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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548539/cd4-count-and-hiv-rna-trends-for-hiv-associated-lymphoproliferative-disorders-in-malawi
#1
Bongani Kaimila, Toon van der Gronde, Edwards Kasonkanji, Paula Fox, Maria Chikasema, Blessings Tewete, Satish Gopal
BACKGROUND: Given scarce data from sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), we sought to describe CD4 count and HIV RNA trends over time among patients with HIV+ lymphoproliferative disorders in Malawi. METHODS: We prospectively enrolled HIV+ individuals with pathologically confirmed lymphoproliferative disorders between 2013 and 2016. Chemotherapy was standardized with concurrent antiretroviral therapy (ART). We assessed CD4 count and HIV RNA at baseline and every 6 months for up to 2 years...
May 26, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548247/market-for-artemether-lumefantrine-to-treat-childhood-malaria-in-a-district-of-southern-mozambique
#2
Sergi Alonso, Khátia Munguambe, Elisa Sicuri
Malaria is one of the leading causes of death in sub-Saharan Africa. Artemisinin-based combination therapies are used as first-line treatment drugs, but their market is far from competitive. Market failures include limited availability, low quality, lack of information, and high costs of access. We estimated the theoretical demand for one of the most common artemisinin-based combination therapies, artemether-lumefantrine (AL), and its determinants among caregivers of children with malaria seeking care at public health facilities, thus, entitled to receive drugs for free, in southern Mozambique (year 2012)...
May 26, 2017: Health Economics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545457/malaria-prevalence-in-asymptomatic-and-symptomatic-children-in-kiwangwa-bagamoyo-district-tanzania
#3
Deborah Sumari, Felista Mwingira, Majige Selemani, Joseph Mugasa, Kefas Mugittu, Paul Gwakisa
BACKGROUND: Malaria prevalence continues to decline across sub-Saharan Africa as a result of various intervention strategies. However, the diseases still poses a public health concern in the region. While symptomatic malaria is recognized and treated, asymptomatic infections become increasingly important for interrupting transmission. A cross-sectional survey was conducted to assess malaria prevalence in symptomatic and asymptomatic children in Kiwangwa ward in Bagamoyo District in Tanzania...
May 25, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545331/socio-demographic-inequalities-in-hiv-testing-behaviour-and-hiv-prevalence-among-older-adults-in-rural-tanzania-2013
#4
Angelina Mtowa, Annette A M Gerritsen, Sally Mtenga, Mary Mwangome, Eveline Geubbels
Most HIV research in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) ignores persons aged 50 years and above, though a few studies have reported a high HIV prevalence among older people. This study aimed to estimate socio-demographic inequalities in HIV testing behaviour and HIV prevalence among adults aged 50+ years, living in Ifakara town, Tanzania. This cross-sectional study used data from the baseline measurement of the Ifakara MZIMA cohort study in 2012/13. Consenting participants were interviewed and tested for HIV. Associations between HIV testing behaviour and HIV prevalence with socio-demographic indicators were explored with multivariable logistic regression...
May 25, 2017: AIDS Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545155/rapid-diagnostic-tests-for-typhoid-and-paratyphoid-enteric-fever
#5
REVIEW
Lalith Wijedoru, Sue Mallett, Christopher M Parry
BACKGROUND: Differentiating both typhoid (Salmonella Typhi) and paratyphoid (Salmonella Paratyphi A) infection from other causes of fever in endemic areas is a diagnostic challenge. Although commercial point-of-care rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) for enteric fever are available as alternatives to the current reference standard test of blood or bone marrow culture, or to the widely used Widal Test, their diagnostic accuracy is unclear. If accurate, they could potentially replace blood culture as the World Health Organization (WHO)-recommended main diagnostic test for enteric fever...
May 26, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544789/determinants-of-recent-aflatoxin-exposure-among-pregnant-women-in-rural-zimbabwe
#6
Laura E Smith, Mduduzi N N Mbuya, Andrew J Prendergast, Paul C Turner, Sandra Ruboko, Jean H Humphrey, Rebecca J Nelson, Ancikaria Chigumira, George Kembo, Rebecca J Stoltzfus
SCOPE: Aflatoxins are toxic secondary metabolites of Aspergillus species that contaminate staple foods such as maize and groundnuts. Aflatoxin exposure during pregnancy has been associated with adverse birth outcomes in limited-scale surveys in sub-Saharan Africa. The objective of this study was to describe the determinants of aflatoxin exposure, using urinary aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) biomarkers and data generated by the Sanitation Hygiene Infant Nutrition Efficacy (SHINE) trial for rural Zimbabwean women in early pregnancy...
