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Aging fmri brain exercise cognition

Patrick Eggenberger, Martin Wolf, Martina Schumann, Eling D de Bruin
Different types of exercise training have the potential to induce structural and functional brain plasticity in the elderly. Thereby, functional brain adaptations were observed during cognitive tasks in functional magnetic resonance imaging studies that correlated with improved cognitive performance. This study aimed to investigate if exercise training induces functional brain plasticity during challenging treadmill walking and elicits associated changes in cognitive executive functions. Forty-two elderly participants were recruited and randomly assigned to either interactive cognitive-motor video game dancing (DANCE) or balance and stretching training (BALANCE)...
2016: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Guohua Zheng, Maomao Huang, Shuzhen Li, Moyi Li, Rui Xia, Wenji Zhou, Jing Tao, Lidian Chen
INTRODUCTION: Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is an intermediate stage between the cognitive changes of normal aging and dementia characterised by a reduction in memory and/or other cognitive processes. An increasing number of studies have indicated that regular physical activity/exercise may have beneficial association with cognitive function of older adults with or without cognitive impairment. As a traditional Chinese Qigong exercise, Baduanjin may be even more beneficial in promoting cognitive ability in older adults with MCI, but the evidence is still insufficient...
2016: BMJ Open
Pei Huang, Rong Fang, Bin-Yin Li, Sheng-Di Chen
Aging and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) are accompanied by decline of cognitive functions. Meanwhile, the most common form of dementia is Alzheimer's disease (AD), which is characterized by loss of memory and other intellectual abilities serious to make difficulties for patients in their daily life. MCI is a transition period between normal aging and dementia, which has been used for early detection of emerging dementia. It converts to dementia with an annual rate of 5-15% as compared to normal aging with 1% rate...
2016: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
C Suo, M F Singh, N Gates, W Wen, P Sachdev, H Brodaty, N Saigal, G C Wilson, J Meiklejohn, N Singh, B T Baune, M Baker, N Foroughi, Y Wang, Y Mavros, A Lampit, I Leung, M J Valenzuela
Physical and cognitive exercise may prevent or delay dementia in later life but the neural mechanisms underlying these therapeutic benefits are largely unknown. We examined structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) brain changes after 6 months of progressive resistance training (PRT), computerized cognitive training (CCT) or combined intervention. A total of 100 older individuals (68 females, average age=70.1, s.d.±6.7, 55-87 years) with dementia prodrome mild cognitive impairment were recruited in the SMART (Study of Mental Activity and Resistance Training) Trial...
March 22, 2016: Molecular Psychiatry
Cristina Cadenas-Sánchez, José Mora-González, Jairo H Migueles, Miguel Martín-Matillas, José Gómez-Vida, María Victoria Escolano-Margarit, José Maldonado, Gala María Enriquez, Belén Pastor-Villaescusa, Carlos de Teresa, Socorro Navarrete, Rosa María Lozano, Juan de Dios Beas-Jiménez, Fernando Estévez-López, Alejandra Mena-Molina, María José Heras, Palma Chillón, Cristina Campoy, Victoria Muñoz-Hernández, Wendy Daniela Martínez-Ávila, María Elisa Merchan, José C Perales, Ángel Gil, Antonio Verdejo-García, Concepción M Aguilera, Jonatan R Ruiz, Idoia Labayen, Andrés Catena, Francisco B Ortega
The new and recent advances in neuroelectric and neuroimaging technologies provide a new era for further exploring and understanding how brain and cognition function can be stimulated by environmental factors, such as exercise, and particularly to study whether physical exercise influences brain development in early ages. The present study, namely the ActiveBrains project, aims to examine the effects of a physical exercise programme on brain and cognition, as well as on selected physical and mental health outcomes in overweight/obese children...
March 2016: Contemporary Clinical Trials
John R Best, Bryan K Chiu, Chun Liang Hsu, Lindsay S Nagamatsu, Teresa Liu-Ambrose
Aerobic exercise training has been shown to attenuate cognitive decline and reduce brain atrophy with advancing age. The extent to which resistance exercise training improves cognition and prevents brain atrophy is less known, and few studies include long-term follow-up cognitive and neuroimaging assessments. We report data from a randomized controlled trial of 155 older women, who engaged in 52 weeks of resistance training (either once- or twice-weekly) or balance-and-toning (twice-weekly). Executive functioning and memory were assessed at baseline, 1-year follow-up (i...
