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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28276653/the-building-of-the-neocortex-with-non-hyperpolarizing-neurotransmitters
#1
REVIEW
M Ascenzi, G Bony
The development of the neocortex requires the synergic action of several secreted molecules to achieve the right amount of proliferation, differentiation and migration of neural cells. Neurons are well known to release neurotransmitters (NTs) in adult and a growing body of evidences describes the presence of NTs already in the embryonic brain, long before the generation of synapses. NTs are classified as inhibitory or excitatory based on the physiological responses of the target neuron. However, this view is challenged by the fact that glycine and GABA NTs are excitatory during development...
March 9, 2017: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259832/imidazole-4-acetic-acid-a-new-lead-structure-for-interaction-with-the-taurine-transporter-in-outer-blood-retinal-barrier-cells
#2
Sophie Valembois, Jacob Krall, Bente Frølund, Bente Steffansen
Retinal diseases leading to impaired vision and ultimately blindness are mainly characterized by ischemic and hypoxic stress. Targeting the retinal ρ-containing γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptors (ρ GABAARs) and thereby decreasing the retinal neuronal activity has been proposed as a novel therapeutic approach. The taurine transporter (TAUT) plays a key role in the retinal transport of GABA and has been previously suggested to display a higher functional activity in the retina compared to the brain. TAUT would therefore stand as a suitable target for the selective delivery of ρ GABAARs ligands into the retina...
March 1, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256152/neuroprotection-of-taurine-through-inhibition-of-12-15-lipoxygenase-pathway-in-cerebral-ischemia-of-rats
#3
Zhe Zhang, Rongbo Yu, Lei Cao
BACKGROUND: Cerebral ischemia exhibits a multiplicity of pathophysiological mechanisms. Taurine (Tau), an endogenous substance, possesses a number of cytoprotective properties. The aim of the present study was to examine the neuroprotective effect of Tau, through affecting 12/15 lipoxygenase (12/15-LOX) signal pathway in an acute permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model of rats. METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 3 groups (n = 10), namely the sham-operated group, MCAO group and Tau group...
March 3, 2017: Neurological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202819/-melas-mitochondrial-encephalomyopathy-lactic-acidosis-and-stroke-like-episodes
#4
Hidetomo Murakami, Kenjiro Ono
Mitochondrial disease is caused by a deficiency in the energy supply to cells due to mitochondrial dysfunction. Mitochondrial encephalomyopathy, lactic acidosis and stroke-like episodes (MELAS) is a mitochondrial disease that presents with stroke-like episodes such as acute onset of neurological deficits and characteristic imaging findings. Stroke-like episodes in MELAS have the following features: 1) neurological deficits due to localization of lesions in the brain, 2) episodes often accompany epilepsy, 3) lesions do not follow the vascular supply area, 4) lesions are more often seen in the posterior brain than in the anterior brain, 5) lesions spread to an adjacent area in the brain, and 6) neurological symptoms often disappear together with imaging findings, but later relapse...
February 2017: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186661/brain-neurochemical-and-hemodynamic-findings-in-the-ny1dd-mouse-model-of-mild-sickle-cell-disease
#5
Min-Hui Cui, Sandra M Suzuka, Nicholas A Branch, Kamalakar Ambadipudi, Sangeetha Thangaswamy, Seetharama A Acharya, Henny H Billett, Craig A Branch
To characterize the cerebral profile associated with sickle cell disease (SCD), we used in vivo proton MRI and MRS to quantify hemodynamics and neurochemicals in the thalamus of NY1DD mice, a mild model of SCD, and compared them with wild-type (WT) control mice. Compared with WT mice, NY1DD mice at steady state had elevated cerebral blood flow (CBF) and concentrations of N-acetylaspartate (NAA), glutamate (Glu), alanine, total creatine and N-acetylaspartylglutamate. Concentrations of glutathione (GSH) at steady state showed a negative correlation with BOLD signal change in response to 100% oxygen, a marker for oxidative stress, and mean diffusivity assessed using diffusion-tensor imaging, a marker for edematous inflammation...