May 22, 2017: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544092/fever-and-multiple-eschars-after-an-african-safari-report-of-three-cases
#7
Fátima Albízuri Prado, Alba Sánchez, Marta Feito, Ander Mayor, Ana Rodriguez, Raúl de Lucas
African tick-bite fever (ATBF), a tickborne disease endemic in rural areas of sub-Saharan Africa and the West Indies caused by Rickettsia africae, has been recognized as an emerging health problem in recent years. ATBF has been reported as the second most commonly documented etiology of fever, after malaria, in travelers who return ill from sub-Saharan Africa. Most cases reported in the literature occurred in middle-aged adults, so the incidence of ATBF in children is unclear. We report a cluster of three cases of ATBF that occurred in children ages 7 to 16 years after returning from a game-hunting safari in South Africa...
May 25, 2017: Pediatric Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543089/treatments-for-people-living-with-schizophrenia-in-sub-saharan-africa-an-adapted-realist-review
#8
REVIEW
S Chidarikire, M Cross, I Skinner, M Cleary
AIM: To identify the treatments and interventions available and their impact on people living with schizophrenia in Sub-Saharan Africa. BACKGROUND: Help-seeking behaviour and the choice of treatment are largely influenced by socio-cultural factors and beliefs about the causes of mental illness. This review addresses the gap in knowledge regarding the treatment options available to people living with schizophrenia in Sub-Saharan Africa. DESIGN: Adapted realist literature review...
May 25, 2017: International Nursing Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542841/blood-donors-perceptions-motivators-and-deterrents-in-sub-saharan-africa-a-scoping-review-of-evidence
#9
REVIEW
Lucy Asamoah-Akuoko, Oliver W Hassall, Imelda Bates, Henrik Ullum
Achieving an adequate blood supply in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) through donor mobilization and retention is crucial. Factors that motivate or deter blood donors vary according to beliefs and social norms. Understanding the factors that influence blood donation behaviour in SSA is vital to developing effective strategies to address blood donor motivation and retention. This review of 35 studies from 16 SSA countries collates available evidence concerning the perceptions, motivators and deterrents that influence blood donors in SSA...
May 22, 2017: British Journal of Haematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542796/interleukin-2-as-an-adjunct-to-antiretroviral-therapy-for-hiv-positive-adults
#10
REVIEW
Jennifer Onwumeh, Charles I Okwundu, Tamara Kredo
BACKGROUND: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) continues to be a leading cause of morbidity and mortality, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa. Although antiretroviral drugs have helped to improve the quality of life and life expectancy of HIV-positive individuals, there is still a need to explore other interventions that will help to further reduce the disease burden. One potential strategy is the use of interleukin-2 (IL-2) in combination with antiretroviral therapy (ART). IL-2 is a cytokine that regulates the proliferation and differentiation of lymphocytes and may help to boost the immune system...
May 25, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542176/measuring-personal-beliefs-and-perceived-norms-about-intimate-partner-violence-population-based-survey-experiment-in-rural-uganda
#11
Alexander C Tsai, Bernard Kakuhikire, Jessica M Perkins, Dagmar Vořechovská, Amy Q McDonough, Elizabeth L Ogburn, Jordan M Downey, David R Bangsberg
BACKGROUND: Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) conducted throughout sub-Saharan Africa indicate there is widespread acceptance of intimate partner violence, contributing to an adverse health risk environment for women. While qualitative studies suggest important limitations in the accuracy of the DHS methods used to elicit attitudes toward intimate partner violence, to date there has been little experimental evidence from sub-Saharan Africa that can be brought to bear on this issue...
