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HIV/AIDS and skin

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29910568/dermatological-manifestations-of-hiv-aids-individuals-in-shiraz-south-of-iran
#1
Mohammad Ali Davarpanah, Nasrin Motazedian, Farideh Jowkar
Introduction: HIV infection remains as a major challenge facing medical sciences in the world today. Mucocutaneous manifestation was first observed in patients with HIV/AIDS in the early 1980s. The aim of this study was to identify various skin manifestations based on making careful clinical observations and performing the necessary tests. Materials and Methods: A total of 240 patients whose disease was diagnosed using WB and ELISA tests, with dermatologic manifestations and were older than 18 years, participated in this study...
April 2018: Journal of Global Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29906789/new-and-noteworthy-in-tuberculosis-diagnostics-and-treatment
#2
Susan Swindells
People with HIV infection with latent tuberculosis (TB) infection (LTBI) are at a 10-fold greater risk of developing active disease. Interferon gamma release assays and tuberculin skin testing have approximately 65% to 70% specificity for diagnosing LTBI in HIV-infected patients. LTBI can be successfully treated with isoniazid preventive therapy and early antiretroviral therapy (ART). Rapid molecular diagnostics have approximately 88% sensitivity and 98% specificity for identifying active TB. ART should be started early in patients with TB...
June 2018: Topics in Antiviral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786002/eyelid-kaposi-sarcoma-in-an-hiv-negative-patient
#3
Jose Manuel Abalo-Lojo, Ihab Abdulkader-Nallib, Laura Martínez Pérez, Francisco Gonzalez
Kaposi sarcoma (KS) is a low-grade, multicentric vascular neoplasm. Most commonly, it involves the skin, but it can occur at any site on the body. The cutaneous lesions are often located on the lower legs, genitalia, oral mucosa, and face. KS is categorized in four different types: classic, endemic, epidemic or AIDS associated, and transplantation associated. We report a case of HIV-negative, classic KS located on the eyelid. The eyelid lesion was completely excised, and after a 1-year follow-up, no recurrences were observed...
June 2018: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771785/cutaneous-melanoma-risk-among-people-with-hiv-in-the-united-states-and-canada
#4
Elizabeth L Yanik, Raúl U Hernández-Ramírez, Li Qin, Haiqun Lin, Wendy Leyden, Romain S Neugebauer, Michael A Horberg, Richard D Moore, W Christopher Mathews, Amy C Justice, Nancy A Hessol, Angel M Mayor, M John Gill, John T Brooks, Jing Sun, Keri N Althoff, Eric A Engels, Michael J Silverberg, Robert Dubrow
BACKGROUND: Cutaneous melanoma incidence may be modestly elevated in people with HIV (PWH) versus people without HIV. However, little is known about the relationship of immunosuppression, HIV replication, and antiretroviral treatment (ART) with melanoma risk. METHODS: PWH of white race in the North American AIDS Cohort Collaboration on Research and Design were included. A standardized incidence ratio (SIR) was calculated comparing risk with the white general population, standardizing by age, sex, and calendar period...
April 27, 2018: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768547/clinical-outcomes-and-risk-factors-for-death-from-disseminated-histoplasmosis-in-patients-with-aids-who-visited-a-high-complexity-hospital-in-campo-grande-ms-brazil
#5
Barbara Cristina Scarcelli Boigues, Anamaria Mello Miranda Paniago, Gláucia Moreira Espíndola Lima, Maina de Oliveira Nunes, Silvia Naomi de Oliveira Uehara
INTRODUCTION: Disseminated histoplasmosis (DH) is a systemic mycosis caused by Histoplasma capsulatum (H. capsulatum) and is characterized by progressive and fatal evolution in immunocompromised patients. Moreover, it is considered an AIDS-defining disease. METHODS: We performed an observational, analytical, retrospective study to identify the clinical outcomes and risk factors for death from DH in patients with AIDS at an infectious diseases service facility in Brazil between September 2011 and July 2016...
