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HIV/AIDS and skin

Tamsin Phillips, Annibale Cois, Robert H Remien, Claude A Mellins, James A McIntyre, Greg Petro, Elaine J Abrams, Landon Myer
BACKGROUND: Antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimens containing efavirenz (EFV) are recommended as part of universal ART for pregnant and breastfeeding women. EFV may have appreciable side effects (SE), and ART adherence in pregnancy is a major concern, but little is known about ART SE and associations with adherence in pregnancy. METHODS: We investigated the distribution of patient-reported SE (based on Division of AIDS categories) and the association of SE with missed ART doses in a cohort of 517 women starting EFV+3TC/FTC+TDF during pregnancy...
2016: PloS One
Annelisa Silva E Alves de Carvalho Santos, Erika Aparecida Silveira, Marianne de Oliveira Falco
This study aimed to estimate the incidence of gastrointestinal symptoms (GIS) and associated factors in an outpatient cohort of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) followed between October 2009 and July 2011. We evaluated nausea and/or vomiting, dyspepsia, heartburn, diarrhea, constipation, and flatulence. The outcome variable was the presence of three or more GIS. Sociodemographic (sex, skin color, age, income, years of schooling), lifestyle (smoking status, alcohol consumption, physical activity level), clinical (antiretroviral therapy, time of HIV infection, CD4 lymphocyte count, viral load), and anthropometric (nutritional status and waist circumference) variables were investigated...
2016: PloS One
Sumeshni Birbal, Mukesh Dheda, Elizabeth Ojewole, Frasia Oosthuizen
South Africa has one of the highest prevalences of HIV and AIDS in the world. HIV/AIDS patients face countless challenges, one of which is the risk of adverse drug reactions (ADRs). This study aimed to describe the ADRs reported in South Africa with reference to the type of ADRs, antiretrovirals (ARVs) implicated, seriousness of the ADRs and patient demographics associated with specific ADRs. A retrospective quantitative study was carried out using ADR reports submitted to the National Department of Health (NDoH) from 1 January 2010 to 31 December 2014...
September 2016: African Journal of AIDS Research: AJAR
Susanna L Lamers, Rebecca Rose, David J Nolan, Gary B Fogel, Andrew E Barbier, Marco Salemi, Michael S McGrath
Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) in HIV-infected individuals can have a wide range of clinical outcomes, from indolent skin tumors to a life-threatening visceral cancer. KS tumors contain endothelial-related cells and inflammatory cells that may be HIV-infected. In this study we tested if HIV evolutionary patterns distinguish KS tumor relatedness and progression. Multisite autopsies from participants who died from HIV-AIDS with KS prior to the availability of antiretroviral therapy were identified at the AIDS and Cancer Specimen Resource (ACSR)...
2016: Sarcoma
Simona Frunza-Stefan, Gyanendra Acharya, Viktoryia Kazlouskaya, Paunel Vukasinov, Yushan Chiou, Zeyar Thet
Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) is a condition associated with paradoxical worsening and/or new onset of an opportunistic infection in HIV patients following the initiation of anti-retroviral therapy or switching to more potent antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimen. Although IRIS associated with many opportunistic infections (OIs) has been well reported, syphilis has very rarely been mentioned in this regard. A 52-year-old male, diagnosed with AIDS six weeks ago, presented with the disseminated non-pruritic painless skin rash...
August 26, 2016: International Journal of STD & AIDS
Gilmara Holanda da Cunha, Marli Teresinha Gimeniz Galvão, Camila Martins de Medeiros, Ryvanne Paulino Rocha, Maria Amanda Correia Lima, Francisco Vagnaldo Fechine
Antiretroviral therapy has increased the survival of patients with HIV/AIDS, thus necessitating health promotion practice with immunization. Vaccines are critical components for protecting people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). The purpose of study was to analyze the vaccination status of PLWHA in outpatient care in Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil. Cross-sectional study performed from June 2014 to June 2015. The screening was done with patients in antiretroviral therapy, 420 patients underwent screening, but only 99 met the inclusion criteria...
September 2016: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
S M Nazmus Sakib, Michael Sadler
Plasmablastic lymphoma is a variant of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, characterized by rapid progression and is associated with a poor outcome. We report a 35-year-old male with poorly controlled HIV infection and AIDS who presented with skin lesions and swelling throughout the body. Computed tomography (CT) revealed innumerable enhancing soft tissue masses within the subcutaneous soft tissues and lymphadenopathy. Plasmablastic lymphoma was diagnosed, patient was treated with chemotherapy, and post treatment CT demonstrated complete resolution...
