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Urine drug testing

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081042/detection-of-hydrocodone-and-morphine-as-metabolites-in-oral-fluid-by-lc-ms-ms-in-patients-prescribed-codeine
#1
Robert E West, Maria G Guevara, Charles Mikel, Ruben Gamez
A retrospective analysis of oral fluid drug testing results using LC-MS/MS was performed to determine the prevalence rates in oral fluid for codeine (COD) and 3 COD metabolites-morphine (MOR), norhydrocodone (NHC), and hydrocodone (HCOD). Oral fluid samples were collected using Quantisal oral fluid collection device (Immunalysis Inc.) and submitted to Millennium Health, LLC for the routine drug analysis by LC-MS/MS. Consistent with previously published literature, COD was the primary analyte detected in oral fluid after the use of COD...
February 2017: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080998/determination-of-oxycodone-and-its-major-metabolites-noroxycodone-and-oxymorphone-by-ultra-high-performance-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry-in-plasma-and-urine-application-to-real-cases
#2
Flaminia Pantano, Stefano Brauneis, Alexandre Forneris, Roberta Pacifici, Enrico Marinelli, Chrystalla Kyriakou, Simona Pichini, Francesco Paolo Busardò
BACKGROUND: Oxycodone is a narcotic drug widely used to alleviate moderate and severe acute and chronic pain. Variability in analgesic efficacy could be explained by inter-subject variations in plasma concentrations of parent drug and its active metabolite, oxymorphone. To evaluate patient compliance and to set up therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM), an ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) assay was developed and validated for the parent drug and its major metabolites noroxycodone and oxymorphone...
January 12, 2017: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077147/the-political-and-scientific-challenges-in-evaluating-compulsory-drug-treatment-centers-in-southeast-asia
#3
Thu Vuong, Nhu Nguyen, Giang Le, Marian Shanahan, Robert Ali, Alison Ritter
BACKGROUND: In Vietnam, like many countries in Southeast Asia, the commonly used approach of center-based compulsory drug treatment (CCT) has been criticized on human rights ground. Meanwhile, community-based voluntary methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) has been implemented for nearly a decade with promising results. Reform-minded leaders have been seeking empirical evidence of the costs and effectiveness associated with these two main treatment modalities. Conducting evaluations of these treatments, especially where randomization is not ethical, presents challenges...
January 11, 2017: Harm Reduction Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076917/multi-organ-dysfunction-due-to-bath-salts-are-we-aware-of-this-entity
#4
Rohith Valsalan, Benoj Varghese, Diya Soman, Jonathan Buckmaster, Steven Yew, David Cooper
Methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) is a synthetic, cathinone-derivative, central nervous system stimulant taken to produce a cocaine- or methamphetamine-like high. Physical manifestations include tachycardia, hypertension, arrhythmias, hyperthermia, sweating, rhabdomyolysis, hyperkalaemia, disseminated intravascular coagulation, oliguria and seizures. We report a patient who presented with severe metabolic acidosis, multi-organ dysfunction, rhabdomyolysis, hyperkalaemia and seizures. This case highlights that even though a urine drug screen for routine psychostimulant drugs is negative, clinicians need to be vigilant about the adverse effects of MDPV as a possible cause of multi-organ dysfunction...
January 2017: Internal Medicine Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070254/the-efficacy-of-contingency-management-on-cocaine-craving-using-prize-based-reinforcement-of-abstinence-in-cocaine-users
#5
Bijan Pirnia, Seyed Kazem Rasoulzadeh Tabatabaei, Abbas Tavallaii, Ali Akbar Soleimani, Kambiz Pirnia
INTRODUCTION: Contingency management (CM) is one of the most common therapies in the domain of drug addiction. This study has been carried out with the purpose of evaluating the efficacy of contingency management intervention. METHOD: In an experimental design, between December 15, 2014 and November 20, 2015, fifty men (between 18 and 31 with an average age of 24.6) with a history of cocaine use, were selected voluntarily and were randomly assigned into two groups of CM and control group...