March 2018: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742119/prior-subclinical-histoplasmosis-revealed-in-nigeria-using-histoplasmin-skin-testing
#6
Rita O Oladele, Conchita Toriello, Folasade T Ogunsola, Olusola O Ayanlowo, Philip Foden, Adetona S Fayemiwo, Iriagbonse I Osaigbovo, Anthony A Iwuafor, Shuwaram Shettima, Halimat A Ekundayo, Malcolm D Richardson, David W Denning
OBJECTIVES: Disseminated histoplasmosis is an AIDS-defining illness. Histoplasmosis is commonly misdiagnosed as tuberculosis. Nigeria has the second highest number of people living with HIV/AIDS in Africa. The present study was carried out to investigate the prevalence of skin sensitivity amongst Nigerians to histoplasmin. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study was conducted in six centres across five geopolitical zones of Nigeria. METHODS: We recruited both healthy non-HIV and HIV-positive adults with CD4 count ≥ 350 cells/mm3 regardless of their ART status from March to May 2017...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29660143/disseminated-kaposi-sarcoma-with-epithelioid-morphology-in-an-hiv-aids-patient-a-previously-unreported-variant
#7
Pukhraz Basra, Juan Paramo, John Alexis
Kaposi sarcoma is an oligoclonal HHV-8-driven vascular proliferation that was first described by a Viennese dermatologist Dr Moritz Kaposi. The disease has been seen in different clinical-epidemiological settings with a wide morphologic spectrum. We report a 52-year-old Caucasian man with HIV/AIDS and Kaposi sarcoma who presented with dyspnea and pleural effusion. He reported numerous tender subcutaneous nodules developing over the past few months on his chest, back and abdomen. An excisional biopsy of one of the nodules was performed...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Cutaneous Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29568550/dermatological-conditions-associated-with-hiv-medication-in-a-cohort-of-greek-patients-initiating-antiretroviral-therapy-1988-2013
#8
EDITORIAL
Iliana Alexoudi, Alexandra Katsarou, Vassileios Paparizos, Konstantino Oikonomou, Sofia Kourkounti, Georgia Augerinou, Christina Antoniou
Objectives:  Treatment of HIV infection has evolved from a single antiretroviral agent to combination therapy, which has dramatically improved both the quality of life and life expectancy of affected patients. The aim of this study was to review HIV treatment-associated dermatological conditions observed in adult patients receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) in a single tertiary care referral centre over time. Methods:  We reviewed the files of HIV-positive patients seen at the Dermatology Department, AIDS Clinic of the Andreas Syggros Hospital, Athens, Greece who had initiated ART from 1988 to 2013, for evidence of dermatological conditions commonly associated with HIV-related medication...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Virus Eradication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29554156/molluscum-contagiosum-in-immunocompromised-patients-aids-presenting-as-molluscum-contagiosum-in-a-patient-with-psoriasis-on-biologic-therapy
#9
William S Kaufman, Christine S Ahn, William W Huang
Molluscum contagiosum (MC) is a common, self-limited cutaneous infection in immunocompetent individuals. However, in immunocompromised individuals the infection often has an atypical presentation and can be difficult to eradicate, making both the diagnosis and treatment challenging. Due to advancements in the management of patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and cancer, there is a growing population of immunosuppressed individuals, signaling the need for dermatologists to recognize and manage related skin diseases...
February 2018: Cutis; Cutaneous Medicine for the Practitioner
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29534408/-chinese-expert-consensus-on-tetanus-immunization
#10
(no author information available yet)
Tetanus is an acute specific infection caused by obligate anaerobes, which is still a serious public health problem. Tetanus bacterium is an obligate anaerobic bacterium, widely distributed in nature, which can exist in dust, soil, human or animal excrement. The bacteria invade the body primarily through the skin or mucosal wounds, and most commonly in trauma and burn patients, unclean newborns, and unsafe surgical instruments. Exotoxin produced by tetanus bacteria can cause temporary changes in the central nervous system, manifested as systemic skeletal muscle persistence and paroxysmal spasm, severe cases of laryngospasm, asphyxia, lung infections and organ failure, which is a very serious and potentially fatal disease...
