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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822773/methodology-design-of-the-regional-sub-saharan-africa-total-diet-study-in-benin-cameroon-mali-and-nigeria
#1
Luc Ingenbleek, Eric Jazet, Anaclet D Dzossa, Samson B Adebayo, Julius Ogungbangbe, Sylvestre Dansou, Zima J Diallo, Christiant Kouebou, Abimbola Adegboye, Epiphane Hossou, Salimata Coulibaly, Sara Eyangoh, Bruno Le Bizec, Philippe Verger, Jean Kamanzi, Caroline Merten, Jean-Charles Leblanc
The core food model was described more than three decades ago, and has been used ever since to identify main food contributors to dietary intakes for both nutrients and other food chemicals. The Sub-Saharan Africa Total Diet Study (SSA-TDS) uses this model to describe the food consumption habits of some selected populations of Benin, Cameroon, Mali, and Nigeria, prior to use in the completion of quantitative risk assessments with regard to food chemicals. Food consumption data were derived from food expenditure data contained in national household budget surveys that were provided by the national institutes of statistics in each country...
August 16, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822206/prevalence-and-molecular-characterisation-of-schistosoma-haematobium-among-primary-school-children-in-kebbi-state-nigeria
#2
Shuaibu Umar, Saadatu Haruna Shinkafi, Shuaibu Abdullahi Hudu, Vasanthakumari Neela, Kumar Suresh, Syafinaz Amin Nordin, Osman Malina
Schistosomiasis is the major source of morbidity in Sub-Saharan Africa and Asia. It is estimated that 207 million people are infected, of which 97% are in Africa. The aim of this study was the determining of prevalence as well as the phylogeny of S. haematobium among school children in Argungu Emirate, Kebbi State Nigeria. A total of 325 urine samples was collected from school children between 7 to 14 years. S. heamatobium eggs was examined under dissecting microscope and DNA was extracted from urine sample and COX1 gene was amplified by nested PCR...
2017: Annals of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822011/part-i-the-emergence-of-degree-granting-biomedical-engineering-programs-in-sub-saharan-africa
#3
EDITORIAL
Brittany Ploss, William Reichert
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 18, 2017: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821264/impact-of-early-initiation-versus-national-standard-of-care-of-antiretroviral-therapy-in-swaziland-s-public-sector-health-system-study-protocol-for-a-stepped-wedge-randomized-trial
#4
Fiona J Walsh, Till Bärnighausen, Wim Delva, Yvette Fleming, Gavin Khumalo, Charlotte L Lejeune, Sikhathele Mazibuko, Charmaine Khudzie Mlambo, Ria Reis, Donna Spiegelman, Mandisa Zwane, Velephi Okello
BACKGROUND: There is robust clinical evidence to support offering early access to antiretroviral treatment (ART) to all HIV-positive individuals, irrespective of disease stage, to both improve patient health outcomes and reduce HIV incidence. However, as the global treatment guidelines shift to meet this evidence, it is still largely unknown if early access to ART for all (also referred to as "treatment as prevention" or "universal test and treat") is a feasible intervention in the resource-limited countries where this approach could have the biggest impact on the course of the HIV epidemics...
August 18, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820718/water-sanitation-and-hygiene-in-rural-health-care-facilities-a-cross-sectional-study-in-ethiopia-kenya-mozambique-rwanda-uganda-and-zambia
#5
Amy Guo, J Michael Bowling, Jamie Bartram, Georgia Kayser
Safe and sufficient water, sanitation, and hygiene (WaSH) prevent the spread of disease in health-care facilities (HCFs). Little research has been conducted on WaSH in HCF in sub-Saharan Africa. We carried out a cross-sectional study of WaSH in 1,318 randomly selected rural HCF (hospitals, health centers, health posts, and clinics) in regions throughout Ethiopia, Kenya, Mozambique, Rwanda, Uganda, and Zambia. Methods included questionnaires with head doctors and nurses to document WaSH access, continuity, quality, quantity and reliability, and analysis of drinking water samples for Escherichia coli...
