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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730199/the-amorphous-state-first-principles-derivation-of-the-gordon-taylor-equation-for-direct-prediction-of-the-glass-transition-temperature-of-mixtures-estimation-of-the-crossover-temperature-of-fragile-glass-formers-physical-basis-of-the-rule-of-2-3
#1
Peter J Skrdla, Philip D Floyd, Philip C Dell'Orco
Predicting the glass transition temperature (Tg) of mixtures has applications that span across industries and scientific disciplines. By plotting experimentally determined Tg values as a function of the glass composition, one can usually apply the Gordon-Taylor (G-T) equation to determine the slope, k, which subsequently can be used in Tg predictions. Traditionally viewed as a phenomenological/empirical model, this work proposes a physical basis for the G-T equation. The proposed equations allow for the calculation of k directly and, hence, they determine/predict the Tg values of mixtures algebraically...
July 21, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729046/bone-mineralization-and-fracture-risk-assessment-in-the-pediatric-population
#2
Halley Wasserman, Catherine M Gordon
Identifying children most susceptible to clinically significant fragility fractures (low trauma fractures or vertebral compression fractures) or recurrent fractures is an important issue facing general pediatricians and subspecialists alike. Over the last decade, several imaging technologies, including dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and peripheral quantitative computed tomography, have become useful to identify abnormal bone mineralization in children and in adolescents. This review aimed to summarize the latest literature on the utility of these modalities as they pertain to use in pediatrics...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Clinical Densitometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724762/stability-of-cucumber-necrosis-virus-at-the-quasi-six-fold-axis-affects-zoospore-transmission
#3
Michael B Sherman, Kishore Kakani, D'Ann Rochon, Wen Jiang, Neil R Voss, Thomas J Smith
Cucumber necrosis virus (CNV) is a member of the genus Tombusvirus and has a monopartite positive-sense RNA genome. CNV is transmitted in nature via zoospores of the fungus, Olpidium bornovanus As with other members of the Tombusvirus genus, the CNV capsid swells when exposed to alkaline pH and EDTA. We previously demonstrated that a P73G mutation blocks the virus from zoospore transmission while not significantly affecting replication in plants (1). P73 lies immediately adjacent to a putative zinc binding site (2) that is formed by three icosahedrally related His residues in the N-termini of the C subunit at the quasi 6-fold axes...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721495/diversity-and-survival-of-artificial-lifeforms-under-sedimentation-and-random-motion
#4
Nicolas Glade, Olivier Bastien, Pascal Ballet
Cellular automata are often used to explore the numerous possible scenarios of what could have occurred at the origins of life and before, during the prebiotic ages, when very simple molecules started to assemble and organise into larger catalytic or informative structures, or to simulate ecosystems. Artificial self-maintained spatial structures emerge in cellular automata and are often used to represent molecules or living organisms. They converge generally towards homogeneous stationary soups of still-life creatures...
July 18, 2017: Theory in Biosciences, Theorie in Den Biowissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720035/home-visiting-and-the-health-of-preterm-infants
#5
Patrick H Casey, Carmen Irby, Sandra Withers, Susan Dorsey, Jingyun Li, Malik Rettiganti
The results of home visiting programs which target medically fragile low-birth-weight preterm infants (LBWPT) have been inconsistent. We provided nurse/social worker home visits to families of LBWPT infants on a regular schedule. Teams were trained in approaches to improve the health and development of the infants. The completion of immunization series was sigmificantly higher and the infant mortality rates of the home visits childen were significanly lower compared to national and state rates. We used state Medicaid data and examined frequency of hospitalization, emergency department visits, routine and nonscheduled visits to primary care physician, and pharmacy use of the home-visited subjects compared with a propensity-matched group...
August 2017: Clinical Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697590/prevalence-of-fragile-x-syndrome-among-children-receiving-special-education-and-carrier-states-in-first-degree-relatives
#6
B Chandrasekara, S Wijesundera, S S Chong, H N Perera
Introduction: Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is a genetically determined developmental disorder. Underlying genotype is cytosine-guanine-guanine (CGG) repeat expansions with over 200 repeats in the fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1) gene. Children with FXS are most accessible in special education institutions in Sri Lanka, with a total of approximately 6000 registered attendees. Objectives: The aim of the current study was to estimate the prevalence of FXS among special school attendees and to screen first degree relatives of affected children...
June 30, 2017: Ceylon Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695843/magnetic-impurity-doping-induced-spin-glass-state-and-short-range-zigzag-order-in-the-honeycomb-iridate-na-sub-2-sub-iro-sub-3-sub
#7
Wanping Cai, Zhengren Yan, Rumei Liu, Minghui Qin, Min Zeng, Xubing Lu, Xingsen Gao, Junming Liu
Based on the modied Heisenberg-Kitaev model, the eects of magnetic substitution on the magnetic properties of the honeycomb-lattice iridate Na2IrO3 are studied using Monte Carlo simulations. It is observed that the long-range zigzag state of the original system is rather fragile and can be replaced by a spin-glass state even for small substitution, well consistent with the experimental observation in Ru-substituted samples [Mehlawat, Sharma, and Singh, Phys. Rev. B 92, 134412 (2015)]...
