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fragile states

Pia Lau, Andreas Wollbrink, Robert Wunderlich, Alva Engell, Alwina Löhe, Markus Junghöfer, Christo Pantev
Tinnitus is a prevalent phenomenon and bothersome for people affected by it. Its occurrence and maintenance have a clear neuroscientific tie and one aspect are differences in the neuronal oscillatory pattern, especially in auditory cortical areas. As studies in this field come to different results, the aim of this study was to analyze a large number of participants to achieve more stable results. Furthermore, we expanded our analysis to two variables of potential influence, namely being a novice to neuroscientific measurements and the exclusion of psychological comorbidities...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Ganhua Xie, Pei Li, Zhiju Zhao, Zhongpeng Zhu, Xiang-Yu Kong, Zhen Zhang, Kai Xiao, Liping Wen, Lei Jiang
Water wetting behavior in nano-confined environments plays an important role in mass transport and signal trans-mission of organisms. It is valuable and challengeable to investigate how water behaves in such a nanometer-scale with external stimuli, in particular with electric field and light. Unfortunately, the mechanism of hydrophobic reaction inside the nano-spaces is still obscure and lacks of experimental supporting for the current electric-field- or photo-responsive nanochannels which suffer from fragility or monofunctionality...
March 15, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Jonathan M Snowden, Ifeoma Muoto
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 13, 2018: Health Services Research
Vin Gupta, Alexandre Mason-Sharma, Zoe M Lyon, Endel John Orav, Ashish K Jha, Vanessa B Kerry
Growing evidence suggests that health aid can serve humanitarian and diplomatic ends. This study utilised the Fragile States Index (FSI) for the 47 nations of the World Health Organizations' Africa region for the years 2005-2014 and data on health and non-health development aid spending from the United States (US) for those same years. Absolute amounts of health and non-health aid flows from the US were used as predictors of state fragility. We used time-lagged, fixed-effects multivariable regression modelling with change in FSI as the outcome of interest...
March 13, 2018: Global Public Health
Justin R Fallon, Elizabeth M McNally
The extracellular matrix (ECM) plays key roles in normal and diseased skeletal and cardiac muscle. In healthy muscle the ECM is essential for transmitting contractile force, maintaining myofiber integrity and orchestrating cellular signaling. Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) is caused by loss of dystrophin, a cytosolic protein that anchors a transmembrane complex and serves as a vital link between the actin cytoskeleton and the basal lamina. Loss of dystrophin leads to membrane fragility and impaired signaling, resulting in myofiber death and cycles of inflammation and regeneration...
February 23, 2018: Matrix Biology: Journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
Michael J Landry, Frederic-Guillaume Rollet, Timothy E Kennedy, Christopher J Barrett
Growing primary cells and tissue in long-term cultures, such as primary neural cell culture, presents many challenges. A critical component of any environment that supports neural cell growth in vivo is an appropriate 2-D surface or 3-D scaffold, typically in the form of a thin polymer layer that coats an underlying plastic or glass substrate and aims to mimic critical aspects of extracellular matrix. A fundamental challenge to mimicking a hydrophilic, soft natural cell environment is that materials with these properties are typically fragile, and difficult to adhere and stabilize on an underlying plastic or glass cell culture substrate...
February 26, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
M Carmen Miguel, Jack T Parley, Romualdo Pastor-Satorras
Social relationships characterize the interactions that occur within social species and may have an important impact on collective animal motion. Here, we consider a variation of the standard Vicsek model for collective motion in which interactions are mediated by an empirically motivated scale-free topology that represents a heterogeneous pattern of social contacts. We observe that the degree of order of the model is strongly affected by network heterogeneity: more heterogeneous networks show a more resilient ordered state, while less heterogeneity leads to a more fragile ordered state that can be destroyed by sufficient external noise...
February 9, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Eron Cemal, Mechthild Enderle, Reinhard K Kremer, Björn Fåk, Eric Ressouche, Jon P Goff, Mariya V Gvozdikova, Mike E Zhitomirsky, Tim Ziman
The mineral linarite, PbCuSO_{4}(OH)_{2}, is a spin-1/2 chain with frustrating nearest-neighbor ferromagnetic and next-nearest-neighbor antiferromagnetic exchange interactions. Our inelastic neutron scattering experiments performed above the saturation field establish that the ratio between these exchanges is such that linarite is extremely close to the quantum critical point between spin-multipolar phases and the ferromagnetic state. We show that the predicted quantum multipolar phases are fragile and actually suppressed by a tiny orthorhombic exchange anisotropy and weak interchain interactions in favor of a dipolar fan phase...
