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Biomedical optics

Henriqueta Louro
The manufactured nanomaterials (NMs) have specific physicochemical properties that confer unique mechanical, optical, electrical and magnetic characteristics that are beneficial for biomedical and industrial applications. However, recent studies have suggested that such specific physicochemical properties of the NMs may define nano-bio interactions thereby determining their toxic potential.One of the major concerns about NMs is the potential to induce cancer, suggested by some experimental studies, as seen for titanium dioxide nanomaterials or carbon nanotubes...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Zhidong Luo, Shuran Fan, Chuying Gu, Weicong Liu, Baohong Li, Jianqiang Liu
Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) are compounds consisting of metal ions or clusters coordinated to organic ligands to form one-, two-, or three-dimensional structures. They are a subclass of coordination polymers (CPs), with the special feature that they are often porous. The organic ligands are sometimes referred to as second building structs. The new porous materials have paid great attention because of the variety of advantages such as tunable components, structural diversity, high loading performance and favorable biodegradability...
February 14, 2018: Current Medicinal Chemistry
Christopher Gloschat, Kedar Aras, Shubham Gupta, N Rokhaya Faye, Hanyu Zhang, Roman A Syunyaev, Roman A Pryamonosov, Jack Rogers, Matthew W Kay, Igor R Efimov
Fluorescence optical imaging techniques have revolutionized the field of cardiac electrophysiology and advanced our understanding of complex electrical activities such as arrhythmias. However, traditional monocular optical mapping systems, despite having high spatial resolution, are restricted to a two-dimensional (2D) field of view. Consequently, tracking complex three-dimensional (3D) electrical waves such as during ventricular fibrillation is challenging as the waves rapidly move in and out of the field of view...
February 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
Melanie D White, Ziqing W Zhao, Nicolas Plachta
Live imaging has transformed biomedical sciences by enabling visualization and analysis of dynamic cellular processes as they occur in their native contexts. Here, we review key recent efforts applying in vivo optical imaging with single-cell resolution to mammalian systems ranging from embryos to adult tissues and organs. We highlight insights into active processes regulating cell fate and morphogenesis during embryonic development, how neuronal circuitry and non-neuronal cell types contribute to neurological functions, and how novel imaging-based approaches enable the dissection of neurological disorders and cancer with high spatio-temporal resolution...
February 10, 2018: Trends in Molecular Medicine
Guang Sun, Wanying Xing, Ren Xing, Liu Cong, Sun Tong, Siyao Yu
The aim of the present study was to develop a water-soluble biomarker for the detection of breast cancer using quantum dots (QDs) conjugated to Ki-67, a nuclear protein associated with the cell cycle. Ki-67 is also a marker of cell proliferation, with expression levels categorizing good and poor prognosis in invasive breast cancer. Ki-67 is a clinically used biomarker for breast cancer diagnosis, treatment and prognosis. Owing to the optical and chemical advantages of QDs, QD-based nanotechnology may aid the construction of a biomedical imaging platform for the study of cancer cell behavior...
February 2018: Oncology Letters
Andreea Belu, Mehmet Yilmaz, Elmar Neumann, Andreas Offenhäusser, Gokhan Demirel, Dirk Mayer
Three dimensional, nanostructured surfaces have attracted considerable attention in biomedical research since they have proven to represent a powerful platform to influence cell fate. In particular, nanorods and nanopillars possess great potential for the control of cell adhesion and differentiation, gene and biomolecule delivery, optical and electrical stimulation and recording, as well as cell patterning. Here, we investigate the influence of asymmetric poly(dichloro-p-xylene) (PPX) columnar films on the adhesion and maturation of cortical neurons...
February 10, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
Marceli Koralewski, Lucia Balejčíková, Zuzana Mitroova, Mikołaj Pochylski, Mikołaj Baranowski, Peter Kopcansky
The ferritin is a protein, which serves as a storage and transportation capsule for iron inside living organisms. Continuous charging protein with iron and releasing it from the ferritin is necessary to assure proper management of this important ions within organism. From other side synthetic ferritin have great potential for biomedical and technological applications. In this work the behavior of ferritin during the processes of iron loading and releasing was examined using multiplicity of experimental technique...
