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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617348/urban-ecological-security-simulation-and-prediction-using-an-improved-cellular-automata-ca-approach-a-case-study-for-the-city-of-wuhan-in-china
#1
Yuan Gao, Chuanrong Zhang, Qingsong He, Yaolin Liu
Ecological security is an important research topic, especially urban ecological security. As highly populated eco-systems, cities always have more fragile ecological environments. However, most of the research on urban ecological security in literature has focused on evaluating current or past status of the ecological environment. Very little literature has carried out simulation or prediction of future ecological security. In addition, there is even less literature exploring the urban ecological environment at a fine scale...
June 15, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616095/acamprosate-in-a-mouse-model-of-fragile-x-syndrome-modulation-of-spontaneous-cortical-activity-erk1-2-activation-locomotor-behavior-and-anxiety
#2
Tori L Schaefer, Matthew H Davenport, Lindsay M Grainger, Chandler K Robinson, Anthony T Earnheart, Melinda S Stegman, Anna L Lang, Amy A Ashworth, Gemma Molinaro, Kimberly M Huber, Craig A Erickson
BACKGROUND: Fragile X Syndrome (FXS) occurs as a result of a silenced fragile X mental retardation 1 gene (FMR1) and subsequent loss of fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) expression. Loss of FMRP alters excitatory/inhibitory signaling balance, leading to increased neuronal hyperexcitability and altered behavior. Acamprosate (the calcium salt of N-acetylhomotaurinate), a drug FDA-approved for relapse prevention in the treatment of alcohol dependence in adults, is a novel agent with multiple mechanisms that may be beneficial for people with FXS...
2017: Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614917/cell-death-associated-ribosomal-rna-cleavage-in-postmortem-tissues-and-its-forensic-applications
#3
Ji Yeon Kim, Yunmi Kim, Hyo Kyeong Cha, Hye Young Lim, Hyungsub Kim, Sooyoung Chung, Juck-Joon Hwang, Seong Hwan Park, Gi Hoon Son
Estimation of postmortem interval (PMI) is a key issue in the field of forensic pathology. With the availability of quantitative analysis of RNA levels in postmortem tissues, several studies have assessed the postmortem degradation of constitutively expressed RNA species to estimate PMI. However, conventional RNA quantification as well as biochemical and physiological changes employed thus far have limitations related to standardization or normalization. The present study focuses on an interesting feature of the subdomains of certain RNA species, in which they are site-specifically cleaved during apoptotic cell death...
June 15, 2017: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614357/risk-factors-that-may-be-driving-the-emergence-of-drug-resistance-in-tuberculosis-patients-treated-in-yangon-myanmar
#4
Mishal S Khan, Coll Hutchison, Richard J Coker
BACKGROUND: The majority of new tuberculosis cases emerging every year occur in low and middle-income countries where public health systems are often characterised by weak infrastructure and inadequate resources. This study investigates healthcare seeking behaviour, knowledge and treatment of tuberculosis patients in Myanmar-which is facing an acute drug-resistant tuberculosis epidemic-and identifies factors that may increase the risk of emergence of drug-resistant tuberculosis. METHODS: We randomly selected adult smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients diagnosed between September 2014 and March 2015 at ten public township health centres in Yangon, the largest city in Myanmar...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613988/cost-effectiveness-of-virtual-bone-strength-testing-in-osteoporosis-screening-programs-for-postmenopausal-women-in-the-united-states
#5
Christoph A Agten, Austin J Ramme, Stella Kang, Stephen Honig, Gregory Chang
Purpose To investigate whether assessment of bone strength with quantitative computed tomography (CT) in combination with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is cost-effective as a screening tool for osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. Materials and Methods A state-transition microsimulation model of osteoporosis for postmenopausal women aged 55 years or older was developed with a lifetime horizon and U.S. societal perspective. All model inputs were derived from published literature. Three strategies were compared: no screening, DXA with T score-dependent rescreening intervals, and a combination of DXA and quantitative CT with different intervals (3, 5, and 10 years) at different screening initiation ages (55-65 years)...