November 2016: Electronic Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059955/diagnosis-of-opportunistic-infections-hiv-co-infections-tuberculosis
#6
Lesley Scott, Pedro da Silva, Catharina C Boehme, Wendy Stevens, Chris Gilpin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Tuberculosis (TB) incidence has declined ∼1.5% annually since 2000, but continued to affect 10.4 million individuals in 2015, with 1/3 remaining undiagnosed or underreported. The diagnosis of TB among those co-infected with HIV is challenging as TB remains the leading cause of death in such individuals. Accurate and rapid diagnosis of active TB will avert mortality in both adults and children, reduce transmission, and assist in timeous decisions for antiretroviral therapy initiation...
January 5, 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059431/evaluation-of-treatment-changes-following-electronic-consultation-to-a-pharmacist-run-urine-drug-testing-service-in-a-veterans-healthcare-system
#7
Michelle M Stammet, Shelley S Spradley
In 2013, the North Florida/South Georgia Veterans Healthcare System established a pharmacist-run urine drug testing (UDT) electronic consultation (e-consult) service to assist providers with interpretation of this useful yet complex clinical tool. This pilot study aimed to classify clinical treatment changes implemented following e-consult to a pharmacist-run UDT service and analyze factors limiting pharmacist intervention postconsultation. One hundred forty-three e-consults were completed in the 2-year study period including interpretation of 190 UDT results classified as expected, unexpected, or not necessarily inappropriate based on prescription profile at time of urine immunoassay test...
November 2016: Journal of Opioid Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057187/challenges-in-laboratory-detection-of-unusual-substance-abuse-issues-with-magic-mushroom-peyote-cactus-khat-and-solvent-abuse
#8
A Dasgupta
Drug abuse is a worldwide problem. Although commonly abused drugs can be identified during routine urine drug testing, less commonly abused drugs may escape detection. These less commonly abused drugs not only include some designer drugs such as synthetic cannabinoid but also include abuse of psychedelic magic mushroom (active ingredients: psilocybin and psilocin), peyote cactus (active ingredient: mescaline), and khat plants (active ingredient: cathinone). Moreover, solvent and glue abuse is gaining popularity among teenagers and young adults which may even cause fatality...
2017: Advances in Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046138/detection-of-residues-in-urine-and-tissues-of-sheep-treated-with-trace-levels-of-dietary-ractopamine-hcl
#9
D J Smith, W L Shelver, A Marx
Qualitative assays are sometimes used as the sole basis for detecting drug residues in live animals or in animal products. Such assays have become increasingly sensitive as detection technologies have improved, yet the limitations of such assays to discriminate purposeful and accidental drug exposures remain poorly defined. A study was conducted to determine the ability of a ractopamine lateral flow assay to accurately detect incurred ractopamine residues in contaminated feeds and in sheep fed trace quantities of ractopamine HCl...
December 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039077/pharmacokinetics-of-tiotropium-administered-by-respimat-%C3%A2-in-asthma-patients-analysis-of-pooled-data-from-phase-ii-and-iii-clinical-trials
#10
Ashish Sharma, Huib A M Kerstjens, René Aalbers, Petra Moroni-Zentgraf, Benjamin Weber, Ronald Dahl
Tiotropium is a long-acting inhaled antimuscarinic bronchodilator that has recently received marketing authorization for the indication of asthma with dose delivery via the Respimat(®) inhaler, in addition to its widely established role in the management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This report presents a combined analysis of tiotropium plasma and urine pharmacokinetics at steady state from 8 Phase II/III clinical trials in asthma and delineates the effects of patient characteristics on systemic exposure based on the parameters fe0-24,ss (fraction of dose excreted unchanged in urine over 24 h post-dose at steady-state) and dose-normalized AUCtau,ss and Cmax,ss...
December 27, 2016: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28031088/therapy-and-prevention-of-postoperative-urosepsis-of-ureter-endoscopic-lithotripsy-for-non-infection
#11
Jun Shen, Fa Sun, Fang-Min Chen, Zhi-Ping Wu, Sheng-Wen Li
Objective To analyze the risk factors causing postoperative urosepsis in ureter endoscopic lithotripsy without infection preoperatively, in order to make a more effective and safer preventive and therapeutic strategy.Methods From January 2010 to January 2015, 5 ureteral calculus patients undergoing ureter endoscopic lithotripsy with holmium laser were retrospectively enrolled in this clinical study. These patients suffered urosepsis postoperatively confirmed by the clinical presentations and laboratory Results, while they had no infection in their blood and urine preoperatively...
