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fragile states

Mellissa Withers, Nina Kharazmi, Esther Lim
INTRODUCTION: Asian women suffer the largest proportion of the world's maternal deaths. To reduce this, policymakers and healthcare providers must encourage women with traditionally low rates of maternal health care utilization to access services. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to provide a comprehensive review of the most common traditional practices in Asia relating to pregnancy, childbirth and the postpartum period. DESIGN: We conducted a literature search of articles: a) focusing on Asia; b) relating to pregnancy, childbirth or postpartum, c) relating to traditional beliefs and/or cultural practices; and 4) published in English in the year 2000 or more recently...
November 10, 2017: Midwifery
Yara M Asi, Cynthia Williams
PURPOSE: The progress of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) shows that sustained global action can achieve success. Despite the unprecedented achievements in health and education, more than one billion people, many of them in conflict-affected areas, were unable to reap the benefits of the MDG gains. The recently developed Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) are even more ambitious then their predecessor. SDG 3 prioritizes health and well-being for all ages in specific areas such as maternal mortality, communicable diseases, mental health, and healthcare workforce...
November 6, 2017: International Journal of Medical Informatics
Duncan C Randall
Today more and more children are living with complex health care needs, many of these children are living with life limiting and/or threatening conditions, some are medically fragile. To live a childhood these children must live in communities and with their families. In most cases this means the child's carers, their parents, most often their mothers, are required to undertake a great deal of the child's care. During a project on parental coping I became aware of the ways in which parents were restructuring their working lives in order to meet the demands of the nursing and medical care needs of their children...
November 10, 2017: Compr Child Adolesc Nurs
Ján Škoviera, Ivan Černušák, Florent Louis, Pavel Neogrády
Correlated ab initio methods [CASPT2 and R-CCSD(T)] in conjunction with the ANO-RCC basis sets in large contraction were used to calculate potential energy curves (PECs) of the ground and excited electronic states of CsH(+) (doublets and quartets) with the inclusion of the scalar relativistic effects and spin-orbit interaction. The ground X(2)Σ(+) state is a rather fragile van der Waals molecular ion. The binding energy of this X(2)Σ(+) state provided by both computational methods is estimated to be 0.02-0...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Molecular Modeling
André Amado, Carlos Batista, Paulo R A Campos
The so-called size-complexity rule claims the existence of a positive correlation between organism size and number of cell types. In this spirit, here we address the relationship between organism size and number of potential tasks that can be performed. The modeling relies on the assumption that the states of the cells within the aggregates are such that the maximum fitness is realized, but also relies on the existence of tradeoffs among the distinct functions. For group sizes larger than the number of potential tasks, fitness maximization is attained when all cells in group specialize in a given task...
November 9, 2017: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
Razia Fatima, Mahboob Ul Haq, Aashifa Yaqoob, Nasir Mahmood, Khawaja Laeeq Ahmad, Mike Osberg, Julia Makayova, Aaron Hymoff, Christy Hanson
Background: Pakistan has the sixth largest population in the world and boasts the fifth greatest burden of tuberculosis. The Government of Pakistan has set the ambitious goal of zero deaths due to tuberculosis and universal access to tuberculosis care by 2020. Successfully reaching these goals is dependent on the country's capacity to diagnose and successfully treat an estimated 200000 unnotified or missing patients with tuberculosis. Methods: A patient-pathway analysis (PPA) was conducted at the national level, as well as for each of the 4 provinces, to assess the alignment between patient care seeking and the availability of tuberculosis diagnostic and treatment services...
November 6, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
S Chattopadhyay, S Petit, E Ressouche, S Raymond, V Balédent, G Yahia, W Peng, J Robert, M-B Lepetit, M Greenblatt, P Foury-Leylekian
In solid state science, multifunctional materials and especially multiferroics have attracted a great deal of attention, as they open the possibility for next generation spintronic and data storage devices. Interestingly, while many of them host coexisting 3d and 4f elements, the role of the coupling between these two magnetic entities has remained elusive. By means of single crystal neutron diffraction and inelastic neutron scattering experiments we shed light on this issue in the particular case of the multiferroic oxide DyMn2O5...
