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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228622/a-case-of-hyperammonemia-with-obstructive-urinary-tract-infection-by-urease-producing-bacteria
#1
Toshiaki Goda, Kotaro Watanabe, Junya Kobayashi, Yasuharu Nagai, Nobuyuki Ohara, Daisuke Takahashi
A 79-year-old woman was admitted emergently for disturbance of consciousness. Her consciousness level was Japan coma scale 20, and she presented with hypermyotonia. Brain magnetic resonance imaging and cerebrospinal fluid examination showed normal findings. Her blood tests showed an increased ammonia level of 291 μg/dl with normal liver function. We catheterized the bladder for urinary retention. Eight hours after admission, the blood level of ammonia decreased to 57 μg/dl and the patient's consciousness level improved...
February 22, 2017: Rinshō Shinkeigaku, Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228557/surfactant-protein-a-inhibits-growth-and-adherence-of-uropathogenic-escherichia-coli-to-protect-the-bladder-from-infection
#2
Jiro Hashimoto, Motoko Takahashi, Atsushi Saito, Masaki Murata, Yuichiro Kurimura, Chiaki Nishitani, Rina Takamiya, Yasuaki Uehara, Yoshihiro Hasegawa, Yoshiki Hiyama, Norimasa Sawada, Satoshi Takahashi, Naoya Masumori, Yoshio Kuroki, Shigeru Ariki
Surfactant protein A (SP-A) is a multifunctional host defense collectin that was first identified as a component of pulmonary surfactant. Although SP-A is also expressed in various tissues, including the urinary tract, its innate immune functions in nonpulmonary tissues are poorly understood. In this study, we demonstrated that adherence of uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) to the bladder was enhanced in SP-A-deficient mice, which suggests that SP-A plays an important role in innate immunity against UPEC...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228331/-efficacy-and-safety-of-available-therapies-in-the-management-of-idiopathic-overactive-bladder-a-systematic-review-of-the-literature
#3
J Moyson, F Legrand, M Vanden Bossche, T Quackels, T Roumeguère
OBJECTIVE: Study the efficacy and adverse events of different pharmacological lines in the treatment of idiopathic overactive bladder (iOAB). METHODS: PubMed research on meta-analyses and randomized controlled trials (RCT) focused on the efficacy and adverse effects of anticholinergics, botulinum toxin and mirabegron since 2005. RESULTS: Ten meta-analyses of anticholinergics were selected; 16 randomized controlled trials (ERC) comparing botulinum toxin A to either anticholinergic or placebo and 10 ERC studying mirabegron...
February 19, 2017: Progrès en Urologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222149/ultrasonographic-evaluation-of-urinary-tract-morbidity-in-school-aged-and-preschool-aged-children-infected-with-schistosoma-haematobium-and-its-evolution-after-praziquantel-treatment-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#4
Beatrice Barda, Jean T Coulibaly, Christoph Hatz, Jennifer Keiser
BACKGROUND: Schistosoma haematobium infections are responsible for significant urinary tract (UT) complications. Schistosomiasis control programs aim to reduce morbidity, yet the extent of morbidity in preschool-aged children and the impact of treatment on morbidity reduction are not well studied. METHODOLOGY: Our study was embedded in a randomized, placebo-controlled, single-blind trial in Côte d'Ivoire, which evaluated the efficacy and safety of three doses (20, 40 and 60 mg/kg) of praziquantel in school-aged (SAC) and preschool-aged (PSAC) children infected with S...
February 21, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222076/systematic-review-of-hospital-readmissions-among-patients-with-cancer-in-the-united-states
#5
Janice F Bell, Robin L Whitney, Sarah C Reed, Hermine Poghosyan, Rebecca S Lash, Katherine K Kim, Andra Davis, Richard J Bold, Jill G Joseph
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVES: To review the existing literature on readmission rates, predictors, and reasons for readmission among adults with cancer.
. DATA SOURCES: U.S.-based empirical studies reporting readmission rates from January 2005 to December 2015 were identified using four online library databases-PubMed, CINAHL®, EconLit, and the online bibliography of the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results Program. Some articles were identified by the authors outside the database and bibliography searches...
March 1, 2017: Oncology Nursing Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220823/treatment-of-stress-urinary-incontinence-in-men-with-spinal-cord-injury-minimally-invasive-minimally-effective
#6
J Pannek, J Wöllner
STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective chart review. OBJECTIVES: To assess the outcome of minimally invasive treatment of stress urinary incontinence with alloplastic slings in patients with neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction. SETTING: Switzerland. METHODS: The patient database of a tertiary urologic referral center was screened for male patients with SCI who underwent implantation of a suburethral sling between June 2009 and December 2015...
