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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936916/bayesian-quantile-regression-based-partially-linear-mixed-effects-joint-models-for-longitudinal-data-with-multiple-features
#1
Hanze Zhang, Yangxin Huang, Wei Wang, Henian Chen, Barbara Langland-Orban
In longitudinal AIDS studies, it is of interest to investigate the relationship between HIV viral load and CD4 cell counts, as well as the complicated time effect. Most of common models to analyze such complex longitudinal data are based on mean-regression, which fails to provide efficient estimates due to outliers and/or heavy tails. Quantile regression-based partially linear mixed-effects models, a special case of semiparametric models enjoying benefits of both parametric and nonparametric models, have the flexibility to monitor the viral dynamics nonparametrically and detect the varying CD4 effects parametrically at different quantiles of viral load...
January 1, 2017: Statistical Methods in Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931369/acute-hiv-infection-presenting-as-hemophagocytic-lymphohistiocytosis-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#2
Farheen Manji, Evan Wilson, Etienne Mahe, John Gill, John Conly
BACKGROUND: Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is an uncommon systemic inflammatory condition that can result from infections, autoimmune diseases and malignancies. It is a rarely reported life threatening complication of an acute HIV infection, with only ten documented case reports per our literature search. We present a case of HLH secondary to acute HIV infection with a negative HIV antibody-based assay and high plasma viral load. CASE PRESENTATION: A 45 year old male with a past medical history of well controlled hypertension presented with fever, dizziness and non-bloody diarrhea...
September 20, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930847/guillain-barr%C3%A3-like-axonal-polyneuropathy-associated-with-toscana-virus-infection-a-case-report
#3
Eugenia Rota, Nicola Morelli, Paolo Immovilli, Paola De Mitri, Donata Guidetti
RATIONALE: Numerous cases of post-infectious Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) have been reported in the literature. Toscana virus (TOSV) is an arthropod-borne emerging pathogen in the Mediterranean area. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 40-year-old male patient was admitted to hospital for acute facial weakness, associated to numbness paraesthesias at lower and upper limbs. The neurological examination revealed facial diplegia and reduced tendon reflexes. The nerve conduction studies documented an acute motor and sensory axonal neuropathy (AMSAN); the lumbar puncture detected albuminocytologic dissociation...
September 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928997/neurosyphilis-with-concomitant-cryptococcal-and-tuberculous-meningitis-in-a-patient-with-aids-report-of-a-unique-case
#4
Jose Armando Gonzales Zamora, Luis Alberto Espinoza, Rita N Nwanyanwu
Meningitis in individuals living with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is most frequently infectious in origin and usually due to opportunistic infections. The most common pathogens are Cryptococcus neoformans and Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Treponema pallidum causes neurosyphilis and can complicate HIV infections at any time after the initial infection. Simultaneous infections of the central nervous system caused by these pathogens are very uncommon even in the setting of severe immunosuppression...
2017: Case Reports in Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921009/radiation-overexposure-from-repeated-ct-scans-in-young-adults-with-acute-abdominal-pain
#5
Massimo Tonolini, Elena Valconi, Angelo Vanzulli, Roberto Bianco
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to assess the dose of ionizing radiation caused by repeated CT scans performed to investigate non-traumatic acute abdominal conditions in young adults. METHODS: Over 26 months, we collected a cohort of patients aged 18 to 45 years who were subject to at least one urgent contrast-enhanced abdomen/pelvis CT. Patients affected with urolithiasis, HIV infection, tumors, and vascular and chronic inflammatory bowel diseases were excluded...
September 18, 2017: Emergency Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919116/global-regional-and-national-age-sex-specific-mortality-for-264-causes-of-death-1980-2016-a-systematic-analysis-for-the-global-burden-of-disease-study-2016
#6
(no author information available yet)
BACKGROUND: Monitoring levels and trends in premature mortality is crucial to understanding how societies can address prominent sources of early death. The Global Burden of Disease 2016 Study (GBD 2016) provides a comprehensive assessment of cause-specific mortality for 264 causes in 195 locations from 1980 to 2016. This assessment includes evaluation of the expected epidemiological transition with changes in development and where local patterns deviate from these trends. METHODS: We estimated cause-specific deaths and years of life lost (YLLs) by age, sex, geography, and year...
September 16, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913726/diagnosis-and-treatment-of-progressive-multifocal-leukoencephalopathy-associated-with-multiple-sclerosis-therapies
#7
REVIEW
Eric M L Williamson, Joseph R Berger
Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) is a rare, but serious, complication encountered in patients treated with a select number of disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) utilized in treating multiple sclerosis (MS). PML results from a viral infection in the brain for which the only demonstrated effective therapy is restoring the perturbed immune system-typically achieved in the patient with MS by removing the offending therapeutic agent or, in the case of HIV-associated PML, treatment with highly active antiretroviral therapies...
