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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404733/pressure-dependence-of-viscosity-in-supercooled-water-and-a-unified-approach-for-thermodynamic-and-dynamic-anomalies-of-water
#1
Lokendra P Singh, Bruno Issenmann, Frédéric Caupin
The anomalous decrease of the viscosity of water with applied pressure has been known for over a century. It occurs concurrently with major structural changes: The second coordination shell around a molecule collapses onto the first shell. Viscosity is thus a macroscopic witness of the progressive breaking of the tetrahedral hydrogen bond network that makes water so peculiar. At low temperature, water at ambient pressure becomes more tetrahedral and the effect of pressure becomes stronger. However, surprisingly, no data are available for the viscosity of supercooled water under pressure, in which dramatic anomalies are expected based on interpolation between ambient pressure data for supercooled water and high pressure data for stable water...
April 12, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379394/serum-25-hydroxyvitamin-d-insufficiency-in-search-of-a-bone-disease
#2
Sonali Shah, Cherie Chiang, Ken Sikaris, Zhong Lu, Minh Bui, Roger Zebaze, Ego Seeman
Introduction: Vitamin D 'insufficiency' and 'deficiency' are defined as a serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) below 75 and 30 nmol/L respectively. We aimed to determine whether these values signal hypocalcaemia and hypophosphatemia, secondary hyperparathyroidism, high bone remodeling, low areal bone mineral density (aBMD), microstructural deterioration, or reduced matric mineralization density (MMD), and so suggest whether bone fragility is present. Method: Concentrations of 25(OH)D, calcium, phosphate, creatinine and parathyroid hormone (PTH) were measured in 11,855 subjects...
March 30, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373892/tips-a-system-for-automated-image-based-phenotyping-of-maize-tassels
#3
Joseph L Gage, Nathan D Miller, Edgar P Spalding, Shawn M Kaeppler, Natalia de Leon
BACKGROUND: The maize male inflorescence (tassel) produces pollen necessary for reproduction and commercial grain production of maize. The size of the tassel has been linked to factors affecting grain yield, so understanding the genetic control of tassel architecture is an important goal. Tassels are fragile and deform easily after removal from the plant, necessitating rapid measurement of any shape characteristics that cannot be retained during storage. Some morphological characteristics of tassels such as curvature and compactness are difficult to quantify using traditional methods, but can be quantified by image-based phenotyping tools...
2017: Plant Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373383/segmentation-in-cohesive-systems-constrained-by-elastic-environments
#4
I Novak, L Truskinovsky
The complexity of fracture-induced segmentation in elastically constrained cohesive (fragile) systems originates from the presence of competing interactions. The role of discreteness in such phenomena is of interest in a variety of fields, from hierarchical self-assembly to developmental morphogenesis. In this paper, we study the analytically solvable example of segmentation in a breakable mass-spring chain elastically linked to a deformable lattice structure. We explicitly construct the complete set of local minima of the energy in this prototypical problem and identify among them the states corresponding to the global energy minima...
May 13, 2017: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368842/robust-gait-recognition-by-integrating-inertial-and-rgbd-sensors
#5
Qin Zou, Lihao Ni, Qian Wang, Qingquan Li, Song Wang
Gait has been considered as a promising and unique biometric for person identification. Traditionally, gait data are collected using either color sensors, such as a CCD camera, depth sensors, such as a Microsoft Kinect, or inertial sensors, such as an accelerometer. However, a single type of sensors may only capture part of the dynamic gait features and make the gait recognition sensitive to complex covariate conditions, leading to fragile gait-based person identification systems. In this paper, we propose to combine all three types of sensors for gait data collection and gait recognition, which can be used for important identification applications, such as identity recognition to access a restricted building or area...
March 29, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Cybernetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367561/cancerous-perturbations-within-the-erk-pi3k-akt-and-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling-network-constitutively-activate-inter-pathway-positive-feedback-loops
#6
Rahul Rao Padala, Rishabh Karnawat, Satish Bharathwaj Viswanathan, Abhishek Vijay Thakkar, Asim Bikas Das
Perturbations in molecular signaling pathways are a result of genetic or epigenetic alterations, which may lead to malignant transformation of cells. Despite cellular robustness, specific genetic or epigenetic changes of any gene can trigger a cascade of failures, which result in the malfunctioning of cell signaling pathways and lead to cancer phenotypes. The extent of cellular robustness has a link with the architecture of the network such as feedback and feedforward loops. Perturbation in components within feedback loops causes a transition from a regulated to a persistently activated state and results in uncontrolled cell growth...
