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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340152/impact-of-gas-emboli-and-hyperbaric-treatment-on-respiratory-function-of-loggerhead-sea-turtles-caretta-caretta
#1
Cyril Portugues, Jose Luis Crespo-Picazo, Daniel García-Párraga, Jordi Altimiras, Teresa Lorenzo, Alicia Borque-Espinosa, Andreas Fahlman
Fisheries interactions are the most serious threats for sea turtle populations. Despite the existence of some rescue centres providing post-traumatic care and rehabilitation, adequate treatment is hampered by the lack of understanding of the problems incurred while turtles remain entrapped in fishing gears. Recently it was shown that bycaught loggerhead sea turtles (Caretta caretta) could experience formation of gas emboli (GE) and develop decompression sickness (DCS) after trawl and gillnet interaction. This condition could be reversed by hyperbaric O2 treatment (HBOT)...
2018: Conservation Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339397/hsfa1a-is-essential-for-mi-1-2-mediated-resistance-to-meloidogyne-incognita-and-regulates-wfi1-transcription-and-h2o2-production
#2
Jie Zhou, Xuechen Xu, Jiajian Cao, Lingling Yin, Xiaojian Xia, Kai Shi, Yanhong Zhou, Jingquan Yu
Plants, especially those with resistance (R) genes, generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the apoplast in response to pathogen attack; however, how this process is activated remains unknown. Here, we demonstrate that root-knot nematode (RKN, Meloidogyne incognita) infection rapidly induces ROS accumulation and the hypersensitive response (HR) in the roots of tomato plants with the R gene Mi-1.2 but rarely does so in the susceptible or Mi-1.2-silenced resistant genotypes. While RKN induces the expression of numerous class-A heat shock factor (HsfA) genes in resistant tomato, only silencing of HsfA1a gene compromises Mi-1...
January 16, 2018: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338144/mortality-and-long-term-quality-of-life-after-percutaneous-tracheotomy-in-intensive-care-unit-a-prospective-observational-study
#3
Maria Vargas, Yuda Sutherasan, Iole Brunetti, Camilla Micalizzi, Angelo Insorsi, Lorenzo Ball, Marta Folentino, Rosanna Sileo, Arduino DE Lucia, Manuela Cerana, Alessandro Accattatis, Domenico DE Lisi, Angelo Gratarola, Francesco Mora, Giorgio Peretti, Giuseppe Servillo, Paolo Pelosi
BACKGROUND: Quality of life and mortality after percutaneous dilatational tracheotomy (PDT) has been poorly investigated. The aims of this study were to evaluate the independent risk factors for Intensive Care Unit (ICU) mortality and investigate quality of life over the first year after PDT in critically ill patients. METHODS: This was a prospective, single-center, cohort study performed in a tertiary care University Hospital, enrolling consecutive ICU patients requiring elective PDT, collecting data during the tracheotomy procedure and the ICU stay...
January 16, 2018: Minerva Anestesiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335647/aged-polymorphonuclear-leukocytes-cause-fibrotic-interstitial-lung-disease-in-the-absence-of-regulation-by-b-cells
#4
Jung Hwan Kim, John Podstawka, Yuefei Lou, Lu Li, Esther K S Lee, Maziar Divangahi, Björn Petri, Frank R Jirik, Margaret M Kelly, Bryan G Yipp
Pulmonary immunity requires tight regulation, as interstitial inflammation can compromise gas exchange and lead to respiratory failure. Here we found a greater number of aged CD11bhiL-selectinloCXCR4+ polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) in lung vasculature than in the peripheral circulation. Using pulmonary intravital microscopy, we observed lung PMNs physically interacting with B cells via β2 integrins; this initiated neutrophil apoptosis, which led to macrophage-mediated clearance. Genetic deletion of B cells led to the accumulation of aged PMNs in the lungs without systemic inflammation, which caused pathological fibrotic interstitial lung disease that was attenuated by the adoptive transfer of B cells or depletion of PMNs...
January 15, 2018: Nature Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334675/effects-of-running-retraining-on-biomechanical-factors-associated-with-lower-limb-injury
#5
Marcus D Dunn, David B Claxton, Graham Fletcher, Jonathan S Wheat, David M Binney
Injury risk is an important concern for runners; however, limited evidence exists regarding changes to injury risk following running style retraining. Biomechanical factors, such as absolute peak free moment, knee abduction impulse, peak foot eversion and foot eversion excursion, have been shown to predict lower limb injury. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of Pose running retraining on biomechanical factors associated with lower limb running injury. Twenty uninjured recreational runners were pair-matched based on their five km run time performance and randomly assigned to control (n = 10) and intervention (three 2-h Pose running retraining sessions) groups (n = 10)...