February 10, 2017: NMR in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28170180/therapeutic-prospective-of-infused-allogenic-cultured-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-traumatic-brain-injury-mice-a-longitudinal-proton-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-assessment
#6
Sushanta Kumar Mishra, Poonam Rana, Subash Khushu, Gurudutta Gangenahalli
Improved therapeutic assessment of experimental traumatic brain injury (TBI), using mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), would immensely benefit its therapeutic management. Neurometabolite patterns at injury site, measured with proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) after MSCs transplantation, may serve as a bio-indicator of the recovery mechanism. This study used in vivo magnetic resonance imaging and 1H-MRS to evaluate the therapeutic prospects of implanted MSCs at injury site in experimental mice longitudinally up to 21 days...
January 2017: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161796/%C3%AE-n-methylamino-l-alanine-bmaa-perturbs-alanine-aspartate-and-glutamate-metabolism-pathways-in-human-neuroblastoma-cells-as-determined-by-metabolic-profiling
#7
Mikael K R Engskog, Lisa Ersson, Jakob Haglöf, Torbjörn Arvidsson, Curt Pettersson, Eva Brittebo
β-Methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) is a non-proteinogenic amino acid that induces long-term cognitive deficits, as well as an increased neurodegeneration and intracellular fibril formation in the hippocampus of adult rodents following short-time neonatal exposure and in vervet monkey brain following long-term exposure. It has also been proposed to be involved in the etiology of neurodegenerative disease in humans. The aim of this study was to identify metabolic effects not related to excitotoxicity or oxidative stress in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells...
February 4, 2017: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097679/abnormal-levels-of-seven-amino-neurotransmitters-in-depression-rat-brain-and-determination-by-hplc-fld
#8
Ting Cui, Hong-Mei Qiu, Dan Huang, Qi-Xin Zhou, Xiao-Yan Fu, Hai-Yan Li, Xin-Hui Jiang
The determination of amino acids with the actions-like neurotransmitters or modulators have been increasingly important for diagnose in many neuropsychiatric diseases. A rapid and simple high performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD) was developed for simultaneous determination of seven amino acids: aspartate (Asp), glutamate (Glu), serine (Ser), glutamine (Gln), glycine (Gly), taurine (Tau) and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). Homoserine (Hse) was used as an internal standard (IS)...
January 18, 2017: Biomedical Chromatography: BMC
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070703/nmr-based-metabolomics-reveals-brain-region-specific-metabolic-alterations-in-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-rats-with-cognitive-dysfunction
#9
Hong Zheng, Qiuting Lin, Dan Wang, Pengtao Xu, Liangcai Zhao, Wenyi Hu, Guanghui Bai, Zhihan Yan, Hongchang Gao
Diabetes mellitus (DM) can result in cognitive dysfunction, but its potential metabolic mechanisms remain unclear. In the present study, we analyzed the metabolite profiling in eight different brain regions of the normal rats and the streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats accompanied by cognitive dysfunction using a (1)H NMR-based metabolomic approach. A mixed linear model analysis was performed to assess the effects of DM, brain region and their interaction on metabolic changes. We found that different brain regions in rats displayed significant metabolic differences...
April 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063512/tackling-guanidinoacetic-acid-for-advanced-cellular-bioenergetics
#10
REVIEW
Sergej M Ostojic
Tissues with high-energy output, such as the brain and skeletal muscle, suffer the most from impaired or depleted energy levels, with innovative nutritional approaches needed to effectively tackle metabolic deficits in bioenergetics. Here, we highlight the role of guanidinoacetic acid in the control and provision of cellular energy by its interaction with cellular transporters for taurine (SLC6 A6) and γ-aminobutyric acid (SLC6 A13), previously dismissed as "untargetable" carriers by other bioenergetics therapeutics...
