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Biomedical optics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821875/convenient-and-effective-icgylation-of-magnetic-nanoparticles-for-biomedical-applications
#1
Hye Sun Park, Jongwoo Kim, Mi Young Cho, Hyunseung Lee, Sang Hwan Nam, Yung Doug Suh, Kwan Soo Hong
Nanoprobes used for biomedical applications usually require surface modifications with amphiphilic surfactants or inorganic coating materials to enhance their biocompatibility. We proposed a facile synthetic approach for the phase transfer of hydrophobic magnetic nanoparticles by the direct adherence of fluorescent probes, without any chemical modifications, for use as a magnetic resonance (MR)/near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence bimodal imaging contrast agent. Indocyanine green (ICG) was used not only as an optical component for NIR imaging, but also as a surfactant for phase transfer with no superfluous moiety: we therefore called the process "ICGylation"...
August 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821051/a-novel-self-assembly-lentinan-tetraphenylethylene%C3%A2-composite-with-strong-blue%C3%A2-fluorescence-in-water-and-its-properties
#2
Mengxia Li, Pan Chen, Min Xu, Xiaojuan Xu
We report a unique self-assembly of lentinan, a triple helical β-(1→3)-glucan (t-LNT), in water. By molecular dynamics simulation, it was found that t-LNT aggregated preferentially along the chain direction to form long chains, accompanied by side-direction linkage to form branches. Transmission electron microscopy images demonstrated that t-LNT formed dendrite-like fibers, which further formed fishnet-like porous/mesoporous aggregates with increasing concentration. The meshes in the fishnet were ascribed to the intersection of branches...
October 15, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819645/3d-imaging-of-optically-cleared-tissue-using-a-simplified-clarity-method-and-on-chip-microscopy
#3
Yibo Zhang, Yoonjung Shin, Kevin Sung, Sam Yang, Harrison Chen, Hongda Wang, Da Teng, Yair Rivenson, Rajan P Kulkarni, Aydogan Ozcan
High-throughput sectioning and optical imaging of tissue samples using traditional immunohistochemical techniques can be costly and inaccessible in resource-limited areas. We demonstrate three-dimensional (3D) imaging and phenotyping in optically transparent tissue using lens-free holographic on-chip microscopy as a low-cost, simple, and high-throughput alternative to conventional approaches. The tissue sample is passively cleared using a simplified CLARITY method and stained using 3,3'-diaminobenzidine to target cells of interest, enabling bright-field optical imaging and 3D sectioning of thick samples...
August 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819250/oblique-scanning-laser-microscopy-for-simultaneously-volumetric-structural-and-molecular-imaging-using-only-one-raster-scan
#4
Lei Zhang, Amalia Capilla, Weiye Song, Gustavo Mostoslavsky, Ji Yi
Multi-modal three dimensional (3D) optical imaging combining both structural sensitivity and molecular specificity is highly desirable in biomedical research. In this paper, we present a method termed oblique scanning laser microscopy (OSLM) to combine optical coherence tomography (OCT), for simultaneously volumetric structural and molecular imaging with cellular resolution in all three dimensions. Conventional 3D laser scanning fluorescence microscopy requires repeated optical sectioning to create z-stacks in depth...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814860/quantum-dots-in-imaging-drug-delivery-and-sensor-applications
#5
REVIEW
Cristian T Matea, Teodora Mocan, Flaviu Tabaran, Teodora Pop, Ofelia Mosteanu, Cosmin Puia, Cornel Iancu, Lucian Mocan
Quantum dots (QDs), also known as nanoscale semiconductor crystals, are nanoparticles with unique optical and electronic properties such as bright and intensive fluorescence. Since most conventional organic label dyes do not offer the near-infrared (>650 nm) emission possibility, QDs, with their tunable optical properties, have gained a lot of interest. They possess characteristics such as good chemical and photo-stability, high quantum yield and size-tunable light emission. Different types of QDs can be excited with the same light wavelength, and their narrow emission bands can be detected simultaneously for multiple assays...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814609/tail-regeneration-and-other-phenomena-of-wound-healing-and-tissue-restoration-in-lizards
#6
REVIEW
Kathy Jacyniak, Rebecca P McDonald, Matthew K Vickaryous
Wound healing is a fundamental evolutionary adaptation with two possible outcomes: scar formation or reparative regeneration. Scars participate in re-forming the barrier with the external environment and restoring homeostasis to injured tissues, but are well understood to represent dysfunctional replacements. In contrast, reparative regeneration is a tissue-specific program that near-perfectly replicates that which was lost or damaged. Although regeneration is best known from salamanders (including newts and axolotls) and zebrafish, it is unexpectedly widespread among vertebrates...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812347/rational-design-of-polymeric-nanoparticles-with-tailorable-biomedical-functions-for-cancer-therapy
#7
Wenhai Lin, Wei Zhang, Tingting Sun, Shi Liu, Yu Zhu, Zhigang Xie
Polymeric nanoparticles (NPs) play a key role in nanoscale formulations for bioimaging, cancer treatment and theranostics. In this work, we designed and synthesized a series of hydrophobic polymers (P1-6) with different pendent groups via one-step multicomponent Passerini reaction. These polymers possessed similar molecular structures and various biomedical functions. Interestingly, they could self-assemble into stable NPs in aqueous media. All formed NPs were redox-sensitive because of the existence of disulfide bonds in the backbone...
