmune disorder affecting the neuromuscular junction and manifesting as muscle weakness. A multitude of stressors can exacerbate MG. When symptoms are exacerbated, muscle weakness can be severe enough to result in respiratory failure, a condition known as myasthenic crisis (MC). OBJECTIVE: This review discusses risk factors, diagnosis, management, and iatrogenic avoidance of MC. DISCUSSION: MC can affect any age, ethnicity, or sex and can be precipitated with any stressor, infection being the most common...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905076/-life-after-ards
#9
REVIEW
B Sensen, S Braune, G de Heer, T Bein, S Kluge
Patients who survive acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) often suffer from long-term physical and psychological sequelae. Lung function is commonly only mildly reduced, whereas general physical activity and walking distance are often compromised. Most markedly, these patients have a high incidence of depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress disorder. The rate of cognitive dysfunction is as high as 70-100% at the time of hospital discharge, and remains 46-80% and 20% one year and five years post discharge, respectively...
September 13, 2017: Medizinische Klinik, Intensivmedizin und Notfallmedizin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899812/the-starving-brain-overfed-meets-undernourished-in-the-pathology-of-mild-cognitive-impairment-mci-and-alzheimer-s-disease-ad
#10
REVIEW
Kelly J Gibas
Type II Diabetes affects 400 million people worldwide (IDF, 2013). The pathology is paradoxical: internal starvation activated by overfeeding. Hyperinsulinemic impairments of glucose homeostasis are treated with anti-hyperglycemics exacerbating cell starvation, inducing hypoglycemia and raising respiratory quotient. Reductions in hyperglycemia are achieved at the expense of glucose dependency and metabolic inflexibility (Gibas & Gibas, 2017). The brain is not immune from these cycles of starvation. The bioenergetic model characterizes propagation of late-onset, sporadic Alzheimer's disease as loss of molecular fidelity and compromised energy originating in brain networks with highest metabolic demand...
September 9, 2017: Neurochemistry International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895711/-post-intubation-laryngeal-granuloma-a-rare-complication-of-tracheal-intubation-in-pediatrics-case-report
#11
Giselle Cuestas, Verónica Rodríguez, Flavia Doormann, Patricio Bellia Munzón, Gastón Bellia Munzón
Laryngeal granulomas are benign lesions located in the posterior third of the glottis, mainly at the level of the vocal apophysis of the arytenoid cartilage. They are typically associated with three etiological factors: endotracheal intubation, inappropriate voice use and/or gastroesophageal reflux. The formation of a post-intubation laryngeal granuloma is a late complication related to intubation injury. It is uncommon in the child, especially if the period of intubation is short. It is usually unilateral and produces dysphonia, pharyngeal foreign body sensation and cough...
October 1, 2017: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891836/feasibility-and-safety-of-flexible-bronchoscopy-performed-via-tracheal-tubes-in-patients-with-tracheostomies-a-retrospective-single-center-experience
#12
Gustavo Ferrer, Chi Chan Lee, Sameer Shaharyar, Osman Perez, Molly Moor, Frank Gomez, Fanny Tse, Hamid Feiz, Mauricio Danckers
BACKGROUND: Flexible bronchoscopy (FB) is commonly performed to assess, diagnose, and treat patients with respiratory disease, and is typically performed via transnasal or transoral approaches. FB can be performed via tracheal tubes in patients with tracheostomies; however, the safety and technical feasibility has not been established. The present study evaluates the safety and feasibility of performing FB via tracheal tubes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 45 patients underwent 56 procedures involving FB via tracheal tubes at a single institution from November 2013 to November 2014 and were included in this retrospective case series...
September 7, 2017: Journal of Bronchology & Interventional Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887540/interleukin-22-level-is-negatively-correlated-with-neutrophil-recruitment-in-the-lungs-in-a-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-pneumonia-model
#13
Alexis Broquet, Cédric Jacqueline, Marion Davieau, Anissa Besbes, Antoine Roquilly, Jérôme Martin, Jocelyne Caillon, Laure Dumoutier, Jean-Christophe Renauld, Michèle Heslan, Régis Josien, Karim Asehnoune
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a major threat for immune-compromised patients. Bacterial pneumonia can induce uncontrolled and massive neutrophil recruitment ultimately leading to acute respiratory distress syndrome and epithelium damage. Interleukin-22 plays a central role in the protection of the epithelium. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the role of interleukin-22 and its soluble receptor IL-22BP in an acute Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia model in mice. In this model, we noted a transient increase of IL-22 during Pseudomonas aeruginosa challenge...
September 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886712/the-effect-of-alphacypermethrin-treated-mesh-protection-against-african-horse-sickness-virus-vectors-on-jet-stall-microclimate-clinical-variables-and-faecal-glucocorticoid-metabolites-of-horses
#14
Patrick Page, Andre Ganswindt, Johan Schoeman, Gert Venter, Alan Guthrie
BACKGROUND: African horse sickness (AHS) is of importance to health and international trade in horses worldwide. During export from and transit through AHS endemic countries or zones, physical and chemical measures to protect horses from the vectors of AHS virus (AHSV) are recommended by the World Organization for Animal Health. Protection of containerized air transport systems for horses (jet stalls) with alphacypermethrin insecticide-treated high density polyethylene mesh is effective in reducing the Culicoides midge vector attack rate...
