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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229136/the-gut-liver-axis-impact-of-a-mouse-model-of-small-bowel-bacterial-overgrowth
#1
Qingqing Wang, Bin Wang, Vijay Saxena, Lili Miles, Josh Tiao, Joel E Mortensen, Jaimie D Nathan
BACKGROUND: The mechanisms by which intestinal bacteria impact liver diseases remain poorly understood. The aim of this study was to develop a mouse model of small-bowel bacterial overgrowth and to determine its impact on hepatobiliary injury. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A jejunal self-filling blind loop (SFBL) was created in C57BL/6 mice. Three weeks after surgery, the mice were euthanized, and bacterial cultures of luminal content of the loop and extraintestinal tissues were performed...
January 2018: Journal of Surgical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228433/the-relationship-between-small-intestinal-bacterial-overgrowth-and-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#2
X-W Ding, Y-X Liu, X-C Fang, K Liu, Y-Y Wei, M-H Shan
OBJECTIVE: To explore the relationship between small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Fifty IBS patients in the hospital from January 2015 to December 2015 were assigned to the treatment group, and 50 healthy persons were assigned to the control group. Lactulose hydrogen and methane breath test were performed to measure the percentage of SIBO and oro-cecal transit time (OCTT) in treatment group and control group...
November 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224663/obstruction-of-the-biliary-and-urinary-system
#3
William O'Connell, Jay Shah, Jason Mitchell, J David Prologo, Louis Martin, Michael J Miller, Jonathan G Martin
Biliary and urinary obstructions can be managed endoscopically or cystoscopically, surgically or by percutansous intervention or drainage. If the obtructed system is infected, emergent decompression is needed. Early recognition and treatment is paramount in both conditions. Acute cholangitis can present many different ways, from mild symptoms to fulminant sepsis. It is usually a result of ascending bacterial colonization and biliary obstruction resulting in bacterial overgrowth. Therefore, those patients with recent biliary instrumentation or previous biliary modification are at higher risk...
December 2017: Techniques in Vascular and Interventional Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219052/adverse-events-of-proton-pump-inhibitors-potential-mechanisms
#4
Andrea Corsonello, Fabrizia Lattanzio, Silvia Bustacchini, Sabrina Garasto, Annalisa Cozza, Roberto Schepisi, Federica Lenci, Filippo Luciani, Marcello Giuseppe Maggio, Andrea Ticinesi, Valeria Butto, Sara Tagliaferri, Francesco Corica
OBJECTIVE: We aimed at summarizing current evidence about mechanisms for potentially harmful effects of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs). METHODS: A Pubmed search was performed, and 207 studies concerning the relationship between use of PPIs and cardiovascular diseases, kidney impairment, nutritional disorders, fractures, infections, functional decline, and mortality were selected and reviewed. RESULTS: PPIs may cause potentially harmful effects by several mechanisms, including endothelial dysfunction, hypomagnesemia, drug interactions, reduced absorption of selected nutrients, increased gastric microbiota and small intestine bacterial overgrowth, reduced immune response, tubular-interstitial inflammation, increased bone turnover, accumulation of amyloid in the brain...
December 7, 2017: Current Drug Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214107/diet-and-rosacea-the-role-of-dietary-change-in-the-management-of-rosacea
#5
REVIEW
Emma Weiss, Rajani Katta
Dietary change may play a role in the therapy of rosacea. Certain foods and beverages may act as "triggers" for rosacea exacerbations. These may be divided into heat-related, alcohol-related, capsaicin-related, and cinnamaldehyde-related. One potential pathogenic mechanism may be via the activation of transient receptor potential cation channels, which result in neurogenic vasodilatation. Further research is needed on the role of the gut skin connection in rosacea. Epidemiologic studies suggest that patients with rosacea have a higher prevalence of gastrointestinal disease, and one study reported improvement in rosacea following successful treatment of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth...