August 16, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809791/imaging-collagen-in-scar-tissue-developments-in-second-harmonic-generation-microscopy-for-biomedical-applications
#8
REVIEW
Leila Mostaço-Guidolin, Nicole L Rosin, Tillie-Louise Hackett
The ability to respond to injury with tissue repair is a fundamental property of all multicellular organisms. The extracellular matrix (ECM), composed of fibrillar collagens as well as a number of other components is dis-regulated during repair in many organs. In many tissues, scaring results when the balance is lost between ECM synthesis and degradation. Investigating what disrupts this balance and what effect this can have on tissue function remains an active area of research. Recent advances in the imaging of fibrillar collagen using second harmonic generation (SHG) imaging have proven useful in enhancing our understanding of the supramolecular changes that occur during scar formation and disease progression...
August 15, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808324/spatially-modulated-thermal-light-in-atomic-medium-for-enhanced-ghost-imaging
#9
Mingtao Cao, Jinwen Wang, Xin Yang, Shuwei Qiu, Hong Gao, Fuli Li
Recent years have seen vast progress in image modulation based on atomic media, with potential applications in both classical optical imaging and quantum imaging regions. However, there have been few investigations of how thermal light images interact with an electromagnetically induced transparent medium. In this letter, we experimentally demonstrate pseudo-thermal light modulation on coherent population trapping conditions in (87) Rb vapor. By introducing the Laguerre-Gaussian beam as the control beam and the encoded speckle as the probe beam, we obtained sharper speckle patterns after the atom cell compared with that in free space...
August 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803469/chiral-ceramic-nanoparticles-of-tungsten-oxide-and-peptide-catalysis
#10
Shuang Jiang, Mahshid Chekini, Zhi-Bei Qu, Yichun Wang, Aydan Yeltik, Yuangang Liu, Alex Kotlyar, Tianyong Zhang, Bin Li, Hilmi Volkan Demir, Nicholas A Kotov
The chirality of nanoparticles (NPs) and their assemblies has been investigated predominantly for noble metals and II-VI semiconductors. However, ceramic NPs represent the majority of nanoscale materials in Nature. The robustness and other innate properties of ceramics offer technological opportunities in catalysis, biomedical sciences, and optics. Here we report the preparation of chiral ceramic NPs, as represented by tungsten oxide hydrate, WO3-x·H2O, dispersed in ethanol. The chirality of the metal oxide core, with an average size of ca 1...
August 12, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802101/flexible-biodegradable-citrate-based-polymeric-step-index-optical-fiber
#11
Dingying Shan, Chenji Zhang, Surge Kalaba, Nikhil Mehta, Gloria B Kim, Zhiwen Liu, Jian Yang
Implanting fiber optical waveguides into tissue or organs for light delivery and collection is among the most effective ways to overcome the issue of tissue turbidity, a long-standing obstacle for biomedical optical technologies. Here, we report a citrate-based material platform with engineerable opto-mechano-biological properties and demonstrate a new type of biodegradable, biocompatible, and low-loss step-index optical fiber for organ-scale light delivery and collection. By leveraging the rich designability and processibility of citrate-based biodegradable polymers, two exemplary biodegradable elastomers with a fine refractive index difference and yet matched mechanical properties and biodegradation profiles were developed...
August 4, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800390/how-ag-nanospheres-are-transformed-into-agau-nanocages
#12
Liane M Moreau, Charles A Schurman, Sumit Kewalramani, Mohammad M Shahjamali, Chad A Mirkin, Michael J Bedzyk
Bimetallic hollow, porous noble metal nanoparticles are of broad interest for biomedical, optical and catalytic applications. The most straightforward method for preparing such structures involves the reaction between HAuCl4 and well-formed Ag particles, typically spheres, cubes, or triangular prisms, yet the mechanism underlying their formation is poorly understood at the atomic scale. By combining in situ nanoscopic and atomic-scale characterization techniques (XAFS, SAXS, XRF, and electron microscopy) to follow the process, we elucidate a plausible reaction pathway for the conversion of citrate-capped Ag nanospheres to AgAu nanocages; importantly, the hollowing event cannot be explained by the nanoscale Kirkendall effect, nor by Galvanic exchange alone, two processes that have been previously proposed...
August 11, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798957/holographic-deep-learning-for-rapid-optical-screening-of-anthrax-spores
#13
YoungJu Jo, Sangjin Park, JaeHwang Jung, Jonghee Yoon, Hosung Joo, Min-Hyeok Kim, Suk-Jo Kang, Myung Chul Choi, Sang Yup Lee, YongKeun Park
Establishing early warning systems for anthrax attacks is crucial in biodefense. Despite numerous studies for decades, the limited sensitivity of conventional biochemical methods essentially requires preprocessing steps and thus has limitations to be used in realistic settings of biological warfare. We present an optical method for rapid and label-free screening of Bacillus anthracis spores through the synergistic application of holographic microscopy and deep learning. A deep convolutional neural network is designed to classify holographic images of unlabeled living cells...