February 21, 2017: Spinal Cord
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220601/multiple-sclerosis-and-nephrolithiasis-a-matched-case-comparative-study
#7
Vishnu Ganesan, Wen Min Chen, Rajat Jain, Shubha De, Manoj Monga
OBJECTIVE: To compare stone composition and serum/urine biochemistries in stone formers with multiple sclerosis (MS) against stone formers without MS and to examine the association between mobility, methods of bladder emptying, and stone formation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this retrospective case-control study, we identified patients diagnosed with multiple sclerosis and kidney stone disease who were seen at our institution between 2001 and 2016. For the first part of the study, up to 2 controls (stone formers without a history of MS) were identified for each case and matched on age, body mass index (BMI), and sex...
February 20, 2017: BJU International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217700/the-multiple-antibacterial-activities-of-the-bladder-epithelium
#8
REVIEW
Jianxuan Wu, Yuxuan Miao, Soman N Abraham
The urinary tract is subject to frequent challenges from the gut microflora. Indeed, up to 40% of women will experience at least one urinary tract infection (UTI) during their lifetime. Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) contribute to an overwhelming majority of these cases and they typically initiate UTIs by invading the superficial epithelium that lines the bladder lumen. In addition to serving as an effective barrier to noxious agents found in urine, bladder epithelial cells (BECs) play a key physiological role in regulating bladder volume to accommodate urine flow...
January 2017: Annals of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217699/the-female-urinary-microbiota-urinary-health-and-common-urinary-disorders
#9
REVIEW
Linda Brubaker, Alan J Wolfe
This review provides the clinical context and updated information regarding the female urinary microbiota (FUM), a resident microbial community within the female bladder of many adult women. Microbial communities have variability and distinct characteristics in health, as well as during community disruption (dysbiosis). Information concerning characteristics of the FUM in health and disease is emerging. Sufficient data confirms that the microbes that compose the FUM are not contaminants and are cultivatable under appropriate conditions...
January 2017: Annals of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217698/questions-and-challenges-associated-with-studying-the-microbiome-of-the-urinary-tract
#10
REVIEW
Yige Bao, Kait F Al, Ryan M Chanyi, Samantha Whiteside, Malcom Dewar, Hassan Razvi, Gregor Reid, Jeremy P Burton
Urologists are typically faced with clinical situations for which the microbiome may have been a contributing factor. Clinicians have a good understanding regarding the role of bacteria related to issues such as antibiotic resistance; however, they generally have a limited grasp of how the microbiome may relate to urological issues. The largest part of the human microbiome is situated in the gastrointestinal tract, and though this is mostly separated from the urinary system, bacterial dissemination and metabolic output by this community is thought to have a significant influence on urological conditions...
January 2017: Annals of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216929/outcomes-of-transurethral-resection-and-holmium-laser-enucleation-in-more-than-60-g-of-prostate-a-prospective-randomized-study
#11
Ankur Jhanwar, Rahul J Sinha, Ankur Bansal, Gaurav Prakash, Kawaljit Singh, Vishwajeet Singh
AIM: Transurethral resection of prostate (TURP) is considered a gold standard surgical procedure. The management of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) has undergone tremendous change in recent years and shifted from open to minimal invasive procedure. With the advancement in technology and skills of surgeons, lasers have been used more liberally, particularly holmium laser. Holmium laser enucleation of prostate (HoLEP) is seen as close rival of TURP. The objective if this study is to observe long- and short-term outcomes of transurethral resection and holmium laser enucleation in the prostate of more than 60 g...
January 2017: Urology Annals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215835/the-swedish-infant-high-grade-reflux-trial-uti-and-renal-damage
#12
Josefin Nordenström, Sofia Sjöström, Ulla Sillén, Rune Sixt, Per Brandström
INTRODUCTION: High-grade vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) in children is associated with recurrent urinary tract infection (UTI) and renal damage. Breakthrough UTI despite continuous antibiotic prophylaxis (CAP) during the first years of life is a matter of concern and evokes early intervention. We investigated whether early endoscopic treatment (ET) of VUR grade 4-5 can reduce the risk of UTI recurrence and renal scarring. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This prospective, randomized, controlled, multicentre, 1-year follow-up trial comprised 77 infants, <8 months of age with VUR grade 4-5 (Table) randomized to CAP (n = 39) or ET (with prophylaxis until resolution) (n = 38)...
February 2, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213277/fluorescence-and-computed-tomography-for-assessing-the-biodistribution-of-sirna-after-intratracheal-application-in-mice
#13
Antonia Geyer, Cornelia Lorenzer, Sebastian Gehrig, Manuela Simlinger, Johannes Winkler, Haider Sami, Manfred Ogris
Pulmonary delivery of nucleic acids opens the possibility for direct treatment of lung diseases, like fibrosis, cancer, and infections. Lung retention and biodistribution of nucleic acids remain important issues for the development of suitable therapeutic approaches. Moreover, monitoring the dynamic biodistribution processes of siRNA after aerosol delivery can help in identifying bottlenecks and optimising therapeutic concepts. We investigated dynamic biodistribution events after intratracheal application of chemically stabilised siRNA labeled with near infrared emitting dye AlexaFluor750 (AF750)...
