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Urine drug testing

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049469/the-effectiveness-of-injectable-extended-release-naltrexone-vs-daily-buprenorphine-naloxone-for-opioid-dependence-a-randomized-clinical-noninferiority-trial
#1
Lars Tanum, Kristin Klemmetsby Solli, Zill-E-Huma Latif, Jurate Šaltyte Benth, Arild Opheim, Kamni Sharma-Haase, Peter Krajci, Nikolaj Kunøe
Importance: To date, extended-release naltrexone hydrochloride has not previously been compared directly with opioid medication treatment (OMT), currently the most commonly prescribed treatment for opioid dependence. Objective: To determine whether treatment with extended-release naltrexone will be as effective as daily buprenorphine hydrochloride with naloxone hydrochloride in maintaining abstinence from heroin and other illicit substances in newly detoxified individuals...
October 18, 2017: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045954/-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension-as-leading-manifestation-of-methylmalonic-aciduria-clinical-characteristics-and-gene-testing-in-15-cases
#2
X Q Liu, H Yan, J X Qiu, C Y Zhang, J G Qi, X Zhang, H J Xiao, Y L Yang, Y H Chen, J B DU
OBJECTIVE: To deepen our understanding of Methylmalonic aciduria (MMA) associated pulmonary hypertension (PH) by analyzing the characteristics of clinical presentation, pulmonary high resolusion CT(HRCT), treatment response and gene mutation. METHODS: This study includes 15 cases of pediatric patients with MMA associated PH diagnosed and treated in Peking University First Hospital pediatric department between May 2012 and May 2016 with symptoms of PH as their leading presentation...
October 18, 2017: Beijing da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Peking University. Health Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045302/neurosteroid-levels-in-patients-with-bipolar-disorder-and-a-history-of-cannabis-use-disorders
#3
Brittany L Mason, Erin Van Enkevort, Francesca Filbey, Christine E Marx, John Park, Alyson Nakamura, Prabha Sunderajan, E Sherwood Brown
PURPOSE/BACKGROUND: In animal models, levels of the neurosteroid pregnenolone increase after tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) administration and pregnenolone appears to attenuate the brain effects of THC. Given these interactions between pregnenolone and THC, we evaluated baseline neurosteroid levels in participants with a history of a cannabis use disorders (CUDs). METHODS/PROCEDURES: Bipolar depressed participants were enrolled in a randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial to evaluate the efficacy of add-on pregnenolone for depression and before receiving pregnenolone or placebo...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043360/synthesis-photophysical-and-biological-properties-of-a-new-oxazolone-fluorescent-probe-for-bioimaging-an-experimental-and-theoretical-study
#4
Przemysław Krawczyk, Beata Jędrzejewska, Piotr Cysewski, Tomasz Janek
In this study, a new oxazolone derivative 4-{N,N-bis[2-phenyl-4-benzylidene-1,3-oxazol-5(4H)-one]amino}benzaldehyde (PB3) was synthesized and investigated as a fluorescent dye. The spectroscopic properties in different solvents were thoroughly studied. The experimental data were supported by quantum-chemical calculations using density functional theory. Measurements and theoretical calculations showed that the PB3 dye is characterized by non-monotonic solvatochromism, a strongly polar charge transfer excited state, a large Stokes' shift, a high fluorescence quantum yield and a high fluorescence lifetime...
October 18, 2017: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042953/oral-colon-specific-drug-delivery-system-reduces-the-nephrotoxicity-of-rhubarb-anthraquinones-when-they-produce-purgative-efficacy
#5
Pei Liu, Hongwei Wei, Jinhua Chang, Guangxin Miao, Xigang Liu, Zhongsi Li, Liyan Liu, Xiangrong Zhang, Cuizhe Liu
Rhubarb is commonly used to treat constipation in China and anthraquinones (AQs) are the active components present in rhubarb. However, an increasing number of studies have reported that AQs induce nephrotoxicity. In the present study, rhubarb total free anthraquinones (RTFA) oral colon-specific drug delivery granules (RTFA-OCDD-GN) were prepared to determine whether RTFA-OCDD-GN could reduce the nephrotoxicity that occurs when AQs produce purgative efficacy. RTFA-OCDD-GN were prepared using pH-enzyme double-layer coating technology and the cumulative release rate of RTFA in RTFA-OCDD-GN was assessed...
