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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891292/cancer-stem-cells-cellular-plasticity-niche-and-its-clinical-relevance
#1
Gina Lee, Robert R Hall, Atique U Ahmed
Cancer handles an estimated 7.6 million deaths worldwide per annum. A recent theory focuses on the role Cancer Stem Cells (CSCs) in driving tumorigenesis and disease progression. This theory hypothesizes that a population of the tumor cell with similar functional and phenotypic characteristics as normal tissue stem cells are responsible for formation and advancement of many human cancers. The CSCs subpopulation can differentiate into non-CSC tumor cells and promote phenotypic and functional heterogeneity within the tumor...
October 2016: Journal of Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27694285/tumor-cancer-stem-cell-marker-doublecortin-like-kinase-1-in-liver-diseases
#2
Charles B Nguyen, Courtney W Houchen, Naushad Ali
Liver diseases are the fourth leading cause of mortality among adults in the United States. Patients with chronic liver diseases such as viral hepatitis, fibrosis, and cirrhosis have significantly higher risks of developing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). With a dismal five-year survival rate of 11%, HCC is the third most common cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Regardless of the underlying cause, late presentation and a lack of effective therapy are the major impediments for successful treatment of HCC...
September 30, 2016: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27623870/caveolin-1-a-novel-prognostic-biomarker-of-radioresistance-in-cancer
#3
Javed Mahmood, Sarthak R Zaveri, Stephanie C Murti, Allen A Alexander, Caroline Q Connors, Hem D Shukla, Zeljko Vujaskovic
PURPOSE: Caveolin-1 is a membrane protein highly expressed in many tumors and plays an important role in tumor progression and metastasis. This review describes the structure of the Caveolin-1 protein and its pre-clinical and clinical significance, demonstrating that Caveolin-1 is a novel biomarker for radioresistance which has the promising potential to improve the clinical outcome of cancer patients undergoing radiation treatment. SUMMARY: Targeted radiation therapy has shown immense benefits for cancer treatment...
September 13, 2016: International Journal of Radiation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27575869/cancer-stem-cells-in-human-gastrointestinal-cancer
#4
Hiroaki Taniguchi, Chiharu Moriya, Hisayoshi Igarashi, Anri Saitoh, Hiroyuki Yamamoto, Yasushi Adachi, Kohzoh Imai
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are thought to be responsible for tumor initiation, drug and radiation resistance, invasive growth, metastasis, and tumor relapse, which are the main causes of cancer-related deaths. Gastrointestinal cancers are the most common malignancies and still the most frequent cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Because gastrointestinal CSCs are also thought to be resistant to conventional therapies, an effective and novel cancer treatment is imperative. The first reported CSCs in a gastrointestinal tumor were found in colorectal cancer in 2007...
August 30, 2016: Cancer Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27471566/cancer-of-the-pancreas-molecular-pathways-and-current-advancement-in-treatment
#5
REVIEW
Kishore Polireddy, Qi Chen
Pancreatic cancer is one of the most lethal cancers among all malignances, with a median overall survival of <1 year and a 5-year survival of ~5%. The dismal survival rate and prognosis are likely due to lack of early diagnosis, fulminant disease course, high metastasis rate, and disappointing treatment outcome. Pancreatic cancers harbor a variety of genetic alternations that render it difficult to treat even with targeted therapy. Recent studies revealed that pancreatic cancers are highly enriched with a cancer stem cell (CSC) population, which is resistant to chemotherapeutic drugs, and therefore escapes chemotherapy and promotes tumor recurrence...
