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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035758/genotypic-tropism-testing-of-proviral-dna-to-guide-maraviroc-initiation-in-aviraemic-subjects-48-week-analysis-of-results-from-the-protest-study
#1
E Poveda, J Hernández-Quero, M J Pérez-Elías, M A Ribas, O J Martínez-Madrid, J Flores, J Navarro, F Gutiérrez, M García-Deltoro, A Imaz, A Ocampo, A Artero, F Blanco, E Bernal, J Pasquau, C Mínguez-Gallego, N Pérez, A Aiestaran, F García, R Paredes
OBJECTIVES: Maraviroc (MVC) is a suitable drug for aviraemic subjects on antiretroviral treatment (ART) developing toxicity. Its prescription requires prior tropism testing. It is unknown if proviral DNA genotypic tropism testing is reliable for guiding MVC initiation in aviraemic subjects, so this study was carried out to address this issue. METHODS: PROTEST was a phase 4, prospective, single-arm clinical trial carried out in 24 HIV care centres in Spain. MVC-naïve HIV-1-infected patients with HIV-1 RNA < 50 copies/mL on stable ART during the previous 6 months who required an ART change because of toxicity and who had R5 HIV, as determined by proviral DNA genotypic tropism testing, initiated MVC with two nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) and were followed for 48 weeks...
December 30, 2016: HIV Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989875/ethnobotany-phytochemistry-toxicology-and-pharmacological-properties-of-terminalia-sericea-burch-ex-dc-combretaceae-a-review
#2
REVIEW
N I Mongalo, L J McGaw, T V Segapelo, J F Finnie, J Van Staden
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL REFERENCE: The use of medicinal plants in the treatment of infections is ancient. A wide variety of ethnotherapeutic properties and pharmacological actions has been attributed to Terminalia sericea. Studies by various groups of investigators reveal that it is a multipurpose medicinal plant used mostly in the treatment of diarrhoea, sexually transmitted infections, skin rashes, tuberculosis and other infections. The current paper is aimed at providing an overview of the ethnomedicinal uses, toxicology, pharmacology and the phytochemistry of Terminalia sericea...
October 27, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27943261/efavirenz-or-nevirapine-in-three-drug-combination-therapy-with-two-nucleoside-or-nucleotide-reverse-transcriptase-inhibitors-for-initial-treatment-of-hiv-infection-in-antiretroviral-na%C3%A3-ve-individuals
#3
REVIEW
Lawrence Mbuagbaw, Sara Mursleen, James H Irlam, Alicen B Spaulding, George W Rutherford, Nandi Siegfried
BACKGROUND: The advent of highly active antiretroviral therapy (ART) has reduced the morbidity and mortality due to HIV infection. The World Health Organization (WHO) ART guidelines focus on three classes of antiretroviral drugs, namely nucleoside or nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI), non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI) and protease inhibitors. Two of the most common medications given as first-line treatment are the NNRTIs, efavirenz (EFV) and nevirapine (NVP)...
10, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27929236/fever-and-rash-in-a-patient-with-hiv-infection
#4
Ari Konheim, Paula J Watts, Joselin D Tacastacas
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 15, 2016: American Family Physician
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834135/synthesis-and-biological-evaluation-of-benzophenone-derivatives-as-potential-hiv-1-inhibitors
#5
Zhendong Song, Ping Wang, Shanshan Huang, Changyuan Wang, Ruirui Wang, Liumeng Yang, Yuhong Zhen, Kexin Liu, Yongtang Zheng, Xiaodong Ma
BACKGROUND: Although a number of agents can achieve high response in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients, safer and more active HIV inhibitors are still needed for the growing number of patients infected with resistant HIV virus strains. GW678248, is one of the most potent benzophenone derivatives, exhibiting high potency against a panel of HIV-1 virus (wild-type, K103N mutant, Y181C, etc.) at 1 nM/L concentrations. However, the safety issues associated with rash and liver metabolic enzymes ultimately led to discontinue its further development...