February 9, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Ewa Kamińska, Olga Madejczyk, Magdalena Tarnacka, Karolina Jurkiewicz, Kamila Wolnica, Wioleta Edyta Śmiszek-Lindert, Kamil Kamiński, Marian Paluch
In this paper, 1,6-anhydro-β-D-glucopyranose (anhGLU), 1,6-anhydro-β-D-mannopyranose (anhMAN), and 1,6-anhydro-β-D-galactopyranose (anhGAL), three new materials that form the Orientationally Disordered Crystal (ODIC) phase, have been thoroughly investigated using various experimental techniques. All measurements clearly indicated that these compounds possess a series of very interesting physical properties that are considerably different than those reported for ordinary plastic crystals. X-Ray diffraction investigations have revealed enormously long-range static correlations between molecules, reaching even 120 Å...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
Chunyuan Qiu, Priscilla H Chan, Gary L Zohman, Heather A Prentice, Jessica J Hunt, Diana C LaPlace, Vu T Nguyen, Glenn R Diekmann, Gregory B Maletis, Vimal Desai
OBJECTIVES: To determine the impact of anesthesia type on in-hospital mortality and morbidity for geriatric fragility hip fracture surgery. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Integrates health care delivery system across 38 facilities in the United States. PATIENTS/PARTICIPANTS: We identified 16,695 patients 65 years of age and older who underwent emergent hip fracture repairs between 2009 and 2014 through the Kaiser Permanente hip fracture registry and excluded pathologic or bilateral fractures...
March 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma
Lawrence M Berger, Sarah A Font, Kristen S Slack, Jane Waldfogel
This study estimates the associations of income with both (self-reported) child protective services (CPS) involvement and parenting behaviors that proxy for child abuse and neglect risk among unmarried families. Our primary strategy follows the instrumental variables (IV) approach employed by Dahl and Lochner (2012), which leverages variation between states and over time in the generosity of the total state and federal Earned Income Tax Credit for which a family is eligible to identify exogenous variation in family income...
December 2017: Review of Economics of the Household
X Shawn Liu, Hao Wu, Marine Krzisch, Xuebing Wu, John Graef, Julien Muffat, Denes Hnisz, Charles H Li, Bingbing Yuan, Chuanyun Xu, Yun Li, Dan Vershkov, Angela Cacace, Richard A Young, Rudolf Jaenisch
Fragile X syndrome (FXS), the most common genetic form of intellectual disability in males, is caused by silencing of the FMR1 gene associated with hypermethylation of the CGG expansion mutation in the 5' UTR of FMR1 in FXS patients. Here, we applied recently developed DNA methylation editing tools to reverse this hypermethylation event. Targeted demethylation of the CGG expansion by dCas9-Tet1/single guide RNA (sgRNA) switched the heterochromatin status of the upstream FMR1 promoter to an active chromatin state, restoring a persistent expression of FMR1 in FXS iPSCs...
February 8, 2018: Cell
Lana J Williams, Michael Berk, Jason M Hodge, Mark A Kotowicz, Amanda L Stuart, Vinoomika Chandrasekaran, Jasmine Cleminson, Julie A Pasco
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) have been shown to have a clinically significant impact on bone metabolism. To explore this further, we aimed to determine whether these agents are associated with serum markers of bone turnover utilising a population-based sample of men (n = 1138; 20-96 year) participating in the Geelong Osteoporosis Study. Blood samples were obtained and the bone resorption marker, C-telopeptide (CTx) and formation marker, type 1 procollagen amino-terminal-propeptide (PINP) were measured...
