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fragile states

Daniel P Gitterman, W Scott Langford, William W Hay
In this article, we examine the status of the National Institutes of Health (NIH) pediatric research portfolio between start of federal fiscal year (FY) 1992 and end of FY 2015. The NIH experienced the greatest mean annual growth rate during the "doubling era" (FY 1998-2003): both the NIH budget (13.5%) and pediatric research portfolios (11.5%) increased annually by double digits. However, in the "postdoubling" era (FY 2004-2009), both the NIH (2.0%) and pediatric (-0.2%) mean annual growth rates decreased dramatically...
January 16, 2018: JAMA Pediatrics
Gonçalo Nunes, Ana Teresa Barata, Carla Adriana Santos, Marta Patita, Jorge Fonseca
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Bowel preparation for colonoscopy induces a semi-fasting state, with a potential negative impact on fragile patients. The present study aims to quantify nutritional deficiency during colonoscopy preparation. METHODS: This was an observational and cross-sectional study. A convenience sample was obtained that included adults that underwent colonoscopy after bowel preparation with Klean-Prep® according to the center protocol. Anthropometric evaluation was performed and nutritional deficiency was calculated via the quantification of energy and protein intake during the 48 hours prior to the examination which was compared with the individuals' needs...
January 15, 2018: Revista Española de Enfermedades Digestivas
Sandra Weltzien, Lauren E Marsh, Bruce Hood
By 7-to 8-years of age, most children readily adhere to prosocial norms aimed at benefiting others through giving up time and effort (helping) or resources (sharing). Two studies explored whether sharing and helping by 7-to 8-year olds (N = 180) could be influenced by priming children's attention on themselves or their friends through a semi-structured interview. Results revealed that self-priming led to reductions in both sharing and helping compared to friendship-priming or a control condition. These findings are considered as indicative of the fragile state of prosocial behaviours at this age that can be easily shifted towards more selfish biases by simple priming...
2018: PloS One
Mohsen Joshanloo
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Valuing happiness, negative life circumstances, and neuroticism have been found to negatively predict subjective well-being (SWB). It was hypothesized that holding fragility of happiness beliefs (the belief that happiness is fleeting and may easily turn into less favorable states) would moderate the relationships between these predictors and SWB. METHODS: The sample consisted of 338 Korean participants who responded to an online survey (Mage = 26...
January 3, 2018: Anxiety, Stress, and Coping
Camille Lévy, Fouzia Amirache, Anais Girard-Gagnepain, Cecilia Frecha, Francisco J Roman-Rodríguez, Ornellie Bernadin, Caroline Costa, Didier Nègre, Alejandra Gutierrez-Guerrero, Lenard S Vranckx, Isabelle Clerc, Naomi Taylor, Lars Thielecke, Kerstin Cornils, Juan A Bueren, Paula Rio, Rik Gijsbers, François-Loïc Cosset, Els Verhoeyen
Hematopoietic stem cell (HSC)-based gene therapy trials are now moving toward the use of lentiviral vectors (LVs) with success. However, one challenge in the field remains: efficient transduction of HSCs without compromising their stem cell potential. Here we showed that measles virus glycoprotein-displaying LVs (hemagglutinin and fusion protein LVs [H/F-LVs]) were capable of transducing 100% of early-acting cytokine-stimulated human CD34+ (hCD34+) progenitor cells upon a single application. Strikingly, these H/F-LVs also allowed transduction of up to 70% of nonstimulated quiescent hCD34+ cells, whereas conventional vesicular stomatitis virus G (VSV-G)-LVs reached 5% at the most with H/F-LV entry occurring exclusively through the CD46 complement receptor...
October 24, 2017: Blood Advances
Tianyu Yuan, Gouhei Tanaka
Robustness of coupled oscillator networks against local degradation of oscillators has been intensively studied in this decade. The oscillation behavior on the whole network is typically reduced with an increase in the fraction of degraded (inactive) oscillators. The critical fraction of inactive oscillators, at which a transition from an oscillatory to a quiescent state occurs, has been used as a measure for the network robustness. The larger (smaller) this measure is, the more robust (fragile) the oscillatory behavior on the network is...
December 2017: Chaos
Kirill Yu Spasibko, Denis A Kopylov, Victor L Krutyanskiy, Tatiana V Murzina, Gerd Leuchs, Maria V Chekhova
The rate of an n-photon effect generally scales as the nth order autocorrelation function of the incident light, which is high for light with strong photon-number fluctuations. Therefore, "noisy" light sources are much more efficient for multiphoton effects than coherent sources with the same mean power, pulse duration, and repetition rate. Here we generate optical harmonics of the order of 2-4 from a bright squeezed vacuum, a state of light consisting of only quantum noise with no coherent component. We observe up to 2 orders of magnitude enhancement in the generation of optical harmonics due to ultrafast photon-number fluctuations...
