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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045823/traditional-uses-phytochemistry-and-pharmacological-properties-of-african-nauclea-species-a-review
#1
REVIEW
Romain Haudecoeur, Marine Peuchmaur, Basile Pérès, Maxime Rome, Germain Sotoing Taïwe, Ahcène Boumendjel, Benjamin Boucherle
ETHNOPHARMACOALOGICAL RELEVANCE: The genus Nauclea in Africa comprises seven species. Among them, N. latifolia, N. diderrichii and N. pobeguinii are widely used by the local population in traditional remedies. Preparation from various parts of plants (e.g. roots, bark, leaves) are indicated by traditional healers for a wide range of diseases including malaria, pain, digestive ailments or metabolic diseases. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A literature search was conducted on African species of the genus Nauclea using scientific databases such as Google Scholar, Pubmed or SciFinder...
October 15, 2017: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045750/aging-and-hiv-related-caregiving-in-sub-saharan-africa-a-social-ecological-approach
#2
Jeon Small, Carolyn Aldwin, Paul Kowal, Somnath Chatterji, Rachel Pruchno
Background and Objectives: We reviewed the literature on older adults (OAs) who are caring for persons living with HIV/AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), with the goal of adapting models of caregiver stress and coping to include culturally relevant and contextually appropriate factors specific to SSA, drawing on both life course and cultural capital theories. Research Design and Methods: A systematic literature search found 81 articles published between 1975 and 2016 which were reviewed using a narrative approach...
October 17, 2017: Gerontologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045699/impact-of-hiv-on-the-burden-and-severity-of-influenza-illness-in-malawian-adults-a-prospective-cohort-and-parallel-case-control-study
#3
Antonia Ho, Stephen J Aston, Hannah Jary, Tamara Mitchell, Maaike Alaerts, Mavis Menyere, Jane Mallewa, Mulinda Nyirenda, Dean Everett, Robert S Heyderman, Neil French
Background: The impact of HIV infection on influenza incidence and severity in adults in sub-Saharan Africa is unclear. Seasonal influenza vaccination is recommended for HIV-infected persons in developed settings, but is rarely implemented in Africa. Methods: We conducted a prospective cohort study to compare the incidence of laboratory-confirmed influenza illness between HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected adults in Blantyre, Malawi. In a parallel case-control study, we explored risk factors for severe influenza presentation of severe (hospitalized lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI)), and mild influenza (influenza-like illness (ILI))...
October 16, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045429/preclinical-antivenom-efficacy-testing-reveals-potentially-disturbing-deficiencies-of-snakebite-treatment-capability-in-east-africa
#4
Robert A Harrison, George O Oluoch, Stuart Ainsworth, Jaffer Alsolaiss, Fiona Bolton, Ana-Silvia Arias, José-María Gutiérrez, Paul Rowley, Stephen Kalya, Hastings Ozwara, Nicholas R Casewell
BACKGROUND: Antivenom is the treatment of choice for snakebite, which annually kills an estimated 32,000 people in sub-Saharan Africa and leaves approximately 100,000 survivors with permanent physical disabilities that exert a considerable socioeconomic burden. Over the past two decades, the high costs of the most polyspecifically-effective antivenoms have sequentially reduced demand, commercial manufacturing incentives and production volumes that have combined to create a continent-wide vacuum of effective snakebite therapy...
October 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044372/should-we-be-treating-animal-schistosomiasis-in-africa-the-need-for-a-one-health-economic-evaluation-of-schistosomiasis-control-in-people-and-their-livestock
#5
Charlotte M Gower, Louise Vince, Joanne P Webster
A One Health economic perspective allows informed decisions to be made regarding control priorities and/or implementation strategies for infectious diseases. Schistosomiasis is a major and highly resilient disease of both humans and livestock. The zoonotic component of transmission in sub-Saharan Africa appears to be more significant than previously assumed, and may thereby affect the recently revised WHO vision to eliminate schistosomiasis as a public health problem by 2025. Moreover, animal schistosomiasis is likely to be a significant cost to affected communities due to its direct and indirect impact on livelihoods...
