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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221449/changes-in-physical-activity-during-the-retirement-transition-a-series-of-novel-n-of-1-natural-experiments
#1
Suzanne McDonald, Rute Vieira, Alan Godfrey, Nicola O'Brien, Martin White, Falko F Sniehotta
BACKGROUND: Existing evidence about the impact of retirement on physical activity (PA) has primarily focused on the average change in PA level after retirement in group-based studies. It is unclear whether findings regarding the direction of PA change after retirement from group-based studies apply to individuals. This study aimed to explore changes in PA, PA determinants and their inter-relationships during the retirement transition at the individual level. METHODS: A series of n-of-1 natural experiments were conducted with seven individuals who were aged 55-76 years and approaching retirement...
December 8, 2017: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212812/pharmacologic-prevention-of-incident-atrial-fibrillation-long-term-results-from-the-allhat-antihypertensive-and-lipid-lowering-treatment-to-prevent-heart-attack-trial
#2
Thomas A Dewland, Elsayed Z Soliman, Jose-Miguel Yamal, Barry R Davis, Alvaro Alonso, Christine M Albert, Lara M Simpson, L Julian Haywood, Gregory M Marcus
BACKGROUND: Although atrial fibrillation (AF) guidelines indicate that pharmacological blockade of the renin-angiotensin system may be considered for primary AF prevention in hypertensive patients, previous studies have yielded conflicting results. We sought to determine whether randomization to lisinopril reduces incident AF or atrial flutter (AFL) compared with chlorthalidone in a large clinical trial cohort with extended post-trial surveillance. METHODS AND RESULTS: We performed a secondary analysis of the ALLHAT (Antihypertensive and Lipid-Lowering Treatment to Prevent Heart Attack Trial), a randomized, double-blind, active-controlled clinical trial that enrolled hypertensive individuals ≥55 years of age with at least one other cardiovascular risk factor...
December 2017: Circulation. Arrhythmia and Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210333/training-reproductive-health-professionals-in-a-post-conflict-environment-exploring-medical-nursing-and-midwifery-education-in-mogadishu-somalia
#3
Abdiasis Yalahow, Mariam Hassan, Angel M Foster
Following two decades of civil war, Somalia recently entered the post-conflict rebuilding phase that has resulted in the rapid proliferation of higher education institutions. Given the high maternal mortality ratio, the federal government has identified the reproductive health education of health service professionals as a priority. Yet little is known about the coverage of contraception, abortion, pregnancy, childbirth, and sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV) in medicine, nursing, or midwifery. In 2016, we conducted a multi-methods study to understand the reproductive health education and training landscape and identify avenues by which development of the next generation of health service professionals could be improved...
December 6, 2017: Reproductive Health Matters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207946/achieved-systolic-blood-pressure-in-older-people-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#4
Aline A I Moraes, Cristina P Baena, Taulant Muka, Arjola Bano, Adriana Buitrago-Lopez, Ana Zazula, Bruna O Erbano, Nicolle A Schio, Murilo H Guedes, Wichor M Bramer, Oscar H Franco, José Rocha Faria-Neto
BACKGROUND: It remains unclear into which level the systolic blood pressure (SBP) should be lowered in order to provide the best cardiovascular protection among older people. Hypertension guidelines recommendation on attaining SBP levels <150 mmHg in this population is currently based on experts' opinion. To clarify this issue, we systematically reviewed and quantified available evidence on the impact of achieving different SBP levels <150 mmHg on various adverse outcomes in subjects aged ≥60 years old receiving antihypertensive drug treatment...
December 5, 2017: BMC Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201492/agropastoral-mobility-and-rangelands-multiple-uses-in-the-miombo-frontier-ecozone-of-tabora-region-western-tanzania
#5
George Felix Masanja
This study aimed to examine the argument of environmental resource-use conflict as the primary cause of crop farmers and agropastoralists conflicts in Tabora Region, Tanzania. It explored the multiple interdependent phenomena that affect livelihoods relationships between crop farmers and agropastoralists and the nature of their continuing conflicts over the ecozonal resources. A primary dataset of the two groups' conflicts was used. An ex post facto and multistage sampling design was adopted. A total of 252 respondents were interviewed in three separate villages drawn from agroecological zones fringing the miombo woodland where such tensions are high...
