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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346537/cerebral-mitochondrial-dysfunction-associated-with-deep-hypothermic-circulatory-arrest-in-neonatal-swine
#1
Constantine D Mavroudis, Michael Karlsson, Tiffany Ko, Marco Hefti, Javier I Gentile, Ryan W Morgan, Ross Plyler, Kobina G Mensah-Brown, Timothy W Boorady, Richard W Melchior, Tami M Rosenthal, Brandon C Shade, Kellie L Schiavo, Susan C Nicolson, Thomas L Spray, Robert M Sutton, Robert A Berg, Daniel J Licht, J William Gaynor, Todd J Kilbaugh
OBJECTIVES: Controversy remains regarding the use of deep hypothermic circulatory arrest (DHCA) in neonatal cardiac surgery. Alterations in cerebral mitochondrial bioenergetics are thought to contribute to ischaemia-reperfusion injury in DHCA. The purpose of this study was to compare cerebral mitochondrial bioenergetics for DHCA with deep hypothermic continuous perfusion using a neonatal swine model. METHODS: Twenty-four piglets (mean weight 3.8 kg) were placed on cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB): 10 underwent 40-min DHCA, following cooling to 18°C, 10 underwent 40 min DHCA and 10 remained at deep hypothermia for 40 min; animals were subsequently rewarmed to normothermia...
January 15, 2018: European Journal of Cardio-thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344352/the-use-of-feed-grade-amino-acids-in-lactating-sow-diets
#2
Laura Greiner, Pairat Srichana, James L Usry, Casey Neill, Gary L Allee, Joseph Connor, Kevin J Touchette, Christopher D Knight
Background: The use of feed grade amino acids can reduce the cost of lactation feed. With changing genetics, increasing feed costs, and higher number of pigs weaned with heavier wean weights further evaluation of higher inclusion levels of feed-grade amino acid in lactation diets than previously published is warranted. Two experiments (Exp.) were conducted to determine the optimal inclusion level of L-lysine HCl to be included in swine lactation diets while digestible lysine levels remain constant across dietary treatments and allowing feed grade amino acids to be added to the diet to maintain dietary ratios relative to lysine to maximize litter growth rate and sow reproductive performance...
2018: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343573/porcine-mx1-protein-inhibits-classical-swine-fever-virus-replication-by-targeting-nonstructural-protein-ns5b
#3
Jing Zhou, Jing Chen, Xiao-Min Zhang, Zhi-Can Gao, Chun-Chun Liu, Yun-Na Zhang, Jin-Xiu Hou, Zhao-Yao Li, Lin Kan, Wen-Liang Li, Bin Zhou
Mx proteins are interferon-induced GTPases that have broad antiviral activity against a wide range of RNA and DNA viruses; they belong to the dynamin superfamily of large GTPases. In this study, we confirmed the anti-CSFV activity of porcine Mx1 in vitro and showed that porcine Mx2 (poMx2), human MxA (huMxA), and mouse Mx1 (mmMx1) also have anti-CSFV activity in vitro. siRNA experiments revealed that depletion of endogenous poMx1 or poMx2 enhanced CSFV replication, suggesting that porcine Mx proteins are responsible for the antiviral activity of interferon-α (IFNα) against CSFV infection...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343428/development-and-pre-clinical-evaluation-in-the-swine-model-of-a-mucosal-vaccine-tablet-for-human-influenza-viruses-a-proof-of-concept-study
#4
V Busignies, G Simon, G Mollereau, O Bourry, V Mazel, M Rosa-Calatrava, P Tchoreloff
Liquid vaccine formulations present some disadvantages such as stability problems, cold chain requirement or administration by trained personnel. Vaccine formulated as tablets would present a wide range of progress such as an increase stability that would facilitate the administration, the distribution and the storage of vaccine formulations. This work investigates the possibility to develop a mucosal tablet vaccine for human influenza viruses. The tablets were tested in vitro for biological efficacy and stability and in vivo in swine as a model for influenza A virus immunity...