July 11, 2017: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694555/parental-leave-use-among-disadvantaged-fathers
#8
Brianne Pragg, Chris Knoester
The United States lags behind other industrialized countries in its lack of inclusive and standardized parental leave policy after the birth or adoption of a child. Using data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (N=2,233), this study examines the patterns and predictors of fathers' parental leave use, as well as its association with father-child engagement. Our findings indicate that the vast majority of employed fathers take parental leave, but they rarely take more than one week of leave. Fathers who have more positive attitudes about fatherhood and who live with the birth mother are especially likely to take leave, and to take more weeks of leave, than other fathers...
June 2017: Journal of Family Issues
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28693674/the-imperative-for-regenerative-agriculture
#9
Christopher J Rhodes
A review is made of the current state of agriculture, emphasising issues of soil erosion and dependence on fossil fuels, in regard to achieving food security for a relentlessly enlarging global population. Soil has been described as "the fragile, living skin of the Earth", and yet both its aliveness and fragility have all too often been ignored in the expansion of agriculture across the face of the globe. Since it is a pivotal component in a global nexus of soil-water-air-energy, how we treat the soil can impact massively on climate change - with either beneficial or detrimental consequences, depending on whether the soil is preserved or degraded...
March 1, 2017: Science Progress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28679383/strengthening-close-to-community-provision-of-maternal-health-services-in-fragile-settings-an-exploration-of-the-changing-roles-of-tbas-in-sierra-leone-and-somaliland
#10
Evelyn Orya, Sunday Adaji, Thidar Pyone, Haja Wurie, Nynke van den Broek, Sally Theobald
BACKGROUND: Efforts to take forward universal health coverage require innovative approaches in fragile settings, which experience particularly acute human resource shortages and poor health indicators. For maternal and newborn health, it is important to innovate with new partnerships and roles for Traditional Birth Attendants (TBAs) to promote maternal health. We explore perspectives on programmes in Somaliland and Sierra Leone which link TBAs to health centres as part of a pathway to maternal health care...
July 5, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678166/access-to-hiv-care-and-resilience-in-a-long-term-conflict-setting-a-qualitative-assessment-of-the-experiences-of-living-with-diagnosed-hiv-in-mogadishu-somali
#11
Asli Kulane, John O A Owuor, Douglas Sematimba, Sacdia Abdisamad Abdulahi, Hamdi Moalim Yusuf, Lul M Mohamed
BACKGROUND: Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) continues to take a heavy toll on the lives of many people, with the worst impact on health and wellbeing for the affected individuals in fragile states. The HIV situation in Somalia is not clearly known and experiences of the people living with HIV in this war-torn region are often unexpressed. This pilot qualitative study sought to explore the experiences of people diagnosed with HIV living in Mogadishu, and their resilience in access to care and social support...
July 5, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28666972/non-destructive-nir-spectral-imaging-assessment-of-bone-water-comparison-to-mri-measurements
#12
Chamith S Rajapakse, Mugdha V Padalkar, Hee Jin Yang, Mikayel Ispiryan, Nancy Pleshko
Bone fracture risk increases with age, disease states, and with use of certain therapeutics, such as acid-suppressive drugs, steroids and high-dose bisphosphonates. Historically, investigations into factors that underlie bone fracture risk have focused on evaluation of bone mineral density (BMD). However, numerous studies have pointed to factors other than BMD that contribute to fragility, including changes in bone collagen and water. The goal of this study is to investigate the feasibility of using near infrared spectral imaging (NIRSI) to determine the spatial distribution and relative amount of water and organic components in whole cross-sections of bone, and to compare those results to those obtained using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) methods...
June 28, 2017: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664963/dynamical-behavior-of-microgels-of-interpenetrated-polymer-networks
#13
Valentina Nigro, Roberta Angelini, Monica Bertoldo, Fabio Bruni, Maria Antonietta Ricci, Barbara Ruzicka
Microgel suspensions of an interpenetrated Polymer Network (IPN) of PNIPAM and PAAc in D2O have been investigated through dynamic light scattering as a function of temperature, pH and concentration across the Volume Phase Transition (VPT). The dynamics of the system is slowed down under H/D isotopic substitution due to different balance states between polymer/polymer and polymer/solvent interactions suggesting the crucial role played by H-bonding. The swelling behavior, reduced with respect to PNIPAM and water, has been described by the Flory-Rehner theory, tested for PNIPAM microgel and successfully expanded to higher order for IPN microgels...
June 30, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651539/a-comparison-of-physician-emigration-from-africa-to-the-united-states-of-america-between-2005-and-2015
#14
Robbert J Duvivier, Vanessa C Burch, John R Boulet
BACKGROUND: Migration of health professionals has been a cause for global concern, in particular migration from African countries with a high disease burden and already fragile health systems. An estimated one fifth of African-born physicians are working in high-income countries. Lack of good data makes it difficult to determine what constitutes "African" physicians, as most studies do not distinguish between their country of citizenship and country of training. Thus, the real extent of migration from African countries to the United States (US) remains unclear...