November 11, 2016: Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27761646/-viral-arthritis-and-vasculitis
#6
U Sixdorf, E Märker-Hermann
Viral arthritis and vasculitis are important differential diagnoses primarily in patients with acute polyarticular arthritis in association with fever and rash, in populations specially at risk and in returning travellers. Parvovirus B19 is the most frequent cause of viral arthritis in Europe, whereas rubella, hepatitis B and C viruses have become less common. Due to worldwide tourism arthritogenic alphaviruses, which are transmitted by mosquito vectors have come into the focus of tropical medicine and rheumatology...
November 2016: Zeitschrift Für Rheumatologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27747727/a-suspected-case-of-efavirenz-induced-stevens-johnson-syndrome
#7
Sabyasachi Paik, Agnik Pal, Sukanta Sen, Netai Pramanick, Santanu K Tripathi
A 23-year-old human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected Indian woman was admitted to a tertiary care hospital with generalized erythematosus rash all over her body with difficulty in swallowing for the previous 3 days. She also presented with swelling of the lips and redness of both eyes along with nausea, anorexia, slight headache, and fever, which appeared immediately after the initiation of a new regime of antiretroviral treatment with tenofovir (300 mg once daily), lamivudine (300 mg once daily), and efavirenz (600 mg once daily)...
December 2015: Drug Safety—Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27716093/effectiveness-and-safety-of-generic-version-of-abacavir-lamivudine-and-efavirenz-in-treatment-na%C3%A3-ve-hiv-infected-patients-a-nonrandomized-open-label-phase-iv-study-in-cali-colombia-2011-2012
#8
Jaime Galindo, Pedro Amariles, Héctor F Mueses-Marín, Jaime A Hincapié, Sebastián González-Avendaño, Ximena Galindo-Orrego
BACKGROUND: Generic drug policies are often associated with concerns about the quality and effectiveness of these products. Phase IV clinical trials may be a suitable design to assess the effectiveness and safety of generic drugs. The objective of this study was to describe the effectiveness and the safety of the generic abacavir/lamivudine and efavirenz in treatment-naïve HIV-infected patients. METHODS: A monocentric, nonrandomized, open-label, phase IV study in treatment naïve HIV-infected patients 18 years or older with indication to receive abacavir/lamivudine and efavirenz were recruited from a program that provides comprehensive outpatient consultation and continuing care...
October 3, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27681148/adverse-drug-reactions-associated-with-antiretroviral-therapy-in-south-africa
#9
Sumeshni Birbal, Mukesh Dheda, Elizabeth Ojewole, Frasia Oosthuizen
South Africa has one of the highest prevalences of HIV and AIDS in the world. HIV/AIDS patients face countless challenges, one of which is the risk of adverse drug reactions (ADRs). This study aimed to describe the ADRs reported in South Africa with reference to the type of ADRs, antiretrovirals (ARVs) implicated, seriousness of the ADRs and patient demographics associated with specific ADRs. A retrospective quantitative study was carried out using ADR reports submitted to the National Department of Health (NDoH) from 1 January 2010 to 31 December 2014...
September 2016: African Journal of AIDS Research: AJAR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27566775/immune-reconstitution-inflammatory-syndrome-associated-with-secondary-syphilis
#10
Simona Frunza-Stefan, Gyanendra Acharya, Viktoryia Kazlouskaya, Paunel Vukasinov, Yushan Chiou, Zeyar Thet
Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) is a condition associated with paradoxical worsening and/or new onset of an opportunistic infection in HIV patients following the initiation of anti-retroviral therapy or switching to more potent antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimen. Although IRIS associated with many opportunistic infections (OIs) has been well reported, syphilis has very rarely been mentioned in this regard. A 52-year-old male, diagnosed with AIDS six weeks ago, presented with the disseminated non-pruritic painless skin rash...