June 14, 2017: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611877/emergency-department-pain-management-following-implementation-of-a-geriatric-hip-fracture-program
#6
Scott D Casey, Dane E Stevenson, Bryn E Mumma, Christina Slee, Philip R Wolinsky, Calvin H Hirsch, Katren Tyler
INTRODUCTION: Over 300,000 patients in the United States sustain low-trauma fragility hip fractures annually. Multidisciplinary geriatric fracture programs (GFP) including early, multimodal pain management reduce morbidity and mortality. Our overall goal was to determine the effects of a GFP on the emergency department (ED) pain management of geriatric fragility hip fractures. METHODS: We performed a retrospective study including patients age ≥65 years with fragility hip fractures two years before and two years after the implementation of the GFP...
June 2017: Western Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28598643/from-glass-formation-to-icosahedral-ordering-by-curving-three-dimensional-space
#7
Francesco Turci, Gilles Tarjus, C Patrick Royall
Geometric frustration describes the inability of a local molecular arrangement, such as icosahedra found in metallic glasses and in model atomic glass formers, to tile space. Local icosahedral order, however, is strongly frustrated in Euclidean space, which obscures any causal relationship with the observed dynamical slowdown. Here we relieve frustration in a model glass-forming liquid by curving three-dimensional space onto the surface of a 4-dimensional hypersphere. For sufficient curvature, frustration vanishes and the liquid "freezes" in a fully icosahedral structure via a sharp "transition...
May 26, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592283/health-systems-research-in-fragile-and-conflict-affected-states-a-qualitative-study-of-associated-challenges
#8
Tim Martineau, Aniek Woodward, Kate Sheahan, Egbert Sondorp
BACKGROUND: High quality health systems research (HSR) in fragile and conflict-affected states (FCAS) is essential to guiding the policies and programmes that will improve access to health services and, ultimately, health outcomes. Yet, conducting HSR in FCAS is challenging. An understanding of these challenges is essential to tackling them and to supporting research conducted in these complex environments. Led by the Thematic Working Group on Health Systems in FCAS, the primary aim of this study was to develop a research agenda on HSR in FCAS...
June 7, 2017: Health Research Policy and Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584176/one-health-contributions-towards-more-effective-and-equitable-approaches-to-health-in-low-and-middle-income-countries
#9
REVIEW
S Cleaveland, J Sharp, B Abela-Ridder, K J Allan, J Buza, J A Crump, A Davis, V J Del Rio Vilas, W A de Glanville, R R Kazwala, T Kibona, F J Lankester, A Lugelo, B T Mmbaga, M P Rubach, E S Swai, L Waldman, D T Haydon, K Hampson, J E B Halliday
Emerging zoonoses with pandemic potential are a stated priority for the global health security agenda, but endemic zoonoses also have a major societal impact in low-resource settings. Although many endemic zoonoses can be treated, timely diagnosis and appropriate clinical management of human cases is often challenging. Preventive 'One Health' interventions, e.g. interventions in animal populations that generate human health benefits, may provide a useful approach to overcoming some of these challenges. Effective strategies, such as animal vaccination, already exist for the prevention, control and elimination of many endemic zoonoses, including rabies, and several livestock zoonoses (e...
July 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570120/characterization-of-the-coagulation-profile-in-children-with-liver-disease-and-extrahepatic-portal-vein-obstruction-or-shunt
#10
William Beattie, Maria Magnusson, Winita Hardikar, Paul Monagle, Vera Ignjatovic
INTRODUCTION: Chronic liver disease causes a disruption of procoagulant and anticoagulant factors, resulting in a fragile state, prone to increased rates of both bleeding and thrombosis. Currently, there is limited literature describing the changes observed in pediatric liver disease and extrahepatic portal vein obstruction or shunt. This study aimed to describe the changes that occur in children with chronic liver disease and extrahepatic portal vein obstruction or shunt. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We measured the concentration and activity of key procoagulant and anticoagulant factors in children with liver disease, children with extrahepatic portal vein obstruction or shunt, and healthy children...
