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Urine drug testing

Anne M Rompalo, Neko Castleberry, Lea Widdice, Jay Schulkin, Charlotte A Gaydos
Background: Point-of-care tests (POCTs) for reproductive health conditions have existed for decades. Newer POCTs for syphilis, HIV and trichomonas are currently available and easy to use. We surveyed practicing obstetricians and gynaecologists to determine current POCT use and perceived obstacles to use. Methods: Between June and August 2016, 1000 members of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists were randomly selected and invited to complete a Qualtrics (222 West river Park Drive, Provo, Utah 84604, USA) survey; 600 of these were members of the Collaborative Ambulatory Research Network...
June 19, 2018: Sexual Health
Guilherme Amaral Calvet, Patricia Brasil, Andre Machado Siqueira, Heruza Einsfeld Zogbi, Bianca de Santis Gonçalves, Aline da Silva Santos, Otilia Lupi, Rogerio Valls de Souza, Cintia Damasceno Dos Santos Rodrigues, Clarisse da Silveira Bressan, Mauymi Duarte Wakimoto, Eliane Saraiva de Araújo, Ingrid Cardoso Dos Santos, Ingebourg Georg, Rita Maria Ribeiro Nogueira, Valdilea Gonçalves Veloso, Ana Maria Bispo de Filippis
BackgroundZika virus (ZIKV) emergence in South America revealed the lack of knowledge regarding clinical manifestations in HIV-infected individuals. OBJECTIVES: We described the clinical characteristics, laboratory manifestations, differential diagnosis, and outcome of ZIKV infection in a large, single-center cohort of HIV-infected patients.MethodsHIV-infected patients aged ≥ 18 years with clinical suspected arboviral disease from an ongoing cohort were followed from February through December 2015...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
Victoria H Coleman-Cowger, Emmanuel A Oga, Erica N Peters, Katrina Mark
Use of Cannabis and use of tobacco overlap, and co-use of Cannabis and tobacco has increased over the past decade among adults. The current study aims to document the prevalence and correlates of co-use of Cannabis and tobacco cigarettes among adult pregnant women utilizing secondary data from a larger study that compared and validated screeners for illicit and prescription drug use during pregnancy. Pregnant women (N = 500; 71% African American; 65% never married, average age of 28 years) were recruited from two urban University obstetric clinics between January and December 2017...
June 5, 2018: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
Emmanuel A Oga, Katrina Mark, Victoria H Coleman-Cowger
Objectives Substance use during pregnancy is a significant public health issue. Prenatal substance use increased in the past decade while prenatal cigarette smoking has remained stable. Co-use of tobacco and other drugs is a concern because of potential additive risks. This study aims to describe the prevalence rates of substance use among pregnant women and examine the association between smoking status (nonsmoker, recent quitter and current smoker) and other drug use. Methods In this cross-sectional study, pregnant women (n = 500) were recruited from two obstetric practices to complete three substance use screeners and have their urine tested for 12 different drug classes, including cannabis, opioids and cocaine...
June 7, 2018: Maternal and Child Health Journal
Jie Cao, Yan Du, Yu-Jin Wang, Bin Wu, Juan Jia, Zhi-Wen Wei, Ke-Ming Yun, Wu Liang, Ying-Yuan Wang, Jun-Hong Sun
Oral fluid assays for quantifying drugs are useful in forensic toxicology and drug monitoring. Compared with blood and urine specimens, oral fluid collection is simple, non-invasive, and more difficult to adulterate. Therefore, we investigated whether meperidine and its metabolites could be detected in oral fluid and whether there was a predictable relationship between oral fluid and plasma concentrations. Male New Zealand white rabbits (n = 10) were administered meperidine hydrochloride (20 mg/kg, intravenous)...
June 1, 2018: Die Pharmazie
Asuka Mizutani, Masato Kobayashi, Ken-Ichi Fujita, Kotaro Takahashi, Tsuzumi Hokama, Hiroaki Takasu, Kodai Nishi, Ryuichi Nishii, Naoto Shikano, Kazuki Fukuchi, Keiichi Kawai
OBJECTIVES: Drugs are mainly metabolized by hepatic enzymes, the activity of which can differ between individuals. Although it is ideal to measure the hepatic clearance of liver-targeted drugs in individualized medicine, blood enzyme tests typically measure metabolic drug clearance in the entire body, and not just in the liver. We investigated whether I-iomazenil imaging can directly assess and quantify the activity of hepatic drug-metabolizing enzymes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Hepatic enzymes that metabolize I-iomazenil were identified by thin-layer chromatography in mouse liver homogenates with bis(4-nitrophenyl) phosphate (BNPP) inhibitor for carboxylesterase enzymes and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) generator for cytochrome P450 enzymes...