August 26, 2016: International Journal of STD & AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27565715/immunogenicity-of-trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole-in-a-macaque-model-of-hiv-infection
#11
Yat Yee Wong, Eva G Rakasz, David J Gasper, Thomas C Friedrich, Lauren A Trepanier
BACKGROUND: Sulfonamide hypersensitivity has a high incidence in HIV infection and correlates with low CD4+ counts, but the mechanisms are not understood. The aims of this study were to determine whether trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX) led to SMX adduct formation, immunogenicity, or signs of drug hypersensitivity in SIV-infected rhesus macaques, and whether differences in antioxidants, pro-inflammatory mediators, or SMX disposition were predictive of drug immunogenicity. METHODS: Nine macaques chronically infected with SIVmac239 and 7 non-infected controls were studied...
August 10, 2016: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27530904/a-severe-hypersensitivity-reaction-to-abacavir-following-re-challenge
#12
Sej Todd, C R Emerson
We report this case to highlight the possibility of a severe hypersensitivity reaction as an important potential consequence of couples, living with HIV, sharing anti-retroviral treatment. An HIV-1 positive and carrier of HLA-B*57:01 allele, treatment experienced man was commenced one pill Regimen Stribild (tenofovir, emtricitabine, elvitegravir and cobicistat) in July 2015. On running short of medication, he admitted to sharing his partner's treatment (Triumeq; abacavir, lamivudine and dolutegravir). On the second occasion, re-introduction resulted in whole body rash 4 h post dose and was associated with fever, respiratory symptoms, headache and vomiting...
August 16, 2016: International Journal of STD & AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27516418/acquired-immune-deficiency-syndrome-in-differential-diagnosis-of-hyper-ige-immunoglobulinemia-pediatric-case-report
#13
Manolya Acar, Murat Sutcu, Ozge Umur, Hacer Akturk, Selda Hancerli Torun, Zeynep Tamay, Nuran Salman, Ayper Somer
Acquired immune deficiency syndrome can be encountered with hypereosinophilia and hyperimmunoglobulin E (hyper-IgE) values, though these levels are rarely so high to be compared with hyperimmunoglobulin E syndrome. A 9-year-old boy presented with the complaint of fatigue, weakness, weight loss and generalized pruritic rash lasting for a year. He had frequent respiratory tract infections, wheezing episodes and urticarial skin lesions before that. On admission, he was cachectic and he had generalized lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, oral moniliasis and pruritic rash all over his body...
August 10, 2016: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27498720/key-toxicity-issues-with-the-who-recommended-first-line-antiretroviral-therapy-regimen
#14
Johannes P Mouton, Karen Cohen, Gary Maartens
Introduction WHO recommends tenofovir, efavirenz, and lamivudine or emtricitabine for first-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) in adults, which replaced more toxic regimens using stavudine, zidovudine or nevirapine. Areas covered We searched Pubmed to identify observational studies and randomized controlled trials reporting toxicity of these antiretrovirals published between 2011 and 2016, and hand-searched abstracts presented at major HIV conferences in 2015 and 2016, focusing on data from sub-Saharan Africa...
August 6, 2016: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27419190/therapeutic-trial-of-rifabutin-after-rifampicin-associated-dress-syndrome-in-tuberculosis-human-immunodeficiency-virus-coinfected-patients
#15
Rannakoe J Lehloenya, Sipho Dlamini, Rudzani Muloiwa, Betty Kakande, Mzudumile R Ngwanya, Gail Todd, Keertan Dheda
Elimination of a rifamycin from the treatment regimen for tuberculosis negatively impacts outcomes. Cross-reactivity between the rifamycins after drug eruptions is unclear. We report 6 consecutive human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients with rifampicin-associated drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) syndrome confirmed on diagnostic rechallenge. The patients subsequently tolerated rifabutin. These data inform clinical management of tuberculosis-associated drug reactions.
September 2016: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27353303/a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-the-relative-efficacy-and-safety-of-treatment-regimens-for-hiv-associated-cerebral-toxoplasmosis-is-trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole-a-real-option
#16
A V Hernandez, P Thota, D Pellegrino, V Pasupuleti, V A Benites-Zapata, A Deshpande, A C Penalva de Oliveira, J E Vidal
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis of the literature to evaluate the efficacy and safety of therapies for cerebral toxoplasmosis in HIV-infected adults. The pyrimethamine plus sulfadiazine (P-S) combination is considered the mainstay therapy for cerebral toxoplasmosis and pyrimethamine plus clindamycin (P-C) is the most common alternative treatment. Although trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) has potential advantages, its use is infrequent...
