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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240565/methodological-considerations-in-clinical-trials-for-new-mdr-tb-treatment-regimens
#1
P P J Phillips
In contrast to the treatment of drug-susceptible tuberculosis (TB), the evidence base underpinning global guidelines for the treatment of multidrug-resistant (MDR) TB is very poor. This, combined with the lack of experience from previous trials and the nature of the disease, means that a number of methodological aspects are specific only to trials for new MDR-TB regimens. These aspects include the weight of evidence required to change policy and practice, the flexibility to make adaptations to an ongoing trial, the choice of patient population, the importance of internal control, the duration and frequency of follow-up, and safety monitoring of novel combinations of new and repurposed drugs...
December 1, 2016: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240562/guidelines-for-management-of-incidental-pulmonary-nodules-detected-on-ct-images-from-the-fleischner-society-2017
#2
Heber MacMahon, David P Naidich, Jin Mo Goo, Kyung Soo Lee, Ann N C Leung, John R Mayo, Atul C Mehta, Yoshiharu Ohno, Charles A Powell, Mathias Prokop, Geoffrey D Rubin, Cornelia M Schaefer-Prokop, William D Travis, Paul E Van Schil, Alexander A Bankier
The Fleischner Society Guidelines for management of solid nodules were published in 2005, and separate guidelines for subsolid nodules were issued in 2013. Since then, new information has become available; therefore, the guidelines have been revised to reflect current thinking on nodule management. The revised guidelines incorporate several substantive changes that reflect current thinking on the management of small nodules. The minimum threshold size for routine follow-up has been increased, and recommended follow-up intervals are now given as a range rather than as a precise time period to give radiologists, clinicians, and patients greater discretion to accommodate individual risk factors and preferences...
February 23, 2017: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240182/integration-of-novel-materials-and-advanced-omics-technologies-into-new-vaccine-design
#3
Wenzhen Liao, Tian-Tian Zhang, Liqian Gao, Su Seong Lee, Jie Xu, Han Zhang, Zhaogang Yang, Zhaoyu Liu, Wen Li
Designing new vaccines is one of the most challenging tasks for public health to prevent both infectious and chronic diseases. Even though many research scientists have spent great efforts in improving the specificity, sensitivity and safety of current available vaccines, there are still much space on how to effectively combine different biomaterials and technologies to design universal or personalized vaccines. Traditionally, vaccines were made based on empirical approaches designed to mimic immunity induced by natural infection...
February 24, 2017: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240005/surgery-for-diverticulitis-in-the-21st-century-recent-evidence
#4
Arden M Morris, Cindy Kin
Sigmoid diverticulitis is an increasingly common disease in Western countries. As technology has led to increased knowledge about the disease and options for treatment, management strategies have become less certain. In previous years, the rationale for early elective surgery was largely preventive, due to concern that diverticulitis recurrence would result in increased risk of sepsis or the need for a colostomy. New technology has enabled diagnosis, through computed tomography scans, predictive information through clinical and administrative databases, and less invasive treatment options, through laparoscopic techniques...
February 24, 2017: Minerva Gastroenterologica e Dietologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239510/lidocaine-infusion-a-promising-therapeutic-approach-for-chronic-pain
#5
Enas Kandil, Emily Melikman, Bryon Adinoff
Opioid abuse is a national epidemic in the United States, where it is estimated that a prescription drug overdose death occurs every 19 minutes. While opioids are highly effective in acute and subacute pain control, their use for treatment of chronic pain is controversial. Chronic opioids use is associated with tolerance, dependency, hyperalgesia. Although there are new strategies and practice guidelines to reduce opioid dependence and opioid prescription drug overdose, there has been little focus on development of opioid-sparing therapeutic approaches...
January 2017: Journal of Anesthesia & Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239314/second-korean-guidelines-for-the-management-of-crohn-s-disease
#6
REVIEW
Jae Jun Park, Suk-Kyun Yang, Byong Duk Ye, Jong Wook Kim, Dong Il Park, Hyuk Yoon, Jong Pil Im, Kang Moon Lee, Sang Nam Yoon, Heeyoung Lee
Crohn's disease (CD) is a chronic, progressive, and disabling inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) with an uncertain etiopathogenesis. CD can involve any site of the gastrointestinal tract from the mouth to the anus, and is associated with serious complications, such as bowel strictures, perforations, and fistula formation. The incidence and prevalence rates of CD in Korea are still lower compared with those in Western countries, but they have been rapidly increasing during the recent decades. Although there are no definitive curative modalities for CD, various medical and surgical therapies have been applied for the treatment of this disease...
