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Sub-Saharan Africa

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431108/investments-in-children-s-health-and-the-kenyan-cash-transfer-for-orphans-and-vulnerable-children-evidence-from-an-unconditional-cash-transfer-scheme
#1
Carolyn Huang, Kavita Singh, Sudhanshu Handa, Carolyn Halpern, Audrey Pettifor, Harsha Thirumurthy
Child mortality is one of the most pressing global health and policy issues in the developing world. The leading drivers of death-pneumonia, diarrhea and malaria-are preventable and treatable. However, these illnesses are exacerbated by a lack of accessible nutrition, water, basic and preventive health services, and sanitary living conditions-all factors which are more likely to disproportionately impact the poor. We examine whether Kenya's largest social protection impacts children's incidence of upper respiratory illness...
April 18, 2017: Health Policy and Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428816/physical-health-policies-and-metabolic-screening-in-mental-health-care-systems-of-sub-saharan-african-countries-a-systematic-review
#2
REVIEW
James Mugisha, Marc De Hert, Brendon Stubbs, David Basangwa, Davy Vancampfort
BACKGROUND: There is a need for interventions to address the escalating mental health burden in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Addressing physical health needs should have a central role in reducing the burden and facilitating recovery in people with severe mental illness (SMI). We systematically investigated (1) physical health policies in the current mental health plans, and (2) the routine metabolic screening rates for people with SMI in SSA. METHODS: The Mental Health Atlas and MiNDbank of the World Health Organization were screened for physical health policies in mental health plans...
2017: International Journal of Mental Health Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428243/genome-wide-transcription-and-functional-analyses-reveal-heterogeneous-molecular-mechanisms-driving-pyrethroids-resistance-in-the-major-malaria-vector-anopheles-funestus-across-africa
#3
Jacob M Riveron, Sulaiman S Ibrahim, Charles Mulamba, Rousseau Djouaka, Helen Irving, Murielle J Wondji, Intan H Ishak, Charles S Wondji
Pyrethroid resistance in malaria vector, An. Funestus is increasingly reported across Africa, threatening the sustainability of pyrethroid-based control interventions including long lasting insecticidal Nets (LLINs). Managing this problem requires understanding of the molecular basis of the resistance from different regions of the continent, to establish whether it is being driven by a single or independent selective events. Here, using a genome-wide transcription profiling of pyrethroid resistant populations from Southern (Malawi), East (Uganda) and West Africa (Benin), we investigated the molecular basis of resistance, revealing strong differences between the different African regions...
April 19, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427337/treatment-seeking-behaviour-in-low-and-middle-income-countries-estimated-using-a-bayesian-model
#4
Victor A Alegana, Jim Wright, Carla Pezzulo, Andrew J Tatem, Peter M Atkinson
BACKGROUND: Seeking treatment in formal healthcare for uncomplicated infections is vital to combating disease in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Healthcare treatment-seeking behaviour varies within and between communities and is modified by socio-economic, demographic, and physical factors. As a result, it remains a challenge to quantify healthcare treatment-seeking behaviour using a metric that is comparable across communities. Here, we present an application for transforming individual categorical responses (actions related to fever) to a continuous probabilistic estimate of fever treatment for one country in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA)...
