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AIDS & skin

Tamsin Phillips, Annibale Cois, Robert H Remien, Claude A Mellins, James A McIntyre, Greg Petro, Elaine J Abrams, Landon Myer
BACKGROUND: Antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimens containing efavirenz (EFV) are recommended as part of universal ART for pregnant and breastfeeding women. EFV may have appreciable side effects (SE), and ART adherence in pregnancy is a major concern, but little is known about ART SE and associations with adherence in pregnancy. METHODS: We investigated the distribution of patient-reported SE (based on Division of AIDS categories) and the association of SE with missed ART doses in a cohort of 517 women starting EFV+3TC/FTC+TDF during pregnancy...
2016: PloS One
Yalcin Yontar, Atilla Coruh, Nadire Dinc, Olgun Kontas
Early tangential excision of the burn wound is essential for removal of necrotic tissue and promotion of burn wound healing process. However, the depth of the burn wound is not easily assessed during the tangential excision performed by hand-held dermatomes, and it may be possible to excise unburned vital dermis unnecessarily, which aids in primary epithelization of the burn wound by adnexal structures. We herein present early clinical results of steel wool-aided dermabrasion in patients with deep partial-thickness burns...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Burn Care & Research: Official Publication of the American Burn Association
Hagit Peleg, Eldad Ben-Chetrit
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This article addresses the prevalence and relationship between autoinflammatory diseases and vasculitis. RECENT FINDINGS: Autoimmune diseases (AIDs) are a group of syndromes characterized by episodes of unprovoked inflammation due to dysregulation of the innate immune system. Despite the common occurrence of rashes and other skin lesions in these diseases, vasculitis is reported in only a few. On the other hand, neutrophilic dermatoses are more prevalent...
October 13, 2016: Current Opinion in Rheumatology
Katherine C Konvinse, Elizabeth J Phillips, Katie D White, Jason A Trubiano
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Antimicrobials are a leading cause of severe T cell-mediated adverse drug reactions (ADRs). The purpose of this review is to address the current understanding of antimicrobial cross-reactivity and the ready availability of and evidence for in-vitro, in-vivo, and ex-vivo diagnostics for T cell-mediated ADRs. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent literature has evaluated the efficacy of traditional antibiotic allergy management, including patch testing, skin prick testing, intradermal testing, and oral challenge...
October 7, 2016: Current Opinion in Infectious Diseases
Jack R Staunton, Wilfred Vieira, King Leung Fung, Ross Lake, Alexus Devine, Kandice Tanner
One of the hallmarks of the malignant transformation of epithelial tissue is the modulation of stromal components of the microenvironment. In particular, aberrant extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling and stiffening enhances tumor growth and survival and promotes metastasis. Type I collagen is one of the major ECM components. It serves as a scaffold protein in the stroma contributing to the tissue's mechanical properties, imparting tensile strength and rigidity to tissues such as those of the skin, tendons, and lungs...
September 2016: Cellular and Molecular Bioengineering
Annelisa Silva E Alves de Carvalho Santos, Erika Aparecida Silveira, Marianne de Oliveira Falco
This study aimed to estimate the incidence of gastrointestinal symptoms (GIS) and associated factors in an outpatient cohort of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) followed between October 2009 and July 2011. We evaluated nausea and/or vomiting, dyspepsia, heartburn, diarrhea, constipation, and flatulence. The outcome variable was the presence of three or more GIS. Sociodemographic (sex, skin color, age, income, years of schooling), lifestyle (smoking status, alcohol consumption, physical activity level), clinical (antiretroviral therapy, time of HIV infection, CD4 lymphocyte count, viral load), and anthropometric (nutritional status and waist circumference) variables were investigated...
2016: PloS One
Mitsuhiro Kamiyoshihara, Takashi Ibe, Natsuko Kawatani, Fumi Ohsawa, Ryohei Yoshikawa, Kimihiro Shimizu
BACKGROUND: Computed tomography (CT)-guided lung needle marking is useful to identify pulmonary nodules. However, certain complications sometimes trigger severe after-effects or death. So, we present a convenient and safe method by which small pulmonary nodules can be identified using a particular dye [2% (w/v) gentian violet]. METHODS: A patient is initially placed in the lateral operative position. Under CT guidance, a "magic marker" is used to identify the skin above the pulmonary nodule...
