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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316753/a-resting-eeg-study-of-neocortical-hyperexcitability-and-altered-functional-connectivity-in-fragile-x-syndrome
#1
Jun Wang, Lauren E Ethridge, Matthew W Mosconi, Stormi P White, Devin K Binder, Ernest V Pedapati, Craig A Erickson, Matthew J Byerly, John A Sweeney
BACKGROUND: Cortical hyperexcitability due to abnormal fast-spiking inhibitory interneuron function has been documented in fmr1 KO mice, a mouse model of the fragile X syndrome which is the most common single gene cause of autism and intellectual disability. METHODS: We collected resting state dense-array electroencephalography data from 21 fragile X syndrome (FXS) patients and 21 age-matched healthy participants. RESULTS: FXS patients exhibited greater gamma frequency band power, which was correlated with social and sensory processing difficulties...
2017: Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299560/family-structure-experiences-and-child-socioemotional-development-during-the-first-nine-years-of-life-examining-heterogeneity-by-family-structure-at-birth
#2
Sharon H Bzostek, Lawrence M Berger
A vast amount of literature has documented negative associations between family instability and child development, with the largest associations being in the socioemotional (behavioral) domain. Yet, prior work has paid limited attention to differentiating the role of the number, types, and sequencing of family transitions that children experience, as well as to understanding potential heterogeneity in these associations by family structure at birth. We use data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study and hierarchical linear models to examine associations of family structure states and transitions with children's socioemotional development during the first nine years of life...
March 15, 2017: Demography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290112/protecting-bone-health-in-pediatric-rheumatic-diseases-pharmacological-considerations
#3
REVIEW
Yujuan Zhang, Diana Milojevic
Bone health in children with rheumatic conditions may be compromised due to several factors related to the inflammatory disease state, delayed puberty, altered life style, including decreased physical activities, sun avoidance, suboptimal calcium and vitamin D intake, and medical treatments, mainly glucocorticoids and possibly some disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs. Low bone density or even fragility fractures could be asymptomatic; therefore, children with diseases of high inflammatory load, such as systemic onset juvenile idiopathic arthritis, juvenile dermatomyositis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and those requiring chronic glucocorticoids may benefit from routine screening of bone health...
March 13, 2017: Paediatric Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28278151/visceral-leishmaniasis-in-somalia-a-review-of-epidemiology-and-access-to-care
#4
REVIEW
Temmy Sunyoto, Julien Potet, Marleen Boelaert
Somalia, ravaged by conflict since 1991, has areas endemic for visceral leishmaniasis (VL), a deadly parasitic disease affecting the rural poor, internally displaced, and pastoralists. Very little is known about VL burden in Somalia, where the protracted crisis hampers access to health care. We reviewed evidence about VL epidemiology in Somalia and appraised control options within the context of this fragile state's health system. VL has been reported in Somalia since 1934 and has persisted ever since in foci in the southern parts of the country...
March 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267566/aging-and-efficiency-in-living-systems-complexity-adaptation-and-self-organization
#5
Atanu Chatterjee, Georgi Georgiev, Germano Iannacchione
Living systems are open, out-of-equilibrium thermodynamic entities, that maintain order by locally reducing their entropy. Aging is a process by which these systems gradually lose their ability to maintain their out-of-equilibrium state, as measured by their free-energy rate density, and hence, their order. Thus, the process of aging reduces the efficiency of those systems, making them fragile and less adaptive to the environmental fluctuations, gradually driving them towards the state of thermodynamic equilibrium...
March 3, 2017: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28265713/fate-of-metals-in-relation-to-water-and-sediment-properties-in-a-subtropical-lake-in-central-himalaya-india
#6
Shaikhom Inaotombi, Prem Kumar Gupta
Lakes of Himalaya are one of the most fragile ecosystems on earth. Tourism and urban development in the upland region strongly affect its water resources. The high rate of sedimentation and organic matter deposition alters the ecological state of sediment bed, which indirectly influences on dynamics of metallic elements. We investigated spatial and temporal variations of water and sediment characteristic in Lake Sattal of Central Himalaya, India. Samples were collected seasonally from four sampling locations from January 2011 to December 2012...
April 2017: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261977/tissue-specific-mosaicism-for-a-lethal-osteogenesis-imperfecta-col1a1-mutation-causes-mild-oi-eds-overlap-syndrome
#7
Sofie Symoens, Wouter Steyaert, Lynn Demuynck, Anne De Paepe, Karin E M Diderich, Fransiska Malfait, Paul J Coucke
Type I collagen is the predominant protein of connective tissues such as skin and bone. Mutations in the type I collagen genes (COL1A1 and COL1A2) mainly cause osteogenesis imperfecta (OI). We describe a patient with clinical signs of Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS), including fragile skin, easy bruising, recurrent luxations, and fractures resembling mild OI. Biochemical collagen analysis of the patients' dermal fibroblasts showed faint overmodification of the type I collagen bands, a finding specific for structural defects in type I collagen...
