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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152994/decreased-connectivity-and-increased-bold-complexity-in-the-default-mode-network-in-individuals-with-chronic-fatigue-syndrome
#1
Zack Y Shan, Kevin Finegan, Sandeep Bhuta, Timothy Ireland, Donald R Staines, Sonya M Marshall-Gradisnik, Leighton R Barnden
The chronic fatigue syndrome / myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS) is a debilitating disease with unknown pathophysiology and no diagnostic test. This study investigated the default mode network (DMN) in order to understand the pathophysiology of CFS and to identify potential biomarkers. Using functional MRI (fMRI) collected from 72 subjects (45 CFS and 27 controls) with a temporal resolution of 0.798s, we evaluated the default mode network using static functional connectivity (FC), dynamic functional connectivity (DFC) and DFC complexity, blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) activation maps and complexity of activity...
November 20, 2017: Brain Connectivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150619/reduced-orbitofrontal-thalamic-functional-connectivity-related-to-suicidal-ideation-in-patients-with-major-depressive-disorder
#2
Kiwon Kim, Sung-Woo Kim, Woojae Myung, Cheol E Han, Maurizio Fava, David Mischoulon, George I Papakostas, Sang Won Seo, Hana Cho, Joon-Kyung Seong, Hong Jin Jeon
Despite recent developments in neuroimaging, alterations of brain functional connectivity in major depressive disorder (MDD) patients with suicidal ideation are poorly understood. This study investigated specific changes of suicidal ideation in functional connectivity of MDD patients. Whole brain functional connectivity in 46 patients with MDD (23 with suicidal ideation and 23 without) and 36 age- and gender- matched healthy controls were compared using resting-state functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) analyzed with network-based statistics (NBS) and graph-theoretical methods...
November 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145469/development-of-visual-cortical-function-in-infant-macaques-a-bold-fmri-study
#3
Tom J Van Grootel, Alan Meeson, Matthias H J Munk, Zoe Kourtzi, J Anthony Movshon, Nikos K Logothetis, Lynne Kiorpes
Functional brain development is not well understood. In the visual system, neurophysiological studies in nonhuman primates show quite mature neuronal properties near birth although visual function is itself quite immature and continues to develop over many months or years after birth. Our goal was to assess the relative development of two main visual processing streams, dorsal and ventral, using BOLD fMRI in an attempt to understand the global mechanisms that support the maturation of visual behavior. Seven infant macaque monkeys (Macaca mulatta) were repeatedly scanned, while anesthetized, over an age range of 102 to 1431 days...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144224/violence-exposure-and-neural-systems-underlying-working-memory-for-emotional-stimuli-in-youth
#4
Jessica L Jenness, Maya L Rosen, Kelly A Sambrook, Meg J Dennison, Hilary K Lambert, Margaret A Sheridan, Katie A McLaughlin
Violence exposure during childhood is common and associated with poor cognitive and academic functioning. However, little is known about how violence exposure influences cognitive processes that might contribute to these disparities, such as working memory, or their neural underpinnings, particularly for cognitive processes that occur in emotionally salient contexts. We address this gap in a sample of 54 participants aged 8 to 19 years (50% female), half with exposure to interpersonal violence. Participants completed a delayed match to sample task for emotional faces while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging scanning...
November 16, 2017: Development and Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141188/autistic-traits-modulate-the-activity-of-the-ventromedial-prefrontal-cortex-in-response-to-female-faces
#5
Yui Murakami, Shinya Sakai, Kenta Takeda, Daisuke Sawamura, Kazuki Yoshida, Takamichi Hirose, Chisa Ikeda, Hiroki Mani, Toru Yamamoto, Ayahito Ito
Previous findings have revealed abnormal visual attention or processing of faces among individuals with autism spectrum condition (ASC). However, little attention has been paid to the relationship between autistic traits and neural mechanisms associated with representing facial values. Using fMRI, we investigated the patterns of brain activity in the vmPFC and VS in response to faces of elderly males, elderly females, young males, and young females. During fMRI, subjects with a relatively high autism quotient (high group) and those with a relatively low autism quotient (low group) were presented with a face and asked to rate its pleasantness...