October 2017: Dermatology Practical & Conceptual
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210363/inos-and-nox1-dependent-ros-production-maintains-bacterial-homeostasis-in-the-ileum-of-mice
#6
C Matziouridou, S D C Rocha, O A Haabeth, K Rudi, H Carlsen, A Kielland
The intestinal epithelial cells constitute the first line of defense against gut microbes, which includes secretion of various antimicrobial substances. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are well characterized as part of the innate phagocytic immunity; however, a role in controlling microorganisms in the gut lumen is less clear. Here, we show a role for nitric oxide synthase (iNOS)- and NOX1-produced ROS in maintaining homeostasis of the gut microbiota. In vivo imaging revealed distinctly high levels of ROS in the ileum of normal healthy mice, regulated in accordance with the amount of gut bacteria...
December 6, 2017: Mucosal Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207065/estrogen-inhibits-the-overgrowth-of-escherichia%C3%A2-coli-in-the-rat-intestine-under-simulated-microgravity
#7
Yongtao Yang, Changmin Qu, Shuwen Liang, Gang Wang, Haolun Han, Na Chen, Xiaoying Wang, Zhiwen Luo, Changqing Zhong, Yan Chen, Lianyong Li, Wei Wu
Microgravity can affect many aspects of intestinal homeostasis, leading to an increased risk of colitis. Estrogen, the most frequently affected hormone when under simulated microgravity, regulates the permeability of the colonic mucosa barrier. The associations between alterations in intestinal microbiota and increased susceptibility under microgravity have not been thoroughly elucidated. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the changes in intestinal microbiota under simulated microgravity and to investigate the protective effect of estrogen against those changes...
November 20, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29199170/what-is-the-long-term-acid-inhibitor-treatment-in-gastroesophageal-reflux-disease-what-are-the-potential-problems-related-to-long-term-acid-inhibitor-treatment-in-gastroesophageal-reflux-disease-how-should-these-cases-be-followed
#8
İbrahim Hatemi, Sinem Nihal Esatoğlu
The meta-analyses of observational studies (OBS) showed the risk of any fracture and hip fracture slightly increased with proton pump inhibitor (PPI) treatment depending on the dose and regardless of time. This was not observed with histamine-2 receptor antagonists (H2RA). The risk of bacterial overgrowth and spontaneous bacterial peritonitis were increased with PPI therapy, but not with H2RA. In meta-analyses of OBS, a slight increase was observed in the risk of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in the early stages (<1 month) of PPI use and particularly at high doses...
December 2017: Turkish Journal of Gastroenterology: the Official Journal of Turkish Society of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188472/small-intestinal-bacterial-overgrowth-should-screening-be-included-in-the-pre-fecal-microbiota-transplantation-evaluation
#9
Jessica R Allegretti, Zain Kassam, Walter W Chan
BACKGROUND: Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is safe and effective for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (rCDI) and often involves terminal ileal (TI) stool infusion. Patients report gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms post-FMT despite rCDI resolution. Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) screening is not routinely performed pre-FMT. The effect of donor/recipient SIBO status on FMT outcomes and post-FMT GI symptoms is unclear. We aim to evaluate the value of pre-FMT SIBO screening on post-FMT outcomes and symptoms...
November 29, 2017: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182524/long-term-proton-pump-inhibitor-therapy-leads-to-small-bowel-bacterial-overgrowth-as-determined-by-breath-hydrogen-and-methane-excretion
#10
Agnieszka Sieczkowska, Piotr Landowski, Artur Gibas, Barbara Kaminska, Carlos Lifschitz
Prolonged suppression of gastric acid secretion by proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) may alter the bacterial microbiota of the upper gastrointestinal tract and lead to small bowel bacterial overgrowth (SBBO). Published reports have shown conflicting results on the association between PPI therapy and risk of SBBO development. We evaluated whether long-term PPI treatment is associated with presence of SBBO as determined by breath hydrogen (H2) and methane (CH4) excretion. We also assessed the differences in H2 / CH4 excretion patterns in patients taking PPI compared with those not taking the medication and searched for the potential predictors of a positive breath test result...