March 6, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256848/localization-in-open-quantum-systems
#8
I Yusipov, T Laptyeva, S Denisov, M Ivanchenko
In an isolated single-particle quantum system, a spatial disorder can induce Anderson localization. Being a result of interference, this phenomenon is expected to be fragile in the face of dissipation. Here we show that a proper dissipation can drive a disordered system into a steady state with tunable localization properties. This can be achieved with a set of identical dissipative operators, each one acting nontrivially on a pair of sites. Operators are parametrized by a uniform phase, which controls the selection of Anderson modes contributing to the state...
February 17, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255507/the-effect-of-insurance-type-on-fragility-fracture-patient-access-to-endocrinology-under-the-affordable-care-act
#9
Daniel H Wiznia, Sifon Ndon, Chang-Yeon Kim, Theodore Zaki, Michael P Leslie
OBJECTIVES: To assess the effect of insurance type (Medicaid, Medicare, and private insurance) on fragility fracture patients' access to endocrinology specialists in the postoperative period. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The research team called 247 board-certified endocrinologists in 8 representative states. The caller requested an appointment for her fictitious mother to be evaluated for osteoporosis after suffering a hip fracture that required surgery. The caller stated that her mother had an abnormal level of parathyroid hormone and her mother's orthopedic surgeon believed she needed to see an endocrinologist...
March 2017: Geriatric Orthopaedic Surgery & Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28252435/-genomic-variability-in-patients-with-ductal-form-of-breast-cancer-and-the-possibility-of-correction-the-peptide-bioregulator-and-metal-ions
#10
T Jokhadze, J Monaselidze, G Nemsadze, T Buadze, M Gaiozishvili, T Lezhava
Level of genome stability (structural aberrations, aneuploidy and fragile sites) was studied in cells of the lymphocyte culture of ductal breast cancer patients (DBC). Was studied the correctional influence of separate and combinative action of peptide bioregulator (Ala-Glu-Asp-Gly) and heavy metal - nickel. It is shown that DBC patients are characterized by high level of genome instability, which is the result of the chromatin changing state. The used tests makes it possible to conclude that in the case of this form of cancer subordinates to specific epigenetic variation as a hetero- also euchromatic regions of genome...
January 2017: Georgian Medical News
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231007/molecular-dynamics-recrystallization-behavior-and-water-solubility-of-the-amorphous-anticancer-agent-bicalutamide-and-its-polyvinylpyrrolidone-mixtures
#11
Justyna Szczurek, Marzena Rams-Baron, Justyna Knapik-Kowalczuk, Agata Antosik, Joanna Szafraniec, Witold Jamróz, Mateusz Dulski, Renata Jachowicz, Marian Paluch
In this paper, we investigated the molecular mobility and physical stability of amorphous bicalutamide, a poorly water-soluble drug widely used in prostate cancer treatment. Our broadband dielectric spectroscopy measurements and differential scanning calorimetry studies revealed that amorphous BIC is a moderately fragile material with a strong tendency to recrystallize from the amorphous state. However, mixing the drug with polymer polyvinylpyrrolidone results in a substantial improvement of physical stability attributed to the antiplasticizing effect governed by the polymer additive...
March 7, 2017: Molecular Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228975/the-politics-of-global-public-health-in-fragile-states-and-ungoverned-territories
#12
Frederick M Burkle
The reasons for global health crises and how the world responds to them have dramatically changed over the last half century. Increasingly, natural disasters result in failure of public health and security systems leading to preventable conflict, unconventional war and unprecedented population migration. While scientific expertise exists to mitigate these failures in fragile states and ungoverned territories, inactions are mired by the lack of political will, international legal mandates, and capacity to strategically monitor multidisciplinary public health indicator failures...
January 9, 2017: PLoS Currents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228025/variability-in-the-relaxation-behavior-of-glass-impact-of-thermal-history-fluctuations-and-fragility
#13
Qiuju Zheng, John C Mauro
Glasses are nonequilibrium materials that continuously relax toward the metastable supercooled liquid state. As such, the properties of a glass depend on both its composition and thermal history. When an initially cooled glass is subjected to additional thermal cycles, relaxation during the heat treatment is accelerated, leading to changes in the macroscopic properties of the glass. This relaxation behavior is intrinsic to the glassy state and of critical interest to the high-tech glass industry. In many practical cases, the magnitude of the relaxation is less important than the variability of the relaxation effects due to slight variations in the thermal history experienced by the glass...
