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fragile states

Alberto Giacomello, Lothar Schimmele, Siegfried Dietrich, Mykola Tasinkevych
A liquid droplet placed on a geometrically textured surface may take on a "suspended" state, in which the liquid wets only the top of the surface structure, while the remaining geometrical features are occupied by vapor. This superhydrophobic Cassie-Baxter state is characterized by its composite interface which is intrinsically fragile and, if subjected to certain external perturbations, may collapse into the fully wet, so-called Wenzel state. Restoring the superhydrophobic Cassie-Baxter state requires a supply of free energy to the system in order to again nucleate the vapor...
October 17, 2016: Soft Matter
Elisa Adele Colombo, Luigina Spaccini, Ludovica Volpi, Gloria Negri, Davide Cittaro, Dejan Lazarevic, Salvatore Zirpoli, Andrea Farolfi, Cristina Gervasini, Maria Vittoria Cubellis, Lidia Larizza
BACKGROUND: Integrin α3 (ITGA3) gene mutations are associated with Interstitial Lung disease, Nephrotic syndrome and Epidermolysis bullosa (ILNEB syndrome). To date only six patients are reported: all carried homozygous ITGA3 mutations and presented a dramatically severe phenotype leading to death before age 2 years, from multi-organ failure due to interstitial lung disease and congenital nephrotic syndrome. The involvement of skin and cutaneous adnexa was variable with sparse hair and nail dysplasia combined or not to skin lesions ranging from skin fragility to epidermolysis bullosa-like blistering...
October 7, 2016: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
Lanlan Xu, Maureen A Pirog, Edward D Vargas
A large body of literature documents the importance of child support for children's wellbeing, though little is known about the child support behaviors of mixed-status families, a large and rapidly growing population in the United States. In this paper, we use data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study to investigate the impact of citizenship status on formal and informal child support transfers among a nationally representative sample of parents who have citizen children. Probit regression models and propensity score matching (PSM) estimators show that mixed-status families are significantly less likely to have child support orders and child support receipt compared to their citizen counterparts...
November 2016: Social Science Research
William P Hedges, Marwan Bukhari
OBJECTIVE: Low body mass index (BMI) is a known risk factor for osteoporosis and is part of the FRAX™ 10-year fracture risk stratification tool for predicting fragility fractures. Little is known regarding the effects of changing body composition on bone mineral density (BMD). However, increasing fat mass (FM) improves BMD in young women with anorexia nervosa. This study aimed to assess whether changes in FM over time affected BMD in the general population. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Data was collected from patients who underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) assessment between 2004 and 2011...
March 2016: Eur J Rheumatol
Clara D M van Karnebeek, Kristin Bowden, Elizabeth Berry-Kravis
BACKGROUND: Neurogenetic developmental conditions represent a heterogeneous group of rare inherited disorders with neurological manifestation during development. Treatments for these conditions have largely been supportive; however, a number of treatments are emerging which target the underlying physiology and offer great potential. Our aim was to present a state-of-the-art overview of the current and potential causal treatments available or under development for neurogenetic developmental conditions...
July 26, 2016: Pediatric Neurology
Wei Li, Miao Wang, Wenzhen Zhu, Yuanyuan Qin, Yue Huang, Xi Chen
Functional brain connectivity is altered during the pathological processes of Alzheimer's disease (AD), but the specific evolutional rules are insufficiently understood. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging indicates that the functional brain networks of individuals with AD tend to be disrupted in hub-like nodes, shifting from a small world architecture to a random profile. Here, we proposed a novel evolution model based on computational experiments to simulate the transition of functional brain networks from normal to AD...
September 28, 2016: Scientific Reports
Jacques Vaillant, Perrine Revillet, Anne-Marie Sevenier, Robert Juvin
OBJECTIVE: Fibromyalgia fatigue was described as an overwhelming feeling of tiredness that is not relieved by sleep or rest and is often not in proportion to the effort realized. In fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS), the fatigue has an important functional impact, often limiting the activities of daily living, can induce a state of deconditioning, and causing disturbance of locomotion, whose reasons are not fully understood. The aims of this study was to evaluate the postural performance in quite standing of FMS patients, and to compare them to a control group, and to assess the influence on the posture of a fatigue induced by a short walk...
