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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626012/pharmacological-modulation-of-noradrenergic-arousal-circuitry-disrupts-functional-connectivity-of-the-locus-coeruleus-in-humans
#1
Andrew H Song, Aaron Kucyi, Vitaly Napadow, Emery N Brown, Marco L Loggia, Oluwaseun Akeju
State dependent activity of locus coeruleus (LC) neurons has long suggested a role for noradrenergic modulation of arousal. However, in vivo insights into noradrenergic arousal circuitry have been constrained by the fundamental inaccessibility of the human brain for invasive studies. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies performed during site-specific pharmacological manipulations of arousal levels may be used to study brain arousal circuitry. Dexmedetomidine is an anesthetic that alters the level of arousal by selectively targeting α2 adrenergic receptors on LC neurons, resulting in reduced firing rate and norepinephrine release...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624581/polygenic-risk-for-depression-and-the-neural-correlates-of-working-memory-in-healthy-subjects
#2
Dilara Yüksel, Bruno Dietsche, Andreas J Forstner, Stephanie H Witt, Robert Maier, Marcella Rietschel, Carsten Konrad, Markus M Nöthen, Udo Dannlowski, Bernhard T Baune, Tilo Kircher, Axel Krug
INTRODUCTION: Major depressive disorder (MDD) patients show impairments of cognitive functioning such as working memory (WM), and furthermore alterations during WM-fMRI tasks especially in frontal and parietal brain regions. The calculation of a polygenic risk score (PRS) can be used to describe the genetic influence on MDD, hence imaging genetic studies aspire to combine both genetics and neuroimaging data to identify the influence of genetic factors on brain functioning. We aimed to detect the effect of MDD-PRS on brain activation during a WM task measured with fMRI and expect healthy individuals with a higher PRS to be more resembling to MDD patients...
June 14, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617520/abnormal-spontaneous-brain-activity-in-patients-with-anisometropic-amblyopia-using-resting-state-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging
#3
Angcang Tang, Taolin Chen, Junran Zhang, Qiyong Gong, Longqian Liu
PURPOSE: To explore the abnormality of spontaneous activity in patients with anisometropic amblyopia under resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (Rs-fMRI). METHODS: Twenty-four participants were split into two groups. The anisometropic amblyopia group had 10 patients, all of whom had anisometropic amblyopia of the right eye, and the control group had 14 healthy subjects. All participants underwent Rs-fMRI scanning. Measurement of amplitude of low frequency fluctuations of the brain, which is a measure of the amplitudes of spontaneous brain activity, was used to investigate brain changes between the anisometropic amblyopia and control groups...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616381/anosognosia-for-memory-deficits-in-mild-cognitive-impairment-insight-into-the-neural-mechanism-using-functional-and-molecular-imaging
#4
Patrizia Vannini, Bernard Hanseeuw, Catherine E Munro, Rebecca E Amariglio, Gad A Marshall, Dorene M Rentz, Alvaro Pascual-Leone, Keith A Johnson, Reisa A Sperling
Anosognosia, or loss of insight of memory deficits, is a common and striking symptom in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Previous findings in AD dementia patients suggest that anosognosia is due to both functional metabolic changes within cortical midline structures involved in self-referential processes, as well as functional disconnection between these regions. The present study aims to extend these findings by investigating the neural correlates of anosognosia in the prodromal stage of AD. Here, we used regional brain metabolism (resting state 18-F fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET)) to unravel the metabolic correlates of anosognosia in subjects with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and subsequently resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) to investigate the intrinsic connectivity disruption between brain regions...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615426/modulation-of-intrinsic-resting-state-fmri-networks-in-women-with-chronic-migraine
#5
X Michelle Androulakis, Kaitlin Krebs, B Lee Peterlin, Tianming Zhang, Nasim Maleki, Souvik Sen, Chris Rorden, Priyantha Herath
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the intrinsic resting functional connectivity of the default mode network (DMN), salience network (SN), and central executive network (CEN) network in women with chronic migraine (CM), and whether clinical features are associated with such abnormalities. METHODS: We analyzed resting-state connectivity in 29 women with CM as compared to age- and sex-matched controls. Relationships between clinical characteristics and changes in targeted networks connectivity were evaluated using a multivariate linear regression model...