July 31, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820705/the-impact-of-introducing-malaria-rapid-diagnostic-tests-on-fever-case-management-a-synthesis-of-ten-studies-from-the-act-consortium
#6
Katia J Bruxvoort, Baptiste Leurent, Clare I R Chandler, Evelyn K Ansah, Frank Baiden, Anders Björkman, Helen E D Burchett, Sîan E Clarke, Bonnie Cundill, Debora D DiLiberto, Kristina Elfving, Catherine Goodman, Kristian S Hansen, S Patrick Kachur, Sham Lal, David G Lalloo, Toby Leslie, Pascal Magnussen, Lindsay Mangham-Jefferies, Andreas Mårtensson, Ismail Mayan, Anthony K Mbonye, Mwinyi I Msellem, Obinna E Onwujekwe, Seth Owusu-Agyei, Mark W Rowland, Delér Shakely, Sarah G Staedke, Lasse S Vestergaard, Jayne Webster, Christopher J M Whitty, Virginia L Wiseman, Shunmay Yeung, David Schellenberg, Heidi Hopkins
Since 2010, the World Health Organization has been recommending that all suspected cases of malaria be confirmed with parasite-based diagnosis before treatment. These guidelines represent a paradigm shift away from presumptive antimalarial treatment of fever. Malaria rapid diagnostic tests (mRDTs) are central to implementing this policy, intended to target artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACT) to patients with confirmed malaria and to improve management of patients with nonmalarial fevers. The ACT Consortium conducted ten linked studies, eight in sub-Saharan Africa and two in Afghanistan, to evaluate the impact of mRDT introduction on case management across settings that vary in malaria endemicity and healthcare provider type...
August 7, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820134/patterns-of-human-plague-in-uganda-2008-2016
#7
Joseph D Forrester, Titus Apangu, Kevin Griffith, Sarah Acayo, Brook Yockey, John Kaggwa, Kiersten J Kugeler, Martin Schriefer, Christopher Sexton, C Ben Beard, Gordian Candini, Janet Abaru, Bosco Candia, Jimmy Felix Okoth, Harriet Apio, Lawrence Nolex, Geoffrey Ezama, Robert Okello, Linda Atiku, Joseph Mpanga, Paul S Mead
Plague is a highly virulent fleaborne zoonosis that occurs throughout many parts of the world; most suspected human cases are reported from resource-poor settings in sub-Saharan Africa. During 2008-2016, a combination of active surveillance and laboratory testing in the plague-endemic West Nile region of Uganda yielded 255 suspected human plague cases; approximately one third were laboratory confirmed by bacterial culture or serology. Although the mortality rate was 7% among suspected cases, it was 26% among persons with laboratory-confirmed plague...
September 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819635/strengthening-care-and-research-for-women-s-cancers-in-sub-saharan-africa
#8
REVIEW
Thomas C Randall, Linus Chuang, ElkanahOmenge Orang'o, Barry Rosen, Francois Uwinkindi, Timothy Rebbeck, Edward L Trimble
•The burden of gynecologic cancers in low resource settings is overwhelming.•Areas with the highest needs have few human resources and limited infrastructure.•Cancer specialists can best help by leveraging ongoing work to assist local leaders.
August 2017: Gynecologic Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819634/cervical-cancer-control-in-hiv-infected-women-past-present-and-future
#9
REVIEW
Rahel G Ghebre, Surbhi Grover, Melody J Xu, Linus T Chuang, Hannah Simonds
Since the initial recognition of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in 1981, an increased burden of cervical cancer was identified among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive women. Introduction of antiretroviral therapy (ART) decreased risks of opportunistic infections and improved overall survival. HIV-infected women are living longer. Introduction of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine, cervical cancer screening and early diagnosis provide opportunities to reduce cervical cancer associated mortality...