June 1, 2017: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043910/intersections-of-girl-child-marriage-and-family-planning-beliefs-and-use-qualitative-findings-from-ethiopia-and-india
#6
Katherine A McClendon, Lotus McDougal, Sankari Ayyaluru, Yemeserach Belayneh, Anand Sinha, Jay G Silverman, Anita Raj
Child marriage and subsequent early first birth is a considerable social, economic and health concern, and a pervasive practice in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. This study explores barriers and facilitators to family planning among women and girls, and their marital decision-makers subsequent to receipt of child marriage prevention programmes in Ethiopia and India. In-depth interviews with 128 women and girls who were married as minors or who cancelled or postponed marriage as minors and their marital decision-makers were analysed using content analysis...
October 18, 2017: Culture, Health & Sexuality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043611/quantifying-anthropogenic-threats-to-orchids-using-the-iucn-red-list
#7
Jenna Wraith, Catherine Pickering
Orchids are diverse, occur in a wide range of habitats and dominate threatened species lists, but which orchids are threatened, where and by what? Using the International Union for Conservation of Nature Red List, we assessed the range and diversity of threats to orchids globally including identifying four threat syndromes: (1) terrestrial orchids in forests that are endemic to a country and threatened by illegal collecting; (2) orchids threatened by climate change, pollution, transportation and disturbance/development for tourism, and recreation activities, often in East Asia; (3) epiphytic orchids in Sub-Saharan Africa including Madagascar with diverse threats; and (4) South and Southeast Asia orchids threatened by land clearing for shifting agriculture...
October 17, 2017: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043495/endogenous-control-of-fuelling-in-a-migratory-songbird
#8
Ivan Maggini, Marc Bulte, Franz Bairlein
The Northern wheatear (Oenanthe oenanthe) is a small long-distance migratory songbird that breeds throughout the Northern hemisphere and winters in sub-Saharan Africa. The main components of its migratory behaviour, i.e. seasonal migratory restlessness and body mass changes, have been shown to be under endogenous control. However, it is still unknown whether the disposition to accumulate fuel reserves is an inherited trait. We cross-bred Northern wheatears from two populations known to accumulate different amounts of fuel in a common-garden setup, and measured their maximum fuelling as the difference between the lightest and heaviest body mass recorded over each year for 4 years or longer...
October 17, 2017: Die Naturwissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042388/is-overseas-volunteering-beneficial-to-the-nhs-the-analysis-of-volunteers-responses-to-a-feedback-questionnaire-following-experiences-in-low-income-and-middle-income-countries
#9
Daniel Yeomans, Grace Le, Hemant Pandit, Chris Lavy
INTRODUCTION: Locally requested and planned overseas volunteering in low-income and middle-income countries by National Health Service (NHS) staff can have benefits for the host or receiving nation, but its impact on the professional development of NHS staff is not proven. The Knowledge and Skills Framework (KSF) and Leadership Framework (LF) are two tools used by employers as a measure of individuals' development. We have used dimensions from both tools as a method of evaluating the benefit to NHS doctors who volunteer overseas...
October 16, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042191/roadmap-to-achieve-25-hypertension-control-in-africa-by-2025
#10
Anastase Dzudie, Brian Rayner, Dike Ojji, Aletta E Schutte, Marc Twagirumukiza, Albertino Damasceno, Seringe Abdou Ba, Abdoul Kane, Euloge Kramoh, Jean Baptiste Anzouan Kacou, Basden Onwubere, Ruth Cornick, Karen Sliwa, Benedict Anisiuba, Ana Olga Mocumbi, Elijah Ogola, Mohamed Awad, George Nel, Harun Otieno, Ali Ibrahim Toure, Samuel Kingue, Andre Pascal Kengne, Pablo Perel, Alma Adler, Neil Poulter, Bongani Mayosi
BACKGROUND: The Pan-African Society of Cardiology (PASCAR) has identified hypertension as the highest area of priority action to reduce heart disease and stroke on the continent. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this PASCAR roadmap on hypertension was to develop practical guidance on how to implement strategies that translate existing knowledge into effective action and improve detection, treatment and control of hypertension and cardiovascular health in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) by the year 2025...