November 12, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137644/functional-resonance-magnetic-imaging-fmri-in-adolescents-with-idiopathic-musculoskeletal-pain-a-paradigm-of-experimental-pain
#6
Juliana Molina, Edson Amaro, Liana Guerra Sanches da Rocha, Liliana Jorge, Flavia Heloisa Santos, Claudio A Len
BACKGROUND: Studies on functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) have shown that adults with musculoskeletal pain syndromes tolerate smaller amount of pressure (pain) as well as differences in brain activation patterns in areas related to pain.The objective of this study was to evaluate, through fMRI, the brain activation in adolescents with idiopathic musculoskeletal pain (IMP) while performing an experimental paradigm of pain. METHODS: The study included 10 consecutive adolescents with idiopathic musculoskeletal pain (average age 16...
November 14, 2017: Pediatric Rheumatology Online Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133888/neuronal-hyperactivity-due-to-loss-of-inhibitory-tone-in-apoe4-mice-lacking-alzheimer-s-disease-like-pathology
#7
Tal Nuriel, Sergio L Angulo, Usman Khan, Archana Ashok, Qiuying Chen, Helen Y Figueroa, Sheina Emrani, Li Liu, Mathieu Herman, Geoffrey Barrett, Valerie Savage, Luna Buitrago, Efrain Cepeda-Prado, Christine Fung, Eliana Goldberg, Steven S Gross, S Abid Hussaini, Herman Moreno, Scott A Small, Karen E Duff
The ε4 allele of apolipoprotein E (APOE) is the dominant genetic risk factor for late-onset Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the reason APOE4 is associated with increased AD risk remains a source of debate. Neuronal hyperactivity is an early phenotype in both AD mouse models and in human AD, which may play a direct role in the pathogenesis of the disease. Here, we have identified an APOE4-associated hyperactivity phenotype in the brains of aged APOE mice using four complimentary techniques-fMRI, in vitro electrophysiology, in vivo electrophysiology, and metabolomics-with the most prominent hyperactivity occurring in the entorhinal cortex...
November 13, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132089/neural-effects-of-environmental-advertising-an-fmri-analysis-of-voice-age-and-temporal-framing
#8
Luis-Alberto Casado-Aranda, Myriam Martínez-Fiestas, Juan Sánchez-Fernández
Ecological information offered to society through advertising enhances awareness of environmental issues, encourages development of sustainable attitudes and intentions, and can even alter behavior. This paper, by means of functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) and self-reports, explores the underlying mechanisms of processing ecological messages. The study specifically examines brain and behavioral responses to persuasive ecological messages that differ in temporal framing and in the age of the voice pronouncing them...
November 10, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130147/callous-unemotional-traits-modulate-brain-drug-craving-response-in-high-risk-young-offenders
#9
Gina M Vincent, Lora M Cope, Jean King, Prashanth Nyalakanti, Kent A Kiehl
Adults with psychopathy have a high propensity for substance abuse, generally starting from a young age. This investigation tested hypotheses about differences in the neural responses associated with drug craving among high-risk young offenders with histories of abuse of stimulants and other drugs as a function of psychopathic traits. Fifty-four male adolescents (44 with a history of stimulant abuse and 10 controls) incarcerated at a maximum-security facility (M age = 17.08 years) completed a drug-cue exposure task while brain hemodynamic activity was monitored using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) with a mobile MRI scanner stationed at the facility...
November 13, 2017: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29126965/brain-state-expression-and-transitions-are-related-to-complex-executive-cognition-in-normative-neurodevelopment
#10
John D Medaglia, Theodore D Satterthwaite, Apoorva Kelkar, Rastko Ciric, Tyler M Moore, Kosha Ruparel, Ruben C Gur, Raquel E Gur, Danielle S Bassett
Adolescence is marked by rapid development of executive function. Mounting evidence suggests that executive function in adults may be driven by dynamic control of neurophysiological processes. Yet, how these dynamics evolve over adolescence and contribute to cognitive development is unknown. In a sample of 780 youth aged 8-22 yr (42.7% male) from the Philadelphia Neurodevelopment Cohort, we use a dynamic graph approach to extract activation states in BOLD fMRI data from 264 brain regions. We construct a graph in which each observation in time is a node and the similarity in brain states at two different times is an edge...
