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Urine drug testing

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911474/is-chelation-therapy-efficient-for-the-treatment-of-intravenous-metallic-mercury-intoxication
#1
Daniela Pelclova, Stepanka Vlckova, Ondrej Bezdicek, Manuela Vaneckova, Pavel Urban, Petr Ridzon, Pavel Diblik, Tomas Navratil, Pavlina Klusackova, Kamil Vlcek, Olga Benesova, Pavel Trestik, Jiri Homolka, Sergey Zakharov
The efficacy of treatment for intravenous elemental mercury intoxication has not been fully studied with regard to clinical outcomes, and treatment recommendations vary. We treated a 41-year-old man with a history of drug abuse and depression who attempted suicide using 1 mL (13.53 g) metallic Hg i.v. He was admitted to the hospital two months later for dyspnoea and thoracic pain and was diagnosed with pneumonia. Hg deposits were seen in the lungs and extra-pulmonary organs. His blood level (372 μg/L) exceeded the population level of 5 μg/L by more than 70-fold...
December 2, 2016: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911430/-clinical-presentations-of-herpes-zoster-ophthalmicus-diagnosis-and-therapy
#2
G M Chernakova, E A Kleshcheva, T B Semenova
: Approximately a quarter of the world's population at some point in life is at risk of developing shingles (Herpes Zoster). In 10-20% of cases the first branch of the trigeminal nerve gets involved (Herpes Zoster Ophthalmicus, HZO). Ophthalmic complications of HZO are able to cause a significant reduction in visual function. AIM: To study and summarize clinical features of HZO (including the rate of complications and their nature) and to determine the relationship between clinical and laboratory data from these patients...
2016: Vestnik Oftalmologii
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903642/behavioral-characterization-of-kappa-opioid-receptor-agonist-spiradoline-and-cannabinoid-receptor-agonist-cp55940-mixtures-in-rats
#3
Vanessa Minervini, Sujata S Dahal, Charles France
Pain is a significant clinical problem and there is a need for more effective treatments with reduced adverse effects that currently limit the use of mu opioid receptor agonists. Synthetic kappa opioid receptor agonists have no abuse liability and well-documented antinociceptive effects; however, adverse effects (diuresis, dysphoria) preclude their use in the clinic. Combining kappa opioids with non-opioid drugs (cannabinoid receptor agonists) allows for smaller doses of each drug to produce antinociception...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899231/carvedilol-exacerbate-gentamicin-induced-kidney-mitochondrial-alterations-in-adult-rat
#4
Luís Félix, M M Oliveira, Romeu Videira, Elisabete Maciel, Nuno D Alves, Fernando M Nunes, Anabela Alves, José M Almeida, M Rosário M Domingues, Francisco P Peixoto
Gentamicin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic widely used to treat many types of bacterial infections. Although its properties, his clinical use is limited due to the occurrence of nephrotoxicity, which has been related to mitochondrial dysfunction. Carvedilol, an antihypertensive drug with strong antioxidant properties, has been tested in order to prevent gentamicin nephrotoxicity. This study aimed to test this hypothesis using a rat model of gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity. Animals were treated subcutaneously with DMSO (control) (0...
