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Pediatric sleep

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333768/management-of-pediatric-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-by-academic-hepatologists-in-canada-a-nationwide-survey
#1
Marialena Mouzaki, Simon C Ling, Richard A Schreiber, Binita M Kamath
BACKGROUND: The literature on the optimal clinical management of pediatric patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is limited. The objective of this study was to identify discrepancies in the care provided to patients with NAFLD by hepatologists practicing in academic centers across Canada. METHODS: A nationwide survey was distributed electronically to all pediatric hepatologists practicing in university-affiliated hospitals using the infrastructure of the Canadian Pediatric Hepatology Research Group...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329120/sleep-wake-disturbances-after-traumatic-brain-injury-synthesis-of-human-and-animal-studies
#2
Danielle K Sandsmark, Jonathan E Elliott, Miranda M Lim
Sleep-wake disturbances following traumatic brain injury (TBI) are increasingly recognized as a serious consequence following injury and as a barrier to recovery. Injury-induced sleep-wake disturbances can persist for years, often impairing quality of life. Recently, there has been a nearly exponential increase in the number of primary research articles published on the pathophysiology and mechanisms underlying sleep-wake disturbances after TBI, both in animal models and human subjects, including in the pediatric population...
March 17, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329042/longitudinal-cardiovascular-outcomes-of-sleep-disordered-breathing-in-children-a-meta-analysis-and-systematic-review
#3
Zarmina Ehsan, Stacey L Ishman, Thomas R Kimball, Nanhua Zhang, Yuanshu Zou, Raouf S Amin
Objectives: The presence of sleep disordered breathing (SDB) is known to impact long-term cardiovascular morbidity in adults; however, the long-term effects in children are poorly understood. We aimed to systematically review and synthesize studies published to date on the long-term effects of SDB in children. Study Design: Meta-analysis and systematic review using PubMed, CINAHL,Embase and Scopus (all indexed years). Methods: We searched for English-language articles containing original human data from prospective studies, with ≥7 participants, in children ≤18 years of age...
January 28, 2017: Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328788/early-presence-of-sleep-spindles-on-electroencephalography-is-associated-with-good-outcome-after-pediatric-cardiac-arrest
#4
Laurence Ducharme-Crevier, Craig A Press, Jonathan E Kurz, Michele G Mills, Joshua L Goldstein, Mark S Wainwright
OBJECTIVES: The role of sleep architecture as a biomarker for prognostication after resuscitation from cardiac arrest in children hospitalized in an ICU remains poorly defined. We sought to investigate the association between features of normal sleep architecture in children after cardiac arrest and a favorable neurologic outcome at 6 months. DESIGN: Retrospective review of medical records and continuous electroencephalography monitoring. SETTING: Cardiac and PICU of a tertiary children's hospital...
March 21, 2017: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328604/retropharyngeal-abscess-presenting-with-sleep-apnea-syndrome
#5
Hasan Emre Koçak, Mehmet Nurettin Kiral, Harun Acipayam, Mustafa Suphi Elbistanli, Fatma Tülin Kayhan
Retropharyngeal abscess (RPA) is the second most common deep neck space infection after peritonsiller abscess in pediatric population. Major signs and symptoms on physical examination include fever, hypersalivation, odynophagia, reduced oral intake, sore throat, swelling on the neck, torticollis, limitation in neck mobility, and voice changes. In this paper, the authors present a case of RPA with unusual and interesting presenting symptoms in a 10-month-old infant that exhibit new-onset and worsening snoring and sleep apnea...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327274/physician-extenders-on-surgical-services-a%C3%A2-systematic-review
#6
Jagdeep Johal, Andrew Dodd
BACKGROUND: With the introduction of resident duty hour restrictions and the resulting in-house trainee shortages, a long-term solution to ensure safe and efficient patient care is needed. One solution is the integration of nurse practitioners (NPs) and physician assistants (PAs) in a variety of health care settings. We sought to examine the use of NPs and PAs on surgical/trauma services and their effect on patient outcomes and resident workload. METHODS: We performed a systematic review of EMBASE, Medline, CINAHL, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials...
April 1, 2017: Canadian Journal of Surgery. Journal Canadien de Chirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323671/codeine-and-opioid-metabolism-implications-and-alternatives-for-pediatric-pain-management
#7
Vidya Chidambaran, Senthilkumar Sadhasivam, Mohamed Mahmoud
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Use of perioperative opioids for surgical pain management of children presents clinical challenges because of concerns of serious adverse effects including life-threatening respiratory depression. This is especially true for children with history of obstructive sleep apnea. This review will explore current knowledge of clinically relevant factors and genetic polymorphisms that affect opioid metabolism and postoperative outcomes in children. RECENT FINDINGS: Within the past several years, an increasing number of case reports have illustrated clinically important respiratory depression, anoxic brain injuries and even death among children receiving appropriate weight-based dosages of codeine and other opioids for analgesia at home setting particularly following tonsillectomy...
