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AIDS & skin

Molly C Womack, Jakob Christensen-Dalsgaard, Luis A Coloma, Kim L Hoke
Harlequin frogs, genus Atelopus , communicate at high frequencies despite most species lacking a complete tympanic middle ear that facilitates high frequency hearing in most anurans and other tetrapods. Here we test whether Atelopus are better at sensing high frequency acoustic sound compared to other eared and earless species in the Bufonidae family, determine whether middle ear variation within Atelopus affects hearing sensitivity, and test potential hearing mechanisms in Atelopus We determine that at high frequencies (2000-4000 Hz) Atelopus are 10-34 dB more sensitive than other earless bufonids but are relatively insensitive to mid-range frequencies (900-1500 Hz) compared to eared bufonids...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Khushboo Lath, Debajyoti Chatterjee, Uma Nahar Saikia, Biman Saikia, Ranjana Minz, Dipankar De, Sanjeev Handa, Bishan Radotra
Skin is commonly affected by vasculitic process and often subjected to biopsy. Cutaneous vasculitis can be either primary or part of a systemic vasculitic process. This study was conducted to evaluate the diagnostic utility of direct immunofluorescence (DIF) in determination of etiology of cutaneous vasculitis. All histologically proven cases of cutaneous vasculitis over the past two and half years were retrospectively analyzed along with their clinical and DIF findings (IgG, IgA, IgM, and C3). Within this study period, a total of 198 cases of small-vessel vasculitis were diagnosed based on skin biopsy and DIF findings...
April 17, 2018: American Journal of Dermatopathology
Carolina Der, Sofía Bravo-Torres, Nicolás Pons
AIM: The aim of this study is to present the middle fossa technique (MFT) as an alternative for patients who cannot undergo traditional surgery for active transcutaneous bone conduction implants (ATBCI) due to their altered anatomy or desire for future aesthetic reconstruction. DESIGN: A case series descriptive study was designed. The MFT was developed. Preoperative and postoperative information from 24 patients with external auditory canal atresia (EACA) and implanted with ATBCI was reviewed...
April 16, 2018: Otology & Neurotology
Shih-Yi Chuang, Chih-Hung Lin, Calvin T Sung, Jia-You Fang
Psoriasis is an autoimmune skin disease characterized by red plaques with silver or white multilayered scales with a thickened acanthotic epidermis. Using mouse models of cutaneous inflammation, IL-23/Th17 was identified to have a potential key role in psoriasis. New treatments to slow this inflammatory skin disorder are urgently needed. To aid their discovery, a psoriasis animal model mimicking human psoriasis is urgently needed for their early preclinical evaluation. Areas covered: The authors review animal models of psoriasis and analyze the features and molecular mechanisms involved in these mouse models...
April 17, 2018: Expert Opinion on Drug Discovery
Hsin Hsiu, Chao-Tsung Chen, Shuo-Hui Hung, Guan-Zhang Chen, Yu-Ling Huang
BACKGROUND: There is an urgent need to improve the early diagnosis of breast cancer. OBJECTIVE: The present study applied spectral and beat-to-beat analyses to laser-Doppler (LDF) data sequences measured on the skin surface on the back of the right hands, with the aim of comparing the different peripheral microcirculatory-blood-flow (MBF) perfusion condition between breast-cancer and control subjects. METHODS: ECG and LDF signals were obtained simultaneously and noninvasively from 23 breast-cancer patients and 23 age-matched control subjects...
April 13, 2018: Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation
Pukhraz Basra, Juan Paramo, John Alexis
Kaposi sarcoma is an oligoclonal HHV8-driven vascular proliferation that was first described in 1872 as an "idiopathic multiple pigmented sarcoma of the skin" by a Viennese dermatologist Dr. Moriz Kaposi (1).
April 16, 2018: Journal of Cutaneous Pathology
Xi Wang, Xiaohong Shu, Lin Zou, Zhaoxia Li, Li Li
A 12-day cumulative irritancy patch test is available for predicting skin irritation potential. This study is important to determine the ideal patch type to be used in the irritancy patch test. This study was conducted to determine the cumulative skin irritation potential of five different patch types using predictive patch test techniques. Five types of patches were tested in a 12 day repeated insult test. The patch types were Hill Top Chamber occlusive, Finn Chamber occlusive, Band-Aid semiocclusive, Webril® semiocclusive, and Webril® occlusive...