April 3, 2017: Molecular BioSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358065/using-coherence-to-enhance-function-in-chemical-and-biophysical-systems
#7
Gregory D Scholes, Graham R Fleming, Lin X Chen, Alán Aspuru-Guzik, Andreas Buchleitner, David F Coker, Gregory S Engel, Rienk van Grondelle, Akihito Ishizaki, David M Jonas, Jeff S Lundeen, James K McCusker, Shaul Mukamel, Jennifer P Ogilvie, Alexandra Olaya-Castro, Mark A Ratner, Frank C Spano, K Birgitta Whaley, Xiaoyang Zhu
Coherence phenomena arise from interference, or the addition, of wave-like amplitudes with fixed phase differences. Although coherence has been shown to yield transformative ways for improving function, advances have been confined to pristine matter and coherence was considered fragile. However, recent evidence of coherence in chemical and biological systems suggests that the phenomena are robust and can survive in the face of disorder and noise. Here we survey the state of recent discoveries, present viewpoints that suggest that coherence can be used in complex chemical systems, and discuss the role of coherence as a design element in realizing function...
March 29, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345757/parasites-of-orangutans-primates-ponginae-an-overview
#8
REVIEW
Wisnu Nurcahyo, Veronika Konstanzová, Ivona Foitová
Wild orangutan populations exist in an increasingly fragile state. As numbers continue to decline and populations became fragmented, the overall health of remaining individuals becomes increasingly at risk. Parasitic infections can have a serious impact on the health of wild orangutans, and can be fatal. It has been reported that rehabilitated individuals demonstrate a higher prevalence of parasitic diseases, and it is possible that they may spread these infections to wild orangutans upon reintroduction. In order to ensure the success of reintroduction and conservation efforts, it is crucial to understand the potential risks by fully understanding what parasites they have been reported to be infected with...
March 27, 2017: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339247/thermodynamic-and-kinetic-fragility-of-freon-113-the-most-fragile-plastic-crystal
#9
A Vispa, M Romanini, M A Ramos, L C Pardo, F J Bermejo, M Hassaine, A I Krivchikov, J W Taylor, J Ll Tamarit
We present a dynamic and thermodynamic study of the orientational glass former Freon 113 (1,1,2-trichloro-1,2,2-trifluoroethane, CCl_{2}F-CClF_{2}) in order to analyze its kinetic and thermodynamic fragilities. Freon 113 displays internal molecular degrees of freedom that promote a complex energy landscape. Experimental specific heat and its microscopic origin, the vibrational density of states from inelastic neutron scattering, together with the orientational dynamics obtained by means of dielectric spectroscopy have revealed the highest fragility value, both thermodynamic and kinetic, found for this orientational glass former...
March 10, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337482/efficacy-and-safety-of-novel-digital-single-operator-peroral-cholangioscopy-guided-laser-lithotripsy-for-complicated-biliary-stones
#10
John Ct Wong, Raymond Sy Tang, Anthony Yb Teoh, Joseph Jy Sung, James Yw Lau
Background/study aims Laser lithotripsy can effectively fragment complicated biliary stones, but current cholangioscopes are limited by fragility, restricted mobility or moderate visual resolution. The efficacy and safety of a new digital single-operator peroral cholangioscope to guide laser lithotripsy were evaluated. Patients and methods In this prospective single-center series, consecutive patients with complicated biliary stones, defined as impacted stones > 1.5 cm in size and wider than the more distal common bile duct, or stones that failed extraction by basket mechanical lithotripsy, underwent ERCP and SpyGlass DS peroral cholangioscope (Boston Scientific, Marlborough, United States)-guided laser lithotripsy...
January 2017: Endoscopy International Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326338/predictors-of-teriparatide-treatment-failure-in-patients-with-low-bone-mass
#11
Tarig Elraiyah, Adil H Ahmed, Zhen Wang, Joshua N Farr, Mohammad H Murad, Matthew T Drake
INTRODUCTION: While teriparatide is the only skeletal anabolic agent approved in the United States, treatment failure is a major concern which complicates its clinical utility. We sought to identify factors that predict response failure in patients with low bone mass. METHOD: We performed a retrospective study of adults with osteopenia or osteoporosis (T-scores < - 1.0 and - 2.5 SD below normal, respectively, at the total hip or lumbar spine) treated with teriparatide at the Mayo Clinic (Rochester, Minnesota) between November 2002-December 2012...
June 2016: Bone Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321970/the-health-and-economic-well-being-of-us-mothers-with-intellectual-impairments
#12
Robyn M Powell, Susan L Parish, Ilhom Akobirshoev
BACKGROUND: While the United States has seen increased attention by policymakers on the rights of parents with disabilities, there is limited understanding of the health and economic well-being of parents with intellectual impairments. This study compares the health and economic well-being of mothers with and without intellectual impairments. METHODS: This descriptive, exploratory study is a secondary analysis of the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study. This study includes a subsample of mothers of three-year-old children (n = 1561), including mothers with intellectual impairments (n = 263) and without intellectual impairments (n = 1298)...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Applied Research in Intellectual Disabilities: JARID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316753/a-resting-eeg-study-of-neocortical-hyperexcitability-and-altered-functional-connectivity-in-fragile-x-syndrome
#13
Jun Wang, Lauren E Ethridge, Matthew W Mosconi, Stormi P White, Devin K Binder, Ernest V Pedapati, Craig A Erickson, Matthew J Byerly, John A Sweeney
BACKGROUND: Cortical hyperexcitability due to abnormal fast-spiking inhibitory interneuron function has been documented in fmr1 KO mice, a mouse model of the fragile X syndrome which is the most common single gene cause of autism and intellectual disability. METHODS: We collected resting state dense-array electroencephalography data from 21 fragile X syndrome (FXS) patients and 21 age-matched healthy participants. RESULTS: FXS patients exhibited greater gamma frequency band power, which was correlated with social and sensory processing difficulties...