January 12, 2018: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323630/fatal-innominate-artery-hemorrhage-in-a-patient-with-tetraplegia-case-report-and-literature-review
#6
Ahmad Zaheer Qureshi
Context Hemorrhage is one of the potentially fatal complications of tracheostomy. A rare but lethal cause of tracheostomy related bleeding is hemorrhage from the innominate artery. This occurs following tracheo-innominate artery fistula (TIF) formation, which is associated with a mortality rate of more than 85%. Here, we report the case of an individual with tetraplegia and a tracheostomy who died as a result of innominate artery hemorrhage. This case highlights the possible causes and interventions associated with this complication, and provides insight into tracheostomy related bleeding in patients with spinal cord injury (SCI)...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Spinal Cord Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320603/drug-management-for-acute-tonic-clonic-convulsions-including-convulsive-status-epilepticus-in-children
#7
REVIEW
Amy McTague, Timothy Martland, Richard Appleton
BACKGROUND: Tonic-clonic convulsions and convulsive status epilepticus (currently defined as a tonic-clonic convulsion lasting at least 30 minutes) are medical emergencies and require urgent and appropriate anticonvulsant treatment. International consensus is that an anticonvulsant drug should be administered for any tonic-clonic convulsion that has been continuing for at least five minutes. Benzodiazepines (diazepam, lorazepam, midazolam) are traditionally regarded as first-line drugs and phenobarbital, phenytoin and paraldehyde as second-line drugs...
January 10, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29302792/mitochondrial-bioenergy-alterations-in-avian-hd11-macrophages-infected-with-infectious-bronchitis-virus
#8
Sergio E L da Silva, Helena L Ferreira, Andrea F Garcia, Felipe E S Silva, Roberto Gameiro, Carolina U F Fabri, Dielson S Vieira, Tereza C Cardoso
To establish an association between mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis following infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) infection, HD11 avian macrophage cells were infected with the Massachusetts 41 (M41) strain. Our results show that the M41 strain of IBV induced cytopathic effects followed by the release of new viral particles. Elevated numbers of apoptotic cells were observed at 24, 48 and 72 h post-infection (p.i.). Viral infection was associated with mitochondrial membrane depolarization and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production at all of the examined timepoints p...
January 4, 2018: Archives of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29296829/safety-pharmacokinetics-and-reversal-of-apixaban-anticoagulation-with-andexanet-alfa
#9
Deborah Siegal, Genmin Lu, Janet M Leeds, Mark Karbarz, Janice Castillo, Vandana Mathur, Athiwat Hutchaleelaha, Uma Sinha, Michael Kitt, Matt McClure, Stanley J Hollenbach, John T Curnutte, Pamela B Conley, Mark Crowther
Direct factor Xa (FXa) inhibitors lack a specific reversal agent for emergencies such as major bleeding or urgent surgery. Andexanet alfa, a modified, catalytically inactive, recombinant human FXa derivative, reverses anticoagulant effect by binding and sequestering FXa inhibitors. This original report of safety and dose-finding, phase 1 and 2 randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies, investigated various doses of andexanet in healthy volunteers. Phase 1 evaluated the safety and pharmacokinetics of andexanet (n = 24) or placebo (n = 8)...
September 26, 2017: Blood Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283957/early-tracheostomy-in-patients-with-traumatic-cervical-spinal-cord-injury-appears-safe-and-may-improve-outcomes
#10
Christopher Flanagan, Benjamin R Childs, Timothy A Moore, Heather A Vallier
STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective case series OBJECTIVE.: To characterize outcomes associated with tracheostomy timing following traumatic cervical spinal cord injury (CSCI). SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: The morbidity associated with cervical spine trauma is substantially increased in the setting of concomitant CSCI. Despite recent evidence, it remains uncertain if early tracheostomy following traumatic CSCI can improve outcomes. METHODS: From January 1, 2007, to December 31, 2015, retrospective chart review identified seventy (70) patients who presented to a single Level 1 trauma center with traumatic CSCI and received tracheostomy for management of respiratory compromise...