June 26, 2017: Human Resources for Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648664/high-dose-ivig-successfully-reduces-high-rhgaa-igg-antibody-titers-in-a-crim-negative-infantile-pompe-disease-patient
#15
Mugdha Rairikar, Zoheb B Kazi, Ankit Desai, Crista Walters, Amy Rosenberg, Priya S Kishnani
Alglucosidase alfa (rhGAA) has altered the course of an otherwise fatal outcome in classic infantile Pompe disease (IPD), which presents with cardiomyopathy and severe musculoskeletal involvement. However, the response to therapy is determined by several factors including the development of high and sustained antibody titers (HSAT) to rhGAA. Cross-reactive immunologic material (CRIM) negative patients are at the highest risk for development of HSAT. Immune tolerance induction (ITI) with methotrexate, rituximab, and intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) has been largely successful in preventing the immune response and in achieving tolerance when done in conjunction with enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) initiation...
May 18, 2017: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28617348/urban-ecological-security-simulation-and-prediction-using-an-improved-cellular-automata-ca-approach-a-case-study-for-the-city-of-wuhan-in-china
#16
Yuan Gao, Chuanrong Zhang, Qingsong He, Yaolin Liu
Ecological security is an important research topic, especially urban ecological security. As highly populated eco-systems, cities always have more fragile ecological environments. However, most of the research on urban ecological security in literature has focused on evaluating current or past status of the ecological environment. Very little literature has carried out simulation or prediction of future ecological security. In addition, there is even less literature exploring the urban ecological environment at a fine scale...
June 15, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616095/acamprosate-in-a-mouse-model-of-fragile-x-syndrome-modulation-of-spontaneous-cortical-activity-erk1-2-activation-locomotor-behavior-and-anxiety
#17
Tori L Schaefer, Matthew H Davenport, Lindsay M Grainger, Chandler K Robinson, Anthony T Earnheart, Melinda S Stegman, Anna L Lang, Amy A Ashworth, Gemma Molinaro, Kimberly M Huber, Craig A Erickson
BACKGROUND: Fragile X Syndrome (FXS) occurs as a result of a silenced fragile X mental retardation 1 gene (FMR1) and subsequent loss of fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) expression. Loss of FMRP alters excitatory/inhibitory signaling balance, leading to increased neuronal hyperexcitability and altered behavior. Acamprosate (the calcium salt of N-acetylhomotaurinate), a drug FDA-approved for relapse prevention in the treatment of alcohol dependence in adults, is a novel agent with multiple mechanisms that may be beneficial for people with FXS...
2017: Journal of Neurodevelopmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614917/cell-death-associated-ribosomal-rna-cleavage-in-postmortem-tissues-and-its-forensic-applications
#18
Ji Yeon Kim, Yunmi Kim, Hyo Kyeong Cha, Hye Young Lim, Hyungsub Kim, Sooyoung Chung, Juck-Joon Hwang, Seong Hwan Park, Gi Hoon Son
Estimation of postmortem interval (PMI) is a key issue in the field of forensic pathology. With the availability of quantitative analysis of RNA levels in postmortem tissues, several studies have assessed the postmortem degradation of constitutively expressed RNA species to estimate PMI. However, conventional RNA quantification as well as biochemical and physiological changes employed thus far have limitations related to standardization or normalization. The present study focuses on an interesting feature of the subdomains of certain RNA species, in which they are site-specifically cleaved during apoptotic cell death...
June 30, 2017: Molecules and Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614357/risk-factors-that-may-be-driving-the-emergence-of-drug-resistance-in-tuberculosis-patients-treated-in-yangon-myanmar
#19
Mishal S Khan, Coll Hutchison, Richard J Coker
BACKGROUND: The majority of new tuberculosis cases emerging every year occur in low and middle-income countries where public health systems are often characterised by weak infrastructure and inadequate resources. This study investigates healthcare seeking behaviour, knowledge and treatment of tuberculosis patients in Myanmar-which is facing an acute drug-resistant tuberculosis epidemic-and identifies factors that may increase the risk of emergence of drug-resistant tuberculosis. METHODS: We randomly selected adult smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients diagnosed between September 2014 and March 2015 at ten public township health centres in Yangon, the largest city in Myanmar...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613988/cost-effectiveness-of-virtual-bone-strength-testing-in-osteoporosis-screening-programs-for-postmenopausal-women-in-the-united-states
#20
Christoph A Agten, Austin J Ramme, Stella Kang, Stephen Honig, Gregory Chang
Purpose To investigate whether assessment of bone strength with quantitative computed tomography (CT) in combination with dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is cost-effective as a screening tool for osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. Materials and Methods A state-transition microsimulation model of osteoporosis for postmenopausal women aged 55 years or older was developed with a lifetime horizon and U.S. societal perspective. All model inputs were derived from published literature. Three strategies were compared: no screening, DXA with T score-dependent rescreening intervals, and a combination of DXA and quantitative CT with different intervals (3, 5, and 10 years) at different screening initiation ages (55-65 years)...
June 14, 2017: Radiology
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