June 5, 2018: Nuclear Medicine Communications
Aleksandra E Zgierska, Regina M Vidaver, Paul Smith, Mary W Ales, Kate Nisbet, Deanne Boss, Wen-Jan Tuan, David L Hahn
BACKGROUND: Systematic implementation of guidelines for opioid therapy management in chronic non-cancer pain can reduce opioid-related harms. However, implementation of guideline-recommended practices in routine care is subpar. The goal of this quality improvement (QI) project is to assess whether a clinic-tailored QI intervention improves the implementation of a health system-wide, guideline-driven policy on opioid prescribing in primary care. This manuscript describes the protocol for this QI project...
June 5, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
T Yao, D Feng, M H Pan, Y P Cheng, C X Li, J Wang, Y L Feng, J Shi, T Su, Q Chen, S Shi, S P Wang
Objective: To estimate the prevalence of HIV/HCV co-infection and explore the influence factors and their interaction on HIV/HCV co-infection of patient's access to methadone maintenance treatment (MMT). Methods: A face to face interviews were conducted among 750 patients at two MMT clinics in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region. The questionnaires information included demographic characteristics, HIV and HCV infection status, history of drug abuse, urine test for morphine, high risk sex behaviors, needle sharing, dropped out etc ...
May 10, 2018: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
Z Cheng, G H Chen, M M Dai, W Luo, P Lyu, X B Cao
Objective: To explore the reasons and factors associated with new psychoactive substances abuse among patients with access to methadone maintenance treatment (MMT). Methods: A well-developed questionnaire and urine tests were used to collect information about demographic characteristics, condition of MMT and drug abuse, family and social support of MMT clients. A 1∶1 matched case-control study was conducted, and conditional logistic regression model was used to identify factors associated with new psychoactive substances abuse...
May 10, 2018: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
Jonathan Colasanti, Marlene C Lira, Debbie M Cheng, Jane M Liebschutz, Judith I Tsui, Leah S Forman, Meg Sullivan, Alexander Y Walley, Carly Bridden, Christin Root, Melissa Podolsky, Catherine Abrams, Kishna Outlaw, Catherine E Harris, Wendy S Armstrong, Jeffrey H Samet, Carlos Del Rio
Background: Chronic opioid therapy (COT) is common in people living with HIV (PLHIV), but not well studied. We assessed opioid risk behaviors, perceptions of risk, opioid monitoring and associated Current Opioid Misuse Measure (COMM™) scores of PLHIV on COT. Methods: COT was defined as ≥3 opioid prescriptions ≥21 days apart in the past 6 months. Demographics, substance use history, COMM™ score, and perceptions of and satisfaction with COT monitoring were assessed among PLHIV on COT from two HIV clinics...
May 31, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Monica Licker, Teodora Sorescu, Maria Rus, Natalia Cirlea, Florin Horhat, Cristiana Jurescu, Mircea Botoca, Alin Cumpănaş, Romulus Timar, Delia Muntean
Purpose: We report an outbreak of urinary tract infections (UTIs) caused by Myroides odoratimimus , which occurred in the largest clinical hospital in western Romania. Patients and methods: From June to August 2017, four strains of M. odoratimimus were isolated from the urine samples of patients hospitalized in the urology, diabetes, and surgery departments. Hospital records of all patients whose urine cultures were positive for M. odoratimimus were reviewed retrospectively...
2018: Infection and Drug Resistance
Song Yee Kim, Jungho Kim, Deok Ryun Kim, Young Ae Kang, Sungyoung Bong, Jonghee Lee, Suyeon Kim, Nam Suk Lee, Bora Sim, Sang-Nae Cho, Young Sam Kim, Hyejon Lee
BACKGROUND: Prior to clinical trials of new TB drugs or therapeutic vaccines, it is necessary to develop monitoring tools to predict treatment outcomes in TB patients. Urine interferon gamma inducible protein 10 (IP-10) is a potential biomarker of treatment response in chronic hepatitis C virus infection and lung diseases, including tuberculosis. In this study, we assessed IP-10 levels in urine samples from patients with active TB at diagnosis, during treatment, and at completion, and compared these with levels in serum samples collected in parallel from matched patients to determine whether urine IP-10 can be used to monitor treatment response in patients with active TB...
May 29, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
A Kopková, J Šána, M Večeřa, D Knoflíčková, M Smrčka, O Slabý, P Fadrus
BACKGROUNDS: Deregulated levels of miRNAs, short noncoding RNAs associated with pathogenesis of many diseases, have been observed in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Therefore, the analysis of CSF miRNAs in patients affected by tumors of central nervous system (CNS) might help to develop new diagnostic platform enabling more precise diagnosis. Thus, in our study we tried to optimize methodical approaches to be used for miRNA detection as RNA isolation and selection of suitable technology for global high-throughput miRNA profiling...