March 1, 2018: Zhonghua Wai Ke za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Surgery]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471672/association-of-physical-inactivity-with-hypertension-and-low-educational-level-in-people-living-with-hiv-aids
#11
Erika Aparecida Silveira, Annelisa Silva E Alves de Carvalho Santos, Marianne de Oliveira Falco, Rodrigo de Castro Cardoso, Priscila Valverde de Oliveira Vitorino
The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of physical inactivity and whether it is associated with sociodemographic, lifestyle, clinical, anthropometric, and body composition variables in people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). This study makes use of data from a cohort of 288 adults aged ≥19 years, conducted between October 2009 and July 2011. The variables studied were sex, age, education, income, skin color, tobacco use, alcohol intake, body mass index, body fat percentage, waist circumference, and waist-hip ratio, length of HIV/AIDS diagnosis, use of antiretroviral therapy and length of its use, CD4, hypertension (HT) and diabetes mellitus...
February 22, 2018: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29380667/skin-diseases-in-the-era-of-highly-active-antiretroviral-therapy-a-retrospective-study-of-534-patients
#12
Jennifer Tan, Ana Pina, João Borges-Costa
BACKGROUND: With the increasing number of HIV-infected patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), the shift in their dermatologic profile becomes less characteristic of AIDS-defining illnesses. METHODS: Retrospective review of mucocutaneous pathology among patients seen at HIV-Dermatology Clinic from January 2009 to December 2013. RESULTS: Among 534 patients, there were 68.4% males and 31.6% females, with 8.7-year average duration of infection; 82...
January 2018: Journal of the International Association of Providers of AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29371525/cutaneous-disseminated-and-extracutaneous-sporotrichosis-current-status-of-a-complex-disease
#13
REVIEW
Alexandro Bonifaz, Andrés Tirado-Sánchez
Sporotrichosis is an implantation or inoculation mycosis caused by species of Sporothrix schenckii complex; its main manifestations are limited to skin; however, cutaneous-disseminated, disseminated (visceral) and extracutaneous variants of sporotrichosis can be associated with immunosuppression, including HIV-AIDS, chronic alcoholism or more virulent strains. The most common extracutaneous form of sporotrichosis includes pulmonary, osteoarticular and meningeal. The laboratory diagnosis requires observing yeast forms and isolating the fungus; the two main causative agents are Sporothrix schenckii ( ss ) and Sporothrix brasiliensis ...
February 10, 2017: Journal of Fungi (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29360535/microbial-biotransformation-of-bioactive-and-clinically-useful-steroids-and-some-salient-features-of-steroids-and-biotransformation
#14
REVIEW
Nighat Sultana
Steroids are perhaps one of the most widely used group of drugs in present day. Beside the established utilization as immunosuppressive, anti-inflammatory, anti-rheumatic, progestational, diuretic, sedative, anabolic and contraceptive agents, recent applications of steroid compounds include the treatment of some forms of cancer, osteoporosis, HIV infections and treatment of declared AIDS. Steroids isolated are often available in minute amounts. So biotransformation of natural products provides a powerful means in solving supply problems in clinical trials and marketing of the drug for obtaining natural products in bulk amounts...
January 19, 2018: Steroids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346384/histoplasmosis-in-africa-an-emerging-or-a-neglected-disease
#15
REVIEW
Rita O Oladele, Olusola O Ayanlowo, Malcolm D Richardson, David W Denning
Histoplasmosis in Africa has markedly increased since the advent of the HIV/AIDS epidemic but is under-recognised. Pulmonary histoplasmosis may be misdiagnosed as tuberculosis (TB). In the last six decades (1952-2017), 470 cases of histoplasmosis have been reported. HIV-infected patients accounted for 38% (178) of the cases. West Africa had the highest number of recorded cases with 179; the majority (162 cases) were caused by Histoplasma capsulatum var. dubuosii (Hcd). From the Southern African region, 150 cases have been reported, and the majority (119) were caused by H...