November 2015: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
Hyuma Makizako, Kota Tsutsumimoto, Takehiko Doi, Ryo Hotta, Sho Nakakubo, Teresa Liu-Ambrose, Hiroyuki Shimada
BACKGROUND: Depressive symptoms and memory problems are significant risk factors for dementia. Exercise can reduce depressive symptoms and improve cognitive function in older people. In addition, the benefits of horticultural activity on physical and mental well-being have been demonstrated in people with dementia. Although evidence of such non-pharmacological interventions is mounting, no studies have examined whether physical exercise and horticultural activity exert a positive impact on brain and mental health (e...
2015: Trials
Zhiwei Zheng, Xinyi Zhu, Shufei Yin, Baoxi Wang, Yanan Niu, Xin Huang, Rui Li, Juan Li
Mounting evidence suggests that enriched mental, physical, and socially stimulating activities are beneficial for counteracting age-related decreases in brain function and cognition in older adults. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to demonstrate the functional plasticity of brain activity in response to a combined cognitive-psychological-physical intervention and investigated the contribution of the intervention-related brain changes to individual performance in healthy older adults...
2015: Neural Plasticity
Stephen D Herrmann, Laura E Martin, Florence J Breslin, Jeffery J Honas, Erik A Willis, Rebecca J Lepping, Cheryl A Gibson, Christie A Befort, Kate Lambourne, Jeffrey M Burns, Bryan K Smith, Debra K Sullivan, Richard A Washburn, Hung-Wen Yeh, Joseph E Donnelly, Cary R Savage
The prevalence of obesity is high resulting from chronic imbalances between energy intake and expenditure. On the expenditure side, regular exercise is associated with health benefits, including enhanced brain function. The benefits of exercise are not immediate and require persistence to be realized. Brain regions associated with health-related decisions, such as whether or not to exercise or controlling the impulse to engage in immediately rewarding activities (e.g., sedentary behavior), include reward processing and cognitive control regions...
January 2014: Contemporary Clinical Trials
Jim Horne
Although exercise clearly offsets aging effects on the body, its benefits for the aging brain are likely to depend on the extent that physical activity (especially locomotion) facilitates multisensory encounters, curiosity, and interactions with novel environments; this is especially true for exploratory activity, which occupies much of wakefulness for most mammals in the wild. Cognition is inseparable from physical activity, with both interlinked to promote neuroplasticity and more successful brain aging. In these respects and for humans, exercising in a static, featureless, artificially lit indoor setting contrasts with exploratory outdoor walking within a novel environment during daylight...
November 2013: Sleep Medicine
Kirsten Hötting, Kathrin Holzschneider, Anna Stenzel, Thomas Wolbers, Brigitte Röder
BACKGROUND: Both cognitive and physical exercise have been discussed as promising interventions for healthy cognitive aging. The present study assessed the effects of cognitive training (spatial vs. perceptual training) and physical training (endurance training vs. non-endurance training) on spatial learning and associated brain activation in 33 adults (40-55 years). Spatial learning was assessed with a virtual maze task, and at the same time neural correlates were measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)...
2013: BMC Neuroscience
J Carson Smith, Kristy A Nielson, Piero Antuono, Jeri-Annette Lyons, Ryan J Hanson, Alissa M Butts, Nathan C Hantke, Matthew D Verber
Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is associated with early memory loss, Alzheimer's disease (AD) neuropathology, inefficient or ineffective neural processing, and increased risk for AD. Unfortunately, treatments aimed at improving clinical symptoms or markers of brain function generally have been of limited value. Physical exercise is often recommended for people diagnosed with MCI, primarily because of its widely reported cognitive benefits in healthy older adults. However, it is unknown if exercise actually benefits brain function during memory retrieval in MCI...
2013: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Eric D Vidoni, Matthew R Gayed, Robyn A Honea, Cary R Savage, Derek Hobbs, Jeffrey M Burns
BACKGROUND: Despite mounting evidence that physical activity has positive benefits for brain and cognitive health, there has been little characterization of the relationship between cardiorespiratory (CR) fitness and cognition-associated brain activity as measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The lack of evidence is particularly glaring for diseases such as Alzheimer disease (AD) that degrade cognitive and functional performance. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to describe the relationship between regional brain activity during cognitive tasks and CR fitness level in people with and without AD...