2017: Scientifica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201388/evaluating-the-feasibility-of-conducting-a-trial-using-a-patient-decision-aid-in-implantable-cardioverter-defibrillator-candidates-a-randomized-controlled-feasibility-trial
#6
Sandra L Carroll, Dawn Stacey, Michael McGillion, Jeff S Healey, Gary Foster, Sarah Hutchings, Heather M Arthur, Gina Browne, Lehana Thabane
Background: Patient decision aids (PtDA) support quality decision-making. The aim of this research was to evaluate the feasibility of conducting a randomized controlled trial delivering an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD)-specific PtDA to new ICD candidates and examining preliminary estimates of differences in outcomes. Methods: Prior to recruitment, ICD candidacy was determined. Consented patients were randomized to (1) usual care or (2) PtDA intervention...
2017: Pilot and Feasibility Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194693/the-development-and-implementation-of-a-multi-couple-therapy-model-with-torture-survivors-in-the-democratic-republic-of-the-congo
#7
Erin Morgan, Elizabeth Wieling, John Hubbard, Elsa Kraus
In this article, we present development and feasibility of implementation of a multi-couple group for use with torture-surviving couples. The model was developed in the Democratic Republic of the Congo in a community that experienced widespread torture during the wars from 1998 to 2004. The Torture-Surviving Couple Group model is a short-term intervention designed to use few human resources to address relational difficulties resulting from exposure to traumatic stressors. The model was guided by critical and feminist epistemologies and employed an ecological lens to incorporate neurobiology and attachment processes along with narrative therapy techniques...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Marital and Family Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193758/haemodynamic-impact-of-pulmonary-vasodilators-on-single-ventricle-physiology
#8
Biagio Castaldi, Giulia Bordin, Massimo Padalino, Elena Cuppini, Vladimiro Vida, Ornella Milanesi
INTRODUCTION: The Fontan procedure is the palliative procedure for single ventricle physiology. Pulmonary resistance plays a key role in the success of this operation. There are conflicting data concerning the impact of pulmonary vasodilators on survival and functional capacity among Fontan patients. AIM: The aim of this retrospective, single-centre, non-randomised study was to investigate the potential effect of pulmonary vasodilators on pulmonary vasculature in Fontan patients...
November 28, 2017: Cardiovascular Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193256/post-traumatic-heterotopic-ossification-an-old-problem-in-need-of-new-solutions
#9
REVIEW
Neil Eisenstein, Sarah Stapley, Liam Grover
Heterotopic ossification (HO) is the formation of pathological bone in ectopic sites and it can have serious consequences for functional outcomes. For many years, its main clinical relevance was as a rare complication of elective joint arthroplasty or CNS injury and a number of prophylaxes were developed to mitigate against it in these settings. As a consequence of changes in patterns of wounding and survival in conflicts since the turn of the century, post-traumatic HO has become much more common and case severity has increased...
November 29, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191434/the-gendered-effects-of-foreign-investment-and-prolonged-state-ownership-on-mortality-in-hungary-an-indirect-demographic-retrospective-cohort-study
#10
Gábor Scheiring, Dénes Stefler, Darja Irdam, Mihaly Fazekas, Aytalina Azarova, Irina Kolesnikova, János Köllő, Vladimir Popov, Ivan Szelenyi, Michael Marmot, Michael Murphy, Martin McKee, Martin Bobak, Lawrence King
BACKGROUND: Research on the health outcomes of globalisation and economic transition has yielded conflicting results, partly due to methodological and data limitations. Specifically, the outcomes of changes in foreign investment and state ownership need to be examined using multilevel data, linking macro-effects and micro-effects. We exploited the natural experiment offered by the Hungarian economic transition by means of a multilevel study designed to address these gaps in the scientific literature...