March 18, 2017: Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320866/adenotonsillotomy-versus-adenotonsillectomy-in-pediatric-obstructive-sleep-apnea-an-rct
#8
Anna Borgström, Pia Nerfeldt, Danielle Friberg
BACKGROUND: Adenotonsillectomy (ATE) is a well-established and effective treatment of pediatric obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). In recent years, a more conservative method, adenotonsillotomy (ATT), has gained popularity because it is associated with less postoperative morbidity. Yet no previous randomized study has compared these 2 methods regarding their effectiveness in treating pediatric OSA in terms of polysomnographic data, which was the primary aim of this study. The hypothesis was that ATT is noninferior to ATE after 1 year...
March 20, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319673/the-effect-of-montelukast-on-mild-persistent-osa-after-adenotonsillectomy-in-children-a-preliminary-study
#9
Bing Wang, Jia Liang
This study sought to evaluate the treatment effect of montelukast in children with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) after tonsillectomy and/or adenoidectomy (T&A). Fifty-eight children with persistent OSA after T&A were included and randomly divided into 2 groups: one group was administered montelukast for 12 weeks, and the other received no treatment. Clinical information, such as the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) and nadir oxyhemoglobin saturation (nadir SpO2), was recorded. Symptoms of OSA were evaluated using the validated Pediatric Sleep Questionnaire (PSQ)...
March 1, 2017: Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315898/modifiable-risk-factors-and-interventions-for-childhood-obesity-prevention-within-the-first-1-000-days
#10
Anne M Dattilo
Worldwide, the prevalence of childhood obesity has increased, amounting to 42 million overweight or obese children, and there is increasing evidence that the origins are within the first 1,000 days: the period of conception through 2 years. Antecedents of early childhood obesity are multifactorial, and associations of varying strength have been documented for genetic/epigenetic, biologic, dietary, environmental, social, and behavioral influences. Modifiable factors in pregnancy and early infancy associated with childhood obesity include maternal overweight/obesity, maternal smoking, gestational weight gain, infant and young child feeding, caregiver responsive feeding practices, as well as sleep duration, and physical activity...
2017: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306197/pediatric-upper-airway-dimensions-using-three-dimensional-computed-tomography-imaging
#11
Tariq M Wani, Mahmood Rafiq, Salman Talpur, Lahbib Soualmi, Joseph D Tobias
INTRODUCTION: Computed tomography- (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based measurements have recently suggested that the narrowest dimension of the pediatric airway is the subglottic region. These data are contrary to the previously held tenets of a funnel- or conical-shaped airway. The current study evaluates airway volumes and shapes using three-dimensional CT images of the air way column in spontaneously breathing children. METHODS: The study included CT-based radiological images of the neck in children who required imaging unrelated to airway symptomatology...
March 17, 2017: Paediatric Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303917/reduced-regional-grey-matter-volumes-in-pediatric-obstructive-sleep-apnea
#12
Mona F Philby, Paul M Macey, Richard A Ma, Rajesh Kumar, David Gozal, Leila Kheirandish-Gozal
Pediatric OSA is associated with cognitive risk. Since adult OSA manifests MRI evidence of brain injury, and animal models lead to regional neuronal losses, pediatric OSA patients may also be affected. We assessed the presence of neuronal injury, measured as regional grey matter volume, in 16 OSA children (8 male, 8.1 ± 2.2 years, AHI:11.1 ± 5.9 events/hr), and 200 control subjects (84 male, 8.2 ± 2.0 years), 191 of whom were from the NIH-Pediatric MRI database. High resolution T1-weighted whole-brain images were assessed between groups with voxel-based morphometry, using ANCOVA (covariates, age and gender; family-wise error correction, P < 0...
March 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301267/hypotonic-hyporesponsive-episodes-after-administration-of-hexavalent-dtp-based-combination-vaccine-a-description-of-12-cases
#13
Alessandro Vigo, Giulia Costagliola, Elisa Ferrero, Silvia Noce
Hypotonic-hyporesponsive (HHE) episodes are known and recognized phenomena, which typically occur within 48 hours of immunisation..Our aim is to describe 12 cases of HHE brought to the Center of Pediatric Sleep Medicine, with attention to the clinical features of the episode and their follow-up. Medical charts of infants visited between 2005-2015 were reviewed. Twelve infants showed a HHE using HHE using Brighton Collaboration Criteria. All infants received a Hexavalent diphtheria -tetanus -pertussis acellular component -hepatitis B-,inactivated poliovirus- Haemophilus influenzae type-b conjugate vaccine...