November 26, 2016: Experimental and Toxicologic Pathology: Official Journal of the Gesellschaft Für Toxikologische Pathologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898722/suicide-among-young-people-and-adults-in-ireland-method-characteristics-toxicological-analysis-and-substance-abuse-histories-compared
#5
Ella Arensman, Marco Bennardi, Celine Larkin, Amanda Wall, Carmel McAuliffe, Jacklyn McCarthy, Eileen Williamson, Ivan J Perry
OBJECTIVE: Information on factors associated with suicide among young individuals in Ireland is limited. The aim of this study was to identify socio-demographic characteristics and circumstances of death associated with age among individuals who died by suicide. METHODS: The study examined 121 consecutive suicides (2007-2012) occurring in the southern eastern part of Ireland (Cork city and county). Data were obtained from coroners, family informants, and health care professionals...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891339/bacteriological-profile-of-isolates-from-urine-samples-in-patients-of-benign-prostatic-hyperplasia-and-or-prostatitis-showing-lower-urinary-tract-symptoms
#6
Prem Prakash Mishra, Ved Prakash, Kashmir Singh, H Mog, Sumit Agarwal
INTRODUCTION: The incidence of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) or Prostatitis is increasing considerably worldwide. The Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms (LUTS) due to bacterial aetiology are one of the common factors for the complications among the patients. AIM: To determine the bacterial agents and their antibiotic sensitivity pattern from the urine samples of patients of BPH or Prostatitis showing symptoms of LUTS. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The cross-sectional study was carried out in the Department of Microbiology of Rohilkhand Medical College and Hospital of Northern India from June 2014 to May 2015...
October 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888125/initiating-ntd-programs-targeting-schistosomiasis-and-soil-transmitted-helminthiasis-in-two-provinces-of-the-democratic-republic-of-the-congo-establishment-of-baseline-prevalence-for-mass-drug-administration
#7
Achille Kabore, Moudachirou Ibikounle, Jean Jacques Tougoue, Sylvain Mupoyi, Martin Ndombe, Scott Shannon, Eric A Ottesen, Faustin Mukunda, Naomi Awaca
BACKGROUND: Schistosomiasis (SCH) and soil-transmitted helminthiasis (STH) are widely distributed in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) and constitute a serious public health problem. As recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO), before launching mass chemotherapy to control these diseases, parasitological surveys were conducted in sentinel sites in six health zones (HZs) in Bandundu and Maniema provinces. Baseline prevalence and intensity of infection for SCH and STH were determined to establish the appropriate treatment plan using Praziquantel (PZQ) and Albendazole (ALB)...
November 22, 2016: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887579/outcomes-of-high-dose-levofloxacin-therapy-remain-bound-to-the-levofloxacin-minimum-inhibitory-concentration-in-complicated-urinary-tract-infections
#8
Eliana S Armstrong, Janelle A Mikulca, Daniel J Cloutier, Caleb A Bliss, Judith N Steenbergen
BACKGROUND: Fluoroquinolones are a guideline-recommended therapy for complicated urinary tract infections, including pyelonephritis. Elevated drug concentrations of fluoroquinolones in the urine and therapy with high-dose levofloxacin are believed to overcome resistance and effectively treat infections caused by resistant bacteria. The ASPECT-cUTI phase 3 clinical trial (ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01345929 and NCT01345955 , both registered April 28, 2011) provided an opportunity to test this hypothesis by examining the clinical and microbiological outcomes of high-dose levofloxacin treatment by levofloxacin minimum inhibitory concentration...
November 25, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881620/catching-fakes-new-markers-of-urine-sample-validity-and-invalidity
#9
Melissa M Goggin, Cheng-Min Tann, Anna Miller, An Nguyen, Gregory C Janis
Urine drug testing is common for workplace drug testing, prescription management, emergency medicine and the criminal justice system. Unsurprisingly, with the significant consequences based upon the results of urine drug testing, a donor in need of concealing the contents of their sample is highly motivated to cheat the process. Procedures and safeguards ensuring sample validity are well known, and include measuring sample temperature at the time of collection, and laboratory measurements of creatinine, specific gravity and pH...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866471/distal-renal-tubular-acidosis-without-renal-impairment-after-use-of-tenofovir-a-case-report
#10
Kentaro Iwata, Manabu Nagata, Shuhei Watanabe, Shinichi Nishi
BACKGROUND: Tenofovir, one of antiretroviral medication to treat human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, is known to cause proximal renal tubular acidosis such as Fanconi syndrome, but cases of distal renal tubular acidosis had never been reported. CASE PRESENTATION: A 20-year-old man with HIV infection developed nausea and vomiting without diarrhea after starting antiretroviral therapy. Arterial blood gas revealed non-anion-gap metabolic acidosis and urine test showed positive urine anion gap...