January 14, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342372/enrichment-of-antibiotic-resistance-genes-in-soil-receiving-composts-derived-from-swine-manure-yard-wastes-or-food-wastes-and-evidence-for-multi-year-persistence-of-swine-i-i-clostridium-i-i-spp
#5
Andrew Scott, Yuan-Ching Tien, Craig F Drury, W Daniel Reynolds, Edward Topp
The impact of amendment with swine manure composts (SMC), yard waste compost (YWC), or food waste compost (FWC) on the abundance of antibiotic resistance genes in soil was evaluated. Following a commercial-scale application of the composts in a field experiment, soils were sampled periodically for a decade, and archived air-dried. Soil DNA was extracted and gene targets quantified by qPCR. Compared to untreated control soil, all three amendment types increased the abundance of gene targets for up to four years post-application...
January 17, 2018: Canadian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342175/immunocontraceptive-target-repertoire-defined-by-systematic-identification-of-sperm-membrane-alloantigens-in-a-single-species
#6
Nathaly Cormier, John J McGlone, John Leszyk, Daniel M Hardy
Sperm competence in animal fertilization requires the collective activities of numerous sperm-specific proteins that are typically alloimmunogenic in females. Consequently, sperm membrane alloantigens are potential targets for contraceptives that act by blocking the proteins' functions in gamete interactions. Here we used a targeted proteomics approach to identify the major alloantigens in swine sperm membranes and lipid rafts, and thereby systematically defined the repertoire of these sperm-specific proteins in a single species...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341375/transparency-enhancing-technology-allows-three-dimensional-assessment-of-gastrointestinal-mucosa-a-porcine-model
#7
Hiroya Mizutani, Satoshi Ono, Tetsuo Ushiku, Yotaro Kudo, Masako Ikemura, Natsuko Kageyama, Nobutake Yamamichi, Mitsuhiro Fujishiro, Takao Someya, Masashi Fukayama, Kazuhiko Koike, Hiroshi Onodera
Although high-resolution three-dimensional imaging of endoscopically resected gastrointestinal specimens can help elucidating morphological features of gastrointestinal mucosa or tumor, there are no established methods to achieve this without breaking specimens apart. We evaluated the utility of transparency-enhancing technology for three-dimensional assessment of gastrointestinal mucosa in porcine models. Esophagus, stomach, and colon mucosa samples obtained from a sacrificed swine were formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded, and subsequently deparaffinized for analysis...
January 17, 2018: Pathology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340822/a-preclinical-animal-study-of-a-novel-simple-and-secure-duct-and-vessel-occluder-for-laparoscopic-surgery
#8
Amir Szold, Arnold Miller, Nir Lilach, Ana-Maria Botero-Anug, Raanan Miller, Steven D Schwaitzberg
BACKGROUND: Secure occlusion of large blood vessels and ductal structures is critical to all surgeries and remains a challenge in many minimally invasive procedures. This study compares in vivo use of the Amsel Occluder (AO) for secure laparoscopic blood vessel and duct closure, with one of the many commercially available hemoclips (Ligaclip®), in the porcine model. METHODS: Laparoscopic closure of vessels and ducts was performed on 12 swine to compare the ease of use, safety and efficacy of the AO with a hemoclip, as well as the tissue response at > 30 days (10 swine)...
January 16, 2018: Surgical Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340249/a-streptomycin-resistance-marker-in-h-%C3%A2-parasuis-based-on-site-directed-mutations-in-rpsl-gene-to-perform-unmarked-in-frame-mutations-and-to-verify-natural-transformation
#9
Ke Dai, Xintian Wen, Yung-Fu Chang, Sanjie Cao, Qin Zhao, Xiaobo Huang, Rui Wu, Yong Huang, Qigui Yan, Xinfeng Han, Xiaoping Ma, Yiping Wen
Haemophilus parasuis is a member of the family Pasteurellaceae and a major causative agent of Glässer's disease. This bacterium is normally a benign swine commensal but may become a deadly pathogen upon penetration into multiple tissues, contributing to severe lesions in swine. We have established a successive natural transformation-based markerless mutation system in this species. However, the two-step mutation system requires screening of natural competent cells, and cannot delete genes which regulate natural competence per se...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340150/xylose-absorption-fermentation-and-post-absorptive-metabolism-in-the-pig
#10
REVIEW
Nichole F Huntley, John F Patience
Xylose, as β-1,4-linked xylan, makes up much of the hemicellulose in cell walls of cereal carbohydrates fed to pigs. As inclusion of fibrous ingredients in swine diets continues to increase, supplementation of carbohydrases, such as xylanase, is of interest. However, much progress is warranted to achieve consistent enzyme efficacy, including an improved understanding of the utilization and energetic contribution of xylanase hydrolysis product (i.e. xylooligosaccharides or monomeric xylose). This review examines reports on xylose absorption and metabolism in the pig and identifies gaps in this knowledge that are essential to understanding the value of carbohydrase hydrolysis products in the nutrition of the pig...
