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Attention deficit disorder

Carmen T Mulet, Luis E Arroyo-Mora, Lorena A Leon, Elizabeth Gnagy, Anthony P DeCaprio
Methylphenidate (MPH), which is metabolized into ritalinic acid (RA), is an amphetamine derivative largely used in the treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, a neurological condition commonly diagnosed in early childhood. Ensuring that patients comply with clinical treatment is crucial and compliance is generally monitored in blood or urine specimens which, especially in the case of children, can be challenging to obtain on a repetitive basis. Here we report validation of a specific, non-invasive, and rapid dilute-and-shoot analytical method for the detection and quantitation of MPH and RA in oral fluid (OF)...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Shevaugn Johnson, Paul Williamson, Tracey D Wade
This systematic review and meta-analysis examined the evidence supporting the association between body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) symptomology and four types of cognitive processing abnormalities: local processing, selective attention, interpretive biases, and memory deficits. Twenty-three studies met inclusion requirements that examined differences in performance on cognitive tasks between BDD and control groups across the four categories. Multilevel modelling was used to calculate an overall effect size for each cognitive category...
May 30, 2018: Behaviour Research and Therapy
Mijna Hadders-Algra
This review summarizes early human brain development on the basis of neuroanatomical data and functional connectomics. It indicates that the most significant changes in the brain occur during the second half of gestation and the first three months post-term, in particular in the cortical subplate and cerebellum. As the transient subplate pairs a high rate of intricate developmental changes and interactions with clear functional activity, two phases of development are distinguished: a) the transient cortical subplate phase, ending at 3 months post-term when the permanent circuitries in the primary motor, somatosensory and visual cortices have replaced the subplate; and subsequently, b) the phase in which the permanent circuitries dominate...
June 20, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
Rachel L Navarra, Barry D Waterhouse
Prescription stimulants are used to treat attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Psychostimulants are also used off-label by non-ADHD patients as performance-enhancing agents across academic, occupational, athletic, and social settings. Extensive work has focused on the reinforcing effects and abuse liability of psychostimulants, but understanding the mechanisms through which these agents regulate neural circuit functions that govern cognitive and sensorimotor processes to result in their performance-enhancing effects has received less attention...
June 20, 2018: Brain Research
Wing Chung Chang, Jasmine Tsz Ting Liu, Christy Lai Ming Hui, Sherry Kit Wa Chan, Edwin Ho Ming Lee, Yi Nam Suen, Eric Yu Hai Chen
Amotivation is a major determinant of functional outcome in schizophrenia but it is understudied in the early course of illness. There is a paucity of longitudinal research investigating predictors of amotivation. In this study, we aimed to examine baseline cognitive and clinical predictors of amotivation at 6 and 12 months of follow-up in patients aged 18-55 years presenting with first-episode DSM-IV schizophrenia-spectrum disorder (FES). Of 145 patients recruited at intake, 116 and 113 completed assessments at 6- and 12-month follow-up, respectively...
June 22, 2018: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
Isabell Brikell, Henrik Larsson, Yi Lu, Erik Pettersson, Qi Chen, Ralf Kuja-Halkola, Robert Karlsson, Benjamin B Lahey, Paul Lichtenstein, Joanna Martin
Common genetic risk variants have been implicated in the etiology of clinical attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) diagnoses and symptoms in the general population. However, given the extensive comorbidity across ADHD and other psychiatric conditions, the extent to which genetic variants associated with ADHD also influence broader psychopathology dimensions remains unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the associations between ADHD polygenic risk scores (PRS) and a broad range of childhood psychiatric symptoms, and to quantify the extent to which such associations can be attributed to a general factor of childhood psychopathology...
June 22, 2018: Molecular Psychiatry
Nagalakshmi B, Sneha Sagarkar, Amul J Sakharkar
Of all types of injuries, traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) are most likely to result in death or permanent physical or mental disabilities. With the increased frequency of military operations, terror attacks, sports activities, and road mishaps, TBIs are increasingly becoming a serious public health concern. Patients who meet with moderate-to-severe TBI suffer from a constellation of cognitive deficits and phenotypes due to diffuse axonal injury. On the contrary, minimal TBI precipitates in long-term behavioral complications commonly referred to as post-traumatic stress disorders, which consist of depression, anxiety, hallucinations, and so on...
