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taurine and brain

Kavita Singh, Richa Trivedi, Seenu Haridas, Kailash Manda, Subash Khushu
Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is the most common form of TBI (70-90%) with consequences of anxiety-like behavioral alterations in approximately 23% of mTBI cases. This study aimed to assess whether mTBI-induced anxiety-like behavior is a consequence of neurometabolic alterations. mTBI was induced using a weight drop model to simulate mild human brain injury in rodents. Based on injury induction and dosage of anesthesia, four animal groups were included in this study: (i) injury with anesthesia (IA); (ii) sham1 (injury only, IO); (iii) sham2 (only anesthesia, OA); and (iv) control rats...
October 25, 2016: NMR in Biomedicine
Ning Jia, Qinru Sun, Qian Su, Shaokang Dang, Guomin Chen
Substantial evidence has shown that the oxidative damage to hippocampal neurons is associated with the cognitive impairment induced by adverse stimuli during gestation named prenatal stress (PS). Taurine, a conditionally essential amino acid, possesses multiple roles in the brain as a neuromodulator or antioxidant. In this study, to explore the roles of taurine in PS-induced learning and memory impairment, prenatal restraint stress was set up and Morris water maze (MWM) was employed for testing the cognitive function in the one-month-old rat offspring...
October 13, 2016: Redox Biology
Kara R Vogel, Erland Arning, Teodoro Bottiglieri, K Michael Gibson
BACKGROUND: The mainstay of therapy for phenylketonuria (PKU) remains dietary protein restriction. Developmental and neurocognitive outcomes for patients, however, remain suboptimal. We tested the hypothesis that mice with PKU receiving protein-restricted diets would reveal disruptions of brain amino acids that shed light on these neurocognitive deficits. METHOD: Phenylalanine hydroxylase-deficient (PKU) mice and parallel controls (both wild-type and heterozygous) were fed custom diets containing 18, 6, and 4 % protein for 3 weeks, after which tissues (brain, liver, sera) were collected for amino acid analysis profiling...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease
Mark John Hackett, Phyllis G Paterson, Ingrid J Pickering, Graham N George
A method to image taurine distributions within the central nervous system and other organs has long been sought. Since taurine is small and mobile, it cannot be chemically "tagged" and imaged using conventional immuno-histochemistry methods. Combining numerous indirect measurements, taurine is known to play critical roles in brain function during health and disease, and is proposed to act as a neuro-osmolyte, neuro-modulator and possibly a neuro-transmitter. Elucidation of taurine's neurochemical roles and importance would be substantially enhanced by a direct method to visualize alterations, due to physiological and pathological events in the brain, in the local concentration of taurine at or near cellular spatial resolution in vivo, or in situ in tissue sections...
October 4, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
Angela Maria Amorini, Giacomo Lazzarino, Valentina Di Pietro, Stefano Signoretti, Giuseppe Lazzarino, Antonio Belli, Barbara Tavazzi
In this study, concentrations of free amino acids (FAA) and amino group containing compounds (AGCC) following graded diffuse traumatic brain injury (mild TBI, mTBI; severe TBI, sTBI) were evaluated. After 6, 12, 24, 48 and 120 hr aspartate (Asp), glutamate (Glu), asparagine (Asn), serine (Ser), glutamine (Gln), histidine (His), glycine (Gly), threonine (Thr), citrulline (Cit), arginine (Arg), alanine (Ala), taurine (Tau), γ-aminobutyrate (GABA), tyrosine (Tyr), S-adenosylhomocysteine (SAH), l-cystathionine (l-Cystat), valine (Val), methionine (Met), tryptophane (Trp), phenylalanine (Phe), isoleucine (Ile), leucine (Leu), ornithine (Orn), lysine (Lys), plus N-acetylaspartate (NAA) were determined in whole brain extracts (n = 6 rats at each time for both TBI levels)...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
J V Bukanova, I N Sharonova, V G Skrebitsky
Amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) is considered a key protein in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease because of its neurotoxicity, resulting in impaired synaptic function and memory. On the other hand, it was demonstrated that low (picomolar) concentrations of Aβ enhance synaptic plasticity and memory, suggesting that in the healthy brain, physiological Aβ concentrations are necessary for normal cognitive functions. In the present study, we found that Aβ (1-42) in concentrations of 10 pМ - 100 nМ enhanced desensitization of the glycine-activated current in isolated CA3 pyramidal neurons and also reversibly suppressed its peak amplitude during short (600 ms) co-application with agonist...