February 2017: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059425/metabolic-profiling-of-a-myalgic-encephalomyelitis-chronic-fatigue-syndrome-discovery-cohort-reveals-disturbances-in-fatty-acid-and-lipid-metabolism
#11
Arnaud Germain, David Ruppert, Susan M Levine, Maureen R Hanson
Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS) remains a continuum spectrum disease without biomarkers or simple objective tests, and therefore relies on a diagnosis from a set of symptoms to link the assortment of brain and body disorders to ME/CFS. Although recent studies show various affected pathways, the underlying basis of ME/CFS has yet to be established. In this pilot study, we compare plasma metabolic signatures in a discovery cohort, 17 patients and 15 matched controls, and explore potential metabolic perturbations as the aftermath of the complex interactions between genes, transcripts and proteins...
January 6, 2017: Molecular BioSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035674/the-blood-brain-barrier-fatty-acid-transport-protein-1-fatp1-slc27a1-supplies-docosahexaenoic-acid-to-the-brain-and-insulin-facilitates-transport
#12
Yusuke Ochiai, Yasuo Uchida, Sumio Ohtsuki, Masanori Tachikawa, Sanshiro Aizawa, Tetsuya Terasaki
We purposed to clarify the contribution of fatty acid transport protein 1 (FATP1/SLC27A1) to the supply of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) to the brain across the blood-brain barrier in this study. Transport experiments showed that the uptake rate of [(14) C]-DHA in human FATP1-expressing HEK293 cells was significantly greater than that in empty vector-transfected (mock) HEK293 cells. The steady-state intracellular DHA concentration was nearly 2-fold smaller in FATP1-expressing than in mock cells, suggesting that FATP1 works as not only an influx, but also an efflux transporter for DHA...
December 30, 2016: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024286/taurine-treatment-preserves-brain-and-liver-mitochondrial-function-in-a-rat-model-of-fulminant-hepatic-failure-and-hyperammonemia
#13
Akram Jamshidzadeh, Reza Heidari, Mozhgan Abasvali, Mehdi Zarei, Mohammad Mehdi Ommati, Narges Abdoli, Forouzan Khodaei, Yasaman Yeganeh, Faezeh Jafari, Azita Zarei, Zahra Latifpour, Elnaz Mardani, Negar Azarpira, Behnam Asadi, Asma Najibi
Ammonia-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and energy crisis is known as a critical consequence of hepatic encephalopathy (HE). Hence, mitochondria are potential targets of therapy in HE. The current investigation was designed to evaluate the role of taurine treatment on the brain and liver mitochondrial function in a rat model of hepatic encephalopathy and hyperammonemia. The animals received thioacetamide (400mg/kg, i.p, for three consecutive days at 24-h intervals) as a model of acute liver failure and hyperammonemia...
February 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27938518/taurine-energy-drinks-and-neuroendocrine-effects
#14
REVIEW
Jonathan J Caine, Thomas D Geracioti
Taurine is an amino acid found abundantly in brain, retina, heart, and reproductive organ cells, as well as in meat and seafood. But it is also a major ingredient in popular "energy drinks," which thus constitute a major source of taurine supplementation. Unfortunately, little is known about taurine's neuroendocrine effects. The authors review the sparse data and provide a basic background on the structure, synthesis, distribution, metabolism, mechanisms, effects, safety, and currently proposed therapeutic targets of taurine...
December 2016: Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27817785/-effect-of-antepartum-taurine-supplementation-in-regulating-the-activity-of-rho-family-factors-and-promoting-the-proliferation-of-neural-stem-cells-in-neonatal-rats-with-fetal-growth-restriction
#15
Xiang-Wen Li, Fang Li, Jing Liu, Yan Wang, Wei Fu
OBJECTIVE: To study the possible effect of antepartum taurine supplementation in regulating the activity of Rho family factors and promoting the proliferation of neural stem cells in neonatal rats with fetal growth restriction (FGR), and to provide a basis for antepartum taurine supplementation to promote brain development in children with FGR. METHODS: A total of 24 pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups: control, FGR, and taurine (n=8 each )...