March 20, 2016: Chinese Medical Sciences Journal, Chung-kuo i Hsüeh K'o Hsüeh Tsa Chih
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028717/multi-drug-resistant-uropathogenic-escherichia-coli-and-its-treatment-by-chinese-medicine
#12
Shi-Wei Liu, Xiao-Yang Xu, Jie Xu, Jiu-Yun Yuan, Wei-Kang Wu, Ning Zhang, Ze-Liang Chen
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the resistance and virulence profiles of uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) and its treatment by Chinese medicine (CM) Fuzheng Qingre Lishi Formula (, FQLF). METHODS: UPEC strains were isolated from recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs) patients. Patient sensitivities to 17 antibiotics were tested by the disk diffusion method. Virulence genes were screened by plolymerase chain reaction. A mouse model was constructed using a multi-drug resistant and virulent UPEC strain and treated with FQLF or the antibiotic imipenem...
December 27, 2016: Chinese Journal of Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024169/evaluation-of-kims-immunoassays-on-a-cobas-c-501-analyzer-for-drugs-of-abuse-and-ethyl-glucuronide-testing-in-urine-for-forensic-abstinence-control
#13
Merja A Neukamm, Arsham Bahrami, Volker Auwärter, Felix M P Mehne, Eva Höss
For the medico-psychological assessment (MPA) during driving license re-granting in Germany, abstinence control including urine samples is required. In these programs, even small amounts of markers for drug or alcohol abuse have to be detected. Thus, the concentrations of the target compounds are very low, and, in consequence, the sensitivity of the applied screening method has to be much higher than for clinical use. Modified drugs of abuse and ethyl glucuronide immunoassays on a Roche cobas c 501 analyzer were evaluated for precision, accuracy, onboard calibration stability, cross reactivity, sensitivity and specificity using authentic urine samples...
December 26, 2016: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017186/carvedilol-does-not-reduce-cocaine-use-in-methadone-maintained-cocaine-users
#14
Mehmet Sofuoglu, James Poling, Theresa Babuscio, Kishorchandra Gonsai, Kevin Severino, Charla Nich, Kathleen M Carroll
INTRODUCTION: The goal of this study was too test the efficacy of carvedilol (CAR), an adrenergic blocker, for reducing cocaine use in individuals with cocaine use disorder (CUD). We conducted a 17-week, double-blind, randomized controlled trial with 3 treatment arms: 25mg CAR, 50mg CAR, and placebo. METHODS: One hundred and six treatment-seeking opioid and cocaine-dependent participants, who were also maintained on methadone during study participation, were randomized to placebo (n=34), 25mg/day CAR (n=37) or 50mg/day CAR (n=35)...
February 2017: Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012112/rapid-analysis-of-cocaine-and-metabolites-in-urine-using-microextraction-in-packed-sorbent-and-gc-ms
#15
Tiago Rosado, Alexandra Gonçalves, Cláudia Margalho, Mário Barroso, Eugenia Gallardo
Cocaine is still one of the most abused drugs worldwide and, as such, it is often screened for in driving-under-the-influence or workplace drug - testing scenarios. A large number of samples have usually to be processed in those situations, and this requires fast and simple extraction procedures for the detection and quantification of the drugs. The present work describes an ultrafast and fully validated procedure for the simultaneous detection and quantification of cocaine and its two main metabolites, ecgonine methyl ester and benzoylecgonine, in urine using microextraction by packed sorbent and GC-MS...