August 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783106/melanin-based-contrast-agents-for-biomedical-optoacoustic-imaging-and-theranostic-applications
#14
REVIEW
Dario Livio Longo, Rachele Stefania, Silvio Aime, Alexander Oraevsky
Optoacoustic imaging emerged in early 1990s as a new biomedical imaging technology that generates images by illuminating tissues with short laser pulses and detecting resulting ultrasound waves. This technique takes advantage of the spectroscopic approach to molecular imaging, and delivers high-resolution images in the depth of tissue. Resolution of the optoacoustic imaging is scalable, so that biomedical systems from cellular organelles to large organs can be visualized and, more importantly, characterized based on their optical absorption coefficient, which is proportional to the concentration of absorbing chromophores...
August 7, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776370/tetraphenylethylene-induced-cross-linked-vesicles-with-tunable-luminescence-and-controllable-stability
#15
Jingsheng Huang, Yunlong Yu, Liang Wang, Xingjian Wang, Zhongwei Gu, Shiyong Zhang
Luminescence-tunable vesicles (LTVs) are becoming increasingly attractive for their potential application in optics, electronics, and biomedical technology. However, for real applications, luminous efficiency and durability are two urgent constraints to be overcome. Combining the advantages of aggregation-induced emission in luminous enhancement and cross-linking in stability, we herein fabricated tetraphenylethylene-induced cross-linked vesicles with an entrapped acceptor of RhB (TPE-CVs@RhB), which achieved a high-efficiency multicolor emission of the visible spectrum, including white, by altering the amount of entrapped acceptor...
August 15, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774016/raman-and-conductivity-analysis-of-graphene-for-biomedical-applications
#16
Chao Qiu, Kevin E Bennet, Tamanna Khan, John D Ciubuc, Felicia S Manciu
In this study, we present a comprehensive investigation of graphene's optical and conductive properties using confocal Raman and a Drude model. A comparative analysis between experimental findings and theoretical predictions of the material's changes and improvements as it transitioned from three-dimensional graphite is also presented and discussed. Besides spectral recording by Raman, which reveals whether there is a single, a few, or multi-layers of graphene, the confocal Raman mapping allows for distinction of such domains and a direct visualization of material inhomogeneity...
November 4, 2016: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28773936/preparation-and-characterization-of-chitosan-agarose-composite-films
#17
Zhang Hu, Pengzhi Hong, Mingneng Liao, Songzhi Kong, Na Huang, Chunyan Ou, Sidong Li
Nowadays, there is a growing interest to develop biodegradable functional composite materials for food packaging and biomedicine applications from renewable sources. Some composite films were prepared by the casting method using chitosan (CS) and agarose (AG) in different mass ratios. The composite films were analyzed for physical-chemical-mechanical properties including tensile strength (TS), elongation-at-break (EB), water vapor transmission rate (WVTR), swelling ratio, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and morphology observations...
September 30, 2016: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772905/new-challenges-in-tribology-wear-assessment-using-3d-optical-scanners
#18
Maria Cristina Valigi, Silvia Logozzo, Saverio Affatato
Wear is a significant mechanical and clinical problem. To acquire further knowledge on the tribological phenomena that involve freeform mechanical components or medical prostheses, wear tests are performed on biomedical and industrial materials in order to solve or reduce failures or malfunctions due to material loss. Scientific and technological advances in the field of optical scanning allow the application of innovative devices for wear measurements, leading to improvements that were unimaginable until a few years ago...
May 18, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28771963/organic-nanocrystals-with-bright-red-persistent-room-temperature-phosphorescence-for-biological-applications
#19
Seyed Mohammad Ali Fateminia, Zhu Mao, Zhiyong Yang, Shidang Xu, Zhenguo Chi, Bin Liu
Persistent room-temperature phosphorescence (RTP) in pure organic materials has attracted great attention due to their unique optical properties. The design of organic materials with bright and red persistent RTP remains challenging. Herein, we report a new design strategy for realizing high brightness and long lifetime of red-emissive RTP molecules, which is based on introducing an alkoxy spacer between the hybrid units in the molecule. The spacer offers easy Br-H bond formation during crystallization, which also facilitates intermolecular electron coupling to favor persistent RTP...
August 3, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745508/assessment-of-local-heterogeneity-in-mechanical-properties-of-nanostructured-hydrogel-networks
#20
Zhaokai Meng, Teena Thakur, Chandani Chitrakar, Manish K Jaiswal, Akhilesh K Gaharwar, Vladislav V Yakovlev
Our current understanding of the mechanical properties of nanostructured biomaterials is rather limited to invasive/destructive and low-throughput techniques such as atomic force microscopy, optical tweezers, and shear rheology. In this report, we demonstrate the capabilities of recently developed dual Brillouin/Raman spectroscopy to interrogate the mechanical and chemical properties of nanostructured hydrogel networks. The results obtained from Brillouin spectroscopy show an excellent correlation with the conventional uniaxial and shear mechanical testing...
July 26, 2017: ACS Nano
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