August 2017: Gynecologic Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819523/-cutaneous-tuberculosis-in-bamako-mali
#10
Adama Dicko, Ousmane Faye, Youssouf Fofana, Moussa Soumoutera, Siritio Berthé, Saidou Touré, Bekaye Traoré, Binta Guindo, Koureissi Tall, Alimata Keita, Lassine Kéita, Karim Coulibaly, Somita Keita
INTRODUCTION: Tuberculosis is the most common mycobacteriosis in sub-Saharan Africa. Cutaneous tuberculosis is rare and underdiagnosed due to its clinical polymorphism and to the smallness of technical equipment. This study aims to describe the epidemiological, clinical, histopathological aspects of cutaneous tuberculosis in Bamako (Mali). METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional descriptive study from January 1991 to December 2008. The study was performed in the Department of Dermatology at the National Center for Disease Control and in the Department of Pneumophtisiology at the Hospital of Point G...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819468/paediatric-fractures-in-a-sub-saharan-tertiary-care-center-a-cohort-analysis-of-demographic-characteristics-clinical-presentation-therapeutic-patterns-and-outcomes
#11
Marc Leroy Guifo, Joel Noutakdie Tochie, Blondel Nana Oumarou, Jean Roger Moulion Tapouh, Aristide Guy Bang, Aurelien Ndoumbe, Bonaventure Jemea, Maurice Aurelien Sosso
INTRODUCTION: Paediatric fractures are often of good prognosis due to auto-correction of insufficient fracture reduction by bone remodeling. In sub-Saharan Africa, traditional healers are renowned for managing fractures and there is a neglect for specialized pediatric fracture care. We aimed to determine the demographic characteristics, clinical presentation, treatment patterns and outcomes of paediatric fractures in a tertiary health care centre in Yaoundé. METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort study of all consenting consecutive cases of fractures in patients younger than 16 years managed between January 2011 and June 2015 at the University Teaching Hospital, Cameroon...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819339/depression-after-stroke-in-sub-saharan-africa-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#12
REVIEW
Akin Ojagbemi, Onoja Akpa, Fisayo Elugbadebo, Mayowa Owolabi, Bruce Ovbiagele
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis of prevalence and characteristics of poststroke depression (PSD) in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). METHODS: We searched Medline, PsycINFO, and African Journals OnLine using keywords for stroke and depression and the .mp. operator for all 54 SSA countries/regions. Further information was retrieved through a manual search of references from relevant published and unpublished articles. We included only peer-reviewed original studies with epidemiological or experimental designs, conducted random-effect meta-analysis, and identified the most commonly associated factors by weight (inverse of variance method)...
2017: Behavioural Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818547/contracting-infectious-diseases-in-sub-saharan-african-wetlands-a-question-of-use-a-review
#13
REVIEW
Carmen Anthonj, Andrea Rechenburg, Christoph Höser, Thomas Kistemann
Worldwide the pressure on water is increasing. In parts of Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), natural wetlands constitute the only accessible water resources, providing water free of charge, agricultural potential and livelihoods in otherwise uninhabitable landscapes, which is why they are being used extensively. The degradation and contamination of water which result from the use of wetlands has the potential to spread disease-causing microorganisms and provide increased breeding habitats for disease vectors, Despite this importance, case studies are lacking and knowledge gaps remain about whether and how different kinds of wetland use influence the exposure to health risks and transmission of infectious diseases...
July 29, 2017: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818544/trends-in-antimicrobial-resistance-in-bloodstream-infection-isolates-at-a-large-urban-hospital-in-malawi-1998-2016-a-surveillance-study
#14
Patrick Musicha, Jennifer E Cornick, Naor Bar-Zeev, Neil French, Clemens Masesa, Brigitte Denis, Neil Kennedy, Jane Mallewa, Melita A Gordon, Chisomo L Msefula, Robert S Heyderman, Dean B Everett, Nicholas A Feasey
BACKGROUND: Bacterial bloodstream infection is a common cause of morbidity and mortality in sub-Saharan Africa, yet few facilities are able to maintain long-term surveillance. The Malawi-Liverpool-Wellcome Trust Clinical Research Programme has done sentinel surveillance of bacteraemia since 1998. We report long-term trends in bloodstream infection and antimicrobial resistance from this surveillance. METHODS: In this surveillance study, we analysed blood cultures that were routinely taken from adult and paediatric patients with fever or suspicion of sepsis admitted to Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital, Blantyre, Malawi from 1998 to 2016...
August 14, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817647/caprine-brucellosis-a-historically-neglected-disease-with-significant-impact-on-public-health
#15
REVIEW
Carlos A Rossetti, Angela M Arenas-Gamboa, Estefanía Maurizio
Caprine brucellosis is a chronic infectious disease caused by the gram-negative cocci-bacillus Brucella melitensis. Middle- to late-term abortion, stillbirths, and the delivery of weak offspring are the characteristic clinical signs of the disease that is associated with an extensive negative impact in a flock's productivity. B. melitensis is also the most virulent Brucella species for humans, responsible for a severely debilitating and disabling illness that results in high morbidity with intermittent fever, chills, sweats, weakness, myalgia, abortion, osteoarticular complications, endocarditis, depression, anorexia, and low mortality...