November 28, 2017: Journal of Breath Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170072/pancreatic-enzyme-replacement-therapy-after-gastric-resection-an-update
#11
REVIEW
Filippo Antonini, Stefano Crippa, Massimo Falconi, Giampiero Macarri, Raffaele Pezzilli
Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (EPI) is one of the possible mechanisms of fat maldigestion following gastric surgery, together with reduced food intake, loss of gastric reservoir, small bowel bacterial overgrowth and rapid small bowel transit. Oral pancreatic enzyme replacement therapy (PERT) is the mainstay of treatment for EPI. The efficacy and safety of pancreatic enzyme substitution in patients following gastric resection remains unclear. This review article summarizes relevant studies addressing PERT after gastric resection...
November 10, 2017: Digestive and Liver Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166602/mucus-detachment-by-host-metalloprotease-meprin-%C3%AE-requires-shedding-of-its-inactive-pro-form-which-is-abrogated-by-the-pathogenic-protease-rgpb
#12
Rielana Wichert, Anna Ermund, Stefanie Schmidt, Matthias Schweinlin, Miroslaw Ksiazek, Philipp Arnold, Katharina Knittler, Frederike Wilkens, Barbara Potempa, Björn Rabe, Marit Stirnberg, Ralph Lucius, Jörg W Bartsch, Susanna Nikolaus, Maren Falk-Paulsen, Philip Rosenstiel, Marco Metzger, Stefan Rose-John, Jan Potempa, Gunnar C Hansson, Peter J Dempsey, Christoph Becker-Pauly
The host metalloprotease meprin β is required for mucin 2 (MUC2) cleavage, which drives intestinal mucus detachment and prevents bacterial overgrowth. To gain access to the cleavage site in MUC2, meprin β must be proteolytically shed from epithelial cells. Hence, regulation of meprin β shedding and activation is important for physiological and pathophysiological conditions. Here, we demonstrate that meprin β activation and shedding are mutually exclusive events. Employing ex vivo small intestinal organoid and cell culture experiments, we found that ADAM-mediated shedding is restricted to the inactive pro-form of meprin β and is completely inhibited upon its conversion to the active form at the cell surface...
November 21, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150304/are-the-estrogenic-hormonal-effects-of-environmental-toxins-affecting-small-intestinal-bacterial-and-microfilaria-overgrowth
#13
Edward Lichten
The important role of microfilaria (worms) in human and animal disease remains an area of key disagreement between the naturopathic and allopathic physicians. While microfilaria infections are rampart in undeveloped countries, they rarely rise to identification as a cause of disease in Western countries. New research studies in the diagnosis and treatment of SIBO (Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth) and (IBD) Inflammatory Bowel Diseases of ulcerative colitis, Crohn's Disease and microcytic colitis may make both sides equally correct...
November 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146383/not-just-antibiotics-is-cancer-chemotherapy-driving-antimicrobial-resistance
#14
REVIEW
Lito E Papanicolas, David L Gordon, Steve L Wesselingh, Geraint B Rogers
The global spread of antibiotic-resistant pathogens threatens to increase the mortality of cancer patients significantly. We propose that chemotherapy contributes to the emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria within the gut and, in combination with antibiotics, drives pathogen overgrowth and translocation into the bloodstream. In our model, these processes are mediated by the effects of chemotherapy on bacterial mutagenesis and horizontal gene transfer, the disruption of commensal gut microbiology, and alterations to host physiology...
November 13, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132529/celiac-disease-and-gluten-sensitivity
#15
REVIEW
Katharine C DeGeorge, Jeanetta W Frye, Kim M Stein, Lisa K Rollins, Daniel F McCarter
Celiac disease is an immune-mediated enteropathy triggered by gluten that affects genetically predisposed individuals, typically causing intestinal symptoms and malabsorption. Diagnosis requires stepwise evaluation with anti-tissue transglutaminase IgA and histologic analysis of the small bowel. Strict adherence to a gluten-free diet is the primary treatment. Patients with symptoms thought to be related to gluten but without evidence of celiac disease are difficult to diagnose and treat. Consider first advising general nutritional improvements...
