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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538513/attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-in-children-with-sickle-cell-disease-referred-for-an-evaluation
#1
Melissa A Acquazzino, Meghan Miller, Matthew Myrvik, Robert Newby, John Paul Scott
Neuropsychological deficits, including difficulties with attention, are well described in children with sickle cell disease (SCD). Very little is known about attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children with SCD. The objective of this study was to determine the proportion of ADHD in children with SCD referred for neuropsychological evaluation. This prospective, cross-sectional study included patients (age, 4 to 18 y) with SCD and completion of a neuropsychological evaluation between December 2013 and March 2016...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538047/auditory-processing-disorder-what-does-it-mean-and-what-can-be-done
#2
Krista Bartlett, Elissa Kelley, Julie Purdy, Martin T Stein
Julian, an 11-year-old boy in the sixth grade with a compliant disposition and a positive attitude, has had a significant decline in his academic performance over the last 2 years. He spends much of his time in the nurse's office with headaches and fatigue. He reports that he cannot concentrate or follow along in class. Vision and hearing screenings were normal.Julian's teachers report that although he has no behavior problem, he is inattentive and does not put forth the effort she feels he is capable of giving...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534818/a-review-of-the-impact-of-maternal-obesity-on-the-cognitive-function-and-mental-health-of-the-offspring
#3
REVIEW
Laura Contu, Cheryl A Hawkes
Globally, more than 20% of women of reproductive age are currently estimated to be obese. Children born to obese mothers are at higher risk of developing obesity, coronary heart disease, diabetes, stroke, and asthma in adulthood. Increasing clinical and experimental evidence suggests that maternal obesity also affects the health and function of the offspring brain across the lifespan. This review summarizes the current findings from human and animal studies that detail the impact of maternal obesity on aspects of learning, memory, motivation, affective disorders, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, autism spectrum disorders, and neurodegeneration in the offspring...
May 19, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534274/exploring-the-validity-of-proposed-transgenic-animal-models-of-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-adhd
#4
REVIEW
June Bryan de la Peña, Irene Joy Dela Peña, Raly James Custodio, Chrislean Jun Botanas, Hee Jin Kim, Jae Hoon Cheong
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common, behavioral, and heterogeneous neurodevelopmental condition characterized by hyperactivity, impulsivity, and inattention. Symptoms of this disorder are managed by treatment with methylphenidate, amphetamine, and/or atomoxetine. The cause of ADHD is unknown, but substantial evidence indicates that this disorder has a significant genetic component. Transgenic animals have become an essential tool in uncovering the genetic factors underlying ADHD. Although they cannot accurately reflect the human condition, they can provide insights into the disorder that cannot be obtained from human studies due to various limitations...
May 22, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534123/attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-symptoms-and-psychological-comorbidity-in-eating-disorder-patients
#5
L Sala, G Martinotti, M L Carenti, L Romo, M Oumaya, A Pham-Scottez, F Rouillon, P Gorwood, L Janiri
PURPOSE: There is some evidence that eating disorders (ED) and Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) share common clinical features and that ADHD might contribute to the severity of eating disorders. A greater understanding of how the presence of comorbid ADHD may affect the psychopathological framework of eating disorder seems of primary importance. The aim of our study was to evaluate rates of ADHD in three ED subgroups of inpatients: anorexia nervosa restricting type (AN-R), anorexia nervosa binge-eating/purging type (AN-BP) and bulimia nervosa (BN)...
May 22, 2017: Eating and Weight Disorders: EWD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533034/psychiatric-disorders-and-function-in-adolescents-with-tetralogy-of-fallot
#6
Jennifer E Holland, Adam R Cassidy, Christian Stopp, Matthew T White, David C Bellinger, Michael J Rivkin, Jane W Newburger, David R DeMaso
OBJECTIVES: To assess psychiatric disorders and function in adolescents with repaired tetralogy of Fallot (TOF) without and with a genetic diagnosis and to evaluate associations of functioning with medical factors, IQ, and demographics. STUDY DESIGN: Adolescents with TOF (n = 91) and 87 healthy referents completed a clinician-rated structured psychiatric interview, parent-/self-report measures of psychopathology, and brain magnetic resonance imaging. Twenty-three of the adolescents with TOF had a known genetic diagnosis...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532330/how-french-media-have-portrayed-adhd-to-the-lay-public-and-to-social-workers
#7
Sébastien Ponnou, François Gonon
Two models of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) coexist: the biomedical and the psychosocial. We identified in nine French newspapers 159 articles giving facts and opinions about ADHD from 1995 to 2015. We classified them according to the model they mainly supported and on the basis of what argument. Two thirds (104/159) mainly supported the biomedical model. The others either defended the psychodynamic understanding of ADHD or voiced both models. Neurological dysfunctions and genetic risk factors were mentioned in support of the biomedical model in only 26 and eight articles, respectively...