September 2016: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
Kathleen Kelley-Lainé
Immigration in early childhood can be considered as a traumatic situation. It often goes unrecognized since children adapt to most conditions and conform to their environment with astonishing agility. Inspired by the sensitive work of Sándor Ferenczi, and Donald Winnicott, regarding the psychic economy of maturational processes, the author explores the concept of totalitarian functioning and its obstruction of the growing psyche. Before birth we are all totalitarian, one with the mother; this symbiotic, invincible state of survival mode is prolonged as the immature newborn child ignores the requirements of reality and enjoys omnipotent pleasure through hallucination...
September 19, 2016: American Journal of Psychoanalysis
Asli Kulane, Douglas Sematimba, Lul M Mohamed, Abdirashid H Ali, Xin Lu
BACKGROUND: The recurrent civil conflict in Somalia has impeded progress toward improving health and health care, with lack of data and poor performance of health indicators. This study aimed at making inference about Banadir region by exploring morbidity and mortality trends at Banadir Hospital. This is one of the few functional hospitals during war. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was conducted with data collected at Banadir Hospital for the period of January 2008-December 2012...
2016: International Journal of General Medicine
Danuta Z Loesch, Sarah J Annesley, Nicholas Trost, Minh Q Bui, Sui T Lay, Elsdon Storey, Shawn W De Piazza, Oana Sanislav, Lisa M Francione, Eleanor M Hammersley, Flora Tassone, David Francis, Paul R Fisher
BACKGROUND: The need for accessible cellular biomarkers of neurodegeneration in carriers of the fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1) premutation (PM) alleles. OBJECTIVE: To assess the mitochondrial status and respiration in blood lymphoblasts from PM carriers manifesting the fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS) and non-FXTAS carriers, and their relationship with the brain white matter lesions. METHODS: Oxygen consumption rates (OCR) and ATP synthesis using a Seahorse XFe24 Extracellular Flux Analyser, and steady-state parameters of mitochondrial function were assessed in cultured lymphoblasts from 16 PM males (including 11 FXTAS patients) and 9 matched controls...
September 8, 2016: Neuro-degenerative Diseases
Amanda Reichard, Suzanne McDermott, Margaret Ruttenber, Joshua Mann, Michael G Smith, Julie Royer, Rodolfo Valdez
BACKGROUND: Owing to their low prevalence, single rare conditions are difficult to monitor through current state passive and active case ascertainment systems. However, such monitoring is important because, as a group, rare conditions have great impact on the health of affected individuals and the well-being of their caregivers. A viable approach could be to conduct passive and active case ascertainment of several rare conditions simultaneously. This is a report about the feasibility of such an approach...
August 29, 2016: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
Glenn R Garrett, Marios D Demetriou, Maximilien E Launey, William L Johnson
Owing to their glassy nature, metallic glasses demonstrate a toughness that is extremely sensitive to the frozen-in configurational state. This sensitivity gives rise to "annealing embrittlement," which is often severe and in many respects limits the technological advancement of these materials. Here, equilibrium configurations (i.e., "inherent states") of a metallic glass are established around the glass transition, and the configurational properties along with the plane-strain fracture toughness are evaluated to associate the intrinsic glass toughness with the inherent state properties and identify the fundamental origin of embrittlement...
September 13, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Cecilia Giulivi, Eleonora Napoli, Flora Tassone, Julian Halmai, Randi Hagerman
Premutation carriers have a 55-200 CGG expansion in the fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1) gene. Currently, 1.5 million individuals are affected in the United States, and carriers are at risk of developing the late-onset neurodegenerative disorder Fragile X-associated tremor ataxia syndrome (FXTAS). Limited efforts have been made to develop new methods for improved early patient monitoring, treatment response, and disease progression. To this end, plasma metabolomic phenotyping was obtained for 23 premutation carriers and 16 age- and sex-matched controls...
2016: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
Sundaresan Rajesh, Michael Overduin, Boyan B Bonev
Membrane proteins are essential for the flow of signals, nutrients and energy between cells and between compartments of the cell. Their mechanisms can only be fully understood once the precise structures, dynamics and interactions involved are defined at atomic resolution. Through advances in solution and solid state NMR spectroscopy, this information is now available, as demonstrated by recent studies of stable peripheral and transmembrane proteins. Here we highlight recent cases of G-protein coupled receptors, outer membrane proteins, such as VDAC, phosphoinositide sensors, such as the FAPP-1 pleckstrin homology domain, and enzymes including the metalloproteinase MMP-12...