2018: Klinická Onkologie: Casopis Ceské a Slovenské Onkologické Spolecnosti
Yi-Zhong Gu, Katerina Vlasakova, Sean P Troth, Robert L Peiffer, Herve Tournade, Flavia R Pasello Dos Santos, Warren E Glaab, Frank D Sistare
Newer urinary protein kidney safety biomarkers can outperform the conventional kidney functional biomarkers blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine (SCr) in rats. However, there is far less experience with the relative performance of these biomarkers in dogs and nonhuman primates. Here, we report urine protein biomarker performance in tenofovir-treated cynomolgus monkeys and beagle dogs. Tenofovir intravenous daily dosing in monkeys for 2 or 4 weeks at 30 mg/kg/day resulted in minimal to moderate tubular degeneration and regeneration, and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate oral dosing in dogs for 10 days at 45 mg/kg/day resulted in mild to marked tubular degeneration, necrosis, and regeneration...
January 1, 2018: Toxicologic Pathology
X J Lai, J S Lian, J Y Chen, Y M Zhang, H Y Jia, L Zheng, Y D Yang
Objective: To observe the efficacy and safety of de novo combination of Lamivudine(LAM) and Adefovir Dipivoxil (ADV) therapy counter to Entecavir (ETV) monotherapy in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB)- related compensated liver cirrhosis. Methods: Patients with chronic hepatitis B-related compensated cirrhosis who were initially treated with LAM and ADV for more than 1 year were randomly assigned to two groups, one half replaced with ETV monotherapy, and the other half continued LAM and ADV co-therapy...
February 20, 2018: Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing za Zhi, Zhonghua Ganzangbing Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Hepatology
Yang Liu, Xueting Yao, Ling Song, Hongzhong Liu, Qian Zhao, Ji Jiang, Gang Ni, Chongtie Shi, Xifeng Ma, Huimin Zhou, Dongyang Liu, Pei Hu
Imigliptin has been reported as a novel dipeptidyl-peptidase-IV (DPP-4) inhibitor to treat type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM), and is currently being tested in clinical trials. In the first human clinical study, imigliptin was well tolerated and proved to be a potent DPP-4 inhibitor. Considering its potential therapeutic benefits and promising future, it is of great importance to study the metabolite profiles in the early stage of drug development. In the present study, a robust and reliable analytical method based on the ultra-high performance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UHPLC/Q-TOF MS) method combined with MassLynx software was established to investigate the characterization of metabolites of imigliptin in human and rat plasma, urine and feces after oral administration...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Marco Pozzi, Federica Locatelli, Sara Galbiati, Elena Beretta, Carla Carnovale, Emilio Clementi, Sandra Strazzer
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Urolithiasis affects pediatric patients with severe acquired brain injury, in whom the role of several clinical variables and of the presence and composition of enteral nutrition has not been investigated. METHODS: Retrospective chart review on 371 pediatric patients with severe acquired brain injury. We used an essential electronic database to check the association between stones and enteral feeding. We then picked at random paper clinical records until we collected 20 and 20 complete records for patients with/without stones, not matched...
May 14, 2018: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Christine L H Snozek, Erin J Kaleta, Paul J Jannetto, Jaclyn J Linkenmeyer, Tanya L Harnish, Jenise Stephen, Loralie J Langman
OBJECTIVE: False-positive urine drug of abuse screening (UDS) results can have serious implications in clinical practice, particularly when confirmation assay results are not immediately available to providers making medical decisions. Often it is not possible to identify the specific medication or other interfering compound that is responsible for the false-positive UDS result. Even when a potential interference is reported in the literature or package insert for one assay, the applicability to other UDS platforms/assays is often unknown...
May 23, 2018: Clinical Biochemistry
Arsalan Khaledifar, Morteza Hashemzadeh, Kamal Solati, Hosseion Poustchi, Valentina Bollati, Ali Ahmadi, Soleiman Kheiri, Keihan Ghatreh Samani, Mehdi Banitalebi, Morteza Sedehi, Reza Malekzadeh
BACKGROUND: Prospective cohort studies are considered ideal choices to study multiple outcomes and risk factors for Non-communicable diseases (NCDs). Our aim is to set-up the protocol and analyze risk factors, incidence rates, prevalence, trends, and the models of environmental and genetic determinants of NCDs and their outcomes as well as interaction among such determinants. METHODS: Shahrekord cohort study (SCS) that is a population-based prospective, study on a cohort consisting of people aged 35-70 years started in November 2015 in Iran...
May 25, 2018: BMC Public Health
Mingming Zhang, Juan Qiao, Zhenwen Zhao, Shufeng Zhang, Li Qi
Functional polymers with a metal-coordination interaction have been fabricated for sample pretreatment. Poly(N-4-vinyl-benzyl iminodiacetic acid-co-methacrylic acid-co-styrene)-modified magnetic nanoparticles were prepared and used as solid-phase extraction adsorbents for the analysis of quinolones by tuning the metal-coordination interaction. In the construction of the polymer-based adsorbents, functional monomer (N-(4-Vinyl)-benzyl iminodiacetic acid) and co-monomers (methacrylic acid and styrene) were fabricated onto the magnetic nanoparticles by free radical polymerization...
May 24, 2018: Journal of Separation Science
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