2016: Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27253410/continuous-exposure-of-pancreatic-cancer-cells-to-dietary-bioactive-agents-does-not-induce-drug-resistance-unlike-chemotherapy
#6
P Fan, Y Zhang, L Liu, Z Zhao, Y Yin, X Xiao, N Bauer, J Gladkich, J Mattern, C Gao, P Schemmer, W Gross, I Herr
The repeated treatment of cancer cells with chemo- or radiotherapy induces therapy resistance, but it was previously unknown whether the same effect occurs upon continuous exposure of cancer cells to diet-derived chemopreventive agents. We elucidated this interesting question in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, which is a highly aggressive cancer entity with a marked resistance toward gemcitabine and other cytotoxic drugs. The isothiocyanate sulforaphane, present in cruciferous vegetables, and the polyphenol quercetin, present in many fruits and vegetables induced apoptosis and reduced viability in gemcitabine-sensitive BxPC-3 cells but not in non-malignant ductal pancreas cells and mesenchymal stromal cells...
2016: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27241638/stem-cells-to-replace-or-regenerate-the-diabetic-pancreas-huge-potential-existing-hurdles
#7
REVIEW
Deepa Bhartiya
Various stem cell sources are being explored to treat diabetes since the proof-of-concept for cell therapy was laid down by transplanting cadaveric islets as a part of Edmonton protocol in 2000. Human embryonic stem (hES) cells derived pancreatic progenitors have got US-FDA approval to be used in clinical trials to treat type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). However, these progenitors more closely resemble their foetal counterparts and thus whether they will provide long-term regeneration of adult human pancreas remains to be demonstrated...
March 2016: Indian Journal of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27229723/difluorinated-curcumin-a-promising-curcumin-analogue-with-improved-anti-tumor-activity-and-pharmacokinetic-profile
#8
REVIEW
Amir Abbas Momtazi, Amirhossein Sahebkar
BACKGROUND: Curcumin, a polyphenol from turmeric, is a dietary phytochemical with a diversity of health benefits including strong anti-tumor effects. Curcumin undergoes a rapid metabolism resulting in a low oral bioavailability. 3, 4-difluorobenzylidene curcumin or (CDF) is a novel fluorinated curcumin analogue which has been shown to be about 3 times more bioavailable than curcumin. This review aimed to summarize the findings of studies related to pharmacokinetic and pharmacological characteristics of CDF...
2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27207778/lgr5-targeted-antibody-drug-conjugate-eradicates-gastrointestinal-tumors-and-prevents-recurrence
#9
Xing Gong, Ali Azhdarinia, Sukhen C Ghosh, Wei Xiong, Zhiqiang An, Qingyun Liu, Kendra S Carmon
Gastrointestinal cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer-related mortality in men and women worldwide. The adult stem cell marker LGR5 (leucine-rich repeat-containing, G protein-coupled receptor 5) is highly expressed in a significant fraction of gastrointestinal tumors of the colon, liver, pancreas, and stomach, relative to normal tissues. LGR5 is located on the cell surface and undergoes rapid, constitutive internalization independent of ligand. Furthermore, LGR5-high cancer cells have been shown to exhibit the properties of tumor-initiating cells or cancer stem cells (CSC)...
July 2016: Molecular Cancer Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27196525/preventable-incidence-and-mortality-of-carcinoma-associated-with-lifestyle-factors-among-white-adults-in-the-united-states
#10
Mingyang Song, Edward Giovannucci
IMPORTANCE: Lifestyle factors are important for cancer development. However, a recent study has been interpreted to suggest that random mutations during stem cell divisions are the major contributor to human cancer. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the proportion of cases and deaths of carcinoma (all cancers except skin, brain, lymphatic, hematologic, and nonfatal prostate malignancies) among whites in the United States that can be potentially prevented by lifestyle modification...
September 1, 2016: JAMA Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27074569/targeting-cancer-stem-cells-with-p53-modulators
#11
Zhan Zhang, Ling Liu, Roberto Gomez-Casal, Xinhui Wang, Ryo Hayashi, Ettore Appella, Levy Kopelovich, Albert B DeLeo
Cancer stem cells (CSC) typically over-express aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH). Thus, ALDHbright tumor cells represent targets for developing novel cancer prevention/treatment interventions. Loss of p53 function is a common genetic event during cancer development wherein small molecular weight compounds (SMWC) that restore p53 function and reverse tumor growth have been identified. Here, we focused on two widely studied p53 SMWC, CP-31398 and PRIMA-1, to target ALDHbright CSC in human breast, endometrial and pancreas carcinoma cell lines expressing mutant or wild type (WT) p53...