November 2016: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816519/cognitive-decline-in-type-2-diabetic-db-db-mice-may-be-associated-with-brain-region-specific-metabolic-disorders
#16
Hong Zheng, Yongquan Zheng, Liangcai Zhao, Minjiang Chen, Guanghui Bai, Yongsheng Hu, Wenyi Hu, Zhihan Yan, Hongchang Gao
Type 2 diabetes has been associated with cognitive decline, but its metabolic mechanism remains unclear. In the present study, we attempted to investigate brain region-specific metabolic changes in db/db mice with cognitive decline and explore the potential metabolic mechanism linking type 2 diabetes and cognitive decline. We analyzed the metabolic changes in seven brain regions of two types of mice (wild-type mice and db/db mice with cognitive decline) using a (1)H NMR-based metabolomic approach. Then, a mixed-model analysis was used to evaluate the effects of mice type, brain region, and their interaction on metabolic changes...
January 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27779341/study-of-neurometabolic-and-behavioral-alterations-in-rodent-model-of-mild-traumatic-brain-injury-a-pilot-study
#17
Kavita Singh, Richa Trivedi, Seenu Haridas, Kailash Manda, Subash Khushu
Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) is the most common form of TBI (70-90%) with consequences of anxiety-like behavioral alterations in approximately 23% of mTBI cases. This study aimed to assess whether mTBI-induced anxiety-like behavior is a consequence of neurometabolic alterations. mTBI was induced using a weight drop model to simulate mild human brain injury in rodents. Based on injury induction and dosage of anesthesia, four animal groups were included in this study: (i) injury with anesthesia (IA); (ii) sham1 (injury only, IO); (iii) sham2 (only anesthesia, OA); and (iv) control rats...
October 25, 2016: NMR in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27768969/taurine-promotes-cognitive-function-in-prenatally-stressed-juvenile-rats-via-activating-the-akt-creb-pgc1%C3%AE-pathway
#18
Ning Jia, Qinru Sun, Qian Su, Shaokang Dang, Guomin Chen
Substantial evidence has shown that the oxidative damage to hippocampal neurons is associated with the cognitive impairment induced by adverse stimuli during gestation named prenatal stress (PS). Taurine, a conditionally essential amino acid, possesses multiple roles in the brain as a neuromodulator or antioxidant. In this study, to explore the roles of taurine in PS-induced learning and memory impairment, prenatal restraint stress was set up and Morris water maze (MWM) was employed for testing the cognitive function in the one-month-old rat offspring...
October 13, 2016: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27761676/multicompartment-analysis-of-protein-restricted-phenylketonuric-mice-reveals-amino-acid-imbalances-in-brain
#19
Kara R Vogel, Erland Arning, Teodoro Bottiglieri, K Michael Gibson
BACKGROUND: The mainstay of therapy for phenylketonuria (PKU) remains dietary protein restriction. Developmental and neurocognitive outcomes for patients, however, remain suboptimal. We tested the hypothesis that mice with PKU receiving protein-restricted diets would reveal disruptions of brain amino acids that shed light on these neurocognitive deficits. METHOD: Phenylalanine hydroxylase-deficient (PKU) mice and parallel controls (both wild-type and heterozygous) were fed custom diets containing 18, 6, and 4 % protein for 3 weeks, after which tissues (brain, liver, sera) were collected for amino acid analysis profiling...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27700065/imaging-taurine-in-the-central-nervous-system-using-chemically-specific-x-ray-fluorescence-imaging-at-the-sulfur-k-edge
#20
Mark J Hackett, Phyllis G Paterson, Ingrid J Pickering, Graham N George
A method to image taurine distributions within the central nervous system and other organs has long been sought. Since taurine is small and mobile, it cannot be chemically "tagged" and imaged using conventional immuno-histochemistry methods. Combining numerous indirect measurements, taurine is known to play critical roles in brain function during health and disease and is proposed to act as a neuro-osmolyte, neuro-modulator, and possibly a neuro-transmitter. Elucidation of taurine's neurochemical roles and importance would be substantially enhanced by a direct method to visualize alterations, due to physiological and pathological events in the brain, in the local concentration of taurine at or near cellular spatial resolution in vivo or in situ in tissue sections...
November 15, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
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