June 1, 2017: Pediatric Hematology and Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28565992/pipeline-flow-diversion-of-ruptured-blister-aneurysms-of-the-supraclinoid-carotid-artery-using-a-single-device-strategy
#11
Robert W Ryan, Amir S Khan, Rebecca Barco, Armen Choulakian
OBJECTIVE Ruptured blister aneurysms remain challenging lesions for treatment due to their broad, shallow anatomy and thin, fragile wall. Historical challenges with both open microsurgical approaches and intrasaccular endovascular approaches have led to increased use of flow diversion for management of these aneurysms. However, the optimum paradigm, including timing of treatment, use of dual antiplatelet therapy, and number of flow-diverter devices to use remains unknown. The authors describe their experience with ruptured blister aneurysms treated with flow diversion at their institution, and discuss rates of rebleeding and number of devices used...
June 2017: Neurosurgical Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28562675/addressing-tuberculosis-control-in-fragile-states-urban-dots-experience-in-kabul-afghanistan-2009-2015
#12
G Qader, A Hamim, M Sayedi, M Rashidi, L Manzoor, M K Seddiq, N Ikram, P G Suarez
Tuberculosis (TB) is a major public health problem in Afghanistan, but experience in implementing effective strategies to prevent and control TB in urban areas and conflict zones is limited. This study shares programmatic experience in implementing DOTS in the large city of Kabul. We analyzed data from the 2009-2015 reports of the National TB Program (NTP) for Kabul City and calculated treatment outcomes and progress in case notification using rates, ratios, and confidence interval. Urban DOTS was implemented by the NTP in partnership with United States Agency for International Development (USAID)-funded TB projects, the World Health Organization (WHO), and the private sector...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512331/entanglement-concentration-for-arbitrary-four-particle-linear-cluster-states
#13
Ting-Ting Song, Xiaoqing Tan, Tianyin Wang
Cluster states, whose model are a remarkably rich structure in measurement-based quantum computation, hold high degree of entanglement, while entanglement is very fragile during the process of transmission because of the inevitable interaction with the environment. We propose two entanglement concentration protocols for four-particle linear cluster states which and are susceptible to the decoherence and the imperfect communication setups. In the first protocol, POVM operators are introduced to maximize the success probability, and the second protocol is based on cross-Kerr nonlinearity which is utilized to check the parity between the original particle and the ancillary particle...
May 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510059/deforestation-and-carbon-loss-in-southwest-amazonia-impact-of-brazil-s-revised-forest-code
#14
Pedro Augusto Costa Roriz, Aurora Miho Yanai, Philip Martin Fearnside
In 2012 Brazil's National Congress altered the country's Forest Code, decreasing various environmental protections in the set of regulations governing forests. This suggests consequences in increased deforestation and emissions of greenhouse gases and in decreased protection of fragile ecosystems. To ascertain the effects, a simulation was run to the year 2025 for the municipality (county) of Boca do Acre, Amazonas state, Brazil. A baseline scenario considered historical behavior (which did not respect the Forest Code), while two scenarios considered full compliance with the old Forest Code (Law 4771/1965) and the current Code (Law 12,651/2012) regarding the protection of "areas of permanent preservation" (APPs) along the edges of watercourses...
May 16, 2017: Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498173/the-meaning-of-confidence-for-older-people-living-with-frailty-a-qualitative-systematic-review
#15
Frazer Underwood, Lisa Burrows, Rod Gegg, Jos M Latour, Bridie Kent
BACKGROUND: In many countries, the oldest old (those aged 85 years and older) are now the fastest growing proportion of the total population. This oldest population will increasingly be living with the clinical condition of frailty. Frailty syndromes negatively impact on the person as they do the healthcare systems supporting them. Within healthcare literature "loss of confidence" is occasionally connected to older people living with frailty, but ambiguously described. Understanding the concept of confidence within the context of frailty could inform interventions to meet this growing challenge...