February 13, 2018: Calcified Tissue International
M-E Gomes do Espirito Santo, A-L Perrine, C Bonaldi, I Guseva-Canu
BACKGROUND: French national surveys among the homeless population in 2001 and 2012 provided a general description of the homeless beneficiaries of medical and social aids. However, given the increasing number of women in this population, mostly born abroad and accompanied by their children, a descriptive study of homeless women according to the fact of being born in France or abroad was conducted. METHODS: A probability sample of 1470 French-speaking homeless women was recruited for the Insee-Ined 2012 survey...
February 8, 2018: Revue D'épidémiologie et de Santé Publique
Stefan Liebner, Rick M Dijkhuizen, Yvonne Reiss, Karl H Plate, Dritan Agalliu, Gabriela Constantin
The adult quiescent blood-brain barrier (BBB), a structure organised by endothelial cells through interactions with pericytes, astrocytes, neurons and microglia in the neurovascular unit, is highly regulated but fragile at the same time. In the past decade, there has been considerable progress in understanding not only the molecular pathways involved in BBB development, but also BBB breakdown in neurological diseases. Specifically, the Wnt/β-catenin, retinoic acid and sonic hedgehog pathways moved into the focus of BBB research...
February 6, 2018: Acta Neuropathologica
Paula Fomby
Families formed through multipartner fertility, where children with a common biological mother were conceived by different biological fathers, represent a growing share of all families in the United States. Using data from four waves of the Fragile Families Child and Well-Being Study (N=3,366), I find that women who have engaged in multipartner fertility are more likely to experience parenting stress and depression compared to mothers whose children share the same biological father. Mothers' depression is explained in the short term by poor relationship quality with the father of her prior children and in the longer term by indicators of boundary ambiguity in complex families...
2018: Journal of Family Issues
Ryan Shickman, Jessica Famula, Flora Tassone, Maureen Leehey, Emilio Ferrer, Susan M Rivera, David Hessl
BACKGROUND: Fragile X premutation carriers are at increased risk for fragile X-associated tremor ataxia syndrome (FXTAS), but to date we know little about prediction of onset and rate of progression and even less about treatment of this neurodegenerative disease. Thus, the longitudinal study of carriers, and the identification of potential biomarkers and prodromal states, is essential. Here we present results of baseline assessments from an ongoing longitudinal project. METHODS: The cohort consisted of 73 men, 48 with the fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1) premutation (55-200 cytosine-cytosine-guanine or CGG repeats) and 25 well-matched controls (< 40 repeats) aged between 40 and 75 years...
February 1, 2018: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
Paroma Chakravarty, Keyurkumar Pandya, Karthik Nagapudi
The fragility index (m) and conversely the strength parameter (D) are widely used to categorize glass forming liquids and are used to characterize temperature-dependency of viscosity and relaxation time as the supercooled liquid approaches glass transition. The currently used calorimetric methods in pharmaceutical literature lead to wide variability in measured values of m. In this work, a modulated differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) method is introduced that can directly determine m with minimal variability...
January 31, 2018: Molecular Pharmaceutics
Farrah J Mateen, Erica D McKenzie, Sherri Rose
OBJECTIVE: To report on medical schools in fragile states, countries with severe development challenges, and the impact on the workforce for health care delivery. DATA SOURCES: 2007 and 2012 World Bank Harmonized List of Fragile Situations; 1998-2012 WHO Global Health Observatory; 2014 World Directory of Medical Schools. DATA EXTRACTION: Fragile classification established from 2007 and 2012 World Bank status. Population, gross national income, health expenditure, and life expectancy were 2007 figures...
January 24, 2018: Health Services Research
Leonardo Barros Dobbss, Tamires Cruz Dos Santos, Marco Pittarello, Sávio Bastos de Souza, Alessandro Coutinho Ramos, Jader Galba Busato
One of the industrial pillars of Espírito Santo state, South East of Brazil, is iron-mining products processing. This activity brings to a high level of coastal pollution due to deposition of iron particulate on fragile ecosystems as mangroves and restinga. Schinus therebinthifolius (aroeira) is a widespread restinga species. This work tested iron toxicity alleviation by vermicompost humic substances (HS) added to aroeira seedlings in hydroponic conditions. Catalase, peroxidase, and ascorbate peroxidase are antioxidant enzymes that work as reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavengers: they increase their activity as an answer to ROS concentration rise that is the consequence of metal accumulation or humic substance stimulation...
January 19, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
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