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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677440/phenotypic-antimicrobial-susceptibility-testing-with-deep-learning-video-microscopy
#1
Hui Yu, Wenwen Jing, Rafael Iriya, Yunze Yang, Karan Syal, Manni Mo, Thomas E Grys, Shelley E Haydel, Shaopeng Wang, Nongjian Tao
Timely determination of antimicrobial susceptibility for a bacterial infection enables precision prescription, shortens treatment time and helps minimize the spread of antibiotic resistant infections. Current antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) methods often take several days and thus impede these clinical and health benefits. Here, we present an AST method by imaging freely moving bacterial cells in urine in real time and analyzing the videos with a deep learning algorithm. The deep learning algorithm determines if an antibiotic inhibits a bacterial cell by learning multiple phenotypic features of the cell without the need for defining and quantifying each feature...
April 20, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675893/characteristics-of-opioid-maintained-clients-smoking-fentanyl-patches-the-importance-of-confirmatory-drug-analysis-illustrated-by-a-case-series-and-mini-review
#2
Andreas Kimergård, Jacklyn Dunne, Anette Bøgen, Peter Hindersson, Torben Breindahl
The increase in opioid prescribing in many European countries over the last decade has raised concerns about associated diversion, overdose and mortality. Fentanyl is one of these synthetic opioids that is typically prescribed as a transdermal patch for pain that requires continuous pain relief and has been the focus of investigations due to reports of overdose and death. We report a case series of 14 drug addiction treatment entrants who entered treatment in one service located in the region of Southern Denmark from August 2015 to December 2015 for smoking fentanyl patches...
April 19, 2018: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672167/sex-differences-in-opioid-use-and-medical-issues-during-buprenorphine-naloxone-treatment
#3
Celestina Barbosa-Leiker, Sterling McPherson, Matthew E Layton, Ekaterina Burduli, John M Roll, Walter Ling
BACKGROUND: There are sex differences in buprenorphine/naloxone clinical trials for opioid use. While women have fewer opioid-positive urine samples, relative to men, a significant decrease in opioid-positive samples was found during treatment for men, but not women. In order to inform sex-based approaches to improve treatment outcomes, research is needed to determine if opioid use, and predictors of opioid use, differs between men and women during treatment. OBJECTIVES: To test for sex differences in opioid use during a buprenorphine/naloxone clinical trial and determine if sex differences exist in the associations between addiction-related problem areas and opioid use over the course of the trial...
April 19, 2018: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671504/buprenorphine-therapy-for-opioid-use-disorder
#4
Roger Zoorob, Alicia Kowalchuk, Maria Mejia de Grubb
Opioid misuse, including the use of heroin and the overprescribing, misuse, and diversion of opioid pain medications, has reached epidemic proportions in the United States. As a result, there has been a dramatic increase in opioid use disorder and associated overdoses and deaths. Addiction is a chronic brain disease with a genetic component that affects motivation, inhibition, and cognition. Patient characteristics associated with successful buprenorphine maintenance treatment include stable or controlled medical or psychiatric comorbidities and a safe, substance-free environment...
March 1, 2018: American Family Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663538/methylxanthine-drug-monitoring-with-wearable-sweat-sensors
#5
Li-Chia Tai, Wei Gao, Minghan Chao, Mallika Bariya, Quynh P Ngo, Ziba Shahpar, Hnin Y Y Nyein, Hyejin Park, Junfeng Sun, Younsu Jung, Eric Wu, Hossain M Fahad, Der-Hsien Lien, Hiroki Ota, Gyoujin Cho, Ali Javey
Drug monitoring plays crucial roles in doping control and precision medicine. It helps physicians tailor drug dosage for optimal benefits, track patients' compliance to prescriptions, and understand the complex pharmacokinetics of drugs. Conventional drug tests rely on invasive blood draws. While urine and sweat are attractive alternative biofluids, the state-of-the-art methods require separate sample collection and processing steps and fail to provide real-time information. Here, a wearable platform equipped with an electrochemical differential pulse voltammetry sensing module for drug monitoring is presented...