February 8, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
K V Ragavan, Sanni Kumar, Shiva Swaraj, Suresh Neethirajan
Vector-borne diseases are a major concern for human health globally, especially malaria in densely populated, less developed, tropical regions of the world. Malaria causes loss of human life and economic harm, and may spread through travelers to new regions. Though there are sufficient therapeutics available for the effective treatment and cure of malaria, it infects millions of people and claims several thousand lives every year. Early diagnosis of the infection can potentially prevent the spread of disease, save lives, and mitigate the financial impact...
May 15, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Ali Bagheri, Zheye Li, Cyrille Boyer, May Lim
The increased applications of lanthanide-doped upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) in areas such as biomedical imaging and therapy have raised the demand for high quality nanocrystals with strong and controllable luminescence intensity. Whilst several different approaches including core/shell arrangement, dye sensitization and plasmonic metallic nanostructures have been employed to improve the upconversion luminescence of UCNPs, they may be impractical for scale-up production and applications. Herein, a mathematical model that was developed using multivariate statistical analysis shows that the key to optimising the NIR and blue light emission of NaY1-(x+y)YbxF4:Tmy UCNPs is dopant balancing, where the composition of both ytterbium (Yb3+) sensitizer and thulium (Tm3+) activator is controlled in a way that the concentration and proximity of the dopants to each other can reduce cross-relaxation between Tm3+ and self-quenching that is due to sub-optimal Yb3+ concentrations, and consequently, favours efficient energy transfer between the Yb3+ sensitizers and Tm3+ activators...
February 7, 2018: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Dazhuang Xu, Meiying Liu, Qiang Huang, Junyu Chen, Hongye Huang, Fengjie Deng, Jianwen Tian, Yuanqing Wen, Xiaoyong Zhang, Yen Wei
Recently, fullerene (C60) and its derivatives have been widely explored for many applications owing to their enriched physical and chemical properties. Specifically, the synthesis and biomedical applications of fluorescent C60 have been extensively investigated previously. However, the preparation of polymer-functionalized fluorescent C60 has not been reported thus far. In this study, water-dispersible fluorescent C60 polymer composites were successfully synthesized through the combination of the thiol-ene click reaction and subsequent ring-opening polymerization...
January 30, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Spencer R Van Leeuwen, Gladimir V G Baranoski
The bluish appearance of veins located immediately beneath the skin has long been a topic of interest for biomedical optics researchers. Despite this interest, a thorough identification of the specific optical processes responsible for this phenomenon remains to be achieved. We employ controlled in silico experiments to address this enduring open problem. Our experiments, which are supported by measured data available in the scientific literature, are performed using first-principles models of light interaction with human skin and blood...
February 2018: Journal of Biomedical Optics
Kangwen Yang, Pengbo Ye, Shikai Zheng, Jieshi Jiang, Kun Huang, Qiang Hao, Heping Zeng
We reported the simultaneous generation and selective manipulation of scalar and cross-phase modulation instabilities in a fiber optical parametric oscillator. Numerical and experimental results show independent control of parametric gain by changing the input pump polarization state. The resonant cavity enables power enhancement of 45 dB for the spontaneous sidebands, generating laser pulses tunable from 783 to 791 nm and 896 to 1005 nm due to the combination of four-wave mixing, cascaded Raman scattering and other nonlinear effects...
February 5, 2018: Optics Express
Wanvisa Talataisong, Rand Ismaeel, Gilberto Brambilla
Optical microfiber-based temperature sensors have been proposed for many applications in a variety of industrial uses, including biomedical, geological, automotive, and defense applications. This increasing demand for these micrometric devices is attributed to their large dynamic range, high sensitivity, fast-response, compactness and robustness. Additionally, they can perform in-situ measurements remotely and in harsh environments. This paper presents an overview of optical microfibers, with a focus on their applications in temperature sensing...