November 27, 2017: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190374/scaling-up-newborn-care-in-afghanistan-opportunities-and-challenges-for-the-health-sector
#11
Malalai Naziri, Ariel Higgins-Steele, Zelaikha Anwari, Khaksar Yousufi, Karla Fossand, Sher Shah Amin, David B Hipgrave, Sherin Varkey
Newborn health in Afghanistan is receiving increased attention, but reduction in newborn deaths there has not kept pace with declines in maternal and child mortality. Using the continuum of care and health systems building block frameworks, this article identifies, organizes and provides a synthesis of the available evidence on and gaps in coverage of care and health systems, programmes, policies and practices related to newborn health in Afghanistan. Newborn mortality in Afghanistan is related to the nation's weak health system, itself associated with decades of conflict, low and uneven coverage of essential interventions, demand-side and cultural specificities, and compromised quality...
November 27, 2017: Health Policy and Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186618/semi-automatized-segmentation-method-using-image-based-flow-cytometry-to-study-sperm-physiology-the-case-of-capacitation-induced-tyrosine-phosphorylation
#12
Arturo Matamoros-Volante, Ayelen Moreno-Irusta, Paulina Torres-Rodriguez, Laura Giojalas, María G Gervasi, Pablo E Visconti, Claudia L Treviño
STUDY QUESTION: Is image-based flow cytometry a useful tool to study intracellular events in human sperm such as protein tyrosine phosphorylation or signaling processes? SUMMARY ANSWER: Image-based flow cytometry is a powerful tool to study intracellular events in a relevant number of sperm cells, which enables a robust statistical analysis providing spatial resolution in terms of the specific subcellular localization of the labeling. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Sperm capacitation is required for fertilization...
November 25, 2017: Molecular Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29185176/communication-quality-predicts-psychological-well-being-and-satisfaction-in-family-surrogates-of-hospitalized-older-adults-an-observational-study
#13
Alexia M Torke, Christopher M Callahan, Greg A Sachs, Lucia D Wocial, Paul R Helft, Patrick O Monahan, James E Slaven, Kianna Montz, Emily S Burke, Lev Inger
BACKGROUND: Many hospitalized older adults require family surrogates to make decisions, but surrogates may perceive that the quality of medical decisions is low and may have poor psychological outcomes after the patient's hospitalization. OBJECTIVE: To determine the relationship between communication quality and high-quality medical decisions, psychological well-being, and satisfaction for surrogates of hospitalized older adults. DESIGN: Observational study at three hospitals in a Midwest metropolitan area...
November 28, 2017: Journal of General Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176915/the-association-of-ethnic-pride-with-health-and-social-outcomes-among-young-black-and-latino-men-after-release-from-jail
#14
Satyasree Upadhyayula, Megha Ramaswamy, Prabhakar Chalise, Jessie Daniels, Nicholas Freudenberg
The goal of this study was to understand whether ethnic pride among young, incarcerated Black and Latino men was associated with successful community reentry. We interviewed 397 Black and Latino men 16 to 18 years old in a New York City jail and then again 1 year after their release to determine the relationship between participants' sense of ethnic pride during incarceration, and substance use, violence, recidivism, and education/ employment after release from jail. Participants with higher ethnic pride scores were less likely to engage in illegal activities and be reincarcerated...
November 2017: Youth & Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175037/results-from-a-multicenter-registry-of-heparin-bonded-expanded-polytetrafluoroethylene-graft-for-above-the-knee-femoropopliteal-bypass
#15
Gabriele Piffaretti, Walter Dorigo, Patrizio Castelli, Carlo Pratesi, Raffaele Pulli
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to retrospectively analyze early and follow-up results of above-the-knee femoropopliteal bypasses (AKb) performed with a bioactive heparin-bonded expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (HB-ePTFE) graft in patients with peripheral arterial obstructive disease in a multicentric retrospective registry involving seven Italian vascular centers. METHODS: During a 14-year period ending in March 2016, an HB-ePTFE graft was used in 1401 interventions performed for peripheral arterial obstructive disease...
