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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229925/eskd-in-sub-saharan-africa-will-governments-now-listen
#1
Ikechi G Okpechi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 17, 2017: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229924/outcomes-in-adults-and-children-with-end-stage-kidney-disease-requiring-dialysis-in-sub-saharan-africa-a-systematic-review
#2
Gloria Ashuntantang, Charlotte Osafo, Wasiu A Olowu, Fatiu Arogundade, Abdou Niang, John Porter, Saraladevi Naicker, Valerie A Luyckx
BACKGROUND: The burden of end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) in sub-Saharan Africa is unknown but is probably high. Access to dialysis for ESKD is limited by insufficient infrastructure and catastrophic out-of-pocket costs. Most patients remain undiagnosed, untreated, and die. We did a systematic literature review to assess outcomes of patients who reach dialysis and the quality of dialysis received. METHODS: We searched PubMed, African Journals Online, WHO Global Health Library, and Web of Science for articles in English or French from sub-Saharan Africa reporting dialysis outcomes in patients with ESKD published between Jan 1, 1990, and Dec 22, 2015...
February 17, 2017: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229022/opportunities-drive-the-global-distribution-of-protected-areas
#3
Germán Baldi, Marcos Texeira, Osvaldo A Martin, H Ricardo Grau, Esteban G Jobbágy
BACKGROUND: Protected areas, regarded today as a cornerstone of nature conservation, result from an array of multiple motivations and opportunities. We explored at global and regional levels the current distribution of protected areas along biophysical, human, and biological gradients, and assessed to what extent protection has pursued (i) a balanced representation of biophysical environments, (ii) a set of preferred conditions (biological, spiritual, economic, or geopolitical), or (iii) existing opportunities for conservation regardless of any representation or preference criteria...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228134/the-impact-of-community-health-worker-led-home-delivery-of-antiretroviral-therapy-on-virological-suppression-a-non-inferiority-cluster-randomized-health-systems-trial-in-dar-es-salaam-tanzania
#4
Pascal Geldsetzer, Joel M Francis, Nzovu Ulenga, David Sando, Irene A Lema, Eric Mboggo, Maria Vaikath, Happiness Koda, Sharon Lwezaula, Janice Hu, Ramadhani A Noor, Ibironke Olofin, Elysia Larson, Wafaie Fawzi, Till Bärnighausen
BACKGROUND: Home delivery of antiretroviral therapy (ART) by community health workers (CHWs) may improve ART retention by reducing the time burden and out-of-pocket expenditures to regularly attend an ART clinic. In addition, ART home delivery may shorten waiting times and improve quality of care for those in facility-based care by decongesting ART clinics. This trial aims to determine whether ART home delivery for patients who are clinically stable on ART combined with facility-based care for those who are not stable on ART is non-inferior to the standard of care (facility-based care for all ART patients) in achieving and maintaining virological suppression...
February 22, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228042/haemoglobin-f-a2-and-s-levels-in-subjects-with-or-without-sickle-cell-trait-in-south-eastern-gabon
#5
Landry-Erik Mombo, Gaël Mabioko-Mbembo, Roland-Fabrice Kassa-Kassa, Emmanuel Ontsitsagui, Statiana Mboui-Ondo, Leatitia Nzé-Kamsi, Dieudonné Nkoghé, Jacques Elion
BACKGROUND: Infant mortality due to sickle cell disease in sub-Saharan Africa is high, necessitating a better understanding of the modulating factors of the disease in this region. METHODS: We assessed the hereditary persistence of foetal haemoglobin and α-thalassemia. We diagnosed 787 subjects, with or without sickle cell trait, by capillary electrophoresis in the Medical Diagnostic Laboratory of the CIRMF (Franceville, Gabon). RESULTS: Heterocellular and pancellular forms of hereditary persistence of foetal haemoglobin occurred at low rates of 10...
February 23, 2017: Hematology (Amsterdam, Netherlands)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223816/prevalence-of-metabolic-syndrome-in-adolescents-living-in-mthatha-south-africa
#6
Morongwe Annah Sekokotla, Nandu Goswami, Constance Rufaro Sewani-Rusike, Jehu Erapu Iputo, Benedicta Ngwenchi Nkeh-Chungag
OBJECTIVE: Metabolic syndrome (MetS), defined as the clustering of three of five risk factors (hypertension, obesity, triglyceridemia, dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia), is being increasingly mentioned among children and adolescents despite there being no consensus on how it should be defined in this set of population. Furthermore, very few studies have focused on MetS in children and adolescents in sub-Saharan populations. This study, therefore, aimed at determining the prevalence of the MetS and contributing risk in adolescents living in Mthatha, South Africa...