May 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542166/indoor-secondhand-tobacco-smoke-and-risk-of-under-five-mortality-in-23-sub-saharan-africa-countries-a-population-based-study-and-meta-analysis
#12
Patrick Opiyo Owili, Miriam Adoyo Muga, Wen-Chi Pan, Hsien-Wen Kuo
BACKGROUND: Inhalation of secondhand smoke from tobacco results in serious health outcomes among under-five children, and yet, few studies have assessed its effect on under-five mortality. We investigated the association between frequency of exposure to household tobacco smoke and risk of under-five mortality in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). METHODS: Demographic Health Survey data of under-five children from 23 SSA countries (n = 787,484) were used. Cox proportional hazard models described the association between exposure to tobacco smoke and the risk of under-five mortality in each country, with age as the time-to-event indicator...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540766/hiv-1-full-genome-phylogenetics-of-generalized-epidemics-in-sub-saharan-africa-impact-of-missing-nucleotide-characters-in-next-generation-sequences
#13
Oliver Ratmann, Chris Wymant, Caroline Colijn, Siva Danaviah, M Essex, Simon D W Frost, Astrid Gall, Simani Gaiseitsiwe, Mary Grabowski, Ronald Gray, Stephane Guindon, Arndt von Haeseler, Pontiano Kaleebu, Michelle Kendall, Alexey Kozlov, Justen Manasa, Bui Quang Minh, Sikhulile Moyo, Vladimir Novitsky, Rebecca Nsubuga, Sureshnee Pillay, Thomas C Quinn, David Serwadda, Deogratius Ssemwanga, Alexandros Stamatakis, Jana Trifinopoulos, Maria Wawer, Andrew Leigh Brown, Tulio de Oliveira, Paul Kellam, Deenan Pillay, Christophe Fraser
To characterize HIV-1 transmission dynamics in regions where the burden of HIV-1 is greatest, the 'Phylogenetics and Networks for Generalised HIV Epidemics in Africa' consortium (PANGEA-HIV) is sequencing full-genome viral isolates from across sub-Saharan Africa. We report the first 3,985 PANGEA-HIV consensus sequences from four cohort sites (Rakai Community Cohort Study, n=2,833; MRC/UVRI Uganda, n=701; Mochudi Prevention Project, n=359; Africa Health Research Institute Resistance Cohort, n=92). Next-generation sequencing success rates varied: more than 80% of the viral genome from the gag to the nef genes could be determined for all sequences from South Africa, 75% of sequences from Mochudi, 60% of sequences from MRC/UVRI Uganda, and 22% of sequences from Rakai...
May 25, 2017: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540492/comparison-of-the-temperature-mortality-relationship-in-foreign-born-and-native-born-died-in-france-between-2000-and-2009
#14
Luc Mercereau, Nicolas Todd, Gregoire Rey, Alain-Jacques Valleron
The daily temperature-mortality relationship is typically U shaped. The temperature of minimum mortality (MMT) has been shown to vary in space (higher at lower latitudes) and time (higher in recent periods). This indicates human populations adapt to their local environment. The pace of this adaptation is unknown. The objective of this study was to investigate the differences in the temperature-mortality relationship in continental France between foreign born and natives. Source data were the 5,273,005 death certificates of individuals living in continental France between 2000 and 2009 at the time of their death...
May 25, 2017: International Journal of Biometeorology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539514/wind-conditions-and-geography-shape-the-first-outbound-migration-of-juvenile-honey-buzzards-and-their-distribution-across-sub-saharan-africa
#15
W M G Vansteelant, J Kekkonen, P Byholm
Contemporary tracking studies reveal that low migratory connectivity between breeding and non-breeding ranges is common in migrant landbirds. It is unclear, however, how internal factors and early-life experiences of individual migrants shape the development of their migration routes and concomitant population-level non-breeding distributions. Stochastic wind conditions and geography may determine whether and where migrants end up by the end of their journey. We tested this hypothesis by satellite-tagging 31 fledgling honey buzzards Pernis apivorus from southern Finland and used a global atmospheric reanalysis model to estimate the wind conditions they encountered on their first outbound migration...