June 2017: International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532324/non-diagnostic-based-approaches-to-helping-children-who-could-be-labelled-adhd-and-their-families
#8
Sami Timimi
Mental health services are not always good for you. There are some troubling facts to confront such as the increase in the use of diagnostic based approaches and psychotropic medications for children and young people being associated with poorer rather than better outcomes. In this article I will outline some of the evidence around outcome as a result of treatment for young people diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and for those who are prescribed long-term stimulants. I will then discuss clinical approaches that move beyond a focus on symptom management that diagnostic paradigms encourage...
June 2017: International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531561/a-meta-analysis-of-neurocognition-in-youth-with-familial-high-risk-for-bipolar-disorder
#9
E Bora, A Özerdem
OBJECTIVE: Neuropsychological impairment, including deficits in social cognition is evident in subjects at genetic high-risk for psychosis. However, findings in youth at genetic risk to bipolar disorder (BP) have been suggested to be less supportive of premorbid deficits. We aimed to conduct a meta-analysis of cognitive deficits in youth with familiar risk for bipolar disorder (FHR-BD). METHODS: A novel meta-analysis of FHR-BD (mean age 10-25), including 18 studies (786 offsprings/siblings of patients with BD and 794 healthy controls), was conducted...
March 3, 2017: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531237/burden-of-neurological-diseases-in-the-us-revealed-by-web-searches
#10
Ricardo Baeza-Yates, Puneet Mohan Sangal, Pablo Villoslada
BACKGROUND: Analyzing the disease-related web searches of Internet users provides insight into the interests of the general population as well as the healthcare industry, which can be used to shape health care policies. METHODS: We analyzed the searches related to neurological diseases and drugs used in neurology using the most popular search engines in the US, Google and Bing/Yahoo. RESULTS: We found that the most frequently searched diseases were common diseases such as dementia or Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), as well as medium frequency diseases with high social impact such as Parkinson's disease, MS and ALS...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530334/-from-theory-to-practice-implementing-the-bio-psycho-social-model-in-clinical-and-research-activities-in-the-beer-sheva-mental-health-center
#11
Hagit Cohen, Doron Todder
The Beer Sheva Mental Health Center is the second largest mental health hospital in Israel and provides acute and chronic in-patient services for the entire population of the Southern District of Israel, from Ashdod to Eilat (about 1.2 million people) from adolescence to the elderly. The outpatient services include a variety of regional specialty services such as bipolar, eating disorders, anxiety, neuromodulation, gender-oriented, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, sleep, dual diagnosis, geronto-psychiatry and post-traumatic stress disorder clinics and various rehabilitation day-care services...
December 2016: Harefuah
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529874/shared-and-disorder-specific-task-positive-and-default-mode-network-dysfunctions-during-sustained-attention-in-paediatric-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-and-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#12
Luke J Norman, Christina O Carlisi, Anastasia Christakou, Ana Cubillo, Clodagh M Murphy, Kaylita Chantiluke, Andrew Simmons, Vincent Giampietro, Michael Brammer, David Mataix-Cols, Katya Rubia
Patients with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and obsessive/compulsive disorder (OCD) share problems with sustained attention, and are proposed to share deficits in switching between default mode and task positive networks. The aim of this study was to investigate shared and disorder-specific brain activation abnormalities during sustained attention in the two disorders. Twenty boys with ADHD, 20 boys with OCD and 20 age-matched healthy controls aged between 12 and 18 years completed a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) version of a parametrically modulated sustained attention task with a progressively increasing sustained attention load...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529667/motor-problems-in-children-with-neurofibromatosis-type-1
#13
André B Rietman, Rianne Oostenbrink, Sanne Bongers, Eddy Gaukema, Sandra van Abeelen, Jos G Hendriksen, Caspar W N Looman, Pieter F A de Nijs, Marie-Claire de Wit
BACKGROUND: Children with the neurogenetic disorder neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) often have problems with learning and behaviour. In both parent reports and neuropsychological assessment, motor problems are reported in approximately one third to one half of the children with NF1. Studies using broad motor performance test batteries with relatively large groups of children with NF1 are limited. The aim of this cross-sectional observational study was to describe the severity of motor problems in children with NF1 and to explore the predictive value of demographics, intelligence, and behavioural problems...
2017: Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529361/prevalence-and-correlates-of-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-and-subthreshold-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-among-college-students-in-kerala-india
#14
T S Jaisoorya, Y C Janardhan Reddy, B Sivasankaran Nair, Anjana Rani, Priya G Menon, M Revamma, C R Jeevan, K S Radhakrishnan, Vineetha Jose, K Thennarasu
CONTEXT: There are scarce data on the prevalence of adult obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) in India. AIMS: The aim was to study the point prevalence of OCD and subthreshold OCD and its psychosocial correlates among college students in the district of Ernakulam, Kerala, India. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: A cross-sectional survey of 5784 students of the age range of 18-25 years from 58 colleges was conducted. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Students were self-administered the OCD subsection of the Clinical Interview Schedule-Revised, the Composite International Diagnostic Interview for obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCSs), and other relevant instruments to identify OCD, subthreshold OCD, and related clinical measures...