February 4, 2018: Sensors
Ankit Agrawal, Shin Hum Cho, Omid Zandi, Sandeep Ghosh, Robert W Johns, Delia J Milliron
Localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) in semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs) that results in resonant absorption, scattering, and near field enhancement around the NC can be tuned across a wide optical spectral range from visible to far-infrared by synthetically varying doping level, and post synthetically via chemical oxidation and reduction, photochemical control, and electrochemical control. In this review, we will discuss the fundamental electromagnetic dynamics governing light matter interaction in plasmonic semiconductor NCs and the realization of various distinctive physical properties made possible by the advancement of colloidal synthesis routes to such NCs...
February 5, 2018: Chemical Reviews
Ugo Tricoli, Callum M Macdonald, Anabela Da Silva, Vadim A Markel
We show that the diffusion approximation (DA) to the radiative transport equation, which is commonly used in biomedical optics to describe propagation of light in tissues, contains a previously unexplored adjustable parameter. This parameter is related to the rate of exponential decay of the reduced intensity. In conventional theories, there are two distinct choices for this parameter. However, neither of these choices is optimal. When the optimal value for the parameter is used, the resulting DA becomes much more accurate near the medium boundaries, e...
February 1, 2018: Journal of the Optical Society of America. A, Optics, Image Science, and Vision
Moussa N'Gom, Theodore B Norris, Eric Michielssen, Raj Rao Nadakuditi
A simple imaging system, together with complex semidefinite programming, is used to generate the transmission matrix (TM) of a multimode fiber. Once the TM is acquired, we can modulate the phase of the input signal to induce strong mode interference at the fiber output. The optical design does not contain a reference arm, no internal reference signal is used, and no interferometric measurements are required. We use a phase-only spatial light modulator to shape the profile of the propagating modes, and the output intensity patterns are collected...
February 1, 2018: Optics Letters
Neha Arora, S Lalitha Gavya, Siddhartha Sankar Ghosh
Amalgamation of delivery and tracking of therapeutically relevant moieties on a single platform is made possible by the application of metal nanoclusters, an innovative class of luminescent nanomaterials. Metal nanoclusters, possessing molecule-like attributes, display extraordinary size and shape tunable properties befitting theranostic applications. Herein, we report successful assembly of therapeutically significant phosphatase protein PTEN and fluorescent lysozyme-stabilized silver nanoclusters to accomplish delivery and tracking of the protein...
January 31, 2018: Biotechnology and Bioengineering
David F Garway-Heath, Haogang Zhu, Qian Cheng, Katy Morgan, Chris Frost, David P Crabb, Tuan-Anh Ho, Yannis Agiomyrgiannakis
BACKGROUND: Progressive optic nerve damage in glaucoma results in vision loss, quantifiable with visual field (VF) testing. VF measurements are, however, highly variable, making identification of worsening vision ('progression') challenging. Glaucomatous optic nerve damage can also be measured with imaging techniques such as optical coherence tomography (OCT). OBJECTIVE: To compare statistical methods that combine VF and OCT data with VF-only methods to establish whether or not these allow (1) more rapid identification of glaucoma progression and (2) shorter or smaller clinical trials...
January 2018: Health Technology Assessment: HTA
Libo Zhou, Hua Zhou, Changfeng Wu
Semiconducting polymer nanoparticles (SPNs) are a new class of photonic materials with great potential for biomedical applications. Owing to their large absorption coefficients, tunable optical properties, and high photostability, SPNs have recently been used to improve the sensitivity and resolution of photoacoustic (PA) imaging. In particular, a number of strategies have been explored to design activatable SPNs for amplified in vivo PA imaging. In this review, the recent advances in the development of SPNs as exogenous PA contrasts agents have been summarized and their promising potential as multifunctional probes for cancer theranostics has been discussed...
January 30, 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology
Irina Erchova, Alexandre R Tumlinson, James Fergusson, Nick White, Wolfgang Drexler, Frank Sengpiel, James E Morgan
Low coherence laser interferometry has revolutionised quantitative biomedical imaging of optically transparent structures at cellular resolutions. We report the first optical recording of neuronal excitation at cellular resolution in the inner retina by quantifying optically recorded stimulus-evoked responses from the retinal ganglion cell layer and comparing them with an electrophysiological standard. We imaged anaesthetised paralysed tree shrews, gated image acquisition, and used numerical filters to eliminate noise arising from retinal movements during respiratory and cardiac cycles...
January 29, 2018: Scientific Reports
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