November 23, 2017: Journal of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29172814/social-media-and-professional-identity-pitfalls-and-potential
#16
Andrew O'Regan, William Henry Smithson, Eimear Spain
INTRODUCTION: Social media developments have completely changed how information is accessed and communicated. While great potential exists with these platforms, recent reports of online unprofessional behavior by doctors has threatened the medical professional identity; a matter of critical importance for clinicians and medical educators. This paper outlines a role for social media in facilitating support for clinicians and medical teachers; it will raise awareness of pitfalls and explain ethical and legal guidelines...
November 26, 2017: Medical Teacher
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29171299/whole-body-exposure-of-rats-to-sulfur-mustard-vapor
#17
Shlomit Dachir, Ishai Rabinovitz, Guy Yaacov, Hila Gutman, Liat Cohen, Vered Horwitz, Maayan Cohen, Tamar Kadar
Sulfur mustard (SM) is an incapacitating chemical warfare agent used in numerous conflicts around the world and it is still a major threat for both, army troops and civilians. To evaluate its multiple targets effects in experimental setup, a model of whole body exposure (WBE) to SM vapor was established in rats and its simultaneous effects on lungs and eyes as well as on general wellbeing were examined. Rats were exposed to SM vapor. Evaluation (up to 10 weeks post-exposure) included body weight, general observation, blood counts and histological analysis...
November 24, 2017: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169068/effects-of-a-service-earning-experience-on-confidence-and-clinical-skills-in-baccalaureate-nursing-students
#18
Jennifer Saylor, Lindsey Hertsenberg, Malissa McQuillan, Ashley O'Connell, Kimberly Shoe, Christina J Calamaro
BACKGROUND: Camp programs yield positive and lasting benefits for children. Integrating a summer camp into a nurse course with a service learning design fosters learning beyond the classroom and enhances community engagement. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to describe the nursing students' experience and perceived confidence after completing a service learning nursing course. DESIGN: This is a descriptive, qualitative research study that used reflection and a perceived confidence questionnaire...
November 20, 2017: Nurse Education Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29168558/outcomes-in-women-undergoing-robotic-assisted-laparoscopic-hysterectomy-compared-to-conventional-laparoscopic-hysterectomy-at-a-tertiary-hospital-in-western-australia
#19
Vinita A Rajadurai, Jason Tan, Stuart G Salfinger, Paul A Cohen
BACKGROUND: Robotic-assisted laparoscopic hysterectomy (RALH) is associated with improved outcomes compared to open surgery in patients with endometrial cancer but data are conflicting when comparing RALH to conventional total laparoscopic hysterectomy (TLH). In October 2014, a RALH program was established in Perth, Western Australia. AIM: To compare outcomes in patients undergoing RALH with a matched cohort undergoing TLH. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective matched cohort study compared outcomes in 45 patients who underwent RALH with 45 controls who were patients treated with TLH...
November 23, 2017: Australian & New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics & Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167949/survey-of-beaver-related-restoration-practices-in-rangeland-streams-of-the-western-usa
#20
David S Pilliod, Ashley T Rohde, Susan Charnley, Rachael R Davee, Jason B Dunham, Hannah Gosnell, Gordon E Grant, Mark B Hausner, Justin L Huntington, Caroline Nash
Poor condition of many streams and concerns about future droughts in the arid and semi-arid western USA have motivated novel restoration strategies aimed at accelerating recovery and increasing water resources. Translocation of beavers into formerly occupied habitats, restoration activities encouraging beaver recolonization, and instream structures mimicking the effects of beaver dams are restoration alternatives that have recently gained popularity because of their potential socioeconomic and ecological benefits...
November 22, 2017: Environmental Management
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