June 14, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28612930/peer-influence-via-instagram-effects-on-brain-and-behavior-in-adolescence-and-young-adulthood
#6
Lauren E Sherman, Patricia M Greenfield, Leanna M Hernandez, Mirella Dapretto
Mobile social media often feature the ability to "Like" content posted by others. This study examined the effect of Likes on youths' neural and behavioral responses to photographs. High school and college students (N = 61, ages 13-21) viewed theirs and others' Instagram photographs while undergoing functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI). Participants more often Liked photographs that appeared to have received many (vs. few) Likes. Popular photographs elicited greater activity in multiple brain regions, including the nucleus accumbens (NAcc), a hub of the brain's reward circuitry...
June 14, 2017: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610744/prenatal-manganese-exposure-and-intrinsic-functional-connectivity-of-emotional-brain-areas-in-children
#7
Erik de Water, Erika Proal, Victoria Wang, Sandra Martínez Medina, Lourdes Schnaas, Martha María Téllez-Rojo, Robert O Wright, Cheuk Y Tang, Megan K Horton
Manganese (Mn) is an essential trace metal that is neurotoxic at high levels of exposure. Disruption of brain maturation processes during the prenatal period may have lasting consequences. During this critical period, the developing human brain is uniquely vulnerable to exposure to environmental toxicants such as Mn, and prenatal Mn exposure has been associated with changes in brain areas involved in emotion processing and regulation. The goal of the present pilot study was to examine whether prenatal Mn exposure is associated with changes in the intrinsic functional connectivity (iFC) of the brain in childhood, focusing on changes in emotional brain areas...
June 10, 2017: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604606/evaluation-of-visual-evoked-cerebral-metabolic-rate-of-oxygen-as-a-diagnostic-marker-in-multiple-sclerosis
#8
Nicholas A Hubbard, Yoel Sanchez Araujo, Camila Caballero, Minhui Ouyang, Monroe P Turner, Lyndahl Himes, Shawheen Faghihahmadabadi, Binu P Thomas, John Hart, Hao Huang, Darin T Okuda, Bart Rypma
A multiple sclerosis (MS) diagnosis often relies upon clinical presentation and qualitative analysis of standard, magnetic resonance brain images. However, the accuracy of MS diagnoses can be improved by utilizing advanced brain imaging methods. We assessed the accuracy of a new neuroimaging marker, visual-evoked cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (veCMRO₂), in classifying MS patients and closely age- and sex-matched healthy control (HC) participants. MS patients and HCs underwent calibrated functional magnetic resonance imaging (cfMRI) during a visual stimulation task, diffusion tensor imaging, T₁- and T₂-weighted imaging, neuropsychological testing, and completed self-report questionnaires...
June 11, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28600740/functional-reorganization-during-cognitive-function-tasks-in-patients-with-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#9
Jürgen Keller, Sarah Böhm, Helena E A Aho-Özhan, Markus Loose, Martin Gorges, Jan Kassubek, Ingo Uttner, Sharon Abrahams, Albert C Ludolph, Dorothée Lulé
Cognitive deficits, especially in the domains of social cognition and executive function including verbal fluency, are common in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients. There is yet sparse understanding of pathogenesis of the underlying, possibly adaptive, cortical patterns. To address this issue, 65 patients with ALS and 33 age-, gender- and education-matched healthy controls were tested on cognitive and behavioral deficits with the Edinburgh Cognitive and Behavioural ALS Screen (ECAS). Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), cortical activity during social cognition and executive function tasks (theory of mind, verbal fluency, alternation) adapted from the ECAS was determined in a 3 Tesla scanner...