May 2017: JBI Database of Systematic Reviews and Implementation Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497887/surviving-moment-to-moment-the-experience-of-living-in-a-state-of-ambivalence-for-those-with-recurrent-suicide-attempts
#16
Yvonne Bergmans, Evelyn Gordon, Rahel Eynan
OBJECTIVE: This qualitative study aimed to capture the experience of living in the ambivalent space between life and death for adults with recurrent suicide attempts (RSA). It sought to expand upon an earlier study that explored the processes involved in transitioning away from RSA among adults, which revealed that occupying this ambivalent space is a crucial part of this process. DESIGN: Interpretive phenomenological analysis (IPA) was used. This methodology was designed to explore the lived experiences and meaning making and enabled interpretation of the multidimensional subjective experiences of RSA participants...
May 12, 2017: Psychology and Psychotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492763/sociodemographic-and-health-factors-associated-with-mortality-in-community-dwelling-elderly
#17
Flávia Silva Arbex Borim, Priscila Maria Stolses Bergamo Francisco, Anita Liberalesso Neri
OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to identify factors associated with mortality, with emphasis on gender and age differences. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study, which uses data from the FIBRA-2008-2009 network in Campinas, State of São Paulo, Brazil, with information on non-institutionalized residents of the urban area and the Mortality Information System. The dependent variable has been death, in 2013. The associations have been tested by odds ratio (OR) and their 95% confidence intervals, and the analyses have been conducted using the program Stata 12...
May 4, 2017: Revista de Saúde Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482641/bryostatin-effects-on-cognitive-function-and-pkc%C3%A9-in-alzheimer-s-disease-phase-iia-and-expanded-access-trials
#18
Thomas J Nelson, Miao-Kun Sun, Chol Lim, Abhik Sen, Tapan Khan, Florin V Chirila, Daniel L Alkon
Bryostatin 1, a potent activator of protein kinase C epsilon (PKCɛ), has been shown to reverse synaptic loss and facilitate synaptic maturation in animal models of Alzheimer's disease (AD), Fragile X, stroke, and other neurological disorders. In a single-dose (25 μg/m2) randomized double-blind Phase IIa clinical trial, bryostatin levels reached a maximum at 1-2 h after the start of infusion. In close parallel with peak blood levels of bryostatin, an increase of PBMC PKCɛ was measured (p = 0.0185) within 1 h from the onset of infusion...
2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475071/robust-face-hallucination-via-locality-constrained-bi-layer-representation
#19
Licheng Liu, C L Philip Chen, Shutao Li, Yuan Yan Tang, Long Chen
Recently, locality-constrained linear coding (LLC) has been drawn great attentions and been widely used in image processing and computer vision tasks. However, the conventional LLC model is always fragile to outliers. In this paper, we present a robust locality-constrained bi-layer representation model to simultaneously hallucinate the face images and suppress noise and outliers with the assistant of a group of training samples. The proposed scheme is not only able to capture the nonlinear manifold structure but also robust to outliers by incorporating a weight vector into the objective function to subtly tune the contribution of each pixel offered in the objective...
May 2, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Cybernetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473651/how-well-are-we-managing-fragility-hip-fractures-a-narrative-report-on-the-review-with-the-attempt-to-setup-a-fragility-fracture-registry-in-hong-kong
#20
K S Leung, W F Yuen, W K Ngai, C Y Lam, T W Lau, K B Lee, K M Siu, N Tang, S H Wong, W H Cheung
INTRODUCTION: In setting up a disease registry for fragility fractures in Hong Kong, we conducted a retrospective systematic study on the management of fragility hip fractures. Patient outcomes were compared with the standards from our orthopaedic working group and those from the British Orthopaedic Association that runs a mature fracture registry in the United Kingdom. METHODS: Clinical data on fragility hip fracture patients admitted to six acute major hospitals in Hong Kong in 2012 were captured...
May 5, 2017: Hong Kong Medical Journal, Xianggang Yi Xue za Zhi
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