October 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037046/admet-evaluation-in-drug-discovery-18-reliable-prediction-of-chemical-induced-urinary-tract-toxicity-by-boosting-machine-learning-approaches
#6
Tailong Lei, Huiyong Sun, Yu Kang, Feng Zhu, Hui Liu, Wenfang Zhou, Zhe Wang, Dan Li, Youyong Li, Tingjun Hou
Xenobiotic chemicals and their metabolites are mainly excreted out of our bodies by the The urinary tract is the main organ excreting xenobiotic chemicals and their metabolites through the urine. Chemical-induced urinary tract toxicity is one of the main reasons that cause failure during drug development, and it is a common adverse event for medications, natural supplements and environmental chemicals. Despites its importance, there are only a few in silico models for assessing urinary tract toxicity for a large number of compounds with diverse chemical structures...
October 16, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036990/-drug-resistance-and-dissemination-of-new-delhi-metallo-%C3%AE-lactamase-1-positive-bacteria-in-a-patient
#7
X F Zhao, M Yuan, X Chen, X F Liu, D S Yu, J Li
Objective: The aim of this work was to report the surveillance and dissemination of NDM-1 positive bacteria in a patient and ward environment. Methods: In 2010, during the therapy for a 51 years old patient, clinical and environmental samples were collected for carbapenem resistant bacterial culture, according to the clinical microbiological examination. Strains identification and antibiotic susceptibility were tested by VITEK Compact 2 system and E-test. The bla(NDM-1) was detected by PCR and analyzed by sequencing...
October 6, 2017: Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036502/three-cases-of-fatal-acrylfentanyl-toxicity-in-the-united-states-and-a-review-of-literature
#8
Daniel C Butler, Kevin Shanks, George S Behonick, Dustin Smith, Susan E Presnell, Lee Marie Tormos
Fentanyl analogs pose a unique challenge for forensic pathologists and toxicologists. The extreme potency of these analogs results in minute blood, urine and vitreous concentrations that are technically difficult to identify. This in addition to their absence from standard drug screening may potentiate a setting of apparent drug overdose without an immediately identifiable source. The following case series illustrates three such encounters with acrylfentanyl, an analog whose presence has not yet been reported in the scientific literature in the United States...
September 28, 2017: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035169/prospective-longitudinal-substance-use-patterns-in-patients-preparing-for-hepatitis-c-treatment
#9
Carol S North, David E Pollio, Omar T Sims, Mamta K Jain, Barry A Hong
OBJECTIVE: This study prospectively examined the independent courses of alcohol, drugs, and smoking over 18 months in 154 patients preparing for hepatitis C (HCV) treatment in relation to functioning, negative coping, and satisfaction with quality of life, in data collected from a randomized controlled trial of multiple-family group psychoeducation for patients preparing for HCV treatment. Patients with HCV who had consistent abstinence, consistent use, or achievement of abstinence after study entry were examined for outcomes pertaining to functioning in the context of HCV, negative coping, and satisfaction with quality of life...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Dual Diagnosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033601/urine-metabolic-ratio-of-omeprazole-in-relation-to-cyp2c19-polymorphisms-in-russian-peptic-ulcer-patients
#10
Natalia P Denisenko, Dmitriy A Sychev, Zhanna M Sizova, Valeriy V Smirnov, Kristina A Ryzhikova, Zhannet A Sozaeva, Elena A Grishina
BACKGROUND: CYP2C19 is known to be the main enzyme of biotransformation of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), whereas the CYP2C19 gene is highly polymorphic. Genotyping and phenotyping together represent more reliable data about patient's CYP2C19 activity. PURPOSE: The aim of the study was to investigate the applicability of urine metabolic ratio of omeprazole for CYP2C19 phenotyping in Russian peptic ulcer patients with different CYP2C19 genotypes. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 59 patients (19 men and 40 women) aged 18-91 years (mean age 53...