April 20, 2017: BMC Medical Research Methodology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426846/affordability-of-cancer-drugs-in-sub-saharan-africa-effects-of-pricing-on-needless-loss-of-life
#5
Yehoda M Martei, Agnes Binagwaho, Lawrence N Shulman
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 20, 2017: JAMA Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426819/virological-success-after-12-and-24-months-of-antiretroviral-therapy-in-sub-saharan-africa-comparing-results-of-trials-cohorts-and-cross-sectional-studies-using-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#6
Fabien Taieb, Yoann Madec, Amandine Cournil, Eric Delaporte
BACKGROUND: UNAIDS recently defined the 90-90-90 target as a way to end the HIV epidemic. However, the proportion of virological success following antiretroviral therapy (ART) may not be as high as the anticipated 90%, and may in fact be highly heterogeneous. We aimed to describe the proportion of virological success in sub-Saharan Africa and to identify factors associated with the proportion of virological success. METHODS: We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis focusing on the proportion of patients in sub-Saharan Africa who demonstrate virological success at 12 and 24 months since ART initiation, as well as at 6 and 36 months, where possible...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426685/human-african-trypanosomiasis-control-achievements-and-challenges
#7
Serap Aksoy, Phillipe Buscher, Mike Lehane, Philippe Solano, Jan Van Den Abbeele
Sleeping sickness, also known as human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), is a neglected disease that impacts 70 million people living in 1.55 million km2 in sub-Saharan Africa. Since the beginning of the 20th century, there have been multiple HAT epidemics in sub-Saharan Africa, with the most recent epidemic in the 1990s resulting in about half a million HAT cases reported between 1990 and 2015. Here we review the status of HAT disease at the current time and the toolbox available for its control. We also highlight future opportunities under development towards novel or improved interventions...
April 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426534/age-disparate-relationships-and-hiv-incidence-in-adolescent-girls-and-young-women-evidence-from-a-general-population-cohort-in-zimbabwe
#8
Robin Schaefer, Simon Gregson, Jeffrey W Eaton, Owen Mugurungi, Rebecca Rhead, Albert Takaruza, Rufurwokuda Maswera, Constance Nyamukapa
OBJECTIVE: Age-disparate sexual relationships with older men may drive high rates of HIV acquisition in young women in sub-Saharan Africa but evidence is limited. We investigate the association between age-disparate relationships and HIV incidence in Manicaland, Zimbabwe. DESIGN: A general-population open-cohort study (six surveys) (1998-2013). METHODS: 3746 young women aged 15-24 years participated in consecutive surveys and were HIV-negative at the beginning of inter-survey periods...
April 19, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426440/the-impact-of-couple-hiv-testing-and-counseling-on-consistent-condom-use-among-pregnant-women-and-their-male-partners-an-observational-study
#9
Nora E Rosenberg, Lauren A Graybill, Austin Wesevich, Nuala McGrath, Carol E Golin, Suzanne Maman, Nivedita Bhushan, Mercy Tsidya, Limbikani Chimndozi, Irving F Hoffman, Mina C Hosseinipour, William C Miller
BACKGROUND: In sub-Saharan Africa couple HIV testing and counseling (CHTC) has been associated with substantial increases in safe sex, especially when at least one partner is HIV-infected. However, this relationship has not been characterized in an Option B+ context. SETTING: The study was conducted at the antenatal clinic at Bwaila District Hospital in Lilongwe, Malawi in 2016 under an Option B+ program. METHODS: Ninety heterosexual couples with an HIV-infected pregnant woman (female-positive couples) and 47 couples with an HIV-uninfected pregnant woman (female-negative couples) were enrolled in an observational study...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426116/portuguese-expatriates-health-in-angola-and-mozambique-a-cross-sectional-study-increasing-awareness-and-need-for-more-surveillance
#10
Ana Glória Fonseca, Sara S Dias, João Luis Baptista, Jorge Torgal
Background: Increasing numbers of expatriates are working in sub-Saharan Africa. There is little published data on the complex population and this survey aimed at understanding expatriate morbidity by accessing self-reported health problems and malaria preventive practices. Methods: A cross-sectional web-based survey was conducted targeting Portuguese expatriates in Angola and Mozambique. Logistic regression analysis explored factors associated with self-reported health problems and psychological symptoms in the previous 3 months...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Travel Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425000/medical-care-screening-and-regularization-of-sub-saharan-irregular-migrants-affected-by-hepatitis-b-in-france-and-italy
#11
Cecilia Santilli
Both in France and in Italy hepatitis B is present mostly among the migrant population coming from sub-Saharan Africa and mainly among those migrants having a poor socio-economic background. This article is aimed at assaying the impact of public policies adopted by France and Italy for migrants' health on the treatment of migrants with HBV. The article is based on semi-structured interviews conducted with 30 immigrant adults taken into care by two associations dealing with medical, psychological and social issues of immigrants applying for a residence permit, mainly asylum seekers...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424795/an-open-label-cluster-randomised-trial-to-evaluate-the-effectiveness-of-a-counselling-intervention-on-linkage-to-care-among-hiv-infected-patients-in-uganda-study-design
#12
Eugene Ruzagira, Kathy Baisley, Anatoli Kamali, Heiner Grosskurth
INTRODUCTION: Home-based HIV counselling & testing (HBHCT) is highly acceptable and has the potential to increase HIV testing uptake in sub-Saharan Africa. However, data are lacking on strategies that can effectively link HIV-positive individuals identified through HBHCT to care. This trial was designed to assess the effectiveness of two brief home-based counselling sessions on linkage to care, provided subsequent to referral for care among HIV-positive patients identified through HBHCT in a rural community in Masaka district, Uganda...