2018: Progress in Molecular Biology and Translational Science
Charles Mak, Kok Kah Tan, Song Guo
Background : There is relatively little research examining the relationship between Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and gambling addiction. This study seeks to explore for ADHD symptoms in adult gambling addiction patients and to evaluate their gambling-related cognitions. Materials and Methods : A cross-sectional survey was conducted at National Addictions Management Service, Institute of Mental Health, in Singapore. Patients presenting for gambling treatment were screened for ADHD symptoms and assessed for severity of gambling-related cognitions...
June 22, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Giacomo Tondo, Fabiola De Marchi, Emanuela Terazzi, Paolo Prandi, Marta Sacchetti, Cristoforo Comi, Roberto Cantello
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) may be associated with worsening of cognitive performance. We studied patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) with and without COPD, and we analyzed, in a retrospective way, clinical and neuropsychological variables to verify if COPD plays a pejorative role on cognitive or functional autonomy in patients with dementia. METHODS: We enrolled 23 adult patients (AD-COPD) with probable AD and COPD and 23 with AD only (AD-only); they were matched for sex, age, educational level, and Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) at the disease onset...
June 21, 2018: Neurological Sciences
Alicia Nuñez, Davor N Zink, Kimberly A Barchard, Liza E San Miguel, Daniel N Allen
Objective: The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition Spanish (WISC-IV Spanish) is a translation and adaptation of the WISC-IV that is often used in neuropsychological evaluation of children and adolescents with acquired or developmental brain disorders. However, there is limited information on the factor structure of the WISC-IV Spanish when used with clinical populations. To address the potential effects of language and culture on the validity of the WISC-IV Spanish factor structure, this study examined the construct validity of the WISV-IV Spanish scores using confirmatory factor analysis in a clinical sample of Hispanic children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)...
June 21, 2018: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
Susan Young, Rafael A González, Moshe Fridman, Paul Hodgkins, Keira Kim, Gisli H Gudjonsson
BACKGROUND: Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and head injury (including traumatic brain injury (TBI)) manifest in high levels across prison samples and guidance from the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence notes that people with acquired brain injury may have increased prevalence of ADHD. We aimed to examine the association of ADHD with TBI and the impact of the association upon health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and service use among imprisoned adults...
June 22, 2018: BMC Psychiatry
Dan Edvinsson, Lisa Ekselius
BACKGROUND: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a behavioral disorder typically treated with stimulants and atomoxetine. Data on long-term tolerability and safety of such pharmacological treatment in subjects diagnosed in adulthood are limited. METHODS: A cohort of adults diagnosed with ADHD according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, criteria was followed-up on an average of 6 years after first evaluation. Of 168 adults, 112 (67%) who initiated medication were available for follow-up...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
Wyatte C Hall, Dongmei Li, Timothy D V Dye
OBJECTIVES: To assess the influence of hearing loss on child behavioral diagnoses, and socioemotional and behavior status. METHODS: We analyzed US National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) child data, years 2011 to 2015, for associations between reported hearing loss and relevant NHIS items. RESULTS: Compared with hearing children, NHIS respondents with a deaf child were more likely to report developmental delays (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 11...
June 21, 2018: American Journal of Public Health
L S Chutko, S Yu Surushkina, E A Yakovenko, A V Sergeev, A V Rozhkova
AIM: To assess cognitive and emotional disorders in children of primary school age who have a history of specific language impairment (SLI). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Eighty-six children, aged 7-9 years, who were previously studied at age of 3-6 years with a diagnosis of SLI with a predominant disorder of expressive speech, were examined. Common neurological examination, psychological and psychometric testing were performed. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Clinical manifestations of the developmental disorder of expressive speech of moderate degree remained in 19...
2018: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
Ken Yonezawa, Shunsuke Nonaka, Yuka Iwakura, Yuka Kusano, Yuko Funamoto, Nobukazu Kanchi, Naohiro Yamaguchi, Yuko Kusumoto, Akira Imamura, Hiroki Ozawa
Several studies report that patients with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have a low plasma concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). Since fish intake varies among countries and is high in Japan, those results may not apply to Japanese patients with ADHD. However, there is currently not enough evidence to support this. We compared the plasma PUFAs levels of patients with ADHD with the standard reference levels for healthy subjects, and examined the relationship between those PUFAs levels and the subject's psychological evaluation...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Neural Transmission
Nicoline Hemager, Kerstin J Plessen, Anne Thorup, Camilla Christiani, Ditte Ellersgaard, Katrine Søborg Spang, Birgitte Klee Burton, Maja Gregersen, Anne Søndergaard, Aja Neergaard Greve, Ditte Lou Gantriis, Gry Poulsen, Larry J Seidman, Ole Mors, Merete Nordentoft, Jens Richardt Møllegaard Jepsen
Importance: Children at familial high risk of schizophrenia spectrum disorders (FHR-SZ) or bipolar disorder (FHR-BP) exhibit neurocognitive impairments. Large studies of neurocognition in young children at familial high risk at the same age are important to differentiate the pathophysiology and developmental trajectory of these 2 groups. Objective: To characterize neurocognitive functions in 7-year-old children with FHR-SZ or FHR-BP and a control population. Design, Setting, and Participants: This multisite population-based cohort study collected data from January 1, 2013, to January 31, 2016, in the first wave of the Danish High Risk and Resilience Study VIA 7 at 2 university hospital research sites in Copenhagen and Aarhus using Danish registries...
