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gastric mucosa

Edith Lahner, Marilia Carabotti, Bruno Annibale
Helicobacter pylori (Hp) is a major human pathogen causing chronic, progressive gastric mucosal damage and is linked to gastric atrophy and cancer. Hp-positive individuals constitute the major reservoir for transmission of infection. There is no ideal treatment for Hp. Hp infection is not cured by a single antibiotic, and sometimes, a combined treatment with three or more antibiotics is ineffective. Atrophic gastritis (AG) is a chronic disease whose main features are atrophy and/or intestinal metaplasia of the gastric glands, which arise from long-standing Hp infection...
June 14, 2018: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
Maham Hayat, Sultan Mahmood, John T Maple
A 62-year-old male with long-standing esophageal reflux underwent endoscopy at an outside institution that reported multiple polypoid lesions in upper esophagus and a small focal area of nodular mucosa at the gastroesophageal junction(GEJ). Biopsies of the proximal esophageal polyps demonstrated hyperplastic mucosa with ulceration, reactive epithelial changes, and focal intestinal metaplasia. Biopsies from the nodular GEJ mucosa were described as Barrett's esophagus with low grade dysplasia. An upper endoscopy performed at our medical center found multiple semi-pedunculated esophageal polyps between 18-24 cm from the incisors (Figure A)...
June 11, 2018: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Luoluo Yang, Xun Sun, Xiangwei Meng
Numerous genetic alterations associated with cancer progression have the potential to serve as biomarkers for the early diagnosis of cancer. Numerous studies have suggested that claudin proteins, which are the primary components of tight junction structures, are associated with the regulation of cell polarity and cell differentiation. To investigate the expression profiles of the tight junction proteins claudin‑2, ‑5, ‑7 and ‑8 in gastric carcinoma, immunohistochemical analysis, western blotting and reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis was used to detect the expression profiles of these claudin proteins in gastric carcinoma tissues and in homologous non‑neoplastic mucosal tissues...
June 1, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
Oscar Guzmán-Gómez, Rosa Virginia García-Rodríguez, Lucía Quevedo-Corona, Ricardo Pérez-Pastén-Borja, Nora Lilia Rivero-Ramírez, Emmanuel Ríos-Castro, Salud Pérez-Gutiérrez, Julia Pérez-Ramos, Germán Alberto Chamorro-Cevallos
Phycobiliproteins of Arthrospira ( Spirulina ) maxima have attracted attention because of their potential therapeutic antioxidant properties. The aim of this study was to assess the possible antiulcerogenic activity of these phycobiliproteins (ExPhy) against ethanol-induced gastric ulcers in rats. To explore the possible mechanisms of action, we examined antioxidant defense enzymes (e.g., catalase, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase), as well as the level of lipid peroxidation (MDA) and the histopathological changes in the gastric mucosa...
June 13, 2018: Nutrients
Masashi Fukayama, Akiko Kunita, Atsushi Kaneda
Epstein-Barr virus-associated gastric cancer (EBVaGC) is a representative EBV-infected epithelial neoplasm, which is now included as one of the four subtypes of The Cancer Genome Atlas molecular classification of gastric cancer. In this review, we portray a gastritis-infection-cancer sequence of EBVaGC. This virus-associated type of gastric cancer demonstrates clonal growth of EBV-infected epithelial cells within the mucosa of atrophic gastritis. Its core molecular abnormality is the EBV-specific hyper-epigenotype of CpG island promoter methylation, which induces silencing of tumor suppressor genes...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Jean-Philippe Le Mouel, Julie Morvan, Mathurin Fumery, Sami Hakim, Richard Delcenserie, Denis Chatelain, Eric Nguyen-Khac
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 12, 2018: Endoscopy
Yuhan Lee, Tara E Deelman, Keyue Chen, Dawn S Y Lin, Ali Tavakkoli, Jeffrey M Karp
The gastrointestinal tract is the site of most drug delivery and therapeutic interventions for the management and treatment of numerous diseases. However, selective access to its mucosa, especially in the small bowel, is challenging. Here we develop an orally administered gut-coating formulation that provides a transient coating of the bowel. Through a materials screening campaign, we identified a sucrose octasulfate aluminium complex and further engineered the pH-dependent material into a complex coacervate formulation linked via pH-independent electrostatic interaction, which allowed an effective transient physical coating on the gastrointestinal mucosa, independent of gastric acid exposure...