January 2017: Intestinal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237685/evaluation-of-a-new-handheld-point-of-care-blood-gas-analyser-using-100-equine-blood-samples
#7
David Bardell, Eleanor West, J Mark Senior
OBJECTIVES: To determine whether the Enterprise point-of-care blood analysis system (EPOC) produces results in agreement with two other blood gas analysers in regular clinical use (i-STAT and Radiometer ABL77) and to investigate the precision of the new machine when used with equine whole blood. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective, randomized, non-blinded, comparative laboratory analyser study. ANIMALS: Horses admitted to a university teaching hospital requiring arterial or venous blood gas analysis as part of their routine clinical management...
February 22, 2017: Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237645/nonelective-colon-cancer-resection-a-continued-public-health-concern
#8
Christopher T Aquina, Adan Z Becerra, Zhaomin Xu, Francis P Boscoe, Maria J Schymura, Katia Noyes, John R T Monson, Fergal J Fleming
BACKGROUND: Little is known regarding recent trends in the rate of nonelective colon cancer resection in the United States and its impact on both short-term and long-term outcomes. METHODS: The New York State Cancer Registry and Statewide Planning & Research Cooperative System identified stage I-III colon cancer resections from 2004-2011. Propensity-matched analyses assessed differences in short-term adverse outcomes and 5-year disease-specific and overall survival between elective and nonelective colon cancer operations...
February 22, 2017: Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237234/stard-blcm-standards-for-the-reporting-of-diagnostic-accuracy-studies-that-use-bayesian-latent-class-models
#9
Polychronis Kostoulas, Søren S Nielsen, Adam J Branscum, Wesley O Johnson, Nandini Dendukuri, Navneet K Dhand, Nils Toft, Ian A Gardner
The Standards for the Reporting of Diagnostic Accuracy (STARD) statement, which was recently updated to the STARD2015 statement, was developed to encourage complete and transparent reporting of test accuracy studies. Although STARD principles apply broadly, the checklist is limited to studies designed to evaluate the accuracy of tests when the disease status is determined from a perfect reference procedure or an imperfect one with known measures of test accuracy. However, a reference standard does not always exist, especially in the case of infectious diseases with a long latent period...
March 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236890/new-sedation-and-general-anesthesia-guidelines-why-the-changes
#10
EDITORIAL
Jason H Goodchild, Mark Donaldson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2017: Journal of the American Dental Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236452/multiparametric-magnetic-resonance-imaging-and-prostate-cancer-what-s-new
#11
V Catalá, J C Vilanova, J M Gaya, F Algaba, T Martí
Prostatic multi-parametric magnetic resonance imaging (MP-MRI) has recently had a wide development becoming a key tool in the diagnostic and therapeutic decisions in prostate cancer (Pca). The fast development both in technology and in reading (PIRADS V2) requires a continuous updating of knowledge within this area. The aim of this article is to present an updated revision of technical aspects, reading patterns and prostatic MP-MRI in Pca, with a multidisciplinary approach. Currently guidelines establish the use of the MP-MRI when there is a high PSA and a negative prostatic biopsy; tumor staging; evaluation in candidates to active surveillance; focal treatments plans and tumoral recurrence evaluation...
February 21, 2017: Radiología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236185/the-accuracy-of-the-lateral-vertebral-notch-referred-pedicle-screw-insertion-technique-in-subaxial-cervical-spine-a-human-cadaver-study
#12
Jiaquan Luo, Chunyang Wu, Zhongren Huang, Zhimin Pan, Zhiyun Li, Junlong Zhong, Yiwei Chen, Zhimin Han, Kai Cao
STUDY DESIGN: This is a cadaver specimen study to confirm new pedicle screw (PS) entry point and trajectory for subaxial cervical PS insertion. OBJECTIVE: To assess the accuracy of the lateral vertebral notch-referred PS insertion technique in subaxial cervical spine in cadaver cervical spine. BACKGROUNDS: Reported morphometric landmarks used to guide the surgeon in PS insertion show significant variability. In the previous study, we proposed a new technique (as called "notch-referred" technique) primarily based on coronal multiplane reconstruction images (CMRI) and cortical integrity after PS insertion in cadavers...
February 24, 2017: Archives of Orthopaedic and Trauma Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236184/several-new-japanese-guidelines-issued
#13
EDITORIAL
Michiaki Yamakage
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 24, 2017: Journal of Anesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235630/comprehensive-immunohistochemical-analysis-of-histone-deacetylases-in-pancreatic-neuroendocrine-tumors-hdac5-as-a-predictor-of-poor-clinical-outcome
#14
Eckhard Klieser, Romana Urbas, Stefan Stättner, Florian Primavesi, Tarkan Jäger, Adam Dinnewitzer, Christian Mayr, Tobias Kiesslich, Klaus Holzmann, Pietro Di Fazio, Daniel Neureiter, Stefan Swierczynski
Epigenetic factors contribute to carcinogenesis, tumor promotion and chemoresistance. Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are epigenetic regulators that primarily cause chromatin compaction, leading to inaccessibility of promoter regions and eventually gene silencing. Many cancer entities feature over-expression of HDACs. Currently, the role of HDACs in pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (pNETs) is unclear. We analyzed expression patterns of all HDAC classes (Class I, IIA, IIB, III & IV) in five human tissue microarrays (TMA) representing 57 pNETs resected between 1997 and 2013 and corresponding control tissue...