November 21, 2016: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866061/patterns-of-drugs-poisons-in-southern-area-of-south-korea-in-2014
#11
Eunmi Kim, Yonghoon Park, Hongil Ha, Heesun Chung
The southern area of South Korea consists of three parts; Busan, Ulsan and Gyeongsangnam-do. Busan Institute of National Forensic Service (NFS) performed about 50,000 cases throughout the southern area in 2014, occupying over 15% of total cases covered by NFS. In this study, patterns of drugs and poisons in the southern area of South Korea were investigated. The investigation was carried out by the laboratory information management system of NFS between January and December of 2014. As results, a total of 606 autopsy cases were performed by Busan Institute of NFS in 2014...
November 9, 2016: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862053/fluorescence-based-lateral-flow-assays-for-rapid-oral-fluid-roadside-detection-of-cannabis-use
#12
Brian D Plouffe, Shashi K Murthy
With the recent worldwide changes in the legalization of marijuana, there is a significant need for rapid, road-side screening test for driving under the influence of drugs. A robust, sensitive, lateral flow assay has been developed to detect recent use via oral-fluid testing for Δ(9) -tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). This proof-of-concept assay uses a fluorescent-based immunoassay detection of polymeric beads, conjugated to antibodies against native THC. The fluorescent technique allows for significantly lower limits of detection and higher precision determination of recent marijuana use without the use of urine or blood sampling - thus allowing for roadside identification...
November 10, 2016: Electrophoresis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857893/a-study-on-the-aac-6-1-lb-cr-gene-prevalence-among-ciprofloxacin-resistant-strains-of-uropathogenic-enterobacteriaceae
#13
Nirupa Soundararajan, Priyadarshini Shanmugam, Caroline Devanbu, Shameem Banu Abdul Sattar
INTRODUCTION: Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are very common. Indiscriminate use of antibiotics has led to the development of resistance to most of the commonly used antibiotics including quinolones. AIM: This study aimed to find out the prevalence of ciprofloxacin resistance among the uropathogenic Enterobacteriaceae, to determine the virulence factors of these isolates, and to detect the aac-(6(1))-lb-cr gene among those isolates with minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of ciprofloxacin >256 mcg/ml...
October 2016: International Journal of Applied and Basic Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856196/a-fabric-phase-sorptive-extraction-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-photo-diode-array-detection-method-for-the-determination-of-twelve-azole-antimicrobial-drug-residues-in-human-plasma-and-urine
#14
Marcello Locatelli, Abuzar Kabir, Denise Innosa, Teresa Lopatriello, Kenneth G Furton
This paper reports a novel fabric phase sorptive extraction-high performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array detection (FPSE-HPLC-PDA) method for the simultaneous extraction and analysis of twelve azole antimicrobial drug residues that include ketoconazole, terconazole, voriconazole, bifonazole, clotrimazole, tioconazole, econazole, butoconazole, miconazole, posaconazole, ravuconazole, and itraconazole in human plasma and urine samples. The selected azole antimicrobial drugs were well resolved by using a Luna C18 column (250mm×4...
November 11, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848124/reversible-cerebral-vasoconstriction-syndrome-and-posterior-reversible-encephalopathy-syndrome-associated-with-intracranial-hypotension
#15
Katharina Feil, Robert Forbrig, Franziska S Thaler, Julian Conrad, Suzette Heck, Franziska Dorn, Hans-Walter Pfister, Andreas Straube
BACKGROUND: Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS) and posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES) are both rare disorders. The pathophysiology of both diseases is not yet fully understood. METHODS: We report the unique case of a 19-year-old comatose woman who was brought to the ER after a series of generalized tonic-clonic seizures 6 days post peridural anesthesia for cesarean section. Vital signs and initial laboratory testing including urine analysis and drug screening were unremarkable...