May 31, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539190/water-sanitation-and-hygiene-in-schools-status-and-implications-of-low-coverage-in-ethiopia-kenya-mozambique-rwanda-uganda-and-zambia
#16
Camille Morgan, Michael Bowling, Jamie Bartram, Georgia Lyn Kayser
Adequate access to water, sanitation, and hygiene (WaSH) in schools impacts health, educational outcomes, and gender disparities. Little multi-country research has been published on WaSH in rural schools in Sub-Saharan Africa. In this multi-national cross-sectional WaSH study, we document WaSH access, continuity, quality, quantity, and reliability in 2270 schools that were randomly sampled in rural regions of six Sub-Saharan African countries: Ethiopia, Kenya, Mozambique, Rwanda, Uganda, and Zambia. Data collection included: school WaSH surveys containing internationally established WaSH indicators, direct observation, and field- and laboratory-based microbiological water quality testing...
April 19, 2017: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538421/malnutrition-is-associated-with-hiv-infection-in-children-less-than-5-years-in-bobo-dioulasso-city-burkina-faso-a-case-control-study
#17
Ghislain Gnimbar Poda, Chien-Yeh Hsu, Jane C-J Chao
Pediatric human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and malnutrition are still 2 major health issues in sub-Saharan Africa including Burkina Faso where few studies have been conducted on child malnutrition and HIV infection. This study assessed the effects of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in HIV infection and also compared the prevalence of malnutrition in terms of an inadequate diet, underweight, stunting, and wasting among HIV-infected and uninfected children less than 5 years in Bobo-Dioulasso city, Burkina Faso...
May 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538160/colonialism-and-genetics-of-comparative-development
#18
Ideen Riahi
This study argues that European colonial policies and former colonies' genetic variation (genetic distance to Europeans and genetic diversity) were interlinked. Over a prolonged period of time, populations that were genetically far from Europeans and had extreme levels of genetic diversity (e.g. in Sub-Saharan Africa and the Americas) adapted to environments that were significantly different from the climatic conditions of continental Europe. This resulted in a divergence in populations' resistance to infectious diseases and positive relationships between European settler mortality at the time of colonization, genetic distance to the technological frontier, and genetic diversity...
May 9, 2017: Economics and Human Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537557/apol1-renal-risk-variants-have-contrasting-resistance-and-susceptibility-associations-with-african-trypanosomiasis-renal-risk-variants-have-contrasting-resistance-and-susceptibility-associations-with-african-trypanosomiasis
#19
Anneli Cooper, Hamidou Ilboudo, V Pius Alibu, Sophie Ravel, John Enyaru, William Weir, Harry Noyes, Paul Capewell, Mamadou Camara, Jacqueline Milet, Vincent Jamonneau, Oumou Camara, Enock Matovu, Bruno Bucheton, Annette MacLeod
Reduced susceptibility to infectious disease can increase the frequency of otherwise deleterious alleles. In populations of African ancestry, two apolipoprotein-L1 (APOL1) variants with a recessive kidney disease risk, named G1 and G2, occur at high frequency. APOL1 is a trypanolytic protein that confers innate resistance to most African trypanosomes, but not Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense or T.b. gambiense, which cause human African trypanosomiasis. In this case-control study we test the prevailing hypothesis that these APOL1 variants reduce trypanosomiasis susceptibility, resulting in their positive selection in sub-Saharan Africa...
May 24, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537543/molecular-epidemiology-of-hepatitis-b-virus-infection-in-tanzania
#20
Joseph C Forbi, Michael Dillon, Michael A Purdy, Bakary S Drammeh, Alexandra Tejada-Strop, Daniel McGovern, Guo-Liang Xia, Yulin Lin, Lilia M Ganova-Raeva, David S Campo, Hong Thai, Gilberto Vaughan, Dunstan Haule, Regina P Kutaga, Sridhar V Basavaraju, Saleem Kamili, Yury E Khudyakov
Despite the significant public health problems associated with hepatitis B virus (HBV) in sub-Saharan Africa, many countries in this region do not have systematic HBV surveillance or genetic information on HBV circulating locally. Here, we report on the genetic characterization of 772 HBV strains from Tanzania. Phylogenetic analysis of the S-gene sequences showed prevalence of HBV genotype A (HBV/A, n=671, 86.9 %), followed by genotypes D (HBV/D, n=95, 12.3 %) and E (HBV/E, n=6, 0.8 %). All HBV/A sequences were further classified into subtype A1, while the HBV/D sequences were assigned to a new cluster...
May 25, 2017: Journal of General Virology
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