November 7, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124823/differences-between-child-and-adult-large-scale-functional-brain-networks-for-reading-tasks
#11
Xin Liu, Yue Gao, Qiqi Di, Jiali Hu, Chunming Lu, Yun Nan, James R Booth, Li Liu
Reading is an important high-level cognitive function of the human brain, requiring interaction among multiple brain regions. Revealing differences between children's large-scale functional brain networks for reading tasks and those of adults helps us to understand how the functional network changes over reading development. Here we used functional magnetic resonance imaging data of 17 adults (19-28 years old) and 16 children (11-13 years old), and graph theoretical analyses to investigate age-related changes in large-scale functional networks during rhyming and meaning judgment tasks on pairs of visually presented Chinese characters...
November 9, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117928/brain-activation-in-response-to-personalized-behavioral-and-physiological-feedback-from-self-monitoring-technology-pilot-study
#12
Maxine E Whelan, Paul S Morgan, Lauren B Sherar, Andrew P Kingsnorth, Daniele Magistro, Dale W Esliger
BACKGROUND: The recent surge in commercially available wearable technology has allowed real-time self-monitoring of behavior (eg, physical activity) and physiology (eg, glucose levels). However, there is limited neuroimaging work (ie, functional magnetic resonance imaging [fMRI]) to identify how people's brains respond to receiving this personalized health feedback and how this impacts subsequent behavior. OBJECTIVE: Identify regions of the brain activated and examine associations between activation and behavior...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111113/understanding-the-relationship-between-brain-and-upper-limb-function-in-children-with-unilateral-motor-impairments-a-multimodal-approach
#13
Maya Weinstein, Dido Green, Julian Rudisch, Ingar M Zielinski, Marta Benthem-Muñiz, Marijtje L A Jongsma, Verity McClelland, Bert Steenbergen, Shelly Shiran, Dafna Ben Bashat, Gareth J Barker
Atypical brain development and early brain injury have profound and long lasting impact on the development, skill acquisition, and subsequent independence of a child. Heterogeneity is present at the brain level and at the motor level; particularly with respect to phenomena of bilateral activation and mirrored movements (MMs). In this multiple case study we consider the feasibility of using several modalities to explore the relationship between brain structure and/or activity and hand function: Electroencephalography (EEG), both structural and functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (sMRI, fMRI), diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), Electromyography (EMG) and hand function assessments...
October 12, 2017: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108941/both-hyper-and-hypo-activation-to-cognitive-challenge-are-associated-with-increased-beta-amyloid-deposition-in-healthy-aging-a-nonlinear-effect
#14
Chris M Foster, Kristen M Kennedy, Marci M Horn, David A Hoagey, Karen M Rodrigue
Beta-amyloid (Aβ) positive individuals hyper-activate brain regions compared to those not at-risk; however, hyperactivation is then thought to diminish as Alzheimer's disease symptomatology begins, evidencing eventual hypoactivation. It remains unclear when in the disease staging this transition occurs. We hypothesized that differential levels of amyloid burden would be associated with both increased and decreased activation (i.e., a quadratic trajectory) in cognitively-normal adults. Participants (N = 62; aged 51-94) underwent an fMRI spatial distance-judgment task and Amyvid-PET scanning...
November 13, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104944/psychotropic-medication-use-in-autism-spectrum-disorders-may-affect-functional-brain-connectivity
#15
Annika C Linke, Lindsay Olson, Yangfeifei Gao, Inna Fishman, Ralph-Axel Müller
Background: Prescription of psychotropic medications is common in autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), either off-label or to treat comorbid conditions such as ADHD or depression. Psychotropic medications are intended to alter brain function. Yet, studies investigating the functional brain organization in ASDs rarely take medication usage into account. This could explain some of the inconsistent findings of atypical brain network connectivity reported in the autism literature. Methods: The current study tested whether functional connectivity patterns, as assessed with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), differed in a cohort of 49 children and adolescents with ASDs based on psychotropic medication status, and in comparison with 50 matched typically developing (TD) participants...