September 20, 2016: Brain Research
Jaivijay Ramu, Tetyana Konak, Serguei Liachenko
We utilized proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy to evaluate the metabolic profile of the hippocampus and anterior cingulate cortex of the developing rat brain from postnatal days 14 to 70. Measured metabolite concentrations were modelled using linear, exponential, or logarithmic functions and the time point at which the data reached plateau (i.e. when the portion of the data could be fit to horizontal line) was estimated and was interpreted as the time when the brain has reached maturity with respect to that metabolite...
September 20, 2016: Brain Research
Meriam Koob, Angèle Viola, Yann Le Fur, Patrick Viout, Hélène Ratiney, Sylviane Confort-Gouny, Patrick J Cozzone, Nadine Girard
Preterm birth represents a high risk of neurodevelopmental disabilities when associated with white-matter damage. Recent studies have reported cognitive deficits in children born preterm without brain injury on MRI at term-equivalent age. Understanding the microstructural and metabolic underpinnings of these deficits is essential for their early detection. Here, we used diffusion-weighted imaging and single-voxel 1H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) to compare brain maturation at term-equivalent age in premature neonates with no evidence of white matter injury on conventional MRI except diffuse excessive high-signal intensity, and normal term neonates...
2016: PloS One
Michael Tchirikov, Zhaxybay Sh Zhumadilov, Gauri Bapayeva, Michael Bergner, Michael Entezami
OBJECTIVE: To determine if intrauterine intraumbilical supplementation with amino acids (AA) and glucose can improve neonatal outcome of severe growth restricted human fetuses (IUGR). METHODS: Prospective pilot study of intrauterine treatment of severe IUGR fetuses [n=14, 27 weeks of gestation (range 23-31)] with cerebroplacental ratio <1, with long-term intraumbilical AA and glucose supplementation (10% of feto-placental blood volume/day) using a perinatal port system alone (n=5) or combined with hyperbaric oxygenation (n=1, HBO) vs...
August 17, 2016: Journal of Perinatal Medicine
Xiaodan Xing, Ming Li, Lixia Yuan, Meize Song, Qianyan Ren, Ge Shi, Fanxing Meng, Rixin Wang
The four experimental groups were carried out to test the response of grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella to ammonia toxicity and taurine: group 1 was injected with NaCl, group 2 was injected with ammonium acetate, group 3 was injected with ammonium acetate and taurine, and group 4 was injected taurine. Fish in group 2 had the highest ammonia content in the liver and brain, and alanine, arginine, glutamine, glutamate and glycine contents in liver. Brain alanine and glutamate of fish in group 2 were significantly higher than those of fish in group 1...
September 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Qianyan Ren, Ming Li, Lixia Yuan, Meize Song, Xiaodan Xing, Ge Shi, Fanxing Meng, Rixin Wang
The four experimental groups were carried out to test the response of crucian carp Carassius auratus to ammonia toxicity and taurine: group 1 was injected with NaCl, group 2 was injected with ammonium acetate, group 3 was injected with ammonium acetate and taurine, and group 4 was injected with taurine. Fish in group 2 had the highest ammonia and glutamine contents, and the lowest glutamate content in liver and brain. Serum superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione (GSH) activities, red cell count (RBC), white cell count (WBC), lysozyme (LYZ) activity, complement C3 content of fish in group 2 reflected the lowest, but malondialdehyde content was the highest...
August 7, 2016: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology & Pharmacology: CBP
Sushanta Kumar Mishra, Poonam Rana, Subash Khushu, Gurudutta Gangenahalli
: : Improved therapeutic assessment of experimental traumatic brain injury (TBI), using mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), would immensely benefit its therapeutic management. Neurometabolite patterns at injury site, measured with proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) after MSCs transplantation, may serve as a bio-indicator of the recovery mechanism. This study used in vivo magnetic resonance imaging and 1H-MRS to evaluate the therapeutic prospects of implanted MSCs at injury site in experimental mice longitudinally up to 21 days...
August 8, 2016: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
Francine Luciano Rahmeier, Lisiane Silveira Zavalhia, Lucas Silva Tortorelli, Fernanda Huf, Luiza Paul Géa, Rosalva Thereza Meurer, Aryadne Cardoso Machado, Rosane Gomez, Marilda da Cruz Fernandes
Diabetes mellitus (DM) has been studied recently as a major cause of cognitive deficits, memory and neurodegenerative damage. Taurine and enriched environment have stood out for presenting neuroprotective and stimulating effects that deserve further study. In this paper, we examined the effects of taurine and enriched environment in the context of diabetes, evaluating effects on behaviour, memory, death and cellular activity. Eighty-eight Wistar rats were divided into 2 groups (E=enriched environment; C=standard housing)...