June 9, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598839/functional-disintegration-of-the-default-mode-network-in-prodromal-alzheimer-s-disease
#10
Kim N H Dillen, Heidi I L Jacobs, Juraj Kukolja, Nils Richter, Boris von Reutern, Özgür A Onur, Karl-Josef Langen, Gereon R Fink
Neurodegenerative brain changes can affect the functional connectivity strength between nodes of the default-mode network (DMN), which may underlie changes in cognitive performance. It remains unclear how the functional connectivity strength of DMN nodes differs from healthy to pathological aging and whether these changes are cognitively relevant. We used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate the functional connectivity strength across five DMN nodes in 25 healthy controls (HC), 28 subjective cognitive decline (SCD) participants, and 25 prodromal Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients...
June 3, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598121/-regional-homogeneity-changes-in-patients-with-social-anxiety-disorders-after-cognitive-behavioral-therapy
#11
Min-Lan Yuan, Zheng-Jia Ren, Hong-Ru Zhu, Yan Zhang, Ya-Jing Meng, Wei Zhang
OBJECTIVES: To examine the altered spontaneous brain activity in patients with social anxiety disorders (SAD) before and after cognitive behavior therapy (CBT),and determine the neuromechanism of formation,treatment and recovery of SAD. METHODS: Fifteen SAD patients were treated with an eight-week group CBT.The patients underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) at resting state before and after the treatments.Eighteen healthy controls (HC) were recruited and underwent a baseline fMRI scan...
November 2016: Sichuan da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Sichuan University. Medical Science Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594097/functional-activity-of-the-sensorimotor-cortex-and-cerebellum-relates-to-cervical-dystonia-symptoms
#12
Roxana G Burciu, Christopher W Hess, Stephen A Coombes, Edward Ofori, Priyank Shukla, Jae Woo Chung, Nikolaus R McFarland, Aparna Wagle Shukla, Michael S Okun, David E Vaillancourt
Cervical dystonia (CD) is the most common type of focal dystonia, causing abnormal movements of the neck and head. In this study, we used noninvasive imaging to investigate the motor system of patients with CD and uncover the neural correlates of dystonic symptoms. Furthermore, we examined whether a commonly prescribed anticholinergic medication in CD has an effect on the dystonia-related brain abnormalities. Participants included 16 patients with CD and 16 healthy age-matched controls. We collected functional MRI scans during a force task previously shown to extensively engage the motor system, and diffusion and T1-weighted MRI scans from which we calculated free-water and brain tissue densities...
June 8, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588476/age-related-differences-in-dynamic-interactions-among-default-mode-frontoparietal-control-and-dorsal-attention-networks-during-resting-state-and-interference-resolution
#13
Bárbara Avelar-Pereira, Lars Bäckman, Anders Wåhlin, Lars Nyberg, Alireza Salami
Resting-state fMRI (rs-fMRI) can identify large-scale brain networks, including the default mode (DMN), frontoparietal control (FPN) and dorsal attention (DAN) networks. Interactions among these networks are critical for supporting complex cognitive functions, yet the way in which they are modulated across states is not well understood. Moreover, it remains unclear whether these interactions are similarly affected in aging regardless of cognitive state. In this study, we investigated age-related differences in functional interactions among the DMN, FPN and DAN during rest and the Multi-Source Interference task (MSIT)...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580693/changes-in-brain-activity-following-intensive-voice-treatment-in-children-with-cerebral-palsy
#14
Reyhaneh Bakhtiari, Jacqueline Cummine, Alesha Reed, Cynthia M Fox, Brea Chouinard, Ivor Cribben, Carol A Boliek
Eight children (3 females; 8-16 years) with motor speech disorders secondary to cerebral palsy underwent 4 weeks of an intensive neuroplasticity-principled voice treatment protocol, LSVT LOUD(®) , followed by a structured 12-week maintenance program. Children were asked to overtly produce phonation (ah) at conversational loudness, cued-phonation at perceived twice-conversational loudness, a series of single words, and a prosodic imitation task while being scanned using fMRI, immediately pre- and post-treatment and 12 weeks following a maintenance program...