June 17, 2016: Clinical Imaging
Robert Ali, Julio Perez-Downes, Firas Baidoun, Bashar Al Turk, Carmen Isache, Girish Mohan, Charles Perniciaro
Syphilis is a sexually transmitted infection that remains fairly commonplace. The introduction of penicillin aided in curbing the incidence of disease; however, with the advent of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), syphilis is now on a resurgence with sometimes curious presentations. We present a case of a 36-year-old Caucasian gentleman with untreated HIV who complained of a skin eruption and joint pains for 6 weeks, prompting the diagnosis of secondary syphilis osteitis. Skin lesions were reminiscent of "malignant" syphilis...
2016: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
B O Osinaike, E O Temiye, O Odusote, A O Akinsulie, E Iroha
BACKGROUND: HIV infection/AIDS being a multi-systemic disease affects the skin at various stages in course of the illness. A knowledge of the common skin diseases associated with HIV infection can lead to early detection, appropriate staging and commencement of appropriate care in the infected patients. OBJECTIVE: The study was to document the prevalence and pattern of skin diseases in children with HIV infection seen at the Paediatric department of a tertiary centre in Nigeria...
July 2015: Nigerian Quarterly Journal of Hospital Medicine
Timothy R Sterling, Nigel A Scott, Jose M Miro, Guilherme Calvet, Alberto La Rosa, Rosa Infante, Michael P Chen, Debra A Benator, Fred Gordin, Constance A Benson, Richard E Chaisson, M Elsa Villarino
OBJECTIVE: Compare the effectiveness, tolerability, and safety of 3 months of weekly rifapentine and isoniazid under direct observation (3HP) versus 9 months of daily isoniazid (9H) in HIV-infected persons. DESIGN: Prospective, randomized, and open-label noninferiority trial. SETTING: The United States , Brazil, Spain, Peru, Canada, and Hong Kong. PARTICIPANTS: HIV-infected persons who were tuberculin skin test positive or close contacts of tuberculosis cases...
June 19, 2016: AIDS
Suchismita Paul, Rachel Evans, Toby Maurer, Lulu M Muhe, Esther E Freeman
Background. Skin diseases associated with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. In resource-limited settings, nondermatologists and lay health care providers on the front line of HIV care provide much of the treatment for these conditions. Objective. To evaluate guidelines for treatment of HIV-related skin conditions and assess their accessibility, comprehensiveness, and quality of evidence employed. Methods. A review was undertaken of all national and society guidelines which included treatment information on the ten highest burden HIV-related skin conditions...
2016: AIDS Research and Treatment
R Elansari, R Abada, S Rouadi, M Roubal, M Mahtar
INTRODUCTION: Histoplasma capsulatum is rarely found in nose and sinuses in immunocompetent and even in immunosupressed patients. A literature review revealed rare cases of H. capsulatum sinusitis and the case we describe in this paper is the first case of H. capsulatum sinusitis in Morocco. The purpose of our work is to present a rare case of H. capsulatum sinusitis and a literature review. CASE REPORT: A male patient, at his 39 presented to the emergency with suffered from nasal congestion and yellow postnasal rhinorrhea, occasional headaches and epistaxis for over than two months...
2016: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
Sheethal K Jose, Yogesh S Marfatia
A 47-year-old male with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) presented with multiple hyperpigmented papules and nodules on both ankles, dorsum of bilateral feet and soles. It was associated with mild itching and pain. The patient was diagnosed with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in 2007. First-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) was started in 2009 to which he responded initially. He was shifted to second-line ART 11 months ago in March 2015 due to treatment failure as suggested by CD4 count of 50 cells/mm(3)...
January 2016: Indian Journal of Sexually Transmitted Diseases
A Desnoyer, N Dupin, L Assoumou, A Carlotti, F Gaudin, C Deback, G Peytavin, A G Marcelin, F Boué, K Balabanian, V Pourcher-Martinez
BACKGROUND: Recent studies have independently implicated the chemokine CXCL12 and its receptors, CXCR4 and CXCR7, in KS pathophysiology. OBJECTIVES: We investigated whether the CXCL12/CXCR4-CXCR7 protein trio could constitute KS biomarkers. METHODS: Endothelial and spindle cells positive for CXCL12/CXCR4-CXCR7, HHV-8 latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA), Ki67 antigen (proliferation), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were quantitated in skin lesions from patients with AIDS-KS, with classic-KS, and with angiomas, using immunohistochemistry and quantitative image analysis (16, 21 and 20 skin lesions respectively)...