February 21, 2017: Human Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235400/implementation-of-cardiovascular-disease-prevention-in-primary-health-care-enhancing-understanding-using-normalisation-process-theory
#15
Nerida Volker, Lauren T Williams, Rachel C Davey, Thomas Cochrane, Tanya Clancy
BACKGROUND: The reorientation of primary health care towards prevention is fundamental to addressing the rising burden of chronic disease. However, in Australia, cardiovascular disease prevention practice in primary health care is not generally consistent with existing guidelines. The Model for Prevention study was a whole-of-system cardiovascular disease prevention intervention, with one component being enhanced lifestyle modification support and addition of a health coaching service in the general practice setting...
February 24, 2017: BMC Family Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231620/sustaining-guideline-implementation-a-multi-site-perspective-on-activities-challenges-and-supports
#16
Kathryn Smith Higuchi, Barbara Davies, Jenny Ploeg
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To examine activities conducted, challenges encountered, and supports used when sustaining nursing practice guideline implementation in multiple health care organizations over three years. BACKGROUND: Numerous models and frameworks exist to guide the implementation of guidelines, yet very few focus on sustaining improved practice changes. It is not known if one intervention or multiple interventions are required, nor the long-term activities, challenges, and supports for sustaining improved practices...
February 23, 2017: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231475/the-use-and-yield-of-continuous-eeg-in-critically-ill-patients-a-comparative-study-of-three-centers
#17
Vincent Alvarez, Andres A Rodriguez Ruiz, Suzette LaRoche, Lawrence J Hirsch, Christopher Parres, Paula E Voinescu, Andres Fernandez, Ognen A Petroff, Nishi Rampal, Hiba Arif Haider, Jong Woo Lee
OBJECTIVE: Continuous EEG (cEEG) monitoring of critically ill patients has gained widespread use, but there is substantial reported variability in its use. We analyzed cEEG and antiseizure drug (ASD) usage at three high volume centers. METHODS: We utilized a multicenter cEEG database used daily as a clinical reporting tool in three tertiary care sites (Emory Hospital, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Yale - New Haven Hospital). We compared the cEEG usage patterns, seizure frequency, detection of rhythmic/periodic patterns (RPP), and ASD use between the sites...
January 17, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230776/effects-and-side-effects-of-using-sorafenib-and-sunitinib-in-the-treatment-of-metastatic-renal-cell-carcinoma
#18
REVIEW
Caroline Randrup Hansen, Daniela Grimm, Johann Bauer, Markus Wehland, Nils E Magnusson
In recent years, targeted therapies have proven beneficial in terms of progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) in the treatment of metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC). The tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) sorafenib and sunitinib are included in international clinical guidelines as first-line and second-line therapy in mRCC. Hypertension is an adverse effect of these drugs and the degree of hypertension associates with the anti-tumour effect. Studies have compared newer targeted drugs to sorafenib and sunitinib in terms of PFS, OS, quality of life and safety profiles...
February 21, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230629/point-of-injury-tourniquet-application-during-operation-protective-edge-what-de-we-learn
#19
Amir Shlaifer, Avraham Yitzhak, Erez N Baruch, Avi Shina, Alexandra Satanovsky, Amiram Shovali, Ofer Almog, Elon Glassberg
BACKGROUND: Hemorrhage is a leading cause of preventable death on the battlefield. Timely tourniquet application to massively bleeding extremity wounds is critical for casualty survival albeit with reported adverse effects to extremity integrity. The aim of this study was to describe the immediate and short term outcomes of point of injury (POI) tourniquet applications during 'Operation Protective Edge' (OPE). METHODS: A case series study regarding tourniquet application at the POI during OPE was collected...
February 23, 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230456/off-label-prescribing-for-children-with-migraines-in-u-s-ambulatory-care-settings
#20
L Leanne Lai, Leroy Koh, Jane Ai-Chen Ho, Alexander Ting, Augustine Obi
BACKGROUND: Migraines, Which Affect About 10% Of School-Age Children In The United States, Can Significantly Impair Quality Of Life. Despite Potential Disability, Many Children Do Not Receive Treatment Or Prophylaxis, Since Medications Specifically Approved For Children Are Significantly Less Than For Adults. There Is Also Controversy Surrounding The Apparent Widespread Practice Of Prescribing Off-Label Medications For Children With Migraines. However, Little Research Has Been Done To Identify Physician-Prescribing Patterns Of Migraine Medication For Children...
March 2017: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
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