September 2017: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104080/altered-function-but-not-structure-of-the-amygdala-in-nicotine-dependent-individuals
#16
Zhujing Shen, Peiyu Huang, Chao Wang, Wei Qian, Xiao Luo, Xiaojun Guan, Tiantian Qiu, Yihong Yang, Minming Zhang
Tobacco use disorder is frequently comorbid with emotional disorders, each exerting reciprocal influence on the other. As an important hub for emotional processing, amygdala may also play a critical role in tobacco addiction. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the volume and spontaneous activity of the amygdala in nicotine-dependent individuals and their relationships with cigarette use. A total of 84 smokers (aged 22-54 years) and 41 nonsmokers (aged 26-56 years) were enrolled in the present study. 3D-T1 weighted images and resting-state fMRI images were acquired from all participants...
November 2, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102817/low-frequency-fluctuation-of-brain-spontaneous-activity-and-obsessive-compulsive-symptoms-in-a-large-school-age-sample
#17
Marcelo Q Hoexter, Claudinei E Biazoli, Pedro G Alvarenga, Marcelo C Batistuzzo, Giovanni A Salum, Ary Gadelha, Pedro M Pan, Mauricio Anés, Leticia Mancini-Martins, Luciana M Moura, Carles Soriano-Mas, Marco A G Del' Aquilla, Edson Amaro, Luis A Rohde, Andrea P Jackowski, Rodrigo A Bressan, Euripedes C Miguel, Maria C do Rosario, João R Sato
BACKGROUND: The present study was designed to explore alterations in brain dynamics at rest that are associated with Obsessive Compulsive Symptoms (OCS) in childhood by measuring low frequency fluctuation of spontaneous brain activity in a large school community sample from a developing country. METHOD: Resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging data were collected in a sample of 655 children and adolescents (6-15 years old) from the brazilian 'High Risk Cohort Study for Psychiatric Disorders (HRC)'...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102026/amygdala-reward-reactivity-mediates-the-association-between-preschool-stress-response-and-depression-severity
#18
Michael S Gaffrey, Deanna M Barch, Ryan Bogdan, Katrina Farris, Steven E Petersen, Joan L Luby
BACKGROUND: Research in adolescents and adults has suggested that altered neural processing of reward following early life adversity is a highly promising depressive intermediate phenotype. However, very little is known about how stress response, neural processing of reward, and depression are related in very young children. The present study examined the concurrent associations between cortisol response following a stressor, functional brain activity to reward, and depression severity in children 4 to 6 years old...
September 7, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101492/intrinsic-network-connectivity-patterns-underlying-specific-dimensions-of-impulsiveness-in-healthy-young-adults
#19
Katharina M Kubera, Dusan Hirjak, Nadine D Wolf, Fabio Sambataro, Philipp A Thomann, R Christian Wolf
Impulsiveness is a central human personality trait and of high relevance for the development of several mental disorders. Impulsiveness is a multidimensional construct, yet little is known about dimension-specific neural correlates. Here, we address the question whether motor, attentional and non-planning components, as measured by the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11), are associated with distinct or overlapping neural network activity. In this study, we investigated brain activity at rest and its relationship to distinct dimensions of impulsiveness in 30 healthy young adults (m/f = 13/17; age mean/SD = 26...
November 3, 2017: Brain Topography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100940/multimodal-surface-matching-with-higher-order-smoothness-constraints
#20
Emma C Robinson, Kara Garcia, Matthew F Glasser, Zhengdao Chen, Timothy S Coalson, Antonios Makropoulos, Jelena Bozek, Robert Wright, Andreas Schuh, Matthew Webster, Jana Hutter, Anthony Price, Lucilio Cordero Grande, Emer Hughes, Nora Tusor, Philip V Bayly, David C Van Essen, Stephen M Smith, A David Edwards, Joseph Hajnal, Mark Jenkinson, Ben Glocker, Daniel Rueckert
In brain imaging, accurate alignment of cortical surfaces is fundamental to the statistical sensitivity and spatial localisation of group studies; and cortical surface-based alignment has generally been accepted to be superior to volume-based approaches at aligning cortical areas. However, human subjects have considerable variation in cortical folding, and in the location of functional areas relative to these folds. This makes alignment of cortical areas a challenging problem. The Multimodal Surface Matching (MSM) tool is a flexible, spherical registration approach that enables accurate registration of surfaces based on a variety of different features...
October 31, 2017: NeuroImage
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