December 27, 2017: Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281616/influence-of-type-of-congenital-heart-defects-on-epithelial-lining-fluid-composition-in-infants-undergoing-cardiac-surgery-with-cardiopulmonary-bypass
#11
Manuela Simonato, Aldo Baritussio, Virgilio P Carnielli, Luca Vedovelli, Gianclaudio Falasco, Michele Salvagno, Massimo Padalino, Paola Cogo
BACKGROUND: In children with congenital heart disease (CHD), altered pulmonary circulation compromises gas exchange. Moreover, pulmonary dysfunction is a complication of cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). No data are available on the effect of different CHDs on lung injury. The aim of this study was to analyze epithelial lining fluid (ELF) surfactant composition in children with CHD. METHODS: Tracheal aspirates (TAs) from 72 CHD children [age 2.9 (0...
December 27, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29276594/prolonged-circulatory-support-with-an-impella-assist-device-in-the-management-of-cardiogenic-shock-associated-with-takotsubo-syndrome-severe-sepsis-and-acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome
#12
Edward D Foley, Ricardo Diaz, Manuel R Castresana
Severe sepsis has been known to trigger for takotsubo syndrome which is associated with profound physical or emotional stress. Severe sepsis is also associated with sepsis-induced cardiomyopathy, a reversible myocardial depression. We report a case in which a patient with takotsubo syndrome, cardiogenic shock, severe sepsis, and adult respiratory distress syndrome was managed with an Impella Cardiac Power circulatory support device for 108 h (4.5 days) because of sustained hemodynamic compromise. To the best of our knowledge, this represents the longest reported use of the Impella Cardiac Power device for the management of cardiogenic shock in a patient with takotsubo syndrome and severe sepsis...
2017: SAGE open medical case reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29262440/who-is-safe-to-extubate-in-the-neuroscience-intensive-care-unit
#13
Julian Bösel
Patients admitted to the neuroscience intensive care unit (NICU) may have respiratory compromise from either central or peripheral neurological pathology, and may hence require intubation and mechanical ventilation for very diverse reasons. Liberation from invasive ventilation, that is, extubation, at the earliest possible time is a widely accepted principle in intensive care. For this, classic extubation criteria have been established in the general critical care setting, mainly targeting pulmonary function and cooperativeness of the patient...
December 2017: Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234144/umbilical-cord-milking-at-birth-for-term-newborns-with-acidosis-neonatal-outcomes
#14
Anup Katheria, Judith Mercer, Melissa Brown, Wade Rich, Katie Baker, M J Harbert, Brianna Pierce, Kasim Hassen, Neil Finer
OBJECTIVE: To determine if umbilical cord milking is detrimental in compromised term/near-term infants. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective analysis of infants with abnormal cord gases (cord arterial or venous pH of ≤ 7.1 or base deficit > -12). We collected maternal risk factors, cord management, birth, and neonatal outcomes during hospitalization. RESULT: We found 157 infants who met the criteria for abnormal cord gases. Thirty-six of those had umbilical cord milking at delivery...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233916/aging-impairs-both-primary-and-secondary-rig-i-signaling-for-interferon-induction-in-human-monocytes
#15
Ryan D Molony, Jenny T Nguyen, Yong Kong, Ruth R Montgomery, Albert C Shaw, Akiko Iwasaki
Adults older than 65 account for most of the deaths caused by respiratory influenza A virus (IAV) infections, but the underlying mechanisms for this susceptibility are poorly understood. IAV RNA is detected by the cytosolic sensor retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I), which induces the production of type I interferons (IFNs) that curtail the spread of the virus and promote the elimination of infected cells. We have previously identified a marked defect in the IAV-inducible secretion of type I IFNs, but not proinflammatory cytokines, in monocytes from older (>65 years) healthy human donors...
December 12, 2017: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229100/sleep-related-respiratory-events-during-non-invasive-ventilation-of-patients-with-chronic-hypoventilation
#16
Sigurd Aarrestad, Magnus Qvarfort, Anne Louise Kleiven, Elin Tollefsen, Ole Henning Skjønsberg, Jean-Paul Janssens
BACKGROUND: Non-invasive ventilation (NIV) is increasingly used in the treatment of patients with chronic hypercapnic respiratory failure (CRF). Residual sleep related respiratory events under NIV such as obstructive or central apnea/hypopnea (AH), or patient-ventilator asynchrony (PVA), may compromise treatment efficacy and/or comfort. AIMS OF STUDY: 1/to quantify the frequency and describe the types of both AH and PVA in a large group of stable patients with CRF during night-time NIV; 2/to analyze the influence of these events on overnight pulse oximetry and transcutaneous CO2 and 3/to assess interrater agreement in identifying and quantifying AH and PVA...