January 2018: Journal of Cosmetic Science
Sheau-Chung Tang, Jen-Hung Yang
AHAs are organic acids with one hydroxyl group attached to the alpha position of the acid. AHAs including glycolic acid, lactic acid, malic acid, tartaric acid, and citric acid are often used extensively in cosmetic formulations. AHAs have been used as superficial peeling agents as well as to ameliorate the appearance of keratoses and acne in dermatology. However, caution should be exercised in relation to certain adverse reactions among patients using products with AHAs, including swelling, burning, and pruritus...
April 10, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Kenji Izuhara, Yukie Yamaguchi, Shoichiro Ohta, Satoshi Nunomura, Yasuhiro Nanri, Yoshinori Azuma, Noriko Nomura, Yasuhiko Noguchi, Michiko Aihara
Squamous cell carcinoma antigens 1 and 2 (SCCA1 and 2, SERPIN B3 and B4), members of the ovalbumin serpin (ov-serpin)/clade B serpin family, were originally discovered as tumor-specific antigens and are used as tumor markers for various kinds of squamous cell carcinomas. Recently, our understanding of the underlying mechanisms of how SCCA1/2 enhance tumor growth has greatly increased. Moreover, it has been shown that SCCA1/2 are involved in the pathogenesis of several inflammatory diseases: asthma, psoriasis, and atopic dermatitis (AD)...
April 6, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Tessa Rose Flood
Menthol is a compound of plant origin and has recently been used to aid exercise performance in hot, humid environments. Menthol creates a sensation of coolness when applied to the skin or mucosal surfaces stimulating the cold receptors. In these environments, fatigue is known to be accelerated and feelings of being hot are one of the main contributors to the early onset of fatigue. However, current research indicates that nonthermal perceptual cooling interventions could alter behavior in the heat by reducing thermal perception...
April 2018: Current Sports Medicine Reports
Jacqueline F Lavallée, Trish A Gray, Jo Dumville, Nicky Cullum
BACKGROUND: Pressure ulcers are areas of localised damage to the skin and underlying tissue; and can cause pain, immobility, and delay recovery, impacting on health-related quality of life. The individuals who are most at risk of developing a pressure ulcer are those who are seriously ill, elderly, have impaired mobility and/or poor nutrition; thus, many nursing home residents are at risk. OBJECTIVES: To understand the context of pressure ulcer prevention in nursing homes and to explore the potential barriers and facilitators to evidence-informed practices...
January 4, 2018: International Journal of Nursing Studies
Shengbo Sang, Lihua Liu, Aoqun Jian, Qianqian Duan, Jianlong Ji, Qiang Zhang, Wendong Zhang
Here, we propose a highly sensitive and stretchable strain sensor based on silver nanoparticles and nanowires (Ag NPs & NWs) advancing the rapid development of the electronic skin. To improve the sensitivity of the strain sensor based on silver nanowires (Ag NWs), Ag NPs & NWs were added into the polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) as an aid filler. The silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) increase the conductive paths for electrons, leading to low resistance of the resulting sensor (14.9Ω). The Ag NPs & NWs based strain sensor has showed a strong piezoresistivity with tunable gauge factors (GF) at 3766, and a resistance change as the strain linearly increased from 0 to 28...
April 5, 2018: Nanotechnology
Tamar Weinberger, Scott Sicherer
Tree nut (TN) allergy is common and often severe. It has become an important health concern as availability and consumption have increased. Prevalence varies by age and geographic region and appears to have increased in children. Accidental ingestion of TNs is common. Unfortunately, there is a lower likelihood of resolution of TN allergy, roughly 10%. TN-specific skin tests and serum immunoglobulin E levels can help aid in the diagnosis of TN allergy, but a careful medical history is important because a positive test in isolation is not typically diagnostic...
2018: Journal of Asthma and Allergy
Jinwoo Kim, Woosuk Hwang
Varying degrees of complications can occur after hyaluronic acid filler injections. Tissue necrosis due to interruption of the vascular supply is an early complication that can be severe. If the site of tissue necrosis due to the filler injection is the forehead, successfully reconstructing the region without distorting the key landmarks is challenging. We describe the case of a 50-year-old man who experienced widespread forehead skin necrosis after hyaluronic acid filler injection in the glabellar area. We successfully covered the forehead area with a 3×4-cm2 midline necrotic tissue using the modified double-opposing rotation-advancement flap method...