2016: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Jeffrey C Munson, Julie P W Bynum, John-Erik Bell, Robert Cantu, Christine McDonough, Qianfei Wang, Tor D Tosteson, Anna N A Tosteson
Importance: Patients who have a fragility fracture are at high risk for subsequent fractures. Prescription drugs represent 1 factor that could be modified to reduce the risk of subsequent fracture. Objective: To describe the use of prescription drugs associated with fracture risk before and after fragility fracture. Design, Setting, and Participants: Retrospective cohort study conducted between February 2015 and March 2016 using a 40% random sample of Medicare beneficiaries from 2007 through 2011 in general communities throughout the United States...
October 1, 2016: JAMA Internal Medicine
I De Toma, L Manubens Gil, S Ossowski, M Dierssen
One of the most challenging questions in neuroscience is to dissect how learning and memory, the foundational pillars of cognition, are grounded in stable, yet plastic, gene expression states. All known epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation and hydroxymethylation, histone modifications, chromatin remodelling, and noncoding RNAs regulate brain gene expression, both during neurodevelopment and in the adult brain in processes related to cognition. On the other hand, alterations in the various components of the epigenetic machinery have been linked to well-known causes of intellectual disability disorders (IDDs)...
2016: Neural Plasticity
Owen D Jones
Synapses undergo significant structural and functional reorganization in response to varying patterns of stimulation. These forms of plasticity are considered fundamental to cognition and neuronal homeostasis. An increasing number of reports highlight the importance of activity-dependent synaptic strengthening (long term potentiation: LTP) for learning. However, the functional significance of activity-dependent weakening of synapses (long term depression: LTD) remains relatively poorly understood. One form of synaptic weakening, induced by group I metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs), has received significant attention from a mechanistic point of view and because of its augmentation in a murine model of Fragile X Syndrome...
August 18, 2016: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Luke Boddam-Whetham, Xaher Gul, Eman Al-Kobati, Anna C Gorter
In conflict-affected states, vouchers have reduced barriers to reproductive health services and have enabled health programs to use targeted subsidies to increase uptake of specific health services. Vouchers can also be used to channel funds to public- and private-service providers and improve service quality. The Yamaan Foundation for Health and Social Development in Yemen and the Marie Stopes Society (MSS) in Pakistan-both working with Options Consultancy Services-have developed voucher programs that subsidize voluntary access to long-acting reversible contraceptives (LARCs) and permanent methods (PMs) of family planning in their respective fragile countries...
August 11, 2016: Global Health, Science and Practice
Soma Fukuzawa, Takenobu Ogawa, Kyuya Nakagawa, Shuji Adachi
Wheat noodles cooked for different periods of time were stored at 5 °C, and color changes in their cross sections were quantitatively assessed by digital image analysis. The color of noodles with flattened moisture distributions whitened greatly during the early stages of chilled storage due to the retrogradation of starch, with the color change showing a significant correlation with the changes in noodle fragility. Color changes were also measured for wheat noodles and noodles containing modified starch with internal moisture distributions, and local changes within the noodles were kinetically analyzed...
December 2016: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Aeron C Hurt, Yvonne C F Su, Malet Aban, Heidi Peck, Hilda Lau, Chantal Baas, Yi-Mo Deng, Natalie Spirason, Patrik Ellström, Jorge Hernandez, Bjorn Olsen, Ian G Barr, Dhanasekaran Vijaykrishna, Daniel Gonzalez-Acuna
: Avian influenza virus (AIV) surveillance in Antarctica during 2013 revealed the prevalence of evolutionarily distinct influenza viruses of the H11N2 subtype in Adélie penguins. Here we present results from the continued surveillance of AIV on the Antarctic Peninsula during 2014 and 2015. In addition to the continued detection of H11 subtype viruses in a snowy sheathbill during 2014, we isolated a novel H5N5 subtype virus from a chinstrap penguin during 2015. Gene sequencing and phylogenetic analysis revealed that the H11 virus detected in 2014 had a >99...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Virology
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