August 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817590/reconstructing-asian-faunal-introductions-to-eastern-africa-from-multi-proxy-biomolecular-and-archaeological-datasets
#16
Mary E Prendergast, Michael Buckley, Alison Crowther, Laurent Frantz, Heidi Eager, Ophélie Lebrasseur, Rainer Hutterer, Ardern Hulme-Beaman, Wim Van Neer, Katerina Douka, Margaret-Ashley Veall, Eriéndira M Quintana Morales, Verena J Schuenemann, Ella Reiter, Richard Allen, Evangelos A Dimopoulos, Richard M Helm, Ceri Shipton, Ogeto Mwebi, Christiane Denys, Mark Horton, Stephanie Wynne-Jones, Jeffrey Fleisher, Chantal Radimilahy, Henry Wright, Jeremy B Searle, Johannes Krause, Greger Larson, Nicole L Boivin
Human-mediated biological exchange has had global social and ecological impacts. In sub-Saharan Africa, several domestic and commensal animals were introduced from Asia in the pre-modern period; however, the timing and nature of these introductions remain contentious. One model supports introduction to the eastern African coast after the mid-first millennium CE, while another posits introduction dating back to 3000 BCE. These distinct scenarios have implications for understanding the emergence of long-distance maritime connectivity, and the ecological and economic impacts of introduced species...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815393/pattern-noise-pano-a-new-automated-functional-glaucoma-test
#17
Sylvain El-Khoury, Thomas Hannen, Diana Carmen Dragnea, Faustin Ngounou, Paul-Rolf Preußner
PURPOSE: To present a newly developed visual field device (pattern noise: PANO) designed to be sensitive to glaucoma defects, cost-effective, material-practical and easy to repair and therefore particularly suited for low-income countries, where glaucoma can be highly prevalent (e.g. sub-Saharan Africa). METHODS: This is primarily a descriptive paper, but it also includes a prospective matched case-control pilot study. Hardware, stimulus, target configuration, testing strategy and result sheet are described...
August 16, 2017: International Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815000/african-tick-bite-fever-in-returning-swedish-travellers-report-of-two-cases-and-aspects-of-diagnostics
#18
Kenneth Nilsson, Katarina Wallménius, Pernilla Rundlöf-Nygren, Susanne Strömdahl, Carl Påhlson
Introduction: African tick-bite fever, caused by Rickettsia africae, is endemic in rural areas of sub-Saharan Africa and a possible cause of fever in returning Swedish travellers. Two patients are presented, and the advantages and disadvantages of different diagnostic methods are discussed. Patients and methods: Two middle-aged men fell ill with fever after returning home from South Africa. Both had single eschars and one also presented with a lymph node swelling. Samples were taken for serology, general bacterial culture from the wound (Patient 1) using a swab and additionally for Patient 2 PCR of a skin biopsy from the eschar...
2017: Infection Ecology & Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814514/ba71%C3%AE-cd2-a-new-recombinant-live-attenuated-african-swine-fever-virus-with-cross-protective-capabilities
#19
Paula L Monteagudo, Anna Lacasta, Elisabeth López, Laia Bosch, Javier Collado, Sonia Pina-Pedrero, Florencia Correa-Fiz, Francesc Accensi, María Jesús Navas, Enric Vidal, María J Bustos, Javier M Rodríguez, Andreas Gallei, Veljko Nikolin, María L Salas, Fernando Rodríguez
African swine fever is a highly contagious viral disease of mandatory declaration to the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE). Lack of available vaccines make its control difficult and thus ASFV represents a major threat to the swine industry. Inactivated vaccines do not confer solid protection against African swine fever virus (ASFV). Conversely, live attenuated viruses (LAV), either naturally isolated or obtained by genetic manipulation, have demonstrated reliable protection against homologous ASFV strains, albeit little or no protection has been demonstrated against heterologous viruses...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814295/the-effect-of-facility-based-antiretroviral-therapy-programs-on-outpatient-services-in-kenya-and-uganda
#20
Alexandra Wollum, Emily Dansereau, Nancy Fullman, Jane Achan, Kelsey A Bannon, Roy Burstein, Ruben O Conner, Brendan DeCenso, Anne Gasasira, Annie Haakenstad, Michael Hanlon, Gloria Ikilezi, Caroline Kisia, Aubrey J Levine, Samuel H Masters, Pamela Njuguna, Emelda A Okiro, Thomas A Odeny, D Allen Roberts, Emmanuela Gakidou, Herbert C Duber
BACKGROUND: Considerable debate exists concerning the effects of antiretroviral therapy (ART) service scale-up on non-HIV services and overall health system performance in sub-Saharan Africa. In this study, we examined whether ART services affected trends in non-ART outpatient department (OPD) visits in Kenya and Uganda. METHODS: Using a nationally representative sample of health facilities in Kenya and Uganda, we estimated the effect of ART programs on OPD visits from 2007 to 2012...
August 16, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
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