March 2017: Contemporary Clinical Trials Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424286/subtype-specific-differences-in-gag-protease-driven-replication-capacity-are-consistent-with-inter-subtype-differences-in-hiv-1-disease-progression
#13
Marion W Kiguoya, Jaclyn K Mann, Denis Chopera, Kamini Gounder, Guinevere Q Lee, Peter W Hunt, Jeffrey N Martin, T Blake Ball, Joshua Kimani, Zabrina L Brumme, Mark A Brockman, Thumbi Ndung'u
There are marked differences in the spread and prevalence of HIV-1 subtypes worldwide, and differences in clinical progression have been reported. However, the biological reasons underlying these differences are unknown. Gag-protease is essential for HIV-1 replication and Gag-protease-driven replication capacity has previously been correlated with disease progression. We show that Gag-protease replication capacity correlates significantly with that of whole isolates (r=0.51; p=0.04), indicating that Gag-protease is a significant contributor to viral replication capacity...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424258/serum-hepcidin-concentrations-decline-during-pregnancy-and-may-identify-iron-deficiency-analysis-of-a-longitudinal-pregnancy-cohort-in-the-gambia
#14
Amat Bah, Sant-Rayn Pasricha, Momodou W Jallow, Ebrima A Sise, Rita Wegmuller, Andrew E Armitage, Hal Drakesmith, Sophie E Moore, Andrew M Prentice
Background: Antenatal anemia is a risk factor for adverse maternal and fetal outcomes and is prevalent in sub-Saharan Africa. Less than half of antenatal anemia is considered responsive to iron; identifying women in need of iron may help target interventions. Iron absorption is governed by the iron-regulatory hormone hepcidin.Objective: We sought to characterize changes in hepcidin and its associations with indexes of iron stores, erythropoiesis, and inflammation at weeks 14, 20, and 30 of gestation and to assess hepcidin's diagnostic potential as an index of iron deficiency...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424031/yellow-fever-from-angola-and-congo-a-storm-gathers
#15
Qanta A Ahmed, Ziad A Memish
In common with Zika, Chikungunya and Dengue, Yellow Fever (YF) is an arthropod-borne flavivirus. It is transmitted between humans and from monkeys by mosquitoes of the Aedes aegypti (its principal vector), haemogogus and albopictus varieties. Three cycles of transmission may occur: urban; sylvatic; and intermediate. Recently, sub-Saharan Africa has seen the resurgence of this neglected disease. The current YF outbreak in Angola began in December 2015 in the capital Luanda and by October 2016 there had been > 4300 suspected cases, with 376 deaths (case fatality rate = 8...