June 20, 2018: JAMA Psychiatry
Youwei Zhu, Haifeng Jiang, Hang Su, Na Zhong, Runji Li, Xiaotong Li, Tianzhen Chen, Haoye Tan, Jiang Du, Ding Xu, Huan Yan, Dawen Xu, Min Zhao
BACKGROUND: Cognitive rehabilitation therapy has been found to improve cognitive deficits and impulse control problems in methamphetamine use disorder (MUD). However, there is limited research regarding this therapy's feasibility when using mobile-based health technologies in supporting recovery from MUD in China. OBJECTIVE: The main aim of this study was to test whether 4 weeks of a newly designed computerized cognitive addiction therapy (CCAT) app can improve cognitive impairments, eliminate drug-related attention bias, and attenuate risk decision-making behaviors in participants with MUD...
June 20, 2018: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
Sandra M Meier, Barbara Pavlova, Søren Dalsgaard, Merete Nordentoft, Ole Mors, Preben B Mortensen, Rudolf Uher
BACKGROUND: Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and anxiety disorders have been proposed as precursors of bipolar disorder, but their joint and relative roles in the development of bipolar disorder are unknown.AimsTo test the prospective relationship of ADHD and anxiety with onset of bipolar disorder. METHOD: We examined the relationship between ADHD, anxiety disorders and bipolar disorder in a birth cohort of 2 409 236 individuals born in Denmark between 1955 and 1991...
June 21, 2018: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
Muhammad A Parvaz, Kristen Kim, Sean Froudist-Walsh, Jeffrey H Newcorn, Iliyan Ivanov
OBJECTIVE: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is associated with elevated risk for later development of substance use disorders (SUD), specifically because youth with ADHD, similar to individuals with SUD, exhibit deficits in learning abilities and reward processing. Another known risk factor for SUD is familial history of substance dependence. Youth with familial SUD history show reward processing deficits, higher prevalence of externalizing disorders, and higher impulsivity scores...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
Joan Forns, Jordi Sunyer, Raquel Garcia-Esteban, Daniela Porta, Akhgar Ghassabian, Lise Giorgis-Allemand, Tong Gong, Ulrike Gehring, Mette Sørensen, Marie Standl, Dorothee Sugiri, Catarina Almqvist, Ainara Andiarena, Chiara Badaloní, Rob Beelen, Dietrich Berdel, Giulia Cesaroni, Marie-Aline Charles, Kirsten Thorup Eriksen, Marisa Estarlich, Mariana F Fernandez, Anne Forhan, Vincent W V Jaddoe, Michal Korek, Paul Lichtenstein, Aitana Lertxundi, Maria-Jose Lopez-Espinosa, Iana Markevych, Audrey de Nazelle, Ole Raaschou-Nielsen, Mark Nieuwenhuijsen, Rocío Pérez-Lobato, Claire Philippat, Rémy Slama, Carla Mt Tiesler, Frank C Verhulst, Andrea von Berg, Tanja Vrijkotte, Anne-Marie Nybo Andersen, Barbara Heude, Ursula Krämer, Joachim Heinrich, Henning Tiemeier, Francesco Forastiere, Göran Pershagen, Bert Brunekreef, Mònica Guxens
BACKGROUND: Exposure to air pollution during pregnancy may increase attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms in children, but findings have been inconsistent. We aimed to study this association in a collaborative study of eight European population-based birth/child cohorts, including 29,127 mother-child pairs. METHODS: Air pollution concentrations [nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and particulate matter (PM)] were estimated at the birth address by land-use regression models based on monitoring campaigns performed between 2008 and 2011...
June 19, 2018: Epidemiology
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