November 2017: Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221328/uncontrolled-and-under-diagnosed-asthma-in-a-damascus-shelter-during-the-syrian-crisis
#17
Yousser Mohammad, Shaaban Rafea, Youssef Latifeh, Ali Khaddam, Bisher Sawaf, Mhd Ismael Zakaria, Mohammad Sadek Al Masalmeh, Yaser Fawaz, Abdoulraouf Allaham, Imad Almani, Hiba El-Tarcheh, Ayham Ghazal, Ali Zaher, Hala Rifai, Hamed Joumah, S Dresden Glockler-Lauf, Teresa To
Background: Studies have shown that poor shelter or dwelling conditions may lead to deteriorations in health. Those with asthma may be more susceptible to compromised living conditions and stress leading to a higher risk of asthma exacerbations. To describe the asthma control and quality of life of individuals with diagnosed asthma living in a shelter in Damascus, Syria and estimate the prevalence of respiratory symptoms in shelter dwellers without diagnosed asthma. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, all individuals 5 years and older living in Al-Herjalleh shelter with diagnosed asthma were recruited to complete a questionnaire, which included items related to their respiratory symptoms, asthma exacerbations, exposure to asthma triggers, medication use, and health-related quality of life before and since entering the shelter...
September 2017: Journal of Thoracic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211198/respiratory-status-of-adult-patients-in-the-postoperative-period-of-thoracic-or-upper-abdominal-surgeries
#18
Alana Gomes de Araujo Almeida, Lívia Maia Pascoal, Francisco Dimitre Rodrigo Pereira Santos, Pedro Martins Lima, Simony Fabíola Lopes Nunes, Vanessa Emille Carvalho de Sousa
OBJECTIVE: to evaluate the respiratory status of postoperative adult patients by assessing the nursing outcome Respiratory Status. METHOD: descriptive, cross-sectional study developed with 312 patients. Eighteen NOC indicators were assessed and rated using a Likert-scale questionnaire and definitions. Descriptive and correlative analysis were conducted. RESULTS: the most compromised clinical indicators were coughing (65.5%), auscultated breath sounds (55%), and respiratory rate (51...
December 4, 2017: Revista Latino-americana de Enfermagem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208611/perturbations-of-nad-salvage-systems-impact-mitochondrial-function-and-energy-homeostasis-in-mouse-myoblasts-and-intact-skeletal-muscle
#19
Marianne Agerholm, Morten Dall, Benjamin A H Jensen, Clara Prats, Søren Madsen, Astrid L Basse, Anne-Sofie Graae, Steve Risis, Julie Goldenbaum, Bjørn Quistorff, Steen Larsen, Sara G Vienberg, Jonas T Treebak
Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) can be synthesized by nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (NAMPT). We aimed to determine the role of NAMPT for maintaining NAD+ levels, mitochondrial function, and metabolic homeostasis in skeletal muscle cells. We generated stable Nampt knockdown (shNampt KD) C2C12 cells using a shRNA lentiviral approach. Moreover, we applied gene electrotransfer to express cre recombinase in tibialis anterior muscle of floxed Nampt mice. In shNampt KD C2C12 myoblasts, Nampt and NAD+ levels were reduced by 70% and 50%, respectively, and maximal respiratory capacity was reduced by 25%...
December 5, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207883/physiological-and-behavioral-indices-of-short-term-stress-in-wild-vicu%C3%A3-as-vicugna-vicugna-in-jujuy-province-argentina
#20
Gisela Marcoppido, Yanina Arzamendia, Bibiana Vilá
The management of wild vicuñas can trigger a stress response that may compromise welfare. In Santa Catalina, Jujuy Province, Argentina, indices of short-term stress associated with capture, handling, and shearing were studied in 105 wild vicuñas (Vicugna vicugna). The study included 2 groups (n = 59 and n = 46) of wild vicuñas captured in 2 consecutive days. Independent variables analyzed included sex, restraint time, and groups. Cortisol, creatine kinase, glucose, white blood cells, temperature, heart rate, and respiratory frequency were higher than published values...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science: JAAWS
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