April 16, 2018: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29661657/reprint-of-the-effect-of-n-acetylcysteine-and-working-memory-training-on-cocaine-use-craving-and-inhibition-in-regular-cocaine-users-correspondence-of-lab-assessments-and-ecological-momentary-assessment
#6
Mieke H J Schulte, Reinout W Wiers, Wouter J Boendermaker, Anna E Goudriaan, Wim van den Brink, Denise S van Deursen, Malte Friese, Emily Brede, Andrew J Waters
INTRODUCTION: Effective treatment for cocaine use disorder should dampen hypersensitive cue-induced motivational processes and/or strengthen executive control. Using a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled intervention, the primary aim of this study was to investigate the effect of N-Acetylcysteine (NAC) and working memory (WM)-training to reduce cocaine use and craving and to improve inhibition assessed in the laboratory and during Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA). The second aim was to examine correspondence between laboratory and EMA data...
March 26, 2018: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660996/annals-express-a-case-of-hereditary-coproporphyria-with-posterior-reversible-encephalopathy-and-novel-cpox-gene-mutation-c-863t-g-p-leu288trp
#7
Deborah Lambie, Christopher M Florkowski, Chris Sies, Anthony Raizis, Wai-Kwan Siu, Cindy Towns
A 21 year old female had recurrent presentations to the Emergency Department (ED) with myalgia, vomiting, abdominal pain and subsequently developed generalized seizures. She was volume depleted with a plasma sodium of 125 mmol/L (reference interval 135-145) and she had fluctuating hypertension. Acute porphyria was suspected and confirmed with raised urine porphobilinogen (PBG)/creatinine ratio of 12·4 umol/mmol (reference interval < 1·5) and she was treated with intravenous haem arginate. Urinary porphyrin/creatinine ratio was 673 nmol/mmol, (reference interval <35) and faecal porphyrins 2430 umol/kg dry weight (reference interval <200) were markedly elevated, with raised faecal CIII:CI ratio, consistent with acute coproporphyria...
January 1, 2018: Annals of Clinical Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660665/investigation-of-anti-hepatitis-c-virus-sofosbuvir-and-daclatasvir-in-pure-form-human-plasma-and-human-urine-using-micellar-monolithic-hplc-uv-method-and-application-to-pharmacokinetic-study
#8
Dalia W Zidan, Wafaa S Hassan, Manal S Elmasry, Abdalla A Shalaby
Simultaneous determination of sofosbuvir (SOF), and daclatasvir (DAC) in their dosage forms, human urine and human plasma using simple and rapid micellar high performance liquid chromatographic method coupled with UV detection (HPLC-UV) had been developed and validated. These drugs are described as co-administered for treatment of Hepatitis C virus (HCV). HCV is the cause of Hepatitis C and some cancers such as liver cancer (hepatocellular carcinoma) and lymphomas in humans. Separation and quantitation were carried out on anonyx™ C8 monolithic (100 × 4...
April 7, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655463/proteomics-for-biomarker-identification-and-clinical-application-in-kidney-disease
#9
Lin Chen, Wei Su, Hua Chen, Dan-Qian Chen, Ming Wang, Yan Guo, Ying-Yong Zhao
Treatment effectiveness for kidney disease is limited by lack of accuracy, sensitivity, specificity of diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic biomarkers. The gold standard test renal biopsy along with serum creatinine and proteinuria is often necessary to establish a diagnosis, particularly in glomerular disease. Proteomics has become a powerful tool for novel biomarker discovery in kidney disease. Novel proteomics offer earlier and more accurate diagnosis of renal pathology than possible with traditional biomarkers such as serum creatinine and urine protein...
2018: Advances in Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651691/pattern-of-antimicrobial-resistance-among-bacterial-isolates-from-urogenital-clinical-specimens-a-descriptive-study-from-the-buea-health-district-cameroon
#10
Elvis Tajoache Amin, Charles Njumkeng, Belmond T Kika, Akemfua Fualefac, Patrick Njukeng
INTRODUCTION: Antimicrobial resistance has become a global concern and is particularly affecting developing countries where infectious diseases and poverty are endemic. The effectiveness of currently available antimicrobials is decreasing as a result of increasing resistant strains among clinical isolates. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to determine the resistance pattern of bacterial isolates from different clinical urogenital specimens at different hospitals in the Buea Health District, Cameroon...