November 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
Debraj Rakshit, Jan Mostowski, Tomasz Sowiński, Magdalena Załuska-Kotur, Mariusz Gajda
The best known manifestation of the Fermi-Dirac statistics is the Pauli exclusion principle: no two identical fermions can occupy the same one-particle state. This principle enforces high-order correlations in systems of many identical fermions and is responsible for a particular geometric arrangement of trapped particles even when all mutual interactions are absent. These geometric structures, called Pauli crystals, are predicted for a system of N identical atoms trapped in a harmonic potential. They emerge as the most frequent configurations in a collection of single-shot pictures of the system...
November 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
Evans Buliva, Mohamed Elhakim, Nhu Nguyen Tran Minh, Amgad Elkholy, Peter Mala, Abdinasir Abubakar, Sk Md Mamunur Rahman Malik
The Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMR) of the World Health Organization (WHO) continues to be a hotspot for emerging and reemerging infectious diseases and the need to prevent, detect, and respond to any infectious diseases that pose a threat to global health security remains a priority. Many risk factors contribute in the emergence and rapid spread of epidemic diseases in the Region including acute and protracted humanitarian emergencies, resulting in fragile health systems, increased population mobility, rapid urbanization, climate change, weak surveillance and limited laboratory diagnostic capacity, and increased human-animal interaction...
2017: Frontiers in Public Health
Allison Keshishian, Natalie Boytsov, Russel Burge, Kelly Krohn, Louise Lombard, Xiang Zhang, Lin Xie, Onur Baser
BACKGROUND: In the United States, osteoporosis affects approximately 10 million people, of whom 80% are women, and it contributes a significant clinical burden to the community. Poor adherence to osteoporosis medications adds to the overall burden of illness. OBJECTIVE: To examine the association of osteoporosis medication adherence and the risk of a subsequent fracture among Medicare-enrolled women with a previous fragility fracture. METHODS: This study was a retrospective observational analysis of U...
November 2017: Journal of Managed Care & Specialty Pharmacy
Tim Martineau, Barbara McPake, Sally Theobald, Joanna Raven, Tim Ensor, Suzanne Fustukian, Freddie Ssengooba, Yotamu Chirwa, Sreytouch Vong, Haja Wurie, Nick Hooton, Sophie Witter
Conflict and fragility are increasing in many areas of the world. This context has been referred to as the 'new normal' and affects a billion people. Fragile and conflict-affected states have the worst health indicators and the weakest health systems. This presents a major challenge to achieving universal health coverage. The evidence base for strengthening health systems in these contexts is very weak and hampered by limited research capacity, challenges relating to insecurity and apparent low prioritisation of this area of research by funders...
2017: BMJ Global Health
Aneta Maćczak, Piotr Duchnowicz, Paulina Sicińska, Maria Koter-Michalak, Bożena Bukowska, Jaromir Michałowicz
Bisphenols are massively used in the industry, and thus the exposure of biota including humans to these substances has been noted. In this study we have assessed the effect of BPA and its selected analogs, i.e. BPS, BPF and BPAF on membrane of human red blood cells, which is the first barrier that must be overcome by xenobiotics penetrating the cell, and is commonly utilized as a model in the investigation of the effect of different xenobiotics on various cell types. Red blood cells were incubated with BPA and its analogs in the concentrations ranging from 0...
October 25, 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Vahid Moosavi, Giulio Isacchini
The initial theoretical connections between Leontief input-output models and Markov chains were established back in 1950s. However, considering the wide variety of mathematical properties of Markov chains, so far there has not been a full investigation of evolving world economic networks with Markov chain formalism. In this work, using the recently available world input-output database, we investigated the evolution of the world economic network from 1995 to 2011 through analysis of a time series of finite Markov chains...
2017: PloS One
William C Ratcliff, Matthew Herron, Peter L Conlin, Eric Libby
Evolutionary transitions in individuality (ETIs) occur when formerly autonomous organisms evolve to become parts of a new, 'higher-level' organism. One of the first major hurdles that must be overcome during an ETI is the emergence of Darwinian evolvability in the higher-level entity (e.g. a multicellular group), and the loss of Darwinian autonomy in the lower-level units (e.g. individual cells). Here, we examine how simple higher-level life cycles are a key innovation during an ETI, allowing this transfer of fitness to occur 'for free'...