July 2013: Physical Therapy
Zvinka Z Zlatar, Stephen Towler, Keith M McGregor, Joseph M Dzierzewski, Andrew Bauer, Stephanie Phan, Matthew Cohen, Michael Marsiske, Todd M Manini, Bruce Crosson
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have identified consistent age-related changes during various cognitive tasks, such that older individuals display more positive and less negative task-related activity than young adults. Recently, evidence shows that chronic physical exercise may alter aging-related changes in brain activity; however, the effect of exercise has not been studied for the neural substrates of language function. Additionally, the potential mechanisms by which aging alters neural recruitment remain understudied...
July 2013: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
Seung-Yeon Cho, Ae-Sook Shin, Byung-Jo Na, Geon-Ho Jahng, Seong-Uk Park, Woo-Sang Jung, Sang-Kwan Moon, Jung-Mi Park
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether jaw-tapping movement, a classically described as an indication of personal well-being and mental health, stimulates the memory and the cognitive regions of the brain and is associated with improved brain performance. METHODS: Twelve healthy right-handed female subjects completed the study. Each patient performed a jaw-tapping task and an n-back task during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The subjects were trained to carry out the jaw-tapping movement at home twice a day for 4 weeks...
June 2013: Chinese Journal of Integrative Medicine
John J Leddy, Jennifer L Cox, John G Baker, David S Wack, David R Pendergast, Robert Zivadinov, Barry Willer
PURPOSE: To compare functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) activation patterns during a cognitive task, exercise capacity, and symptoms in postconcussion syndrome (PCS) patients who received exercise treatment (n = 4) with a PCS placebo stretching group (n = 4) and a healthy control group (n = 4). METHODS: Subjects completed a math processing task during fMRI and an exercise treadmill test before (time 1) and after approximately 12 weeks (time 2). Exercise subjects performed aerobic exercise at 80% of the heart rate (HR) attained on the treadmill test, 20 minutes per day with an HR monitor at home, 6 days per week...
July 2013: Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation
Valentina Pieramico, Roberto Esposito, Francesca Sensi, Franco Cilli, Dante Mantini, Peter A Mattei, Valerio Frazzini, Domenico Ciavardelli, Valentina Gatta, Antonio Ferretti, Gian Luca Romani, Stefano L Sensi
BACKGROUND: Aging is a major co-risk factor in many neurodegenerative diseases. Cognitive enrichment positively affects the structural plasticity of the aging brain. In this study, we evaluated effects of a set of structured multimodal activities (Combination Training; CT) on cognitive performances, functional connectivity, and cortical thickness of a group of healthy elderly individuals. CT lasted six months. METHODOLOGY: Neuropsychological and occupational performances were evaluated before and at the end of the training period...
2012: PloS One
Nora L Nock, Anastasia Dimitropolous, Jean Tkach, Heidi Frasure, Vivan von Gruenigen
BACKGROUND: Obesity increases the risk of endometrial cancer (EC) and obese EC patients have the highest risk of death among all obesity-associated cancers. However, only two lifestyle interventions targeting this high-risk population have been conducted. In one trial, food disinhibition, as determined by the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire, decreased post-intervention compared to baseline, suggesting an increase in emotional eating and, potentially, an increase in food related reward...
2012: BMC Neuroscience
Kathrin Holzschneider, Thomas Wolbers, Brigitte Röder, Kirsten Hötting
Aerobic exercise has beneficial effects on cognitive functioning in aging humans, especially on executive functions associated with frontal brain regions. In rodents, exercise has been shown to induce structural and neurophysiological changes especially in the hippocampus and to improve spatial learning. The present study investigated the relationship between cardiovascular fitness, spatial learning and associated patterns of brain activation cross-sectionally and longitudinally in a sample of middle-aged men and women (40-55 years) that took part in a six-month exercise intervention and an additional spatial training...
February 1, 2012: NeuroImage
Allyson C Rosen, Lisa Sugiura, Joel H Kramer, Susan Whitfield-Gabrieli, John D Gabrieli
A randomized pilot experiment examined the neural substrates of response to cognitive training in participants with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Participants performed exercises previously demonstrated to improve verbal memory and an active control group performed other computer activities. An auditory-verbal fMRI task was conducted before and after the two-month training program. Verbal memory scores improved significantly and left hippocampal activation increased significantly in the experimental group (gains in 5 of 6 participants) relative to the control group (reductions in all 6 participants)...
2011: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
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