September 2016: Journal of Thoracic Disease
M A Landrum, N A Cox, D E Cosby, M E Berrang, S M Russell
New regulations and performance standards for Campylobacter have been implemented by the USDA - Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS). The objective of this study was to evaluate treatment with a low pH processing aid (CMS(1) PoultrypHresh), a formulated low pH processing aid, to reduce numbers of Campylobacter which could help companies meet regulatory requirements. Two experiments (3 replicates each) were conducted. Experiment 1, in each of 3 replicates, skin-on split chicken breasts (n = 15) were obtained from a local grocery and divided into groups of 5...
October 12, 2016: Poultry Science
Panagiotis A Dimitriadis, Matthew R Farr, Ahmed Allam, Jaydip Ray
BACKGROUND: Bone conduction devices are widely used and indicated in cases of conductive, mixed or single sided deafness where conventional hearing aids are not indicated or tolerated. Percutaneous bone-conduction devices gave satisfactory hearing outcomes but were frequently complicated by soft tissue reactions. Transcutaneous bone conduction devices were developed in order to address some of the issues related to the skin-penetrating abutment. The aim of this article is to present a systematic review of the indications, surgical technique and audiological, clinical and functional outcomes of the BAHA Attract device reported so far...
2016: BMC Ear, Nose, and Throat Disorders
Michelle S Y Ng, Alice Y W Foong, Mark J A Koh
INTRODUCTION: The development of cutaneous neoplasms at immunization sites following vaccination is uncommon, and only few have been reported in the literature worldwide. We report an unusual case of an ulcerated giant dermatofibroma that developed as a chronic nonhealing plaque in the immunization scar of a young boy after vaccination. CASE REPORT: A 13-month-old Chinese boy presented with an unusual skin reaction on the vaccination site at the right anterolateral thigh following a routine intramuscular injection of '5-in-1' (diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, polio and Haemophilus influenzae B) vaccine at 4 months of age...
May 2016: Case Reports in Dermatology
Romain Didier, Marco A Magalhaes, Edward Koifman, Florent Leven, Philippe Castellant, Jacques Boschat, Yannic Jobic, Sarkis Kiramijyan, Pierre-Philippe Nicol, Martine Gilard
AIMS: The radiation exposure resulting from cardiovascular procedures may increase the risk of cancer, and/or cause skin injury. Whether the novel cardiovascular automated radiation reduction X-ray system (CARS) can help reduce the patient radiation dose in daily clinical practice remains unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the reduction in patient radiation dose with the use of CARS in the cardiac catheterisation laboratory (CCL). METHODS AND RESULTS: This study retrospectively analysed 1,403 consecutives patients who underwent a cardiac catheterisation with coronary angiography (CA) and/or a percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in the Brest University Hospital over the course of one year...
October 10, 2016: EuroIntervention
Vasileios Patris, Michalis Argiriou, Agni-Leila Salem, Konstantinos Giakoumidakis, Nikolaos G Baikoussis, Christos Charitos
Temporary epicardial pacing wires during open-heart surgery are routinely used both for diagnostic and treatment purposes. In complicated cases where patients are unstable or the wires are difficult to remove, the pacing wires are cut at the skin level and allowed to retract by themselves. This procedure rarely causes complications. However, there have been cases reporting that retained pacing wires are linked to the formation of sterno-bronchial fistulae, which may present a while after the date of operation and are usually infected...
October 2016: Annals of Cardiac Anaesthesia
Young Soon Cho, Young Hwan Choi
Tap water may not be readily available in numerous places as a first aid for burns and, therefore, tea tree oil products are recommended alternatives. Our aim in this study was to compare the cooling effects of three burn-cooling methodologies, running tap water, Burnshield(®), and Burn Cool Spray(®), and suggest indications for each cooling method. This randomized, controlled, study enrolled patients with burns who used the emergency service of Seoul Bestian Hospital from June 2015 to October 2015. The allocation of the cooling methods was randomly generated using a computer...
October 1, 2016: Burns: Journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries
May N Tsao, Emily Sinclair, Dalal Assaad, Jeff Fialkov, Oleh Antonyshyn, Elizabeth Barnes
OBJECTIVE: Kaposi sarcoma (KS) lesions are purplish, reddish blue or dark brown/black macules, plaques or nodules which involve the skin and occasionally internal organs. Most patients with KS have a long indolent chronic course. METHODS: A retrospective review was undertaken for all KS skin patients treated with radiotherapy at a tertiary cancer centre from Jan. 2, 1999 to Dec. 31, 2014 (inclusive). RESULTS: A total of 47 patients with KS (43 classical, 0 African, 1 iatrogenic, 3 AIDS related) were seen in the multidisciplinary clinic...