January 2017: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528846/the-multi-level-impact-of-chronic-intermittent-hypoxia-on-central-auditory-processing
#15
Eddie Wong, Bin Yang, Lida Du, Wai Hong Ho, Condon Lau, Ya Ke, Ying Shing Chan, Wing Ho Yung, Ed X Wu
During hypoxia, the tissues do not obtain adequate oxygen. Chronic hypoxia can lead to many health problems. A relatively common cause of chronic hypoxia is sleep apnea. Sleep apnea is a sleep breathing disorder that affects 3 to 7% of the population. During sleep, the patient's breathing starts and stops. This can lead to hypertension, attention deficits, and hearing disorders. In this study, we apply an established chronic intermittent hypoxemia (CIH) model of sleep apnea to study its impact on auditory processing...
May 18, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528232/a-mathematical-and-biological-plausible-model-of-decision-execution-regulation-in-go-no-go-tasks-focusing-on-the-fronto-striatal-thalamic-pathway
#16
Golnaz Baghdadi, Farzad Towhidkhah, Reza Rostami
Discovering factors influencing the speed and accuracy of responses in tasks such as "Go/No-Go" is one of issues which have been raised in neurocognitive studies. Mathematical models are considered as tools to identify and to study decision making procedure from different aspects. In this paper, a mathematical model has been presented to show several factors can alter the output of decision making procedure before execution in a "Go/No-Go" task. The dynamic of this model has two stable fixed points, each of them corresponds to the "Press" and "Not-press" responses...
May 13, 2017: Computers in Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528196/a-review-of-psychiatric-co-morbidity-described-in-genetic-and-immune-mediated-movement-disorders
#17
REVIEW
K J Peall, M S Lorentzos, I Heyman, M A J Tijssen, M J Owen, R C Dale, M A Kurian
Psychiatric symptoms are an increasingly recognised feature of movement disorders. Recent identification of causative genes and autoantibodies has allowed detailed analysis of aetiologically homogenous subgroups, thereby enabling determination of the spectrum of psychiatric symptoms in these disorders. This review evaluates the incidence and type of psychiatric symptoms encountered in patients with movement disorders. A broad spectrum of psychiatric symptoms was identified across all subtypes of movement disorder, with depression, generalised anxiety disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder being most common...
May 17, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527020/changes-in-serum-levels-of-kynurenine-metabolites-in-paediatric-patients-affected-by-adhd
#18
Melania Evangelisti, Pietro De Rossi, Jole Rabasco, Renato Donfrancesco, Luana Lionetto, Matilde Capi, Gabriele Sani, Maurizio Simmaco, Ferdinando Nicoletti, Maria Pia Villa
This study aims at determining serum levels of tryptophan and other metabolites of the kynurenine pathway in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) compared to healthy controls. Such metabolites interact with glutamate receptors in the central nervous system, potentially modulating mechanisms that are pivotal in ADHD and thus potentially representing peripheral biomarkers of the disorder. We measured serum levels of tryptophan and some metabolites of the kynurenine pathway in 102 children with ADHD and 62 healthy controls by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)...
May 19, 2017: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527018/predicting-academic-impairment-and-internalizing-psychopathology-using-a-multidimensional-framework-of-sluggish-cognitive-tempo-with-parent-and-adolescent-reports
#19
Zoe R Smith, Joshua M Langberg
Adolescents with Sluggish Cognitive Tempo (SCT) exhibit symptoms of slowness, mental confusion, excessive daydreaming, low motivation, and drowsiness/sleepiness. Although many symptoms of SCT reflect internalizing states, no study has evaluated the clinical utility of self-report of SCT in an attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) sample. Furthermore, it remains unclear whether SCT is best conceptualized as a unidimensional or multidimensional construct. In a sample of 262 adolescents comprehensively diagnosed with ADHD, the present study used adolescent- and parent reports of SCT to evaluate the predictive utility of a general SCT factor from a bifactor modeling approach compared the utility of three specific SCT factors (slow, sleepy, and daydreamer) for predicting academic impairment and internalizing psychopathology...
May 19, 2017: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524461/editorial-the-continuing-contributions-of-multimodal-treatment-of-attention-over-nearly-two-decades-to-initial-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-pharmacotherapy-and-long-term-clinical-course
#20
EDITORIAL
Michael H Bloch
The initial results of the Multimodal Treatment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (MTA) trial had profound effects on the way that Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is managed clinically. Children from the original MTA cohort as well as a control group have been followed longitudinally for well over a decade and are beginning to provide important data regarding the long-term clinical course, treatment and consequences of ADHD into adulthood. Two articles in this issue of JCPP highlight important contributions from the MTA cohort...
June 2017: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
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