April 12, 2018: Drugs—Real World Outcomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649995/the-prevalence-and-systemic-risk-factors-of-diabetic-macular-edema-a-cross-sectional-study-from-turkey
#11
Durgul Acan, Mehmet Calan, Duygu Er, Tugba Arkan, Nilufer Kocak, Firat Bayraktar, Suleyman Kaynak
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of diabetic macular edema (DME) utilizing optical coherence tomography (OCT), and to clarify the effects of the systemic findings and risk factors on the development of DME. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted in the departments of ophthalmology and endocrinology at the Dokuz Eylul University School of Medicine in Izmir, Turkey. The demographics, type and duration of diabetes mellitus, treatment modality, smoking and alcohol consumption habits, as well as the systemic blood pressure, renal functional tests, hemoglobulin A1c level, serum lipid profile, and 24-h urine albumin level were noted and statistically analyzed...
April 12, 2018: BMC Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642875/comparing-the-performance-of-circulating-cathodic-antigen-and-kato-katz-techniques-in-evaluating-schistosoma-mansoni-infection-in-areas-with-low-prevalence-in-selected-counties-of-kenya-a-cross-sectional-study
#12
Collins Okoyo, Elses Simiyu, Sammy M Njenga, Charles Mwandawiro
BACKGROUND: Kato-Katz technique has been the mainstay test in Schistosoma mansoni diagnosis in endemic areas. However, recent studies have documented its poor sensitivity in evaluating Schistosoma mansoni infection especially in areas with lower rates of transmission. It's the primary diagnostic tool in monitoring impact of the Kenya national school based deworming program on infection transmission, but there is need to consider a more sensitive technique as the prevalence reduces. Therefore, this study explored the relationship between results of the stool-based Kato-Katz technique with urine-based point-of-care circulating cathodic antigen (POC-CCA) test in view to inform decision-making by the program in changing from Kato-Katz to POC-CCA test...
April 11, 2018: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642731/the-effect-of-hemodynamically-significant-patent-ductus-arteriosus-on-acute-kidney-injury-and-systemic-hypertension-in-extremely-low-gestational-age-newborns
#13
Danitza M Velazquez, Kimberly J Reidy, Madhu Sharma, Mimi Kim, Melissa Vega, Tomas Havranek
BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury (AKI) in preterm neonates is becoming an increasingly recognized morbidity in the neonatal intensive care unit neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), yet its epidemiology, delineation and relation to numerous toxic exposures and common morbidities such as systemic hypertension is just evolving. With a frequency of the patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) as high as 70% in preterm infants born before 28-week gestation, the role of the hemodynamically significant PDA (hs-PDA) remains unclear...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627744/a-robust-and-versatile-mass-spectrometry-platform-for-comprehensive-assessment-of-the-thiol-redox-metabolome
#14
T R Sutton, M Minnion, F Barbarino, G Koster, B O Fernandez, A F Cumpstey, P Wischmann, M Madhani, M P Frenneaux, A D Postle, M M Cortese-Krott, M Feelisch
Several diseases are associated with perturbations in redox signaling and aberrant hydrogen sulfide metabolism, and numerous analytical methods exist for the measurement of the sulfur-containing species affected. However, uncertainty remains about their concentrations and speciation in cells/biofluids, perhaps in part due to differences in sample processing and detection principles. Using ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography in combination with electrospray-ionization tandem mass spectrometry we here outline a specific and sensitive platform for the simultaneous measurement of 12 analytes, including total and free thiols, their disulfides and sulfide in complex biological matrices such as blood, saliva and urine...
February 19, 2018: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625621/expanding-harm-reduction-to-include-fentanyl-urine-testing-results-from-a-pilot-in-rural-british-columbia
#15
Silvina C Mema, Chloe Sage, Serge Popoff, Jessica Bridgeman, Deanne Taylor, Trevor Corneil
BACKGROUND: Harm reduction has been at the forefront of the response to the opioid overdose public health emergency in British Columbia (BC). The unprecedented number of opioid overdose deaths in the province calls for an expansion of harm reduction services. The purpose of this study was to determine the acceptability of a fentanyl urine drug test among people who use drugs (PWUD) and explore whether testing introduced any changes in participants' attitudes and behaviors towards their drug use...