September 14, 2017: Neurotherapeutics: the Journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28906279/the-value-of-point-of-care-cd4-and-laboratory-viral-load-in-tailoring-antiretroviral-therapy-monitoring-strategies-to-resource-limitations
#8
Emily P Hyle, Ilesh V Jani, Katherine L Rosettie, Robin Wood, Benjamin Osher, Stephen Resch, Pamela P Pei, Paolo Maggiore, Kenneth A Freedberg, Trevor Peter, Robert A Parker, Rochelle P Walensky
OBJECTIVE: To examine the clinical and economic value of point-of-care CD4 (POC-CD4) or viral load monitoring compared with current practices in Mozambique, a country representative of the diverse resource limitations encountered by HIV treatment programs in sub-Saharan Africa. DESIGN/METHODS: We use the Cost-Effectiveness of Preventing AIDS Complications-International model to examine the clinical impact, cost (2014 US$), and incremental cost-effectiveness ratio [$/year of life saved (YLS)] of ART monitoring strategies in Mozambique...
September 24, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904453/hospital-based-retrospective-study-of-cryptococcal-meningitis-in-a-large-cohort-from-india
#9
Karkal Ravishankar Naik, Aralikatte Onkarappa Saroja, Darshan Kiran Doshi
BACKGROUND: Cryptococcal meningitis is an important and a fatal neuroinfection. Early diagnosis and treatment is of utmost importance in reducing morbidity and mortality. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data of patients with laboratory-confirmed cryptococcal meningitis seen in tertiary care hospital were reviewed. Details of demographic profile, clinical data, laboratory parameters, complications, and in-hospital mortality were studied. RESULTS: Among 97 patients with cryptococcal meningitis (79 men, 18 women), 88 were HIV-positive, two were diabetic, and seven were sporadic...
July 2017: Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902721/hiv-associated-pulmonary-hypertension
#10
Harish Jarrett, Christopher Barnett
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: HIV-associated pulmonary arterial hypertension (HIV-PAH) is a well-recognized severe cardiovascular complication of HIV infection that confers an adverse prognosis irrespective of the stage of disease. This review will summarize the available data on HIV-PAH epidemiology and provide insights into the pathophysiology and therapeutic strategies currently available. RECENT FINDINGS: Patients with HIV are several thousand times more likely to develop HIV-PAH compared to the incidence of idiopathic PAH...
September 11, 2017: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902293/characterization-of-leishmania-l-infantum-chagasi-in-visceral-leishmaniasis-associated-with-hiv-co-infection-in-northeastern-brazil
#11
Elaine Cristina Bomfim de Lima, Walter Lins Barbosa, Maria Edileuza Felinto de Brito, Fábio Lopes de Melo, Sinval Pinto Brandão, Zulma Maria de Medeiros
Visceral leishmaniasis, associated with HIV/AIDS coinfection, is becoming a more aggressive disease, complicating an accurate prognosis. A 21-year-old HIV-positive female presenting with clinical features of visceral leishmaniasis was enrolled in this study. Bone marrow cytology, Novy-MacNeal-Nicolle culture and kDNA PCR of peripheral blood were all positive. Typing methods, multilocus enzyme electrophoresis and ITS1-RFLP PCR of peripheral blood confirmed infection by Leishmania (L.) infantum chagasi . PCR has proved to be safer and more affordable than other characterization methods; ITS1-RFLP PCR can diagnose and type Leishmania spp...
August 24, 2017: Revista do Instituto de Medicina Tropical de São Paulo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898704/interpretation-of-indeterminate-hiv-1-pcr-results-are-influenced-by-changing-vertical-transmission-prevention-regimens
#12
Jean Maritz, Jayshree Narvin Maharaj, Mark Frederic Cotton, Wolfgang Preiser
BACKGROUND: Suppression of HIV by antiretroviral drugs may be one of the reasons that indeterminate HIV-1 PCR results are obtained from testing HIV-exposed infants. This complicates the early identification of infected infants, potentially delaying initiating treatment early. There is uncertainty as to how different vertical HIV transmission prevention regimens (VTP) affect the rate and predictive value of indeterminate PCR results. OBJECTIVES: To investigate rates of indeterminate PCR results, outcomes of subsequent samples and the predictive value of an indeterminate PCR for a later positive result in the setting of intensifying VTP in the Western Cape province of South Africa...
September 9, 2017: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895024/tuberculosis-meningitis
#13
REVIEW
Kassem Bourgi, Christina Fiske, Timothy R Sterling
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: As the most severe form of tuberculosis (TB), TB meningitis disproportionately affects developing countries and results in significant morbidity and mortality. In this report, we review recent updates in the epidemiology, diagnosis, and management of TB meningitis. RECENT FINDINGS: Young children and people living with HIV continue to be at highest risk for TB meningitis. Early diagnosis remains challenging, especially since conventional diagnostic tests have sub-optimal sensitivity and specificity...