June 28, 2016: HIV Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27265353/daily-co-trimoxazole-prophylaxis-to-prevent-mortality-in-children-with-complicated-severe-acute-malnutrition-a-multicentre-double-blind-randomised-placebo-controlled-trial
#17
James A Berkley, Moses Ngari, Johnstone Thitiri, Laura Mwalekwa, Molline Timbwa, Fauzat Hamid, Rehema Ali, Jimmy Shangala, Neema Mturi, Kelsey D J Jones, Hassan Alphan, Beatrice Mutai, Victor Bandika, Twahir Hemed, Ken Awuondo, Susan Morpeth, Samuel Kariuki, Gregory Fegan
BACKGROUND: Children with complicated severe acute malnutrition (SAM) have a greatly increased risk of mortality from infections while in hospital and after discharge. In HIV-infected children, mortality and admission to hospital are prevented by daily co-trimoxazole prophylaxis, despite locally reported bacterial resistance to co-trimoxazole. We aimed to assess the efficacy of daily co-trimoxazole prophylaxis on survival in children without HIV being treated for complicated SAM. METHODS: We did a multicentre, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled study in four hospitals in Kenya (two rural hospitals in Kilifi and Malindi, and two urban hospitals in Mombasa and Nairobi) with children aged 60 days to 59 months without HIV admitted to hospital and diagnosed with SAM...
July 2016: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27228275/risk-factors-associated-with-the-ophthalmoscopic-findings-identified-in-infants-with-presumed-zika-virus-congenital-infection
#18
Camila V Ventura, Mauricio Maia, Simone B Travassos, Thayze T Martins, Felipe Patriota, Marcos Eugênio Nunes, Cristiana Agra, Virginia L Torres, Vanessa van der Linden, Regina C Ramos, Maria Ângela W Rocha, Paula S Silva, Liana O Ventura, Rubens Belfort
IMPORTANCE: The Zika virus (ZIKV) might cause microcephaly and ophthalmoscopic findings in infants of mothers infected during pregnancy. OBJECTIVE: To assess and identify possible risk factors for ophthalmoscopic findings in infants born with microcephaly and a presumed clinical diagnosis of ZIKV intrauterine infection. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: We conducted a cross-sectional study at the Altino Ventura Foundation in Recife, Brazil, that included 40 infants with microcephaly born in Pernambuco state, Brazil, between May and December 2015...
August 1, 2016: JAMA Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27227446/histoplasma-capsulatum-sinusitis-possible-way-of-revelation-to-the-disseminated-form-of-histoplasmosis-in-hiv-patients-case-report-and-literature-review
#19
R Elansari, R Abada, S Rouadi, M Roubal, M Mahtar
INTRODUCTION: Histoplasma capsulatum is rarely found in nose and sinuses in immunocompetent and even in immunosupressed patients. A literature review revealed rare cases of H. capsulatum sinusitis and the case we describe in this paper is the first case of H. capsulatum sinusitis in Morocco. The purpose of our work is to present a rare case of H. capsulatum sinusitis and a literature review. CASE REPORT: A male patient, at his 39 presented to the emergency with suffered from nasal congestion and yellow postnasal rhinorrhea, occasional headaches and epistaxis for over than two months...
2016: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27176753/patterns-of-adverse-drug-reaction-signals-in-nafdac-pharmacovigilance-activities-from-september-to-november-2014
#20
Olufunsho Awodele, Ali Ibrahim, Paul Orhii
BACKGROUND: Adverse drug reaction signals are reported information on possible causal relationships between an adverse event and a drug. The National Pharmacovigilance Centre (NPC) in Nigeria has over 3,000 reported adverse drug reaction cases which have been adequately entered into the ADR data bank. OBJECTIVE: Data mining of ADR reports from September to November, 2014 were carried out in this present study with the intention to describe the pattern of ADRs and generate possible signals...
March 16, 2016: International Journal of Risk & Safety in Medicine
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