December 2017: Primary Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129351/is-serum-methylmalonic-acid-a-reliable-biomarker-of-vitamin-b12-status-in-children-with-short-bowel-syndrome-a-case-series
#16
Lissette Jimenez, Danielle A Stamm, Brittany Depaula, Christopher P Duggan
We describe 3 patients with short bowel syndrome who had persistently elevated serum methylmalonic acid (MMA) levels while being treated for vitamin B12 deficiency. Following treatment for presumed small bowel bacterial overgrowth, MMA levels normalized. Among patients with short bowel syndrome, MMA levels may have limited specificity for vitamin B12 deficiency.
November 9, 2017: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118931/outcome-of-breath-tests-in-adult-patients-with-suspected-small-intestinal-bacterial-overgrowth
#17
Johanna Mattsson, Maria Teresa Minaya, Milka Monegro, Benjamin Lebwohl, Suzanne K Lewis, Peter Hr Green, Reidun Stenberg
Aim: The aim was to investigate breath test outcomes in patients with suspected SIBO and indicative symptoms of SIBO, diagnosed by breath testing. Background: Breath testing is used to detect small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) by measuring hydrogen and methane produced by intestinal bacteria. Methods: This retrospective cross sectional study included 311 patients with gastrointestinal symptoms who underwent the breath test for evaluation of SIBO at Celiac Disease Center at Columbia University, New York, in 2014-2015...
2017: Gastroenterology and Hepatology From Bed to Bench
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110161/association-between-small-intestinal-bacterial-overgrowth-by-glucose-breath-test-and-coronary-artery-disease
#18
Andre Fialho, Andrea Fialho, Gursimran Kochhar, Aldo L Schenone, Prashanti Thota, Arthur J McCullough, Bo Shen
BACKGROUND: A possible role of gut bacteria and their metabolic by-products in the development of coronary artery disease (CAD) is suspected. There is a lack of studies evaluating the association of small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) with the development of CAD. AIM: To evaluate the frequency and risk factors for angiography-confirmed CAD in patients with or without SIBO. METHODS: A total of 1059 patients tested for SIBO using the glucose hydrogen/methane breath test from 2006 to 2014 were evaluated...
November 6, 2017: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109849/current-concepts-and-future-strategies-in-the-antimicrobial-therapy-of-emerging-gram-positive-spontaneous-bacterial-peritonitis
#19
REVIEW
Marco Fiore, Alberto Enrico Maraolo, Ivan Gentile, Guglielmo Borgia, Sebastiano Leone, Pasquale Sansone, Maria Beatrice Passavanti, Caterina Aurilio, Maria Caterina Pace
Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (SBP) is the most common infection in end-stage liver disease patients. SBP is defined as an ascitic fluid infection with a polymorphonuclear leucocyte count ≥ 250/mm(3) without an evident intra-abdominal surgically treatable source. Several mechanisms contribute to SBP occurrence, including translocation of gut bacteria and their products, reduced intestinal motility provoking bacterial overgrowth, alteration of the gut's barrier function and local immune responses. Historically, Gram-negative enteric bacteria have been the main causative agents of SBP, thereby guiding the empirical therapeutic choice...
October 28, 2017: World Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106921/furukawa-agar-a-novel-bacteriological-agar-designed-to-inhibit-fungal-contamination-when-sampling-organic-compost
#20
Maika Furukawa, Jonathan Stirling, Naoaki Misawa, John E Moore
A novel bacteriological agar, named Furukawa Agar, has been specifically designed to inhibit the growth of filamentous fungi during microbiological examination of bacteria from organic compost, thereby allowing complete analysis of the resulting bacterial organisms, without the overgrowth with filamentous fungi.
November 20, 2017: Journal of Microbiological Methods
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