June 5, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579971/altered-default-mode-network-on-resting-state-fmri-in-children-with-infantile-spasms
#15
Ya Wang, Yongxin Li, Huirong Wang, Yanjun Chen, Wenhua Huang
Infantile spasms (IS) syndrome is an age-dependent epileptic encephalopathy, which occurs in children characterized by spasms, impaired consciousness, and hypsarrhythmia. Abnormalities in default mode network (DMN) might contribute to the loss of consciousness during seizures and cognitive deficits in children with IS. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the changes in DMN with functional connectivity (FC) and amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF), the two methods to discover the potential neuronal underpinnings of IS...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28579788/primary-angle-closure-glaucomas-disturb-regional-spontaneous-brain-activity-in-the-visual-pathway-an-fmri-study
#16
Wei Chen, Li Zhang, Yong-Gen Xu, Kai Zhu, Man Luo
OBJECTIVE: To explore the underlying regional brain activity deficits in the visual cortex in patients with primary angle-closure glaucoma (PACG) relative to normal controls (NCs) using regional homogeneity (ReHo) method, and its relationship with behavioral performances. PATIENTS: Twenty PACG patients (10 females, 10 males; mean age ± standard deviation [SD]: 54.42±9.46 years) and 20 age-, and sex status-matched NCs (10 females, 10 males; mean age ± SD: 53.75±9...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578155/prefrontal-parietal-effective-connectivity-during-working-memory-in-older-adults
#17
Stephan Heinzel, Robert C Lorenz, Quynh-Lam Duong, Michael A Rapp, Lorenz Deserno
Theoretical models and preceding studies have described age-related alterations in neuronal activation of frontoparietal regions in a working memory (WM) load-dependent manner. However, to date, underlying neuronal mechanisms of these WM load-dependent activation changes in aging remain poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate these mechanisms in terms of effective connectivity by application of dynamic causal modeling with Bayesian Model Selection. Eighteen healthy younger (age: 20-32 years) and 32 older (60-75 years) participants performed an n-back task with 3 WM load levels during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)...
May 10, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28578129/assessing-dynamic-functional-connectivity-in-heterogeneous-samples
#18
B C L Lehmann, S R White, R N Henson, Cam -Can, L Geerligs
Several methods have been developed to measure dynamic functional connectivity (dFC) in fMRI data. These methods are often based on a sliding-window analysis, which aims to capture how the brain's functional organization varies over the course of a scan. The aim of many studies is to compare dFC across groups, such as younger versus older people. However, spurious group differences in measured dFC may be caused by other sources of heterogeneity between people. For example, the shape of the haemodynamic response function (HRF) and levels of measurement noise have been found to vary with age...
May 31, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577979/effects-of-multicomponent-training-of-cognitive-control-on-cognitive-function-and-brain-activation-in-older-adults
#19
Hoyoung Kim, Jeanyung Chey, Sanghun Lee
The aim of this study was to investigate the changes in cognitive functions and brain activation after multicomponent training of cognitive control in non-demented older adults, utilizing neuropsychological tests and fMRI. We developed and implemented a computerized Multicomponent Training of Cognitive Control (MTCC), characterized by task variability and adaptive procedures, in order to maximize training effects in cognitive control and transfer to other cognitive domains. Twenty-seven community-dwelling adults, aged 64-77 years, without any history of neurological or psychiatric problems, participated in this study (14 in the training group and 13 in the control group)...
May 31, 2017: Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28575506/limbic-interference-during-social-action-planning-in-schizophrenia
#20
Katharina Stegmayer, Stephan Bohlhalter, Tim Vanbellingen, Andrea Federspiel, Roland Wiest, René M Müri, Werner Strik, Sebastian Walther
Schizophrenia is characterized by social interaction deficits contributing to poor functional outcome. Hand gesture use is particularly impaired, linked to frontal lobe dysfunction and frontal grey matter deficits. The functional neural correlates of impaired gesturing are currently unclear. We therefore investigated aberrant brain activity during impaired gesturing in schizophrenia. We included 22 patients with schizophrenia and 25 healthy control participants matched for age, gender, and education level. We obtained functional magnetic resonance imaging data using an event-related paradigm to assess brain activation during gesture planning and execution...
May 30, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
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