August 25, 2016: Annals of Palliative Medicine
Paolo Perna, Antonio Gioia, Riccardo Ragazzi, Carlo A Volta, Massimo Innamorato
BACKGROUND: Regional epidural analgesia is considered the gold standard for pain treatment in labour but the epidural catheter placement may be a difficult procedure because of the difficulty in anatomical landmarks palpation. These difficulties increase in pregnant women. Pre-procedure neuroaxial ultrasound may facilitate the procedure. METHODS: Prospectic randomized controlled study conducted in the Labour Ward. We randomized two groups of women undergoing epidural analgesia: Group A (28 patients), with loss of resistance technique and Group B (30 patients) with US assisted procedure...
October 4, 2016: Minerva Anestesiologica
Georgios Xirotagaros, Sergio Hernández-Ostiz, Juan Ignacio Aróstegui, Antonio Torrelo
Specific gene mutations leading to dysregulation of innate immune response produce the expanding spectrum of monogenic autoinflammatory diseases (AIDs). They are characterized by seemingly unprovoked, recurrent episodes of systemic inflammation in which a myriad of manifestations usually affect skin. Novel genetic technologies have led to the discovery of new AIDs and phenotypes that were not previously clinically described. Consequently the number of AIDs is continuously growing and their recognition and the disclosure of their pathophysiology will prompt early diagnosis and targeted treatment of affected patients...
October 4, 2016: Pediatric Dermatology
A Morales, M Pérez, P Castro, N Ibarra, H Bernal, L H Baumgard, M Cervantes
Heat stress (HS) appears to impair the pig's small intestine digestive and absorptive capacities and, therefore, may affect the AA digestibilities. A crossover-designed experiment was conducted utilizing two 7-d periods with 8 pigs (30.8 kg initial BW) surgically fitted with T-type cannulas at the terminal ileum to analyze the effect of HS on both apparent (AID) and standardized (SID) ileal digestibility of AA in pigs fed a wheat-soybean meal diet. Subcutaneous skin and ileal lumen temperatures were continuously monitored in 15-min intervals during the entire experiment...
August 2016: Journal of Animal Science
Wendy Chaboyer, Tracey Bucknall, Joan Webster, Elizabeth McInnes, Brigid M Gillespie, Merrilyn Banks, Jennifer A Whitty, Lukman Thalib, Shelley Roberts, Mandy Tallott, Nicky Cullum, Marianne Wallis
BACKGROUND: Hospital-acquired pressure ulcers are a serious patient safety concern, associated with poor patient outcomes and high healthcare costs. They are also viewed as an indicator of nursing care quality. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of a pressure ulcer prevention care bundle in preventing hospital-acquired pressure ulcers among at risk patients. DESIGN: Pragmatic cluster randomised trial. SETTING: Eight tertiary referral hospitals with >200 beds each in three Australian states...
September 23, 2016: International Journal of Nursing Studies
Eunice Song, Jane M Grant-Kels, Helen Swede, Jody L D'Antonio, Avery Lachance, Soheil S Dadras, Arni K Kristjansson, Katalin Ferenczi, Hanspaul S Makkar, Marti J Rothe
BACKGROUND: Several technologies have been developed to aid dermatologists in the detection of melanoma in vivo including dermoscopy, multispectral digital skin lesion analysis (MDSLA), and reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM). To our knowledge, there have been no studies directly comparing MDSLA and RCM. OBJECTIVE: We conducted a repeated measures analysis comparing the sensitivity and specificity of MDSLA and RCM in the detection of melanoma (n = 55 lesions from 36 patients)...
September 29, 2016: Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology
Dong-Hee Koh, Sang-Gil Lee, Hwan-Cheol Kim
OBJECTIVES: Chemical burns can lead to serious health outcomes. Previous studies about chemical burns have been performed based on burn center data so these studies have provided limited information about the incidence of chemical burns at the national level. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence and characteristics of chemical burns using nationwide databases. METHODS: A cohort representing the Korean population, which was established using a national health insurance database, and a nationwide workers' compensation database were used to evaluate the incidence and characteristics of chemical burns...
September 28, 2016: Burns: Journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries
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