2018: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339614/application-of-image-processing-on-struvite-recovery-from-swine-wastewater-by-using-the-fluidized-bed
#11
Zhi-Long Ye, Yujun Deng, Xin Ye, Yaoyin Lou, Shaohua Chen
Fluidized granulation is one of the common methods used in wastewater treatment and resource recovery with harvesting millimeter-scale large particles. Presently, effective methods are lacking to measure the fluidized granules ranging from micro- to millimeter scales, with the consequence of ineffectively controlling and optimizing the granulation process. In this work, recovering struvite (MgNH4PO4·6H2O) from swine wastewater by using a fluidized bed was taken as an example. Image processing was applied to analyze the properties of different types of struvite granules, including morphology, particle size distribution, number density and mass concentration...
January 2018: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339602/performance-and-stability-of-an-expanded-granular-sludge-bed-reactor-modified-with-zeolite-addition-subjected-to-step-increases-of-organic-loading-rate-olr-and-to-organic-shock-load-osl
#12
T Pérez-Pérez, I Pereda-Reyes, E Pozzi, D Oliva-Merencio, M Zaiat
This paper shows the effect of organic shock loads (OSLs) on the anaerobic digestion (AD) of synthetic swine wastewater using an expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) reactor modified with zeolite. Two reactors (R1 and R2), each with an effective volume of 3.04 L, were operated for 180 days at a controlled temperature of 30 °C and hydraulic retention time of 12 h. In the case of R2, 120 g of zeolite was added. The reactors were operated with an up-flow velocity of 6 m/h. The evolution of pH, total Kjeldahl nitrogen, chemical oxygen demand (COD) and volatile fatty acids (VFAs) was monitored during the AD process with OSL and increases in the organic loading rate (OLR)...
January 2018: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339427/pandemic-paradox-early-life-h2n2-pandemic-influenza-infection-enhanced-susceptibility-to-death-during-the-2009-h1n1-pandemic
#13
Alain Gagnon, Enrique Acosta, Stacey Hallman, Robert Bourbeau, Lisa Y Dillon, Nadine Ouellette, David J D Earn, D Ann Herring, Kris Inwood, Joaquin Madrenas, Matthew S Miller
Recent outbreaks of H5, H7, and H9 influenza A viruses in humans have served as a vivid reminder of the potentially devastating effects that a novel pandemic could exert on the modern world. Those who have survived infections with influenza viruses in the past have been protected from subsequent antigenically similar pandemics through adaptive immunity. For example, during the 2009 H1N1 "swine flu" pandemic, those exposed to H1N1 viruses that circulated between 1918 and the 1940s were at a decreased risk for mortality as a result of their previous immunity...
January 16, 2018: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339048/intrarenal-fat-deposition-does-not-interfere-with-the-measurement-of-single-kidney-perfusion-in-obese-swine-using-multi-detector-computed-tomography
#14
Christopher M Ferguson, Alfonso Eirin, Gregory J Michalak, Ahmad F Hedayat, Abdelrhman Abumoawad, Ahmed Saad, Xiangyang Zhu, Stephen C Textor, Cynthia H McCollough, Lilach O Lerman
BACKGROUND: Altered vascular structure or function in several diseases may impair renal perfusion. Multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) is a non-invasive tool to assess single-kidney perfusion and function based on dynamic changes in tissue attenuation during contrast media transit. However, changes in basal tissue attenuation might hamper these assessments, despite background subtraction. Evaluation of iodine concentration using the dual-energy (DECT) MDCT mode allows excluding effects of basal values on dynamic changes in tissue attenuation...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Computed Tomography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338810/detection-of-mcr-4-positive-salmonella-enterica-serovar-typhimurium-in-clinical-isolates-of-human-origin-italy-october-to-november-2016
#15
Edoardo Carretto, Flavia Brovarone, Paola Nardini, Giuseppe Russello, Daniela Barbarini, Stefano Pongolini, Carlo Gagliotti, Alessandra Carattoli, Mario Sarti
In this study we report the detection of the recently described mcr-4 gene in two human isolates of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium. The strains were isolated from faecal samples of two Italian patients with gastroenteritis, collected in 2016. The identified mcr-4 genes (variant mcr-4.2) differed from the mcr-4 gene originally described in a Salmonella strain of swine origin from Italy. Salmonella species could represent a hidden reservoir for mcr genes.