March 2018: Archives of Craniofacial Surgery
Sara Giannantonio, Alessandro Scorpecci, Concettina Pacifico, Pasquale Marsella
OBJECTIVE: To compare anatomical and functional outcomes of two passive transcutaneous bone conduction implant systems: Sophono™ and BAHA Attract™. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty patients, affected by bilateral conductive hearing loss, underwent unilateral transcutaneous bone conduction implant surgery. Ten children received a Sophono™ implant (6 males, 4 females, mean age 11 years, mean unaided Pure Tone Average (PTA) 0.25-4kHz = 69.70dB HL) and 10 a BAHA Attract™ system (7 males, 3 females, mean age 19 years, mean unaided PTA0...
May 2018: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
O Okon, L Zhu, R M Kimble, K A Stockton
INTRODUCTION: Campfire burns in children are a significant health issue. It is imperative that the extent of the problem is examined and strategies discussed to inform future prevention campaigns. METHOD: A retrospective review of data from the Queensland Paediatric Burns Registry for all children presenting with campfire burns between January 2013 and December 2014 (inclusive). Information collected included patient demographics, detail regarding mechanism of injury, first aid, Total Body Surface Area (TBSA), burn depth, and treatment...
March 27, 2018: Burns: Journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries
Peng Shi, Jing Zhong, Andrik Rampun, Hui Wang
Breast cancer is one of the most common cancer risks to women in the world. Amongst multiple breast imaging modalities, mammography has been widely used in breast cancer diagnosis and screening. Quantitative analyses including breast boundary segmentation and calcification localization are essential steps in a Computer Aided Diagnosis system based on mammography analysis. Due to uneven signal spatial distributions of pectoral muscle and glandular tissue, plus various artifacts in imaging, it is still challenging to automatically analyze mammogram images with high precision...
March 16, 2018: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Suganya Ramalingam, Narasimhan Malathi, Harikrishnan Thamizhchelvan, Narasimhan Sangeetha, Sharada T Rajan
Introduction: Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a chronic T cell mediated disease of oral mucosa, skin, and its appendages with a prevalence of 0.5 to 2.6% worldwide. Oral lichenoid reactions (OLR) are a group of lesions with diverse aetiologies but have clinical and histological features similar to OLP, thereby posing a great challenge in differentiating both lesions. Mast cells are multifunctional immune cells that play a major role in the pathogenesis of lichen planus by release of certain chemical mediators...
2018: Autoimmune Diseases
Chanisa Kiatsurayanon, Hideoki Ogawa, Francois Niyonsaba
The epidermis functions as a first-line defense barrier that protects the body from the external environment. As a chemical hindrance, the epidermis possesses acidic pH, highly organized lipids and various host defense peptides, also known as antimicrobial peptides. Human -defensins (hBDs), one of the most important host defense peptide families found in our skin, are well-known for their broad-spectrum microbicidal activities. However, there is a growing body of evidence indicating that hBDs also orchestrate several immunomodulatory functions and are the cornerstone that bridges the innate and adaptive immune responses during skin inflammation and infection...
March 27, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Martyn L Chilton, Donna S Macmillan, Thomas Steger-Hartmann, Jedd Hillegass, Phillip Bellion, Anna Vuorinen, Sylvain Etter, Benjamin P C Smith, Angela White, Paul Sterchele, Ann De Smedt, Milica Glogovac, Susanne Glowienke, Devin O'Brien, Rahul Parakhia
A previously published fragmentation method for making reliable negative in silico predictions has been applied to the problem of predicting skin sensitisation in humans, making use of a dataset of over 2750 chemicals with publicly available skin sensitisation data from 18 in vivo assays. An assay hierarchy was designed to enable the classification of chemicals within this dataset as either sensitisers or non-sensitisers where data from more than one in vivo test was available. The negative prediction approach was validated internally, using a 5-fold cross-validation, and externally, against a proprietary dataset of approximately 1000 chemicals with in vivo reference data shared by members of the pharmaceutical, nutritional, and personal care industries...
March 23, 2018: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
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