2017: Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299560/family-structure-experiences-and-child-socioemotional-development-during-the-first-nine-years-of-life-examining-heterogeneity-by-family-structure-at-birth
#14
Sharon H Bzostek, Lawrence M Berger
A vast amount of literature has documented negative associations between family instability and child development, with the largest associations being in the socioemotional (behavioral) domain. Yet, prior work has paid limited attention to differentiating the role of the number, types, and sequencing of family transitions that children experience, as well as to understanding potential heterogeneity in these associations by family structure at birth. We use data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study and hierarchical linear models to examine associations of family structure states and transitions with children's socioemotional development during the first nine years of life...
March 15, 2017: Demography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290112/protecting-bone-health-in-pediatric-rheumatic-diseases-pharmacological-considerations
#15
REVIEW
Yujuan Zhang, Diana Milojevic
Bone health in children with rheumatic conditions may be compromised due to several factors related to the inflammatory disease state, delayed puberty, altered life style, including decreased physical activities, sun avoidance, suboptimal calcium and vitamin D intake, and medical treatments, mainly glucocorticoids and possibly some disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs. Low bone density or even fragility fractures could be asymptomatic; therefore, children with diseases of high inflammatory load, such as systemic onset juvenile idiopathic arthritis, juvenile dermatomyositis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and those requiring chronic glucocorticoids may benefit from routine screening of bone health...
March 13, 2017: Paediatric Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278151/visceral-leishmaniasis-in-somalia-a-review-of-epidemiology-and-access-to-care
#16
REVIEW
Temmy Sunyoto, Julien Potet, Marleen Boelaert
Somalia, ravaged by conflict since 1991, has areas endemic for visceral leishmaniasis (VL), a deadly parasitic disease affecting the rural poor, internally displaced, and pastoralists. Very little is known about VL burden in Somalia, where the protracted crisis hampers access to health care. We reviewed evidence about VL epidemiology in Somalia and appraised control options within the context of this fragile state's health system. VL has been reported in Somalia since 1934 and has persisted ever since in foci in the southern parts of the country...
March 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267566/aging-and-efficiency-in-living-systems-complexity-adaptation-and-self-organization
#17
Atanu Chatterjee, Georgi Georgiev, Germano Iannacchione
Living systems are open, out-of-equilibrium thermodynamic entities, that maintain order by locally reducing their entropy. Aging is a process by which these systems gradually lose their ability to maintain their out-of-equilibrium state, as measured by their free-energy rate density, and hence, their order. Thus, the process of aging reduces the efficiency of those systems, making them fragile and less adaptive to the environmental fluctuations, gradually driving them towards the state of thermodynamic equilibrium...
March 3, 2017: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265713/fate-of-metals-in-relation-to-water-and-sediment-properties-in-a-subtropical-lake-in-central-himalaya-india
#18
Shaikhom Inaotombi, Prem Kumar Gupta
Lakes of Himalaya are one of the most fragile ecosystems on earth. Tourism and urban development in the upland region strongly affect its water resources. The high rate of sedimentation and organic matter deposition alters the ecological state of sediment bed, which indirectly influences on dynamics of metallic elements. We investigated spatial and temporal variations of water and sediment characteristic in Lake Sattal of Central Himalaya, India. Samples were collected seasonally from four sampling locations from January 2011 to December 2012...
April 2017: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261977/tissue-specific-mosaicism-for-a-lethal-osteogenesis-imperfecta-col1a1-mutation-causes-mild-oi-eds-overlap-syndrome
#19
Sofie Symoens, Wouter Steyaert, Lynn Demuynck, Anne De Paepe, Karin E M Diderich, Fransiska Malfait, Paul J Coucke
Type I collagen is the predominant protein of connective tissues such as skin and bone. Mutations in the type I collagen genes (COL1A1 and COL1A2) mainly cause osteogenesis imperfecta (OI). We describe a patient with clinical signs of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS), including fragile skin, easy bruising, recurrent luxations, and fractures resembling mild OI. Biochemical collagen analysis of the patients' dermal fibroblasts showed faint overmodification of the type I collagen bands, a finding specific for structural defects in type I collagen...
March 6, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256848/localization-in-open-quantum-systems
#20
I Yusipov, T Laptyeva, S Denisov, M Ivanchenko
In an isolated single-particle quantum system, a spatial disorder can induce Anderson localization. Being a result of interference, this phenomenon is expected to be fragile in the face of dissipation. Here we show that a proper dissipation can drive a disordered system into a steady state with tunable localization properties. This can be achieved with a set of identical dissipative operators, each one acting nontrivially on a pair of sites. Operators are parametrized by a uniform phase, which controls the selection of Anderson modes contributing to the state...
February 17, 2017: Physical Review Letters
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