September 11, 2017: Current Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893009/intracranial-aneurysms-involving-circle-of-willis-in-a-child-with-human-immunodeficiency-virus-associated-vasculitis-a-rare-case-report
#14
Amol Madanlal Lahoti, Abhijit Kishor Taori, Avinash Parashuram Dhok, Jitesh Subhash Rawat, Nihar Umakant Chandak
Intracranial Arterial Aneurysms (IAAs) are relatively rare in paediatric population and they account for at least 10%-15% of haemorrhagic strokes which occur during the first two decades of life. Here we present a unique and unusual case of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infected child who presented with intracranial aneurysms with formation of collaterals and vasculopathy, demonstrating low viral count despite receiving adequate antiretroviral treatment. Intracranial vascular involvement, their complications and its incidence in these patients may become increasingly common as the management of human immunodeficiency virus infection continues to improve and afflicted patients survive for longer periods because of advancement in the antiretroviral treatment...
July 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885079/a-review-of-renal-disease-in-children-with-hiv-infection
#15
Ankur Kumar Jindal, Karalanglin Tiewsoh, Rakesh Kumar Pilania
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection continues to be a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. HIV-infected individuals are now surviving for a relatively longer period and this is because of easy accessibility to antiretroviral therapy these days. As a result, chronic disease-related complications are now being recognized more often. Kidney disease in HIV-infected children can vary from glomerular to tubular-interstitial involvement. We searched the database to identify various kidney diseases seen in HIV-infected children...
September 8, 2017: Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884052/colovesical-fistula-an-unusual-complication-of-cytomegalovirus-colitis
#16
Talal Asif, Badar Hasan, Alisa Likhitsup, David Bamberger
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is a double-stranded DNA virus that is associated with clinically significant disease in patients with advanced immunosuppression, particularly those with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). End-organ disease with CMV is classically associated with a CD4 cell count less than 50 cells/microliter. CMV colitis is the second most common manifestation of end-organ disease in this patient population. CMV-associated enteric fistula is a rare complication that has been described in only a few case reports in the literature...
July 5, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28879787/moving-forward-with-treatment-options-for-hiv-infected-children
#17
Jean-Christophe Beghin, Jean Cyr Yombi, Jean Ruelle, Dimitri Van der Linden
Current international guidelines recommend to treat all HIV-1 infected patients regardless of CD4 cell count. Despite the remarkable worldwide progress for universal access to antiretroviral during the last decade, the pediatric population remains fragile due to lack of randomized studies, inappropriate antiretroviral formulations, adherence difficulties, drug toxicity and development of resistance. Areas covered: This review summarizes the latest recommendations and advances for the treatment of HIV-infected children and highlights the potential complications of a lifelong antiretroviral treatment initiated early in life...
September 7, 2017: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876686/management-of-failed-mitral-valve-replacement-the-durban-experience
#18
D Kistan, M Booysen, G Alexander, T E Madiba
BACKGROUND: Mitral valve replacement is the procedure of choice in patients with severe mitral valve disease. However, these patients are surviving longer and are thus at an increased risk of prosthesis failure or valve-related complications. METHOD: Study setting: Inkosi Albert Luthuli Central Hospital, a tertiary referral Hospital in Durban. Study population: All patients undergoing redo mechanical mitral valve replacement surgery between January 2005 and December 2014...
June 2017: South African Journal of Surgery. Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Chirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876584/hydatid-disease-in-south-africa-is-it-a-different-disease-in-patients-with-hiv-co-infection
#19
C Kloppers, K Couzens-Bohlin, M Bernon, S Burmeister, S Beningfield, U Kotze, J Krige, E Jonas
BACKGROUND: Echinococcus granulosus remains a clinical problem in rural sheep-farming communities, with HIV co-infection often seen in patients from endemic regions. METHOD: Data from a prospective database was used to identify patients with and without HIV co-infection that underwent surgery for hepatic hydatid disease between 2012 and 2017. Clinical presentation, preoperative intervention, surgical treatment, postoperative mortality and morbidity are reported according to the Accordion severity score...
September 2017: South African Journal of Surgery. Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Chirurgie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28876552/breast-cancer-and-hiv-a-south-african-perspective-and-a-critical-review-of-the-literature
#20
P Reddy, S Ebrahim, B Singh, S Ramklass, I Buccimazza
BACKGROUND: The diagnosis of breast cancer and concurrent HIV in South Africa is common. The limited current evidence on this subject suggests that the patients thus afflicted appear to be younger, have a more advanced stage of breast cancer, have a higher treatment related complications and poorer outcomes. This paper reviews the literature related to HIV and breast cancer, with a view to improving the standard and quality of care of HIV positive breast cancer patients. METHOD: Pubmed, EBSCOhost, Google scholar and Science Direct electronic databases were searched from 2001 and 2015...
March 2017: South African Journal of Surgery. Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Chirurgie
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