December 1, 2017: Physical Review Letters
P Lampen-Kelley, A Banerjee, A A Aczel, H B Cao, M B Stone, C A Bridges, J-Q Yan, S E Nagler, D Mandrus
The insulating honeycomb magnet α-RuCl_{3} exhibits fractionalized excitations that signal its proximity to a Kitaev quantum spin liquid state; however, at T=0, fragile long-range magnetic order arises from non-Kitaev terms in the Hamiltonian. Spin vacancies in the form of Ir^{3+} substituted for Ru are found to destabilize this long-range order. Neutron diffraction and bulk characterization of Ru_{1-x}Ir_{x}Cl_{3} show that the magnetic ordering temperature is suppressed with increasing x, and evidence of zizag magnetic order is absent for x>0...
December 8, 2017: Physical Review Letters
Richard A Jonas
In the opening plenary address of the 2017 7th World Congress of Pediatric Cardiology and Cardiac Surgery the author, who represented the World Society for Pediatric and Congenital Heart Surgery at the Congress and is currently the Society's president, described the history of the formation of the World Society. He listed accomplishments of the World Society including publication of the only journal devoted to congenital cardiac surgery, development of a global database, and convening several international conferences dating back to the inaugural conference in Washington, DC in 2007...
December 2017: Cardiology in the Young
Maria Teresa Ventura, Marco Casciaro, Sebastiano Gangemi, Rosalba Buquicchio
Background: The immunosenescence is a relatively recent chapter, correlated with the linear extension of the average life began in the nineteenth century and still in progress. The most important feature of immunosenescence is the accumulation in the "immunological space" of memory and effector cells as a result of the stimulation caused by repeated clinical and subclinical infections and by continuous exposure to antigens (inhalant allergens, food, etc.). This state of chronic inflammation that characterizes senescence has a significant impact on survival and fragility...
2017: Clinical and Molecular Allergy: CMA
Craig M Polley, Ryszard Buczko, Alexander Forsman, Piotr Dziawa, Andrzej Szczerbakow, Rafał Rechciński, Bogdan J Kowalski, Tomasz Story, Małgorzata Trzyna, Marco Bianchi, Antonija Grubišić Čabo, Philip Hofmann, Oscar Tjernberg, Thiagarajan Balasubramanian
The "double Dirac cone" 2D topological interface states found on the (001) faces of topological crystalline insulators such as Pb1-xSnxSe feature degeneracies located away from time reversal invariant momenta and are a manifestation of both mirror symmetry protection and valley interactions. Similar shifted degeneracies in 1D interface states have been highlighted as a potential basis for a topological transistor, but realizing such a device will require a detailed understanding of the intervalley physics involved...
December 18, 2017: ACS Nano
Jeongkyu Kim, David Sturgill, Robin Sebastian, Simran Khurana, Andy D Tran, Garrett B Edwards, Alex Kruswick, Sandra Burkett, Eri K Hosogane, William W Hannon, Urbain Weyemi, William M Bonner, Karolin Luger, Philipp Oberdoerffer
Recent integrative epigenome analyses highlight the importance of functionally distinct chromatin states for accurate cell function. How these states are established and maintained is a matter of intense investigation. Here, we present evidence for DNA damage as an unexpected means to shape a protective chromatin environment at regions of recurrent replication stress (RS). Upon aberrant fork stalling, DNA damage signaling and concomitant H2AX phosphorylation coordinate the FACT-dependent deposition of macroH2A1...
December 11, 2017: Molecular Cell
Sophie Witter, Justine Namakula, Haja Wurie, Yotamu Chirwa, Sovanarith So, Sreytouch Vong, Bandeth Ros, Stephen Buzuzi, Sally Theobald
It is well known that the health workforce composition is influenced by gender relations. However, little research has been done which examines the experiences of health workers through a gender lens, especially in fragile and post-conflict states. In these contexts, there may not only be opportunities to (re)shape occupational norms and responsibilities in the light of challenges in the health workforce, but also threats that put pressure on resources and undermine gender balance, diversity and gender responsive human resources for health (HRH)...