October 14, 2017: Global Heart
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29041962/comparative-assessment-of-an-gambiae-and-an-stephensi-mosquitoes-to-determine-transmission-reducing-activity-of-antibodies-against-p-falciparum-sexual-stage-antigens
#11
Maarten Eldering, Anaïs Bompard, Kazutoyo Miura, Will Stone, Isabelle Morlais, Anna Cohuet, Geert-Jan van Gemert, Patrick M Brock, Sanna R Rijpma, Marga van de Vegte-Bolmer, Wouter Graumans, Rianne Siebelink-Stoter, Dari F Da, Carole A Long, Merribeth J Morin, Robert W Sauerwein, Thomas S Churcher, Teun Bousema
BACKGROUND: With the increasing interest in vaccines to interrupt malaria transmission, there is a demand for harmonization of current methods to assess Plasmodium transmission in laboratory settings. Potential vaccine candidates are currently tested in the standard membrane feeding assay (SMFA) that commonly relies on Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes. Other mosquito species including Anopheles gambiae are the dominant malaria vectors for Plasmodium falciparum in sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS: Using human serum and monoclonal pre-fertilization (anti-Pfs48/45) and post-fertilization (anti-Pfs25) antibodies known to effectively inhibit sporogony, we directly compared SMFA based estimates of transmission-reducing activity (TRA) for An...
October 17, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29041940/state-of-inequality-in-malaria-intervention-coverage-in-sub-saharan-african-countries
#12
Katya Galactionova, Thomas A Smith, Don de Savigny, Melissa A Penny
BACKGROUND: Scale-up of malaria interventions over the last decade have yielded a significant reduction in malaria transmission and disease burden in sub-Saharan Africa. We estimated economic gradients in the distribution of these efforts and of their impacts within and across endemic countries. METHODS: Using Demographic and Health Surveys we computed equity metrics to characterize the distribution of malaria interventions in 30 endemic countries proxying economic position with an asset-wealth index...
October 18, 2017: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29041936/pathways-to-increased-coverage-an-analysis-of-time-trends-in-contraceptive-need-and-use-among-adolescents-and-young-women-in-kenya-rwanda-tanzania-and-uganda
#13
Mardieh L Dennis, Emma Radovich, Kerry L M Wong, Onikepe Owolabi, Francesca L Cavallaro, Michael T Mbizvo, Agnes Binagwaho, Peter Waiswa, Caroline A Lynch, Lenka Benova
BACKGROUND: Despite efforts to make contraceptive services more "youth friendly," unmet need for contraception among young women in sub-Saharan Africa remains high. For health systems to effectively respond to the reproductive health needs of a growing youth population, it is imperative to understand their contraceptive needs and service seeking practices. This paper describes changes over time in contraceptive need, use, and sources of care among young women in four East African countries...
October 17, 2017: Reproductive Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29041933/silence-sexual-and-reproductive-health-discussions-and-we-fuel-the-rise-of-hiv-aids-in-sub-saharan-africa
#14
EDITORIAL
Janet M Wojcicki
In the mid 1990s, the HIV epidemic was initially impacting South Africa. Fear, stigma and denial surrounding sexual practices undermined treatment access and prevention initiatives. Significant strides have been made in reducing the HIV epidemic in South Africa and other areas in sub-Saharan Africa through effective programming and funding of prevention programs. Reinstatement of the Mexico City Policy threatens to negatively impact gains made in the HIV/AIDS community. Recognition that communication is essential to effective reproductive health and HIV/AIDS programming needs to be recognized by politicians enacting the Mexico City Policy and the possibility of viewing a rise in HIV/AIDS incidence in sub-Saharan Africa...
October 17, 2017: Reproductive Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29041926/prevalence-and-factors-associated-with-intestinal-parasites-among-food-handlers-of-food-and-drinking-establishments-in-aksum-town-northern-ethiopia
#15
Dejen Gezehegn, Mebrahtu Abay, Desalegn Tetemke, Hiwet Zelalem, Hafte Teklay, Zeray Baraki, Girmay Medhin
BACKGROUND: Various epidemiological studies indicate that the prevalence of intestinal parasites is high in developing countries and those parasites are major public health importance in Sub-Saharan Africa. Their distribution is mainly associated with poor personal hygiene, environmental sanitation and lack of access to clean water. This study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection and identify factors associated with intestinal parasitic infection among food handlers in the Aksum Town of Tigray Regional State, North Ethiopia...