2017: Pharmacogenomics and Personalized Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022692/paper-spray-ionization-coupled-to-high-resolution-tandem-mass-spectrometry-for-comprehensive-urine-drug-testing-in-comparison-to-liquid-chromatography-coupled-techniques-after-urine-precipitation-or-dried-urine-spot-workup
#11
Julian A Michely, Markus R Meyer, Hans H Maurer
Screening procedures using high resolution (HR)-mass spectrometry (MS) are getting more and more important e.g. for drug testing or adherence monitoring. Approaches usually include time-consuming sample preparation and compound separation by liquid chromatography (LC). The paper spray ionization (PSI) technique coupled to MS might overcome these steps by direct analysis of complex mixtures without extraction and separation. In recent years, this technology proved its potential for quantification and/or qualitative screening in biofluids...
October 12, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018014/elizabethkingia-meningoseptica-emerging-multidrug-resistance-in-a-nosocomial-pathogen
#12
Sairam Raghavan, Biji Thomas, B A Shastry
A 46-year-old male patient presented with complaints of burning micturition for 2 days. Initial history, physical examination and laboratory investigations were consistent with the diagnosis of congestive cardiac failure (CCF) and concomitant urinary tract infection. CCF was treated with diuretics and a urine culture/sensitivity (C/S) was sent which returned growing Elizabethkingia meningoseptica resistant to all tested drugs. Intravenous cefotaxime which had been started empirically 3 days earlier was withheld at this point, and a repeat urine C/S was sent revealing resistance to all tested drugs (including reserved drugs) barring minocycline...
October 10, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016951/compliance-with-opioid-therapy-distinguishing-clinical-characteristics-and-demographics-among-patients-with-cancer-pain
#13
Dhanalakshmi Koyyalagunta, Eduardo Bruera, Mitchell P Engle, Larry Driver, Wenli Dong, Chris Demaree, Diane M Novy
Background: Because an increase of patients who misuse opioids has been identified in our cancer clinical setting through urine drug testing (UDT) and the Screener and Opioid Assessment for Patient's with Pain-Short Form (SOAPP-SF), we conducted this retrospective cohort study to identify patient characteristics that are associated with UDT that indicates noncompliance. Methods: Over a two-year period, 167 of 8,727 patients (2.4%) seen in the pain clinic and who underwent UDT were evaluated to determine compliance with prescribed opioid regimens...
July 29, 2017: Pain Medicine: the Official Journal of the American Academy of Pain Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28990451/urine-and-oral-fluid-drug-testing-in-support-of-pain-management
#14
Tai C Kwong, Barbarajean Magnani, Christine Moore
In recent years, the abuse of opioid drugs has resulted in greater prevalence of addiction, overdose, and deaths attributable to opioid abuse. The epidemic of opioid abuse has prompted professional and government agencies to issue practice guidelines for prescribing opioids to manage chronic pain. An important tool available to providers is the drug test for use in the initial assessment of patients for possible opioid therapy, subsequent monitoring of compliance, and documentation of suspected aberrant drug behaviors...