September 9, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28883393/fas-cell-surface-death-receptor-controls-hepatic-lipid-metabolism-by-regulating-mitochondrial-function
#15
Flurin Item, Stephan Wueest, Vera Lemos, Sokrates Stein, Fabrizio C Lucchini, Rémy Denzler, Muriel C Fisser, Tenagne D Challa, Eija Pirinen, Youngsoo Kim, Silvio Hemmi, Erich Gulbins, Atan Gross, Lorraine A O'Reilly, Markus Stoffel, Johan Auwerx, Daniel Konrad
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease is one of the most prevalent metabolic disorders and it tightly associates with obesity, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Reduced mitochondrial lipid oxidation contributes to hepatic fatty acid accumulation. Here, we show that the Fas cell surface death receptor (Fas/CD95/Apo-1) regulates hepatic mitochondrial metabolism. Hepatic Fas overexpression in chow-fed mice compromises fatty acid oxidation, mitochondrial respiration, and the abundance of mitochondrial respiratory complexes promoting hepatic lipid accumulation and insulin resistance...
September 7, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881007/delayed-antibiotic-prescriptions-for-respiratory-infections
#16
REVIEW
Geoffrey Kp Spurling, Chris B Del Mar, Liz Dooley, Ruth Foxlee, Rebecca Farley
BACKGROUND: Concerns exist regarding antibiotic prescribing for respiratory tract infections (RTIs) owing to adverse reactions, cost, and antibacterial resistance. One proposed strategy to reduce antibiotic prescribing is to provide prescriptions, but to advise delay in antibiotic use with the expectation that symptoms will resolve first. This is an update of a Cochrane Review originally published in 2007, and updated in 2010 and 2013. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects on clinical outcomes, antibiotic use, antibiotic resistance, and patient satisfaction of advising a delayed prescription of antibiotics in respiratory tract infections...
September 7, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878128/respiratory-syncytial-virus-infection-of-newborn-cx3cr1-deficent-mice-induces-a-pathogenic-pulmonary-innate-immune-response
#17
Sudipta Das, Mahesh Raundhal, Jie Chen, Timothy B Oriss, Rachael Huff, John V Williams, Anuradha Ray, Prabir Ray
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infects almost all infants by 2 years of age, and severe bronchiolitis resulting from RSV infection is the primary cause of hospitalization in the first year of life. Among infants hospitalized due to RSV-induced bronchiolitis, those with a specific mutation in the chemokine receptor CX3CR1, which severely compromises binding of its ligand CX3CL1, were at a higher risk for more severe viral bronchiolitis than those without the mutation. Here, we show that RSV infection of newborn mice deficient in CX3CR1 leads to significantly greater neutrophilic inflammation in the lungs, accompanied by an increase in mucus production compared with that induced in WT mice...
September 7, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877786/a-newly-developed-mask-facilitates-management-during-percutaneous-endoscopic-gastrostomy-introduction-in-patients-with-respiratory-compromise
#18
Hizuru Amano, Kazuhiro Imamura, Fumihiko Hatao, Toshio Shimizu, Shinsuke Tobisawa, Kentaro Hayashi, Jun Matsumoto, Kensuke Adachi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 1, 2016: American Surgeon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28872269/clinical-outcomes-in-children-and-adolescents-initiating-antiretroviral-therapy-in-decentralized-healthcare-settings-in-zimbabwe
#19
Grace McHugh, Victoria Simms, Ethel Dauya, Tsitsi Bandason, Prosper Chonzi, Dafni Metaxa, Shungu Munyati, Kusum Nathoo, Hilda Mujuru, Katharina Kranzer, Rashida A Ferrand
INTRODUCTION: Decentralized HIV care for adults does not appear to compromise clinical outcomes. HIV care for children poses additional clinical and social complexities. We conducted a prospective cohort study to investigate clinical outcomes in children aged 6-15 years who registered for HIV care at seven primary healthcare clinics (PHCs) in Harare, Zimbabwe. METHODS: Participants were recruited between January 2013 and December 2014 and followed for 18 months...
September 1, 2017: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870489/bisphenol-a-and-immunotoxic-potential-a-commentary
#20
Ian Kimber
Bisphenol A (BPA) is used in the manufacture of polycarbonate and epoxy resin plastics. There has been interest in the possibility that BPA has immunotoxic properties, and a variety of investigations have explored this. Among the approaches taken have been human observational and cross-sectional studies, investigations using experimental animals, and in vitro studies, some of which have been reviewed previously by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). This commentary aims to provide a focused review of data regarding the ability of BPA to perturb the immune system, including the developing immune system, and to cause related adverse health effects...
September 1, 2017: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
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