April 8, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26992915/mesenchymal-stem-cells-promote-pancreatic-tumor-growth-by-inducing-alternative-polarization-of-macrophages
#12
Esha Mathew, Arthur L Brannon, AnnaChiara Del Vecchio, Paloma E Garcia, Morgan K Penny, Kevin T Kane, Alekya Vinta, Ronald J Buckanovich, Marina Pasca di Magliano
UNLABELLED: Pancreatic cancer is characterized by an extensive desmoplastic stroma, the functional relevance of which is poorly understood. Activated fibroblasts are a prevalent component of the stroma, and traditionally, these cells have been considered as a homogenous population derived from pancreatic stellate cells. In this study, we highlight a previously unappreciated heterogeneity of the fibroblast population within the stroma. In particular, a subset of stromal fibroblasts has characteristics of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs)...
March 2016: Neoplasia: An International Journal for Oncology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26962810/hedgehog-signaling-in-pancreatic-fibrosis-and-cancer
#13
REVIEW
Yongyu Bai, Yongheng Bai, Jiaojiao Dong, Qiang Li, Yuepeng Jin, Bicheng Chen, Mengtao Zhou
The hedgehog signaling pathway was first discovered in the 1980s. It is a stem cell-related pathway that plays a crucial role in embryonic development, tissue regeneration, and organogenesis. Aberrant activation of hedgehog signaling leads to pathological consequences, including a variety of human tumors such as pancreatic cancer. Multiple lines of evidence indicate that blockade of this pathway with several small-molecule inhibitors can inhibit the development of pancreatic neoplasm. In addition, activated hedgehog signaling has been reported to be involved in fibrogenesis in many tissues, including the pancreas...
March 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26923982/-application-for-lifestyle-disease-by-ips-cells-technologies
#14
Yasuhiro Takashima
Currently it is less advanced to understand the pathology of lifestyle disease by using iPS cells because there is partly less direct connection between life style disease and iPS cells. So much more scientists focus on regenerative medicine such as beta cells therapy using iPS cells technologies. It will be indeed a powerful tool to generate beta cells from iPS cells as even in type2 diabetes patients, hyposecretion of insulin from beta cells in pancreas is one of causes. Another reason is complexity of the pathology of life style disease...
March 2016: Clinical Calcium
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26896855/the-role-of-pluripotency-factors-to-drive-stemness-in-gastrointestinal-cancer
#15
REVIEW
Martin Müller, Patrick C Hermann, Stefan Liebau, Clair Weidgang, Thomas Seufferlein, Alexander Kleger, Lukas Perkhofer
A better molecular understanding of gastrointestinal cancers arising either from the stomach, the pancreas, the intestine, or the liver has led to the identification of a variety of potential new molecular therapeutic targets. However, in most cases surgery remains the only curative option. The intratumoral cellular heterogeneity of cancer stem cells, bulk tumor cells, and stromal cells further limits straightforward targeting approaches. Accumulating evidence reveals an intimate link between embryonic development, stem cells, and cancer formation...