May 13, 2016: British Journal of Dermatology
Dhanesheshwar N Lanjewar, Varsha Omprakash Bhatia, Sonali Dhaneshwar Lanjewar
BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in India has now been prevalent over three decades, and an increasing number of children are being affected with HIV. The spectrum of pathologic lesions in children with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in India has not been well described. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A review of systematically conducted autopsies of 11 (10 boys and 1 girl) children with AIDS is presented. RESULTS: The mode of HIV transmission in 6 children was vertical; in one it was blood transfusion and in 4 children route was presumably vertical as these were children of orphanage...
April 2016: Indian Journal of Pathology & Microbiology
A Abutidze, N Bolokadze, N Chkhartishvili, L Sharvadze, T Tsertsvadze
Treatment of hepatitis C is necessary for ensuring higher life expectancy among HIV/HCV co-infected patients. However antiviral treatment for chronic HCV infection with Pegylated interferon (PEG-IFN) and Ribavirin (RBV) is associated with a variety of side effects. In Georgia up to 22% of HIV-infected patients were found to have active Tuberculosis (TB) and 22.4 to 32.6% had latent TB. The objective of this study was to describe the characteristics and clinical outcomes of tuberculosis in HIV/HCV co-infected patients receiving hepatitis C treatment with pegylated interferon and ribavirin and calculate incidence rate of TB...
March 2016: Georgian Medical News
Antonella Zucchetto, Saverio Virdone, Martina Taborelli, Enrico Grande, Laura Camoni, Marilena Pappagallo, Vincenza Regine, Francesco Grippo, Jerry Polesel, Luigino Dal Maso, Barbara Suligoi, Luisa Frova, Diego Serraino
BACKGROUND: Non-AIDS-defining cancers (non-ADCs) have become the leading non-AIDS-related cause of death among people with HIV/AIDS. We aimed to quantify the excess risk of cancer-related deaths among Italian people with AIDS (PWA), as compared with people without AIDS (non-PWA). METHODS: A nationwide, population-based, retrospective cohort study was carried out among 5285 Italian PWA, aged 15-74 years, diagnosed between 2006 and 2011. Date of death and multiple-cause-of-death data were retrieved up to December 2011...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
M Katherine Charles, Mary Lou Lindegren, C William Wester, Meridith Blevins, Timothy R Sterling, Nguyen Thi Dung, Jean Claude Dusingize, Divine Avit-Edi, Nicolas Durier, Barbara Castelnuovo, Gertrude Nakigozi, Claudia P Cortes, Marie Ballif, Lukas Fenner
SETTING: World Health Organization advocates for integration of HIV-tuberculosis (TB) services and recommends intensive case finding (ICF), isoniazid preventive therapy (IPT), and infection control ("Three I's") for TB prevention and control among persons living with HIV. OBJECTIVE: To assess the implementation of the "Three I's" of TB-control at HIV treatment sites in lower income countries. DESIGN: Survey conducted between March-July, 2012 at 47 sites in 26 countries: 6 (13%) Asia Pacific, 7 (15%), Caribbean, Central and South America, 5 (10%) Central Africa, 8 (17%) East Africa, 14 (30%) Southern Africa, and 7 (15%) West Africa...
2016: PloS One
Kazhila C Chinsembu
Faced with critical shortages of staff, long queues, and stigma at public health facilities in Livingstone, Zambia, persons who suffer from HIV/AIDS-related diseases use medicinal plants to manage skin infections, diarrhoea, sexually transmitted infections, tuberculosis, cough, malaria, and oral infections. In all, 94 medicinal plant species were used to manage HIV/AIDS-related diseases. Most remedies are prepared from plants of various families such as Combretaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Fabaceae, and Lamiaceae. More than two-thirds of the plants (mostly leaves and roots) are utilized to treat two or more diseases related to HIV infection...
2016: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
Timothy R Sterling, Nigel A Scott, Jose M Miro, Guilherme Calvet, Alberto La Rosa, Rosa Infante, Michael P Chen, Debra A Benator, Fred Gordin, Constance A Benson, Richard E Chaisson, M Elsa Villarino
OBJECTIVE: Compare the effectiveness, tolerability, and safety of three months of weekly rifapentine plus isoniazid under direct observation (3HP) vs. 9 months of daily isoniazid (9H) in HIV-infected persons. DESIGN: prospective, randomized, open-label non-inferiority trial. SETTING: U.S., Brazil, Spain, Peru, Canada, and Hong Kong. PARTICIPANTS: HIV-infected persons who were tuberculin skin test positive or close contacts of tuberculosis cases...
March 17, 2016: AIDS
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