2017: Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222815/cognitive-stimulation-therapy-as-a-sustainable-intervention-for-dementia-in-sub-saharan-africa-feasibility-and-clinical-efficacy-using-a-stepped-wedge-design
#7
Stella-Maria Paddick, Sarah Mkenda, Godfrey Mbowe, Aloyce Kisoli, William K Gray, Catherine L Dotchin, Laura Ternent, Adesola Ogunniyi, John Kissima, Olaide Olakehinde, Declare Mushi, Richard W Walker
BACKGROUND: Cognitive stimulation therapy (CST) is a psychosocial group-based intervention for dementia shown to improve cognition and quality of life with a similar efficacy to cholinesterase inhibitors. Since CST can be delivered by non-specialist healthcare workers, it has potential for use in low-resource environments, such as sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). We aimed to assess the feasibility and clinical effectiveness of CST in rural Tanzania using a stepped-wedge design. METHODS: Participants and their carers were recruited through a community dementia screening program...
February 22, 2017: International Psychogeriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222714/screening-prevalence-and-risk-factors-for-cervical-lesions-among-hiv-positive-and-hiv-negative-women-in-swaziland
#8
Pauline E Jolly, Simangele Mthethwa-Hleta, Luz A Padilla, Jessica Pettis, ShaCoria Winston, Tomi F Akinyemiju, Hannah J Turner, Amarachi Ejiawoko, Raina Brooks, Lena Preko, Peter O Preko
BACKGROUND: Cervical Cancer (CC) is the number one cancer among women in sub-Saharan Africa. Although CC is preventable, most women in developing countries do not have access to screening. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence and risk factors for cervical lesions using visual inspection with acetic acid (VIA) among 112 HIV positive and 161 negative women aged 18-69 years. RESULTS: The presence of cervical lesions was greater among HIV positive (22...
February 21, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222249/are-non-invasive-fibrosis-markers-for-chronic-hepatitis-b-reliable-in-sub-saharan-africa
#9
Hailemichael Desalegn, Hanna Aberra, Nega Berhe, Svein Gunnar Gundersen, Asgeir Johannessen
BACKGROUND: In the absence of liver biopsy, the World Health Organization (WHO) recommends non-invasive tests, such as APRI (aspartate aminotransferase to platelet ratio index) and FIB-4, to assess liver fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB). However, these tests are not well validated in sub-Saharan Africa. Recently, a new marker, GPR (gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase to platelet ratio), was found to be more accurate in an African setting, but this needs confirmation in other cohorts...
February 21, 2017: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222126/evidence-for-scaling-up-hiv-treatment-in-sub-saharan-africa-a-call-for-incorporating-health-system-constraints
#10
Evelinn Mikkelsen, Jan A C Hontelez, Maarten P M Jansen, Till Bärnighausen, Katharina Hauck, Kjell A Johansson, Gesine Meyer-Rath, Mead Over, Sake J de Vlas, Gert J van der Wilt, Noor Tromp, Leon Bijlmakers, Rob M P M Baltussen
Jan Hontelez and colleagues argue that the cost-effectiveness studies of HIV treatment scale-up need to include health system constraints to be more informative.
February 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222094/housing-improvements-and-malaria-risk-in-sub-saharan-africa-a-multi-country-analysis-of-survey-data
#11
Lucy S Tusting, Christian Bottomley, Harry Gibson, Immo Kleinschmidt, Andrew J Tatem, Steve W Lindsay, Peter W Gething
BACKGROUND: Improvements to housing may contribute to malaria control and elimination by reducing house entry by malaria vectors and thus exposure to biting. We tested the hypothesis that the odds of malaria infection are lower in modern, improved housing compared to traditional housing in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). METHODS AND FINDINGS: We analysed 15 Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) and 14 Malaria Indicator Surveys (MIS) conducted in 21 countries in SSA between 2008 and 2015 that measured malaria infection by microscopy or rapid diagnostic test (RDT)...
February 2017: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221131/spatiotemporal-fluctuations-and-triggers-of-ebola-virus-spillover
#12
John Paul Schmidt, Andrew W Park, Andrew M Kramer, Barbara A Han, Laura W Alexander, John M Drake
Because the natural reservoir of Ebola virus remains unclear and disease outbreaks in humans have occurred only sporadically over a large region, forecasting when and where Ebola spillovers are most likely to occur constitutes a continuing and urgent public health challenge. We developed a statistical modeling approach that associates 37 human or great ape Ebola spillovers since 1982 with spatiotemporally dynamic covariates including vegetative cover, human population size, and absolute and relative rainfall over 3 decades across sub-Saharan Africa...
March 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220136/novel-sources-of-witchweed-striga-resistance-from-wild-sorghum-accessions
#13
Dorothy A Mbuvi, Clet W Masiga, Eric Kuria, Joel Masanga, Mark Wamalwa, Abdallah Mohamed, Damaris A Odeny, Nada Hamza, Michael P Timko, Steven Runo
Sorghum is a major food staple in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), but its production is constrained by the parasitic plant Striga that attaches to the roots of many cereals crops and causes severe stunting and loss of yield. Away from cultivated farmland, wild sorghum accessions grow as weedy plants and have shown remarkable immunity to Striga. We sought to determine the extent of the resistance to Striga in wild sorghum plants. Our screening strategy involved controlled laboratory assays of rhizotrons, where we artificially infected sorghum with Striga, as well as field experiments at three sites, where we grew sorghum with a natural Striga infestation...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219420/umbilical-cord-care-practices-in-low-and-middle-income-countries-a-systematic-review
#14
Patricia S Coffey, Siobhan C Brown
BACKGROUND: Neonatal sepsis is the third leading cause of deaths for infants in their first month of life. The newly cut umbilical cord can be a pathway for bacteria that can cause newborn sepsis and death. Optimal umbilical cord care practices for newborns and during the first week of life, especially in settings with poor hygiene, has the potential to avoid these preventable neonatal deaths. The purpose of this review of cord care practices is to assist in the development of behavior-change strategies to support introduction of novel cord-care regimens, particularly 7...