April 6, 2018: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623562/decline-in-buprenorphine-naloxone-prescriptions-in-a-state-medicaid-population-following-formulary-conversion-from-suboxone-to-bunavail
#16
Richard Soper, Sireesh Appajosyula, Christina Deximo
INTRODUCTION: A large, statewide, fee-for-service Medicaid plan recently (October 2015) executed a complete switch from sublingual buprenorphine-naloxone [(SLBN), Suboxone® ] to buccal buprenorphine-naloxone [(BBN), Bunavail® ] on its preferred drug formulary. This complete formulary switch provided an opportunity to assess dynamic changes in prescribing patterns, patient/physician acceptance, and indices of potential misuse/diversion. METHODS: For the period January 1, 2015 through December 31, 2016, two datasets were analyzed: prescriptions and associated costs for buprenorphine-naloxone (BN) products and urine toxicology test results for patients in the Medicaid plan...
April 6, 2018: Advances in Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615167/pseudomonas-aeruginosa-evaluation-of-pathogen-burden-and-drug-resistance-trends-in-a-tertiary-care-hospital
#17
Muhammad Saeed, Farhan Rasheed, Raja Kamran Afzal, Shahida Hussain, Saba Riaz, Adeel Ahmad
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the pathogen burden and antibiotic-resistance trends of Pseudomonas aeruginosa among hospitalised patients at a tertiary care hospital. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective, hospital record-based, cross-sectional study. PLACE AND DURATION OF STUDY: Microbiology Laboratory, Allama Iqbal Medical College/Jinnah Hospital, Lahore, from January 2014 to December 2016. METHODOLOGY: A total of 5,960 samples were collected from clinically suspected cases of bacterial infections, admitted to the hospital...
April 2018: Journal of the College of Physicians and Surgeons—Pakistan: JCPSP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29611351/effects-of-sildenafil-metformin-and-simvastatin-on-adh-independent-urine-concentration-in-healthy-volunteers
#18
Anneke P Bech, Jack F M Wetzels, Tom Nijenhuis
Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI) is a rare disorder characterized by resistance of the kidney to the action of antidiuretic hormone (ADH), resulting in a decrease in the capacity of the kidney to concentrate the urine. NDI can be inherited or acquired due to, for example, chronic lithium therapy. Current treatment options are limited to attempts to lower urine output by a low-solute diet and the use of diuretics or anti-inflammatory drugs. These measures are only partially effective. Recent reports suggested that sildenafil, metformin, and simvastatin might improve ADH-independent urine concentration...
April 2018: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29609422/influence-of-the-short-term-intake-of-high-doses-of-solifenacin-and-trospium-on-cognitive-function-and-health-related-quality-of-life-in-older-women-with-urinary-incontinence
#19
Kirill Kosilov, Irina Kuzina, Sergay Loparev, Yuliya Gainullina, Liliya Kosilova, Alexandra Prokofyeva
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate the safety and the effects of elevated doses of solifenacin and trospium on cognitive function and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in elderly women receiving treatment for urinary incontinence. METHODS: The study included 312 women aged 60-83 years (mean age, 69.4 years). All participants had scored at least 24 points on the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scale, and all of them had been diagnosed with urge urinary incontinence (UUI) or mixed urinary incontinence (MUI)...
March 2018: International Neurourology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29609277/-analysis-of-distribution-and-drug-resistance-of-pathogens-of-burn-patients-during-9-years
#20
Y Dou, Q Zhang
Objective: To investigate distribution and drug resistance of pathogens of burn patients. Methods: A total of 3 357 strains were cultured and isolated from 25 286 specimens of wounds excretion, deep venous catheters, venous blood, stool, mid-stream urine, sputum, puncture fluid, and throat swab of 11 510 burn patients hospitalized in our burn wards from January 2007 to December 2015. After being identified by API bacteria identification panels and automatically bacteria identification equipment, drug-resistances of Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii, and Klebsiella pneumoniae to 28 common antibiotics were tested by drug sensitivity test with K-B paper disk diffusion method...
March 20, 2018: Zhonghua Shao Shang za Zhi, Zhonghua Shaoshang Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Burns
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