June 11, 2018: Nature Materials
Chong Zhong Liu, Jian Kang Zhu, Qianqian Xu, Feng Yue Liu, Ya Dong Wang, Min Zhu
BACKGROUND: Postoperative pancreatic fistula (POPF) is the most common critical complication after pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) and a primary reason for increased mortality and morbidity after PD. To perform a safe pancreaticojejunostomy (PJ), a fast and simple technique of duct-to-mucosa PJ with one-layer suture was devised at our institution. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a retrospective analysis of 81 successive cases of PD performed at our hospital from March 2012 to August 2016...
June 8, 2018: International Journal of Surgery
B Ersoy, B Aktan, K Kilic, M S Sakat, S Sipal
BACKGROUND: Otitis media with effusion is a clinical manifestation characterised by inflammation of middle-ear mucosa. This study investigated the therapeutic effect of erythromycin, clarithromycin, azithromycin and roxithromycin on a histamine-induced animal model of otitis media with effusion. METHODS: The animals were divided into five groups, receiving erythromycin, clarithromycin, azithromycin, roxithromycin or saline solution. The guinea pigs in the study groups received erythromycin (40 mg/kg/day), clarithromycin (15 mg/kg/day), azithromycin (10 mg/kg/day) or roxithromycin (10 mg/kg/day) for 3 days by gastric tube...
June 11, 2018: Journal of Laryngology and Otology
Abib Diop, Ousmane Thiam, Mouhamadou Lamine Guèye, Mamadou Seck, Alpha Oumar Touré, Mamadou Cissé, Madieng Dieng
We conducted a retrospective study of 15 patients with complicated Meckel diverticula treated in the emergency surgery at the Aristide Le Dantec Hospital, Dakar, over a period of 13 years (January 2003-June 2016). The study included 10 men and 5 women, whose average age was 27.8 years, ranging between 1 months and 73 years. The two main circumstances of detection were occlusive syndrome and peritoneal irritation. Emergency laparotomy allowed clinicians to affirm the involvement of Meckel diverticulum in the clinical picture...
2018: Pan African Medical Journal
Ali Ibrahim Ali Al-Ezzy
OBJECTIVE: To determine the immunopathological correlation between Cag A+ H. pylori -specific IgG; pepsinogen I&II (PI&PII); gastrin-17 (G-17); status of gastric and duodenal mucosa and inflammatory activities on different gastroduodenal disorders. METHODOLOGY: Eighty gastroduodenal biopsies were taken from patients with gastroduodenal disorders for histopathological evaluation and H. pylori diagnosis. Serum samples were used for evaluation of gastric hormones and detection of H...
May 20, 2018: Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences
Yu Hatano, Ken Haruma, Tomoari Kamada, Akiko Shiotani, Kosuke Takahari, Masatoshi Matsumoto, Osamu Uchida
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Previous studies have reported a possible relevance between proton pump inhibitor (PPI) use and 3 new gastric mucosal changes: black spots (BSs), white flat elevated mucosa (WFEM), and cobblestone-like mucosa (CLM). The aim of this study was to investigate the association between these mucosal changes and multiple factors including PPI use. METHODS: All subjects who underwent a routine esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) were successively enrolled...
June 5, 2018: Digestion
Koji Miyahara, Waku Hatta, Masahiro Nakagawa, Tsuneo Oyama, Noboru Kawata, Akiko Takahashi, Yoshikazu Yoshifuku, Shu Hoteya, Masaaki Hirano, Mitsuru Esaki, Mitsuru Matsuda, Ken Ohnita, Ryo Shimoda, Motoyuki Yoshida, Osamu Dohi, Jun Takada, Keiko Tanaka, Shinya Yamada, Tsuyotoshi Tsuji, Hirotaka Ito, Hiroyuki Aoyagi, Tooru Shimosegawa
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The role of an undifferentiated component in submucosal invasion and submucosal invasion depth (SID) for lymph node metastasis (LNM) of early gastric cancer (EGC) with deep submucosal invasion (SID ≥500 μm from the muscularis mucosa) after endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) has not been fully understood. This study aimed to clarify the risk factors (RFs), including these factors, for LNM in such patients. METHODS: We enrolled 513 patients who underwent radical surgery after ESD for EGC with deep submucosal invasion...