October 9, 2017: Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28987302/ricin-poisoning-after-oral-ingestion-of-castor-beans-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature-and-laboratory-testing
#15
Oscar F Lopez Nunez, Anthony F Pizon, Kenichi Tamama
BACKGROUND: Ricin is a protein toxin derived from the castor bean plant Ricinus communis. Several cases secondary to its consumption have been published and, more recently, its use as a potential bioterrorism agent has also been reported. Oral absorption of ricin is highly erratic, leading to a wide spectrum of symptoms. In addition, conventional urine drug screening tests will not be able to detect this compound, posing a diagnostic challenge. CASE REPORT: A male teenager intended to die by ingesting 200 castor beans after mixing and blending them with juice...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985394/a-validated-method-for-the-detection-of-32-bath-salts-in-oral-fluid
#16
Michelle Williams, Jennifer Martin, Peter Galettis
Workplace drug testing in Australia is usually adherent to one of two standards, AS/NZS 4308:2008 for urine or AS 4760:2006 for oral fluid. These standards prescribe the drugs tested, devices used and testing methodology followed by the testing agency. However, they are not comprehensive and for many years workers have been able to consume novel psychoactive substances to avoid detection and without consequences. Here, we present a validated method for the detection of 32 Synthetic Stimulant and Hallucogenic drugs, commonly sold as bath salts, in oral fluid...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985323/identification-of-mt-45-metabolites-in-silico-prediction-in-vitro-incubation-with-rat-hepatocytes-and-in-vivo-confirmation
#17
Camilla Montesano, Gabriele Vannutelli, Federico Fanti, Flaminia Vincenti, Adolfo Gregori, Anna Rita Togna, Isabella Canazza, Matteo Marti, Manuel Sergi
MT-45 is a synthetic opioid with a pharmacological activity comparable to morphine and it has been involved in intoxications and fatalities reported in Europe and in USA. It was recently subject to control measures, but to date the metabolic pathways of the substance are still unknown. Using rat hepatocytes and LC-HRMS, 14 novel Phase I and II MT-45 metabolites were identified, products of monohydroxylation, dihydroxylation and N-dealkylation; glucuronide conjugation of mono- and dihydroxylated metabolites also occurred...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985315/cross-reactivity-of-pantoprazole-with-three-commercial-cannabinoids-immunoassays-in-urine
#18
Isabel Gomila, Bernardino Barceló, Antonio Rosell, Sonia Avella, Laura Sahuquillo, Macarena Dastis
Pantoprazole is a frequently prescribed proton pump inhibitor (PPI) commonly utilized in the management of gastrointestinal symptoms. Few substances have proved to cause a false-positive cannabinoid urine screen. However, a case of false-positive urine cannabinoid screen in a patient who received a pantoprazole dose has been recently published. The purpose of this study was to determine the potential cross-reactivity of pantoprazole in the cannabinoid immunoassays: Alere Triage® TOX Drug Screen, KIMS® Cannabinoids II and DRI® Cannabinoids Assay...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984746/late-reduction-of-cocaine-cravings-in-a-randomized-double-blind-trial-of-aripiprazole-vs-perphenazine-in-schizophrenia-and-comorbid-cocaine-dependence
#19
Thomas Beresford, Jennifer Buchanan, Elizabeth Brie Thumm, Chad Emrick, David Weitzenkamp, Patrick J Ronan
PURPOSE: Co-occurring schizophrenia spectrum disorder and International Statistical Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision cocaine dependence present a particularly destructive constellation that is often difficult to treat. Both conditions raise dopamine transmission effects in the brain. Traditional neuroleptics block dopamine receptors, whereas aripiprazole modulates dopamine activity as an agonist/antagonist. We tested whether dopamine modulation is superior to dopamine blocking in dual-diagnosis patients...
October 3, 2017: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982672/sodium-and-fluid-excretion-with-torsemide-in-healthy-subjects-is-limited-by-the-short-duration-of-diuretic-action
#20
Salim Shah, Bertram Pitt, D Craig Brater, Peter U Feig, Wen Shen, Fatima S Khwaja, Christopher S Wilcox
BACKGROUND: Loop diuretics are highly natriuretic but their short duration of action permits postdiuretic sodium retention, which limits salt loss unless dietary salt is severely restricted. We tested the hypothesis that a more prolonged duration of action would enhance salt loss. METHODS AND RESULTS: Ten healthy participants were crossed over between 20 mg of oral immediate-release or extended-release (ER) torsemide while consuming a fixed diet with 300 mmol·d(-1) of Na(+)...
October 5, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
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