October 17, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29041786/census-and-vaccination-coverage-of-owned-dog-populations-in-four-resource-limited-rural-communities-mpumalanga-province-south-africa
#16
Anne Conan, Joy A C Geerdes, Oluyemisi A Akerele, Bjorn Reininghaus, Gregory J G Simpson, Darryn Knobel
Dogs (Canis familiaris) are often free-roaming in sub-Saharan African countries. Rabies virus circulates in many of these populations and presents a public health issue. Mass vaccination of dog populations is the recommended method to decrease the number of dog and human rabies cases. We describe and compare four populations of dogs and their vaccination coverage in four different villages (Hluvukani, Athol, Utah and Dixie) in Bushbuckridge Municipality, Mpumalanga province, South Africa. Cross-sectional surveys were conducted in the villages of Athol, Utah and Dixie, while data from a Health and Demographic Surveillance System were used to describe the dog population in Hluvukani village...
September 22, 2017: Journal of the South African Veterinary Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040569/antiretroviral-therapy-use-during-pregnancy-and-adverse-birth-outcomes-in-south-african-women
#17
Thokozile R Malaba, Tamsin Phillips, Stanzi Le Roux, Kirsty Brittain, Allison Zerbe, Greg Petro, Agnes Ronan, James A McIntyre, Elaine J Abrams, Landon Myer
Background: Studies of antiretroviral therapy (ART) use during pregnancy in HIV-infected women have suggested that ART exposure may be associated with adverse birth outcomes. However, there are few data from sub-Saharan Africa where HIV is most common, and few studies involving the World Health Organization's (WHO's) recommended first-line regimens. Methods: We enrolled consecutive HIV-infected pregnant women and a comparator cohort of uninfected women at a primary-level antenatal care facility in Cape Town, South Africa...
July 28, 2017: International Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040509/a-new-use-for-an-old-tool-maternity-waiting-homes-to-improve-equity-in-rural-childbirth-care-results-from-a-cross-sectional-hospital-and-community-survey-in-tanzania
#18
Piera Fogliati, Manuela Straneo, Sabina Mangi, Gaetano Azzimonti, Firma Kisika, Giovanni Putoto
Limited quality of childbirth care in sub-Saharan Africa primarily affects the poor. Greater quality is available in facilities providing advanced management of childbirth complications. We aimed to determine whether Maternity Waiting Homes (MWHs) may be a tool to improve access of lower socio-economic women to such facilities. Secondary analysis of a cross-sectional hospital survey from Iringa District, Tanzania was carried out. Women who delivered between October 2011 and May 2012 in the only District facility providing comprehensive Emergency Obstetric Care were interviewed...
October 10, 2017: Health Policy and Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040303/continuing-professional-development-for-medical-nursing-and-midwifery-cadres-in-malawi-tanzania-and-south-africa-a-qualitative-evaluation
#19
Caryl Feldacker, Jillian Pintye, Sheena Jacob, Michael H Chung, Lyn Middleton, Jill Iliffe, H Nina Kim
BACKGROUND: As innovations in the prevention and treatment of HIV and TB advance, continuing professional development (CPD) of health care workers (HCWs) remains a high priority, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa where dual TB/HIV epidemics are compounded by severe HCW shortages. There is further need to examine CPD programs to identify challenges and effective solutions to strengthen HIV/TB-related CPD. METHODS: Qualitative evaluations in Malawi, Tanzania and South Africa (RSA) were conducted using key informant interviews (KIIs) and focus group discussions (FGDs) in each country to identify barriers and enablers of effective HIV/TB-related CPD...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040167/country-of-birth-of-children-with-diagnosed-hiv-infection-in-the-united-states-2008-2014
#20
Steven R Nesheim, Laurie Linley, Kristen Mahle Gray, Tianchi Zhang, Jing Shi, Margaret A Lampe, Lauren F FitzHarris
BACKGROUND: Diagnoses of HIV infection among children in the United States (US) have been declining; however, a notable percentage of diagnoses are among those born outside the United States. The impact of foreign birth among children with diagnosed infections has not been examined in the United States. METHOD: Using the CDC National HIV Surveillance System, we analyzed data for children aged <13 years with diagnosed HIV infection ("children") in the United States (reported from 50 states and the District of Columbia) during 2008-2014, by place of birth and selected characteristics...
October 14, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
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