September 6, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
Ken Matsubara, Harushi Mori, Nozomi Hirai, Kumi Yasukawa, Takafumi Honda, Jun-Ichi Takanashi
MRI in a 2-year-old female presenting afebrile seizures and left blepharoptosis revealed multiple well-marginated round-shaped lesions, isointensity to gray matter on T1- and T2-weighted images with homogenously reduced diffusion and diffuse contrast enhancement. MRS revealed elevation of taurine, choline and glutamate, and reduction of N-acetylaspartate. A brain biopsy confirmed a diagnosis of juvenile xanthogranuloma (JXG). JXG should be considered when MR spectroscopy shows elevated taurine and glutamate, which has only previously been reported in medulloblastomas...
November 2016: Brain & Development
Luz M Suárez, María-Dolores Muñoz, José C González, Julián Bustamante, Rafael Martín Del Río, José M Solís
Taurine is especially abundant in rodent brain where it appears to be involved in osmoregulation and synaptic plasticity mechanisms. The demonstration of a physiological role for taurine has been hampered by the difficulty in modifying taurine levels in most tissues, including the brain. We used an experimental strategy to reduce taurine levels, involving treatment with guanidinoethyl sulfonate (GES), a structural analogue of taurine that, among other properties, acts as a competitive inhibitor of taurine transport...
November 2016: Amino Acids
Xiao-Yun Zhu, Peng-Sheng Ma, Wei Wu, Ru Zhou, Yin-Ju Hao, Yang Niu, Tao Sun, Yu-Xiang Li, Jian-Qiang Yu
Taurine is an abundant amino acid in the nervous system, which has been proved to possess antioxidation, osmoregulation and membrane stabilization. Previously it has been demonstrated that taurine exerts ischemic brain injury protective effect. This study was designed to investigate whether the protective effect of taurine has the possibility to be applied to treat neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain damage. Seven-day-old Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with left carotid artery ligation followed by exposure to 8% oxygen to generate the experimental group...
June 2016: Brain Research Bulletin
Yanan Zhang, Dongliang Li, Haiou Li, Dailiang Hou, Jingdong Hou
Isoflurane, a commonly used inhalation anesthetic, may induce neurocognitive deficits, especially in elderly patients after surgery. Recent study demonstrated that isoflurane caused endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and subsequent neuronal apoptosis in the brain, contributing to cognitive deficits. Taurine, a major intracellular free amino acid, has been shown to inhibit ER stress and neuronal apoptosis in several neurological disorders. Here, we examined whether taurine can prevent isoflurane-induced ER stress and cognitive impairment in aged rats...
June 2, 2016: Neurochemical Research
Philip K Ahring, Line H Bang, Marianne L Jensen, Dorte Strøbæk, Leonny Y Hartiadi, Mary Chebib, Nathan Absalom
Extrasynaptically located γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors type A are often characterized by the presence of a δ subunit in the receptor complex. δ-Containing receptors respond to low ambient concentrations of GABA, or respond to spillover of GABA from the synapse, and give rise to tonic inhibitory currents. In certain brain regions, e.g. thalamocortical neurons, tonic inhibition is estimated to represent the majority of total GABA-mediated inhibition, which has raised substantial interest in extrasynaptic receptors as potential drug targets...
September 2016: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
Qin Wang, Weijia Fan, Ying Cai, Qiaoli Wu, Lidong Mo, Zhenwu Huang, Huiling Huang
In mammalian tissues, taurine is an important natural component and the most abundant free amino acid in the heart, retina, skeletal muscle, brain, and leukocytes. This study is to examine the taurine's protective effects on neuronal ultrastructure, the function of the mitochondrial respiratory chain complex, and on cerebral blood flow (CBF). The model of traumatic brain injury (TBI) was made for SD rats by a fluid percussion device, with taurine (200 mg/kg) administered by tail intravenous injection once daily for 7 days after TBI...
September 2016: Amino Acids
Kayla Raider, Delin Ma, Janna L Harris, Isabella Fuentes, Robert S Rogers, Joshua L Wheatley, Paige C Geiger, Hung-Wen Yeh, In-Young Choi, William M Brooks, John A Stanford
Diet-induced obesity and associated metabolic effects can lead to neurological dysfunction and increase the risk of developing Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD). Despite these risks, the effects of a high-fat diet on the central nervous system are not well understood. To better understand the mechanisms underlying the effects of high fat consumption on brain regions affected by AD and PD, we used proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) to measure neurochemicals in the hippocampus and striatum of rats fed a high fat diet vs...
July 2016: Neurochemistry International
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