March 2016: Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26884312/mia-paca-2-and-panc-1-pancreas-ductal-adenocarcinoma-cell-lines-with-neuroendocrine-differentiation-and-somatostatin-receptors
#16
Rui Gradiz, Henriqueta C Silva, Lina Carvalho, Maria Filomena Botelho, Anabela Mota-Pinto
Studies using cell lines should always characterize these cells to ensure that the results are not distorted by unexpected morphological or genetic changes possibly due to culture time or passage number. Thus, the aim of this study was to describe those MIA PaCa-2 and PANC-1 cell line phenotype and genotype characteristics that may play a crucial role in pancreatic cancer therapeutic assays, namely neuroendocrine chemotherapy and peptide receptor radionuclide therapy. Epithelial, mesenchymal, endocrine and stem cell marker characterization was performed by immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry, and genotyping by PCR, gene sequencing and capillary electrophoresis...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26783739/stat3-ser-hes3-signaling-a-new-molecular-component-of-the-neuroendocrine-system
#17
REVIEW
P Nikolakopoulou, S W Poser, J Masjkur, M Fernandez Rubin de Celis, L Toutouna, C L Andoniadou, R D McKay, G Chrousos, M Ehrhart-Bornstein, S R Bornstein, A Androutsellis-Theotokis
The endocrine system involves communication among different tissues in distinct organs, including the pancreas and components of the Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Adrenal Axis. The molecular mechanisms underlying these complex interactions are a subject of intense study as they may hold clues for the progression and treatment of a variety of metabolic and degenerative diseases. A plethora of signaling pathways, activated by hormones and other endocrine factors have been implicated in this communication. Recent advances in the stem cell field introduce a new level of complexity: adult progenitor cells appear to utilize distinct signaling pathways than the more mature cells in the tissue they co-reside...
February 2016: Hormone and Metabolic Research, Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung, Hormones et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26689992/overexpression-of-pd2-leads-to-increased-tumorigenicity-and-metastasis-in-pancreatic-ductal-adenocarcinoma
#18
Arokia Priyanka Vaz, Shonali Deb, Satyanarayana Rachagani, Parama Dey, Sakthivel Muniyan, Imayavaramban Lakshmanan, Saswati Karmakar, Lynette Smith, Sonny Johansson, Subodh Lele, Michel Ouellette, Moorthy P Ponnusamy, Surinder K Batra
Pancreatic differentiation 2 (PD2), an important subunit of the human PAF complex, was identified after differential screening analysis of 19q13 amplicon, and its overexpression induces oncogenic transformation of NIH3T3 cells, hence raising the possibility of a role for PD2 in tumorigenesis and metastasis. To test this hypothesis, we analyzed here the functional role and clinical significance of PD2 in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) and its pathogenesis. Using immunohistochemical analysis, we found that PD2 is detected in the acini but not in the ducts in the normal pancreas...
January 19, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26469158/-therapeutic-implication-targeting-for-cancer-stem-cells
#19
Kozo Noguchi, Masamitsu Konno, Naohiro Nishida, Koichi Kawamoto, Jun Koseki, Hidetoshi Eguchi, Yuichiro Doki, Masaki Mori, Taro Satoh, Hideshi Ishii
Cancer has been viewed as a heterogeneous population of cells.While the large majority of cells that constituting tumors are differentiated, and eventually stop dividing, only a minority population of cells, termed cancer stem cells, is capable of unlimited self-renewal and multi-differentiation, just like somatic stem cells in normal tissues.Cancer stem cells have been identified in a variety of cancers of the blood, brain, stomach, colon, and pancreas.In this review we present current evidence supporting the cancer stem cell model of tumor progression, and discuss the experimental and therapeutic implications...
September 2015: Gan to Kagaku Ryoho. Cancer & Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26464794/a-review-on-hepatocyte-nuclear-factor-1beta-and-tumor
#20
REVIEW
Dan-Dan Yu, Shi-Wei Guo, Ying-Ying Jing, Yu-Long Dong, Li-Xin Wei
Hepatocyte nuclear factor-1beta (HNF1β) was initially identified as a liver-specific transcription factor. It is a homeobox transcription factor that functions as a homodimer or heterodimer with HNF1α. HNF1β plays an important role in organogenesis during embryonic stage, especially of the liver, kidney, and pancreas. Mutations in the HNF1β gene cause maturity-onset diabetes of the young type 5 (MODY5), renal cysts, genital malformations, and pancreas atrophy. Recently, it has been shown that the expression of HNF1β is associated with cancer risk in several tumors, including hepatocellular carcinoma, pancreatic carcinoma, renal cancer, ovarian cancer, endometrial cancer, and prostate cancer...
2015: Cell & Bioscience
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