November 15, 2016: Neurocritical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27847000/substance-exposure-and-helmet-use-in-all-terrain-vehicle-accidents-nine-years-of-experience-at-a-level-1-trauma-center
#16
Audis Bethea, Damayanti Samanta, John A Willis, Franck C Lucente, Julton Tomanguillo Chumbe
INTRODUCTION: The surging popularity of all-terrain vehicles (ATV) in the United States has caused an "epidemic of injuries and mortality." The U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission reported 99,600 injuries and 426 fatalities from ATV accidents in 2013. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between helmet use and positive toxicology screenings on outcomes in ATV accident victims. METHODS: This is a retrospective study of patients admitted to a Level 1 Trauma Center in southwestern West Virginia following an ATV accident between 2005 and 2013...
December 2016: Journal of Safety Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843358/diuretic-activity-of-the-aqueous-crude-extract-and-solvent-fractions-of-the-leaves-of-thymus-serrulatus-in-mice
#17
Amelework Eshetu Melka, Eyasu Makonnen, Asfaw Debella, Netsanet Fekadu, Bekesho Geleta
The present study was undertaken to investigate the diuretic activity and acute toxicity profile of the crude aqueous extract and solvent fraction of the leaves of Thymus serrulatus in saline-loaded Swiss albino mice. Mice of either sex were divided into six groups (five animals in each group). The control group received normal saline (25 mL/kg), while the reference group received hydrochlorothiazide (10 mg/kg). Group III to Group VI received the test substances at dose levels of 125, 250, 500, and 1,000 mg/kg orally, respectively...
2016: Journal of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842983/a-novel-hplc-mrm-strategy-to-discover-unknown-and-long-term-metabolites-of-stanozolol-for-expanding-analytical-possibilities-in-doping-control
#18
Zhe Wang, Xinmiao Zhou, Xin Liu, Ying Dong, Jinlan Zhang
Stanozolol is one of the most commonly abused anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) by athletes and usually detected by its parent drug and major metabolites. However, its metabolic pathway is complex, varied and individually different, it is important to characterize its overall metabolic profiles and discover new and long-term metabolites for the aims of expanding detection windows. High performance liquid chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole mass spectrometer (HPLC-MS/MS) was used to analyze the human urine after oral administration of stanozolol...
November 8, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27842785/toxicology-in-pain-management
#19
REVIEW
Daniel A Schwarz, M P George, Martin H Bluth
Toxicology testing in pain management has become the standard of care. The Center for Disease Control and Prevention published guidelines including urine drug testing prior to initiating opioid therapy and for monitoring prescription and illicit drugs. Physicians must know indications for toxicology testing, and the frequency based upon risk stratification. This includes personal and family history of alcohol or substance related disorders, mental illness and smoking. Knowledge of opioid metabolism and various matrices to test are described...
December 2016: Clinics in Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826155/surveillance-urinaire-des-professionnels-de-la-sant%C3%A3-expos%C3%A3-s-aux-antin%C3%A3-oplasiques-dans-le-cadre-de-leur-travail-revue-de-la-litt%C3%A3-rature-de-2010-%C3%A3-2015
#20
REVIEW
Céline Poupeau, Christel Roland, Jean-François Bussières
BACKGROUND: There is increasing evidence that traces of hazardous drugs occur in the urine of health care professionals who are exposed to these drugs. OBJECTIVE: To review the scientific literature regarding urinary monitoring of health care professionals exposed to antineoplastic drugs through their work. DATA SOURCES: A search of PubMed using the Medical Subject Headings 'occupational exposure' and 'antineoplastic agents' and of Google Scholar using the terms 'antineoplastic', 'urine', and 'occupational exposure'...
September 2016: Canadian Journal of Hospital Pharmacy
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