December 1, 2017: Health Policy and Planning
Patcharee Komvilaisak, Ratana Komvilaisak, Arunee Jetsrisuparb, Surapon Wiangnon, Junya Jirapradittha, Pakaphan Kiatchoosakun, Goonapa Fucharoen
BACKGROUND: Fetal anemia is often assumed to be due to red cell alloimmunization and Parvovirus infection, and can lead to hydrops fetalis and death in utero. Other causes, such as mutations of hemoglobin alpha, are less commonly considered. METHODS: We report 7 cases with fetal anemia causing hydrops fetalis. Serial Doppler ultrasound for measurement peak systolic velocity (PSV) of middle cerebral artery (MCA) was used for evaluation of fetal anemia. Fetal anemia is suggested if the MCA/PSV ratio is >1...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
Axel Svedbom, Fredrik Borgström, Emma Hernlund, Oskar Ström, Vidmantas Alekna, Maria Luisa Bianchi, Patricia Clark, Manuel Díaz Curiel, Hans Peter Dimai, Mikk Jürisson, Anneli Uusküla, Margus Lember, Riina Kallikorm, Olga Lesnyak, Eugene McCloskey, Olga Ershova, Kerrie M Sanders, Stuart Silverman, Marija Tamulaitiene, Thierry Thomas, Anna N A Tosteson, Bengt Jönsson, John A Kanis
INTRODUCTION: The International Costs and Utilities Related to Osteoporotic fractures Study is a multinational observational study set up to describe the costs and quality of life (QoL) consequences of fragility fracture. This paper aims to estimate and compare QoL after hip, vertebral, and distal forearm fracture using time-trade-off (TTO), the EuroQol (EQ) Visual Analogue Scale (EQ-VAS), and the EQ-5D-3L valued using the hypothetical UK value set. METHODS: Data were collected at four time-points for five QoL point estimates: within 2 weeks after fracture (including pre-fracture recall), and at 4, 12, and 18 months after fracture...
December 12, 2017: Quality of Life Research
Kazumi Taguchi, Jonathan D Harper, Marshall L Stoller, Brian D Duty, Mathew D Sorensen, Roger L Sur, Manint Usawachintachit, David T Tzou, David L Wenzler, Dylan Isaacson, Angela Xu, Carissa Chu, Uwais B Zaid, Eric R Taylor, Krishna Ramaswamy, Thomas Chi
Maintenance of flexible ureteroscopes can involve high costs and administrative burden. Instrument fragility necessitates eventual repair, rendering scopes inaccessible during refurbishment. We conducted a multi-institutional prospective cohort study to identify perioperative factors influencing flexible ureteroscope durability. Patients undergoing flexible ureteroscopy (URS) at six United States endourology centers were enrolled between August 2014 and June 2015. Surgeon self-reported concern and satisfaction with scope performance as well as upward and downward angles of deflection for each scope tip were measured before and after each procedure...
December 9, 2017: Urolithiasis
Andreas Höch, Philipp Pieroh, Ralf Henkelmann, Christoph Josten, Jörg Böhme
BACKGROUND: The incidence of pelvic ring fractures in the elderly significantly increased. Because of persistent pain and immobilization associated with this injury, surgical treatment is recommended. To minimise comorbidities and surgical risk, percutaneous techniques are becoming more relevant. In-screw cement augmentation of sacroiliac screw fixation is a promising procedure; however, clinical follow-up data remain scarce. This study investigated the safety and possible complications of the procedure along with a 1-year follow-up...
December 8, 2017: BMC Surgery
Hasibul Haque, Philip C Hill, Robin Gauld
Background: Against a backdrop of changing concepts of aid effectiveness, development effectiveness, health systems strengthening, and increasing emphasis on impact evaluation, this article proposes a theory-driven impact evaluation framework to gauge the effect of aid effectiveness principles on programmatic outcomes of different aid funded programs in the health sector of a particular country. Methods: The foundation and step-by-step process of implementing the framework are described...
2017: Global Health Research and Policy
P Makras, N Boubouchairopoulou, I Katsarolis, K Athanasakis
OBJECTIVES: We aimed to specifically define the FRAX-based cost-effective treatment thresholds for osteoporosis among people living with HIV (PLWHIV) in Greece and to compare them with those of the general population. METHODS: A previously described state transition Markov cohort model was used in order to estimate the cost-effective intervention thresholds for osteoporotic therapy among Greek PLWHIV employing the FRAX® tool. The model-derived relative risk at which an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of 30,000€/QALY gained was observed for treatment versus no intervention was multiplied by the average Greek FRAX-based 10-year probabilities for both major osteoporotic and hip fractures...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Musculoskeletal & Neuronal Interactions
Christian King
Food insecurity remains a persistent problem in the United States. Several studies have shown that food insecurity is associated with child externalizing and internalizing behavior problems. However, some potential methodological limitations remain. For example, most studies use a household measure of food insecurity while there is evidence that children, especially younger ones, tend to be shielded by their parents from experiencing food insecurity. In addition, the mechanisms through which food insecurity affects children are not well understood...
November 21, 2017: Economics and Human Biology
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