February 20, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219412/moving-from-control-to-elimination-of-schistosomiasis-in-sub-saharan-africa-time-to-change-and-adapt-strategies
#15
REVIEW
Louis-Albert Tchuem Tchuenté, David Rollinson, J Russell Stothard, David Molyneux
Schistosomiasis is a water borne parasitic disease of global importance and with ongoing control the disease endemic landscape is changing. In sub-Saharan Africa, for example, the landscape is becoming ever more heterogeneous as there are several species of Schistosoma that respond in different ways to ongoing preventive chemotherapy and the inter-sectoral interventions currently applied. The major focus of preventive chemotherapy is delivery of praziquantel by mass drug administration to those shown to be, or presumed to be, at-risk of infection and disease...
February 20, 2017: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219341/integrating-genetic-maps-in-bambara-groundnut-vigna-subterranea-l-verdc-and-their-syntenic-relationships-among-closely-related-legumes
#16
Wai Kuan Ho, Hui Hui Chai, Presidor Kendabie, Nariman Salih Ahmad, Jaeyres Jani, Festo Massawe, Andrzej Kilian, Sean Mayes
BACKGROUND: Bambara groundnut [Vigna subterranea (L) Verdc.] is an indigenous legume crop grown mainly in subsistence and small-scale agriculture in sub-Saharan Africa for its nutritious seeds and its tolerance to drought and poor soils. Given that the lack of ex ante sequence is often a bottleneck in marker-assisted crop breeding for minor and underutilised crops, we demonstrate the use of limited genetic information and resources developed within species, but linked to the well characterised common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) genome sequence and the partially annotated closely related species; adzuki bean (Vigna angularis) and mung bean (Vigna radiata)...
February 20, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217218/high-prevalence-of-hepatitis-b-virus-infection-in-the-age-range-of-20-39-years-old-individuals-in-lome
#17
Malewe Kolou, Gnatoulma Katawa, Mounerou Salou, Komlan Selom Gozo-Akakpo, Sika Dossim, Alexander Kwarteng, Mireille Prince-David
BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B is a liver infection caused by the hepatitis B virus (HBV). It affects all women and men irrespective of age. Although sub-Saharan Africa is an area of high prevalence of this disease, data on the prevalence of acute and chronic HBV infections in this region remain to be widely documented. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of HBV in relation to age in Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Campus (CHU-C), one of the two teaching hospitals of Lome, Togo...
2017: Open Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216395/and-who-shall-heal-the-afflicted-neurosurgical-care-in-sub-saharan-africa
#18
James Richard Bean
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 16, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214093/educating-religious-leaders-to-promote-uptake-of-male-circumcision-in-tanzania-a-cluster-randomised-trial
#19
Jennifer A Downs, Agrey H Mwakisole, Alphonce B Chandika, Shibide Lugoba, Rehema Kassim, Evarist Laizer, Kinanga A Magambo, Myung Hee Lee, Samuel E Kalluvya, David J Downs, Daniel W Fitzgerald
BACKGROUND: Male circumcision is being widely deployed as an HIV prevention strategy in countries with high HIV incidence, but its uptake in sub-Saharan Africa has been below targets. We did a study to establish whether educating religious leaders about male circumcision would increase uptake in their village. METHODS: In this cluster randomised trial in northwest Tanzania, eligible villages were paired by proximity (<60 km) and the time that a free male circumcision outreach campaign from the Tanzanian Ministry of Health became available in their village...
February 14, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212415/aflatoxin-exposure-during-the-first-36-months-of-life-was-not-associated-with-impaired-growth-in-nepalese-children-an-extension-of-the-mal-ed-study
#20
Nicole J Mitchell, Hui-Husan Hsu, Ram Krishna Chandyo, Binob Shrestha, Ladaporn Bodhidatta, Yu-Kang Tu, Yun-Yun Gong, Patricia A Egner, Manjeswori Ulak, John D Groopman, Felicia Wu
Exposure to aflatoxin, a mycotoxin common in many foods, has been associated with child growth impairment in sub-Saharan Africa. To improve our understanding of growth impairment in relation to aflatoxin and other risk factors, we assessed biospecimens collected in Nepalese children at 15, 24, and 36 months of age for aflatoxin exposure. Children (N = 85) enrolled in the Bhaktapur, Nepal MAL-ED study encompassed the cohort analysed in this study. Exposure was assessed through a plasma biomarker of aflatoxin exposure: the AFB1-lysine adduct...
2017: PloS One
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