January 2018: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338381/effect-of-the-diabetic-state-on-islet-engraftment-and-function-in-a-large-animal-model-of-islet-kidney-transplantation
#16
Prashanth Vallabhajosyula, Atsushi Hirakata, Matthew Weiss, Adam Griesemer, Akira Shimizu, Hanzhou Hong, Andreas Habertheuer, Vaja Tchipashvili, Kazuhiko Yamada, David H Sachs
In islet transplantation, in addition to immunologic and ischemic factors, the diabetic/hyperglycemic state of the recipient has been proposed, although not yet validated, as a possible cause of islet toxicity, contributing to islet loss during the engraftment period. Using a miniature swine model of islet transplantation, we have now assessed the effect of a persistent state of hyperglycemia on islet engraftment and subsequent function. An islet-kidney (IK) model previously described by our laboratory was utilized...
November 2017: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338206/application-of-ptr-ms-and-33s-isotope-labelling-for-monitoring-sulfur-processes-in-livestock-waste
#17
Frederik Rask Dalby, Michael Jørgen Hansen, Anders Feilberg
Reduced sulfur compounds emitted from livestock production cause odor nuisance for local residents. The microbial processes responsible for this are not well described in swine manure and a method for monitoring the biological processes is necessary to develop strategic abatement technologies. In this study, Proton-Transfer-Reaction Mass Spectrometry and isotope labelled sulfate was combined and applied to elucidate the sulfur processes in swine manure with high time resolution. We successfully monitored reduction of isotope 33S labelled sulfate into corresponding 33S hydrogen sulfide and that some of the 33S hydrogen sulfide was further methylated into 33S methanethiol...
January 17, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337166/cd163-knockout-pigs-are-fully-resistant-to-highly-pathogenic-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus
#18
Huaqiang Yang, Jian Zhang, Xianwei Zhang, Junsong Shi, Yongfei Pan, Rong Zhou, Guoling Li, Zicong Li, Gengyuan Cai, Zhenfang Wu
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) causes severe economic losses to current swine production worldwide. Highly pathogenic PRRSV (HP-PRRSV), originated from a genotype 2 PRRSV, is more virulent than classical PRRSV and further exacerbates the economic impact. HP-PRRSV has become the predominant circulating field strain in China since 2006. CD163 is a cellular receptor for PRRSV. The depletion of CD163 whole protein or SRCR5 region (interaction site for the virus) confers resistance to infection of several PRRSV isolates in pigs or cultured host cells...
January 11, 2018: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336925/a-novel-inactivated-vaccine-against-lawsonia-intracellularis-induces-rapid-induction-of-humoral-immunity-reduction-of-bacterial-shedding-and-provides-robust-gut-barrier-function
#19
F Roerink, C L Morgan, S M Knetter, M-H Passat, A L Archibald, T Ait-Ali, E L Strait
Porcine proliferative ileitis is a major economic burden for the swine industry, affecting growing pigs and young adult pigs. In this study, the protective efficacy of an inactivated, injectable whole-cell bacteria vaccine against L. intracellularis - Porcilis® Ileitis was evaluated under field conditions. Eighty-five, three-week-old pigs on a commercial farrow-to-finish farm were vaccinated by the intramuscular route, either with a dose of injectable vaccine, or with saline. A subset of vaccinates and control pigs were necropsied at 21 days post-challenge...
January 11, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336309/dedicated-bifurcated-balloon-for-coronary-bifurcation-lesions-a-pre-clinical-proof-of-concept
#20
Khalid Al-Saadon, Ghassan S Kassab, Gerard Finet, Rodrigo Bagur
AIMS: To address the limitations of the two-balloon system for kissing balloon inflation (KBI) for the treatment of coronary bifurcation lesions (CBL), we report a novel coronary dedicated bifurcated balloon (DBB) catheter system. METHODS AND RESULTS: The device has been developed to follow the bifurcation geometry according to scaling laws of coronary anatomy. In an in vivo study, the DBB catheter was compared to the KBI technique in post-stent deployment of a bifurcation of a normal swine...
January 16, 2018: EuroIntervention
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