February 21, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218616/droplet-lasers-a-review-of-current-progress
#14
David McGloin
It is perhaps surprising that something as fragile as a microscopic droplet could possibly form a laser. In this article we will review some of the underpinning physics as to how this might be possible, and then examine the state of the art in the field. The technology to create and manipulate droplets will be examined, as will the different classes of droplet lasers. We will discuss the rapidly developing field of droplet biolasers and explore how droplet lasers could give rise to new bio and chemical sensing and analysis...
February 20, 2017: Reports on Progress in Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211681/proton-coupled-electron-transfer-and-the-linear-approximation-for-coupling-to-the-donor-acceptor-distance-fluctuations
#15
Bridget Salna, Abdelkrim Benabbas, Paul M Champion
The often-used "linear approximation" for treating the coupling of proton donor-acceptor (D-A) distance fluctuations to proton-coupled electron transfer tunneling reactions is systematically examined. The accuracy of this approximation is found to depend on the potential energy surfaces that are used to describe both the tunneling particle vibrations and the D-A coordinate probability distribution. Harmonic treatment of both the tunneling particle and the D-A coordinates results in a significant breakdown of the linear approximation when the width of the D-A distribution exceeds ∼0...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182980/bowling-alone-dying-together-the-role-of-social-capital-in-mitigating-the-drug-overdose-epidemic-in-the-united-states
#16
Michael J Zoorob, Jason L Salemi
BACKGROUND: Drug overdose deaths have risen precipitously over the last fifteen years. Substantial geographic variation, beyond a simple rural-urban dichotomy, exists in the concentration of overdose deaths, suggesting the existence of as-yet unidentified environmental variables that predict resilience (or vulnerability) to drug overdoses. Motivated by reports highlighting the role of community fragility in the opioid epidemic, we explore whether social capital attenuates overdose death rates...
January 25, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154015/potential-ways-to-address-shortage-situations-of-99-mo-99m-tc
#17
Leah M Filzen, Lacey R Ellingson, Andrew M Paulsen, Joseph C Hung
(99m)Tc, the most common radioisotope used in nuclear medicine, is produced in a nuclear reactor from the decay of (99)Mo. There are only a few aging nuclear reactors around the world that produce (99)Mo, and one of the major contributors, the National Research Universal (Canada), ceased production on October 31, 2016. The National Research Universal produced approximately 40% of the world's (99)Mo supply, so with its shut down, shortages of (99)Mo/(99m)Tc are expected. Methods: Nuclear pharmacies and nuclear medicine departments throughout the United States were contacted and asked to provide their strategies for coping with a shortage of (99)Mo/(99m)Tc...
March 2017: Journal of Nuclear Medicine Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150950/force-dependent-folding-and-unfolding-kinetics-in-dna-hairpins-reveals-transition-state-displacements-along-a-single-pathway
#18
Anna Alemany, Felix Ritort
Biomolecules diffusively explore their energy landscape overcoming energy barriers via thermally activated processes to reach the biologically relevant conformation. Mechanically induced unfolding and folding reactions offer an excellent playground to feature these processes at the single-molecule level by monitoring changes in the molecular extension. Here we investigate two-state DNA hairpins designed to have the transition states at different locations. We use optical tweezers to characterize the force-dependent behavior of the kinetic barrier from nonequilibrium pulling experiments by using the continuous effective barrier approach (CEBA)...
February 9, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28146626/ferroelectric-alignment-of-organic-cations-inhibits-nonradiative-electron-hole-recombination-in-hybrid-perovskites-ab-initio-nonadiabatic-molecular-dynamics
#19
Joanna Jankowska, Oleg V Prezhdo
Hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites show impressive potential for photovoltaic applications and currently give rise to one of the most vibrant research areas in the field. Until recently, the electrostatic interactions between their organic and inorganic components were considered mostly for stabilization of the fragile perovskite structure. We study the effect of local interactions of polar C-N bonds in the organic layer on the nonradiative electron-hole recombination in the recently reported room-temperature ferroelectric hybrid perovskite, (benzylammonium)2PbCl4...
February 6, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28142148/role-of-the-common-fragile-sites-in-cancers-with-a-human-papillomavirus-etiology
#20
Ge Gao, David I Smith
High-risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are known to be associated with different anogenital cancers including cervical, anal, penile, and vaginal cancers. They are also found to be responsible for the dramatic increases in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) observed in the United States and Europe. The model for how high-risk HPVs induce cancer formation comes from studies of cervical cancer which usually involves integration of the HPV into the human genome and subsequent changes due to induced chromosomal instability...
February 1, 2017: Cytogenetic and Genome Research
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