April 2017: Tropical Doctor
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423965/historical-mitochondrial-diversity-in-african-leopards-panthera-pardus-revealed-by-archival-museum-specimens
#16
Corey Anco, Sergios-Orestis Kolokotronis, Philipp Henschel, Seth W Cunningham, George Amato, Evon Hekkala
Once found throughout Africa and Eurasia, the leopard (Panthera pardus) was recently uplisted from Near Threatened to Vulnerable by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN). Historically, more than 50% of the leopard's global range occurred in continental Africa, yet sampling from this part of the species' distribution is only sparsely represented in prior studies examining patterns of genetic variation at the continental or global level. Broad sampling to determine baseline patterns of genetic variation throughout the leopard's historical distribution is important, as these measures are currently used by the IUCN to direct conservation priorities and management plans...
April 19, 2017: Mitochondrial DNA. Part A. DNA Mapping, Sequencing, and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422995/characterization-of-rotavirus-infection-in-children-with-acute-gastroenteritis-in-bengo-province-northwestern-angola-prior-to-vaccine-introduction
#17
Carolina Gasparinho, João Piedade, Maria Clara Mirante, Cristina Mendes, Carlos Mayer, Susana Vaz Nery, Miguel Brito, Claudia Istrate
BACKGROUND: Rotavirus group A (RVA) is considered the leading cause of pediatric diarrhea, responsible for the high burden of diarrheal diseases in sub-Saharan Africa. Despite recent studies, the existent data are scarce for some African countries like Angola, a country with one of the highest RVA-related death estimates. The aim of this study was to determine the RVA detection rate and circulating genotypes in children less than five years of age with acute gastroenteritis attended at the Bengo General Hospital in Caxito, Bengo province, Angola, before vaccine introduction...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420446/immune-resistance-and-tolerance-strategies-in-malaria-vector-and-non-vector-mosquitoes
#18
Tibebu Habtewold, Zoe Groom, George K Christophides
BACKGROUND: The Anopheles gambiae complex consists of species that vary greatly in their capacity to transmit malaria. The mosquito immune system has been identified as a key factor that can influence whether Plasmodium infection establishes within the mosquito vector. This study was designed to investigate the immune responses of An. coluzzii, An. arabiensis and An. quadriannulatus mosquitoes. The first two mosquito species are major vectors of malaria in sub-Saharan Africa, while the third is thought to be a non-vector...
April 18, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420399/distinct-parasite-populations-infect-individuals-identified-through-passive-and-active-case-detection-in-a-region-of-declining-malaria-transmission-in-southern-zambia
#19
Kelly M Searle, Ben Katowa, Tamaki Kobayashi, Mwiche N S Siame, Sungano Mharakurwa, Giovanna Carpi, Douglas E Norris, Jennifer C Stevenson, Philip E Thuma, William J Moss
BACKGROUND: Substantial reductions in the burden of malaria have been documented in parts of sub-Saharan Africa, with elimination strategies and goals being formulated in some regions. Within this context, understanding the epidemiology of low-level malaria transmission is crucial to achieving and sustaining elimination. A 24 single-nucleotide-polymorphism Plasmodium falciparum molecular barcode was used to characterize parasite populations from infected individuals identified through passive and active case detection in an area approaching malaria elimination in southern Zambia...
April 19, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418780/unique-phylogenetic-position-of-the-african-truffle-like-fungus-octaviania-ivoryana-boletaceae-boletales-and-the-proposal-of-a-new-genus-afrocastellanoa
#20
Takamichi Orihara, Matthew E Smith
The sequestrate (truffle-like) basidiomycete Octaviania ivoryana was originally described based on collections from Zimbabwe, Kenya, Guinea, and Senegal. This species has basidiomes that stain blue-green and basidiospores with crowded spines that are characteristic of the genus Octaviania. However, O. ivoryana is the only Octaviania species described from sub-Saharan Africa, and the phylogenetic relationship of the species to other species of Octaviania sensu stricto has not been previously investigated. We examined the phylogenetic position of the isotype and paratype specimens of O...
March 7, 2017: Mycologia
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