December 23, 2016: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28004188/comparative-study-of-the-efficacy-and-safety-of-paracetamol-ibuprofen-and-indomethacin-in-closure-of-patent-ductus-arteriosus-in-preterm-neonates
#16
Abd El-Rahman El-Mashad, Heba El-Mahdy, Doaa El Amrousy, Marwa Elgendy
: In this prospective study, we compared the efficacy and side effects of indomethacin, ibuprofen, and paracetamol in patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) closure in preterm neonates. Three hundred preterm neonates with hemodynamically significant PDA (hs-PDA) admitted at our neonatal intensive care unit were enrolled in the study. They were randomized into three groups. Group I (paracetamol group) received 15 mg/kg/6 h IV paracetamol infusion for 3 days. Group II (ibuprofen group) received 10 mg/kg IV ibuprofen infusion followed by 5 mg/kg/day for 2 days...
December 21, 2016: European Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002889/variability-in-response-to-albuminuria-lowering-drugs-true-or-random
#17
S I Petrykiv, D de Zeeuw, F Persson, P Rossing, R T Gansevoort, G D Laverman, H J L Heerspink
AIMS: Albuminuria lowering drugs have shown different effect size in different individuals. Since urine albumin levels are known to vary considerably from day-to-day, we questioned whether the between-individual variability in albuminuria response after therapy initiation reflects a random variability or a true response variation to treatment. In addition, we questioned whether the response variability is drug dependent. METHODS: To determine whether the response to treatment is random or a true drug response, we correlated in six clinical trials the change in albuminuria during placebo or active treatment (on-treatment) with the change in albuminuria during wash-out (off-treatment)...
December 21, 2016: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999217/a-survey-on-lifestyle-and-level-of-biomarkers-of-environmental-exposure-in-residents-in-civitavecchia-italy
#18
Carla Ancona, Lisa Bauleo, Giovanni Biscotti, Beatrice Bocca, Stefano Caimi, Fabio Cruciani, Sabrina Di Lorenzo, Morena Petrolati, Anna Pino, Giovanna Piras, Augusto Pizzabiocca, Silvia Rabbiosi, Flavia Ruggieri, Chelo Salatino, Alessandro Alimonti, Francesco Forastiere
BACKGROUND: The assessment of individual exposure to toxicants in industrially contaminated areas is difficult when multiple productions are active close to residential areas. Two thermoelectric power plants and a large harbor have been operating since the '60s in the area of Civitavecchia (North of Rome). METHODS: The ABC (Ambiente e Biomonitoraggio nell'area di Civitavecchia, Environment and Biomonitoring in Civitavecchia) program involved, in the period 2013-2014, residents in Civitavecchia and in the nearby municipalities (Santa Marinella, Allumiere, Tolfa and Tarquinia)...
October 2016: Annali Dell'Istituto Superiore di Sanità
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988881/rapid-analysis-of-drugs-of-abuse-and-their-metabolites-in-human-urine-using-dilute-and-shoot-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#19
Tae Yeon Kong, Ju Hyun Kim, Jin Young Kim, Moon Kyo In, Kyung Ho Choi, Hee Seung Kim, Hye Suk Lee
Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric method for analysis of 113 abuse drugs and their metabolites in human urine was developed and validated. A simple sample clean-up procedure using the "dilute and shoot" approach, followed by reversed phase separation, provided a fast and reliable method for routine analysis. Drugs were separated in a Capcell Pak MG-III C18 column using a gradient elution of 1 mM ammonium formate with 0.1% formic acid in water and acetonitrile. The total time for analysis was 32 min...
December 17, 2016: Archives of Pharmacal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988400/alibertia-edulis-l-c-rich-a-c-rich-a-potent-diuretic-arising-from-brazilian-indigenous-species
#20
Diana Figueiredo de Santana Aquino, Cleide Adriane Signor Tirloni, Sara Emília Lima Tolouei Menegati, Claudia Andrea Lima Cardoso, Silvia Cristina Heredia Vieira, Maria do Carmo Vieira, Ana María Simonet, Francisco Antonio Macías, Arquimedes Gasparotto
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Although Alibertia edulis (L.C. Rich.) A.C. Rich decoction is used in Brazilian folk medicine due to its possible antihypertensive effect, this species has never been critically investigated as a hypotensive drug. So, the aim of this study was to evaluate the possible hypotensive and antihypertensive effects of the oral administration of Alibertia edulis aqueous extract (AEAE) in normotensive and hypertensive rats, and evaluate its inter-relation with a possible diuretic activity...
January 20, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
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