June 5, 2018: Digestion
Xia Chen, Chenmei Xia, Qianqian Li, Linxiao Jin, Liyun Zheng, Zhongbiao Wu
Objective: To identify and compare the bacterial community profile of mucosal tissues from a gastric antrum ulcer and a duodenal ulcer in Helicobacter pylori ( Hp ) positive dyspeptic patients. Methods: Genomic DNA was extracted from the mucosal tissues obtained from 18 patients diagnosed with gastric antrum or duodenal ulcers. A library was constructed using 16S rRNA gene amplification, and Miseq high-throughput sequencing was used to analyse the amplified products. Bioinformatics methods, including operational taxonomic units (OTUs), hierarchical clustering, and a diversity analysis, were performed to investigate and characterize the community composition...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Alan A Schmalstig, Stéphane L Benoit, Sandeep K Misra, Joshua S Sharp, Robert J Maier
The well-studied catalytic role of urease, the Ni-dependent conversion of urea into carbon dioxide and ammonia, has been shown to protect Helicobacter pylori against the low pH environment of the stomach lumen. We hypothesized that the abundantly expressed urease protein can play another, non-catalytic role in combating oxidative stress via Met-residue mediated quenching of harmful oxidants. Three catalytically inactive urease mutant strains were constructed by single substitutions of Ni binding residues. The mutant versions synthesize normal levels of urease and the altered versions retain all methionine residues...
June 4, 2018: Journal of Bacteriology
Insaf-Meriem Boutemine, Manel Amri, Zine-Charaf Amir, Catherine Fitting, Samira Mecherara-Idjeri, Karim Layaida, Nacira Sennoun, Saadi Berkane, Jean-Marc Cavaillon, Chafia Touil-Boukoffa
Pistacia lentiscus L. (Anacardiaceae) (PL) is a flowering plant that grows in the Mediterranean area. It is traditionally used in the treatment of various skin, respiratory and gastrointestinal disorders AIM OF THE STUDY: In the present study, we investigated the anti-ulcerogenic activity of Pistacia lentiscus fatty oil (PLFO) on ethanol-induced gastric ulcers in Wistar rats MATERIAL AND METHODS: PLFO was orally administered to two experimental groups of rats before or after ethanol induction of gastric ulcer...
May 30, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Jackline Namulema, Miriam Nansunga, Charles Drago Kato, Muhammudu Kalange, Samuel Babafemi Olaleye
Background: Gastric ulcers are mucosal discontinuities that may extend into the mucosa, submucosa or even deeper. They result from an imbalance between mucosal aggressors and protective mechanisms that include the mucus bicarbonate layer. Thyroid hormones have been shown to accelerate gastric ulcer healing in part by increasing the adherent mucus levels. However, the effects of thyroid hormones on goblet cell numbers and expression of neutral and acidic mucins during ulcer healing have not been investigated...
2018: Thyroid Research
Ashwak M F Abu-Taleb, Randa S Abdelattef, Amina A Abdel-Hady, Farida H Omran, Lobna A El-Korashi, Hoda Abdel-Aziz El-Hady, Ahmed M El-Gebaly
H. pylori infection causes peptic ulcer, chronic gastritis, mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma, and gastric carcinoma. It has several virulence factors such as cytotoxin-associated gene A( cagA ) and the induced by contact with epithelium antigen ( iceA ). We aimed to explore the relationship between cagA and iceA of H. pylori and gastrointestinal diseases. One hundred and eighteen patients who attended Gastrointestinal Endoscopy Unit at Zagazig University Hospitals, Egypt, were included in this study...
2018: International Journal of Microbiology
Yasuaki Ishii, Wataru Shibata, Makoto Sugimori, Yoshihiro Kaneta, Masatomo Kanno, Takeshi Sato, Soichiro Sue, Eri Kameta, Hiroaki Kaneko, Kuniyasu Irie, Tomohiko Sasaki, Masaaki Kondo, Shin Maeda
Background/Aim: Although IL-6-mediated activation of the signal transduction and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) axis is involved in inflammation and cancer, the role of STAT3 in Helicobacter -associated gastric inflammation and carcinogenesis is unclear. This study investigated the role of STAT3 in gastric inflammation and carcinogenesis and examined the molecular mechanism of Helicobacter -induced gastric phenotypes. Methods: To evaluate the contribution of STAT3 to gastric inflammation and carcinogenesis, we used wild-type (WT) and gastric epithelial conditional Stat3 -knockout ( Stat3Δgec ) mice...
2018: Gastroenterology Research and Practice
Shuanglong Zhang, Xiaojing Chang, Jinguo Ma, Jing Chen, Yu Zhi, Zhenhua Li, Dongqiu Dai
Objective: Rho-GTPases play a pivotal role in a wide variety of signal transduction pathways and are associated with a great number of human carcinomas. STARD8, which is a Rho-GTPase-activating protein, has been proposed as a tumor suppressor gene, but its role in gastric cancer remains elusive. In this study, we investigate the expression of STARD8 in gastric cancer and its association with gastric cancer progression. Materials and methods: One normal gastric mucosa cell line for example GES1 and six human gastric cancer cell lines such as AGS, MGC803, MKN45, SGC7901, HGC27 and BGC823 were utilized to analyze STARD8 mRNA and protein levels by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blot...
2018: OncoTargets and Therapy
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