January 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239897/ex-vivo-expression-of-chemokine-receptors-on-cells-surrounding-cutaneous-nerves-in-patients-with-hiv-associated-sensory-neuropathy
#16
Jenjira Mountford, Fitri Octaviana, Riwanti Estiasari, Denise Dewanto Setiawan, Ibnu Ariyanto, Silvia Lee, Jessica Gaff, Constance Chew, Connie Jackaman, Peter Kamerman, Catherine Cherry, Patricia Price
OBJECTIVE: HIV-associated sensory neuropathy (HIV-SN) remains common in HIV+ individuals receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART), even though neurotoxic antiretroviral drugs (e.g. stavudine) have been phased out of use. Accumulating evidence indicates that the neuropathy is immune-mediated. We hypothesize that chemokines produced locally in the skin promote migration of macrophages and T cells into the tissue, damaging cutaneous nerves causing HIV-SN. DESIGN: We assessed chemokine receptor expression on infiltrating CD14 and CD3 cells around cutaneous nerves in standardized skin biopsies from HIV-SN+ patients (n = 5), HIV-SN- patients (n = 9) and healthy controls (n = 4)...
February 20, 2018: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224242/dermoscopic-observations-in-disseminated-cryptococcosis-with-cutaneous-involvement
#17
LETTER
M Sławińska, M Hlebowicz, E Iżycka-Świeszewska, M Sikorska, M Sokołowska-Wojdyło, T Smiatacz, R Nowicki, M Sobjanek
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 10, 2017: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184648/estimating-the-prevalence-of-positive-tuberculin-skin-test-reactions-in-general-population-and-high-risk-groups-a-meta-analysis
#18
REVIEW
Mohammad Sadegh Rezai, Reza Tabrizi, Ali Akbar Haghdoost, Mahdi Afshari, Siavosh Abedi, Maryam Akbari, Mohammad Amin Bahrami, Mahmood Moosazadeh
Results of tuberculin skin test (TST) surveys among different populations have been reported in many studies as a method for detecting primary Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. Combining these results provides reliable estimates of primary latent tuberculosis (TB) infection for health policymakers. This study aims to estimate the prevalence of latent TB infection in general and high-risk populations in Iran. National and international databanks were searched using specific keywords. After restricting the search strategy, duplicates exclusion, reviewing titles, abstracts and full texts, and quality assessment, eligible papers were selected...
2017: International Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164168/aids-related-endemic-mycoses-in-western-cape-south-africa-and-clinical-mimics-a-cross-sectional-study-of-adults-with-advanced-hiv-and-recent-onset-widespread-skin-lesions
#19
Ilan S Schwartz, Chris Kenyon, Rannakoe Lehloenya, Saskya Claasens, Zandile Spengane, Hans Prozesky, Rosie Burton, Arifa Parker, Sean Wasserman, Graeme Meintjes, Marc Mendelson, Jantjie Taljaard, Johann W Schneider, Natalie Beylis, Bonnie Maloba, Nelesh P Govender, Robert Colebunders, Sipho Dlamini
Background: Skin lesions are common in advanced HIV infection and are sometimes caused by serious diseases like systemic mycoses (SM). AIDS-related SM endemic to Western Cape, South Africa, include emergomycosis (formerly disseminated emmonsiosis), histoplasmosis, and sporotrichosis. We previously reported that 95% of patients with AIDS-related emergomycosis had skin lesions, although these were frequently overlooked or misdiagnosed clinically. Prospective studies are needed to characterize skin lesions of SM in South Africa and to help distinguish these from common HIV-related dermatoses...
2017: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155877/immune-response-profiles-of-calves-following-vaccination-with-live-bcg-and-inactivated-mycobacterium-bovis-vaccine-candidates
#20
E M D L van der Heijden, J Chileshe, J C M Vernooij, C Gortazar, R A Juste, I Sevilla, J E Crafford, V P M G Rutten, A L Michel
Conventional control and eradication strategies for bovine tuberculosis (BTB) face tremendous difficulties in developing countries; countries with wildlife reservoirs, a complex wildlife-livestock-human interface or a lack of veterinary and veterinary public health surveillance. Vaccination of cattle and other species might in some cases provide the only suitable control strategy for BTB, while in others it may supplement existing test-and-slaughter schemes. However, the use of live BCG has several limitations and the global rise of HIV/AIDS infections has furthermore warranted the exploration of inactivated vaccine preparations...
2017: PloS One
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