February 21, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296540/american-academy-of-pediatrics-2016-safe-sleep-practices-implications-for-pediatric-behavioral-sleep-medicine
#14
Kelly C Byars, Stacey L Simon
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2017: Behavioral Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293224/prevalence-of-m75-streptococcus-pyogenes-strains-harboring-slaa-gene-in-patients-affected-by-pediatric-obstructive-sleep-apnea-syndrome-in-central-italy
#15
Elisa Viciani, Francesca Montagnani, Giacinta Tordini, Antonio Romano, Lorenzo Salerni, Andrea De Luca, Paolo Ruggiero, Andrea G O Manetti
Recently we reported an association between pediatric obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) and Group A streptococcus (GAS) sub-acute chronic tonsil colonization. We showed that GAS may contribute to tonsil hyperplasia via a streptolysin O (SLO)-dependent cysteinyl leukotrienes (CysLTs) production, which can trigger T and B cell proliferation. In the present study, we characterized the GAS strains isolated from pediatric OSAS patients in comparison with a panel of age and sex matched GAS strains unrelated to OSAS, but isolated in the same area and during the same period ranging from 2009 to 2013...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292706/effect-of-airflow-and-material-models-on-tissue-displacement-for-surgical-planning-of-pharyngeal-airways-in-pediatric-down-syndrome-patients
#16
Dhananjay Radhakrishnan Subramaniam, Goutham Mylavarapu, Robert J Fleck, Raouf S Amin, Sally R Shott, Ephraim J Gutmark
Pharyngeal narrowing in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) results from flow-induced displacement of soft tissue. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of airflow parameters and material model on soft tissue displacement for planning surgical treatment in pediatric patients with OSA and Down syndrome (DS). Anatomically accurate, three-dimensional geometries of the pharynx and supporting tissue were reconstructed for one pediatric OSA patient with DS using magnetic resonance images. Six millimeters of adenoid tissue was virtually removed based on recommendations from the surgeon, to replicate the actual adenoidectomy...
March 8, 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28287684/the-value-of-sleep-on-athletic-performance-injury-and-recovery-in-the-young-athlete
#17
Elizabeth A Copenhaver, Alex B Diamond
Adequate sleep can easily become compromised as student-athletes try to balance the multiple demands on their time. People with sleep deficiency are at increased risk for acute illnesses, traumatic sports injuries, and development of chronic diseases. Training sessions or competitions during extremely early or late hours can interfere with circadian and homeostatic rhythms. Adjusting the training schedule to improve sleep duration has a significantly positive impact on several aspects of athletic performance...
March 1, 2017: Pediatric Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286485/relation-of-heart-rate-and-its-variability-during-sleep-with-age-physical-activity-and-body-composition-in-young-children
#18
David Herzig, Prisca Eser, Thomas Radtke, Alina Wenger, Thomas Rusterholz, Matthias Wilhelm, Peter Achermann, Amar Arhab, Oskar G Jenni, Tanja H Kakebeeke, Claudia S Leeger-Aschmann, Nadine Messerli-Bürgy, Andrea H Meyer, Simone Munsch, Jardena J Puder, Einat A Schmutz, Kerstin Stülb, Annina E Zysset, Susi Kriemler
Background: Recent studies have claimed a positive effect of physical activity and body composition on vagal tone. In pediatric populations, there is a pronounced decrease in heart rate with age. While this decrease is often interpreted as an age-related increase in vagal tone, there is some evidence that it may be related to a decrease in intrinsic heart rate. This factor has not been taken into account in most previous studies. The aim of the present study was to assess the association between physical activity and/or body composition and heart rate variability (HRV) independently of the decline in heart rate in young children...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283217/adolescents-with-at-risk-eating-and-lifestyle-behaviors-are-affected-by-after-school-schedules-across-the-clinical-weight-spectrum
#19
Leanna F Perez, Carla K Miller, Judith A Groner
OBJECTIVE: Evaluate adolescent lifestyle patterns to develop more effective health promotion programs. METHODS: An interview approach was employed to gain in-depth understanding of eating and activity behaviors. Adolescents aged 13-18 years (n=43) from clinically normal and obese weight categories were enrolled. Nutrient intake and food group servings were obtained from a food frequency questionnaire. RESULTS: Four participant subgroups were identified and labeled: "Idle, Engaged, Balanced and Working...
March 6, 2017: Patient Education and Counseling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277550/participation-of-iranian-cerebral-palsy-children-in-life-areas-a-systematic-review-article
#20
REVIEW
Marzieh Pashmdarfard, Malek Amini, Afsoon Hassani Mehraban
OBJECTIVE: Cerebral palsy (CP) is the most common cause of chronic disability that restricts participation in areas of occupations for children. The main aim of rehabilitation is enhancement of their clients for participation in occupations. The aim of this study was to overview of the factors influencing the participations of children with CP in Iran. MATERIALS & METHODS: A systematic, evidence-based process (Duffy 2005) was used. For data gathering electronic databases including Google scholar and Iranian and foreigner famous journals in the fields of pediatrics, were used...
2017: Iranian Journal of Child Neurology
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