February 14, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212414/decline-in-infection-related-morbidities-following-drug-mediated-reductions-in-the-intensity-of-schistosoma-infection-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#14
Gisele Andrade, David J Bertsch, Andrea Gazzinelli, Charles H King
BACKGROUND: Since 1984, WHO has endorsed drug treatment to reduce Schistosoma infection and its consequent morbidity. Cross-sectional studies suggest pre-treatment correlation between infection intensity and risk for Schistosoma-related pathology. However, evidence also suggests that post-treatment reduction in intensity may not reverse morbidity because some morbidities occur at all levels of infection, and some reflect permanent tissue damage. The aim of this project was to systematically review evidence on drug-based control of schistosomiasis and to develop a quantitative estimate of the impact of post-treatment reductions in infection intensity on prevalence of infection-associated morbidity...
February 17, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210838/urinary-ngal-deficiency-in-recurrent-urinary-tract-infections
#15
Catherine S Forster, Kathryn Johnson, Viral Patel, Rebecca Wax, Nancy Rodig, Jonathan Barasch, Richard Bachur, Richard S Lee
INTRODUCTION: Children with recurrent urinary tract infections (rUTI) often show no identifiable cause of their infections. Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) is known to be upregulated within the uroepithelium and kidney of patients with UTI and exhibits a localized bacteriostatic effect through iron chelation. We hypothesize that some patients with rUTI without an identifiable cause of their recurrent infections have locally deficient NGAL production. We therefore explored whether a lack of NGAL production may be a factor in the pathogenesis of rUTI...
February 16, 2017: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209547/pregnancy-after-urinary-diversion-at-young-ages-risks-and-outcome
#16
N Huck, S Schweizerhof, P Honeck, A Neisius, J Thüroff, R Stein
OBJECTIVE: To assess the urological and obstetric outcomes during and after pregnancy following urinary diversion (UD) performed during childhood or adolescence. PATIENTS AND METHODS: From our urinary diversion database, we identified 25 females who became pregnant between 1981 and 2013. Reasons for urinary diversion were neurogenic bladder, exstrophy, trauma, sinus urogenitalis and interstitial cystitis. 17 had continent cutaneous diversion, 4 continent anal diversion and 4 colonic conduit...
February 13, 2017: Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203289/epidemiological-molecular-characterization-and-antibiotic-resistance-of-salmonella-enterica-serovars-isolated-from-chicken-farms-in-egypt
#17
Hanem El-Sharkawy, Amin Tahoun, Abd El-Galiel A El-Gohary, Moshira El-Abasy, Fares El-Khayat, Trudi Gillespie, Yukio Kitade, Hafez M Hafez, Heinrich Neubauer, Hosny El-Adawy
BACKGROUND: Salmonella is one of major causes of foodborne outbreaks globally. This study was conducted to estimate the prevalence, typing and antibiotic susceptibilities of Salmonella enterica serovars isolated from 41 broiler chicken farms located in Kafr El-Sheikh Province in Northern Egypt during 2014-2015. The clinical signs and mortalities were observed. RESULTS: In total 615 clinical samples were collected from broiler flocks from different organs (liver, intestinal content and gall bladder)...
2017: Gut Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203228/encapsulation-of-antifungals-in-micelles-protects-candida-albicans-during-gall-bladder-infection
#18
Shih-Hung Hsieh, Sascha Brunke, Matthias Brock
Candida albicans is a dimorphic fungus that colonizes human mucosal surfaces with the potential to cause life-threatening invasive candidiasis. Studies on systemic candidiasis in a murine infection model using in vivo real-time bioluminescence imaging revealed persistence of C. albicans in the gall bladder under antifungal therapy. Preliminary analyses showed that bile conferred resistance against a wide variety of antifungals enabling survival in this cryptic host niche. Here, bile and its components were studied for their ability to reduce antifungal efficacy in order to elucidate the underlying mechanism of protection...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202487/migrated-hem-o-lok-clips-in-the-ureter-a-rare-cause-of-recurrent-urinary-tract-infection
#19
Prashant Shrivastava, Brusabhanu Nayak, Prabhjot Singh
Erosion of surgical materials into the adjacent organs following surgical procedures is a rare complication. Migrations of these surgical materials into the urinary tract like pelvicalyceal system, ureter and bladder have been reported following various urological procedures. We present a case of migrated Hem-o-Lok clips into the ureter following a laparoscopic partial nephrectomy for angiomyolipoma of the left kidney presented with recurrent urinary tract infection. The case was managed with ureteroscopic removal of clips...
February 15, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194327/dysuria-an-uncommon-presentation-in-emergency-department-following-bladder-neck-disruption
#20
Ali Pourmand, Assya Abdallah, Hamid Shokoohi, Mindy Park, Marie White, Francis O'Connell
Prostate cancer is the most common life-threatening cancer diagnosed in men. Complications of prostatectomies vary and often include urinary incontinence, erectile dysfunction and pain, while other complications go unreported. While emergency physicians are already familiar with the more common post-operative complications presenting to their departments, including urinary retention, ileus, surgical site infections, venous thromboembolisms and urinary tract infections, they must have a high index of suspicion for rarer complications...
February 2017: Urology Case Reports
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