December 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
Maryanne Tigchelaar Perrin
OBJECTIVE: In 2011 the United States Surgeon General issued a call to action to "identify and address obstacles to greater availability of safe banked donor milk for fragile infants." The purpose of this study is to analyze patterns in donor human milk (DHM) and fortifier use in level 2, 3, and 4 neonatal facilities in 2015 and to identify factors associated with non-use. METHODS: Data from the 2015 Maternity Practices in Infant Nutrition and Care survey, conducted by the Center for Disease Control and Prevention, was analyzed for questions about feeding practices within neonatal hospitals...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
Ying-Zu Huang, Ming-Kue Lu, Andrea Antal, Joseph Classen, Michael Nitsche, Ulf Ziemann, Michael Ridding, Masashi Hamada, Yoshikazu Ugawa, Shapour Jaberzadeh, Antonio Suppa, Walter Paulus, John Rothwell
Several techniques and protocols of non-invasive transcranial brain stimulation (NIBS), including transcranial magnetic and electrical stimuli, have been developed in the past decades. Non-invasive transcranial brain stimulation may modulate cortical excitability outlasting the period of non-invasive transcranial brain stimulation itself from several minutes to more than one hour. Quite a few lines of evidence, including pharmacological, physiological and behavioral studies in humans and animals, suggest that the effects of non-invasive transcranial brain stimulation are produced through effects on synaptic plasticity...
September 28, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
Aembe Bwimana
Longstanding patterns of interaction exist between state and non-state actors seeking to improve public health in Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). DRC is a weak state, and, in many cases, private actors have stepped in to fill the void created by the lack of state health care provision. However, the role of these interactions in creating a governance network in the health sector has been underexplored. Using data from 18 months of qualitative field research, this study aimed to explore governance networks in DRC's health sector, examining how multiple stakeholders work to manage the health system and how the resulting governance network has been relevant for the state-building process...
December 1, 2017: Health Policy and Planning
D-P Germain
Ehlers-Danlos syndromes (EDS) are a heterogeneous group of inheritable connective tissue disorders characterized by skin hyperextensibility, joint hypermobility and cutaneous fragility with delayed wound healing. Over and above these common features, they differ in the presence or absence of various organ and tissue abnormalities, and differences in genetic causal mechanisms and degree of severity. They are complex and multisystem diseases, with the majority being highly disabling because of major joint problems and neurosensory deficiencies, and in some cases, they may be life-threatening due to associated complications, especially vascular disorders...
October 9, 2017: Annales de Dermatologie et de Vénéréologie
P Zarkeshian, C Deshmukh, N Sinclair, S K Goyal, G H Aguilar, P Lefebvre, M Grimau Puigibert, V B Verma, F Marsili, M D Shaw, S W Nam, K Heshami, D Oblak, W Tittel, C Simon
There are both fundamental and practical motivations for studying whether quantum entanglement can exist in macroscopic systems. However, multiparty entanglement is generally fragile and difficult to quantify. Dicke states are multiparty entangled states where a single excitation is delocalized over many systems. Building on previous work on quantum memories for photons, we create a Dicke state in a solid by storing a single photon in a crystal that contains many large atomic ensembles with distinct resonance frequencies...
October 13, 2017: Nature Communications
John Quinn, Preslava Stoeva, Tomáš Zelený, Toozy Nanda, Alžběta Tomanová, Vladimír Bencko
OBJECTIVE: A new 'normal' in global affairs may be erupting from large global powers to that of non-state actors and proxies committing violence through scaled conflict in a post-Westphalian world generating significant global health policy challenges. Health security of populations are multifactorial and indirectly proportional to war, conflict and disaster. Preventing conflict and avoiding the health vacuum that occurs in war and violence may be best practices for policy makers. This paper considers an approach of applying clinical primary prevention principles to global health policy...
September 2017: Central European Journal of Public Health
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