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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652914/intestinal-manipulation-affects-mucosal-antimicrobial-defense-in-a-mouse-model-of-postoperative-ileus
#1
Kathy Stein, Lena Hieggelke, Bianca Schneiker, Mariola Lysson, Burkhard Stoffels, Sabine Nuding, Jan Wehkamp, Judith Kikhney, Annette Moter, Joerg C Kalff, Sven Wehner
AIM: To explore the effects of abdominal surgery and interleukin-1 signaling on antimicrobial defense in a model of postoperative ileus. METHODS: C57BL/6 and Interleukin-1 receptor type I (IL-1R1) deficient mice underwent intestinal manipulation to induce POI. Expression of mucosal IL-1α, IL-1β and IL-1R1 and several antimicrobial peptides and enzymes were measured by quantitative PCR or ELISA, western blotting or immunohistochemistry. Bacterial overgrowth was determined by fluorescent in-situ hybridization and counting of jejunal luminal bacteria...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623817/restless-legs-syndrome-in-patients-infected-with-helicobacter-pylori
#2
Farzaneh Rezvani, Mohammad Sayadnasiri, Omid Rezaei
Objective Although the etiology of restless legs syndrome (RLS) is yet to be discovered, some studies have mentioned the effect of infectious diseases in occurrence of RLS. This study aims to determine the association between common Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection and occurrence of RLS. Methods In this descriptive analytical cross-sectional study, patients with RLS who were referred to the Internal Medicine Clinic of Fayazbakhsh Hospital in Tehran from September to December 2016 were evaluated. Patients with underlying diseases that would lead to secondary RLS were excluded from the study...
April 6, 2018: Neurological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29605778/cirrhosis-following-single-anastomosis-duodeno-ileal-switch-a-case-report
#3
Vincent Kirkpatrick, Rena C Moon, Andre F Teixeira, Muhammad A Jawad
INTRODUCTION: Single anastomosis duodeno-ileal switch (SADI-S) involves a single, loop duodeno-ileal anastomosis with omission of the traditional Roux-en-Y distal ileo-ileal anastomosis. Not much has been published on the complications of SADI-S. PRESENTATION OF CASE: The patient is a 40 year-old male who underwent robot-assisted SADI-S three years prior. At the time of surgery, his body mass index (BMI) was 69 kg/m2 . His BMI was 31 kg/m2 at the time of presentation...
March 17, 2018: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29596112/vagal-dysfunction-and-small-intestinal-bacterial-overgrowth-novel-pathways-to-chronic-inflammation-in-hiv
#4
Jessica Robinson-Papp, Alexandra Nmashie-Osei, Elizabeth Pedowitz, Emma K T Benn, Mary C George, Sandeep Sharma, Jacinta Murray, Josef Machac, Sherif Heiba, Saurabh Mehandru, Seunghee Kim-Schulze, Allison Navis, Isabel Elicer, Susan Morgello
OBJECTIVE: Chronic inflammation in HIV-infected individuals drives disease progression and the development of comorbidities, despite viral suppression with combined antiretroviral therapy. Here, we sought evidence that vagal dysfunction, which occurs commonly as part of HIV-associated autonomic neuropathy, could exacerbate inflammation through gastrointestinal dysmotility, small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO), and alterations in patterns of soluble immune mediators. DESIGN: This is a cross-sectional observational study...
March 28, 2018: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29594710/correction-to-effect-of-a-preparation-of-four-probiotics-on-symptoms-of-patients-with-irritable-bowel-syndrome-association-with-intestinal-bacterial-overgrowth
#5
Konstantinos Leventogiannis, Paraskevas Gkolfakis, Georgios Spithakis, Aikaterini Tsatali, Aikaterini Pistiki, Athanasios Sioulas, Evangelos J Giamarellos-Bourboulis, Konstantinos Triantafyllou
The original version of this article contained mistakes, and the authors would like to correct them. The correct details are given below.
March 28, 2018: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29589108/chronic-diarrhoea-following-surgery-for-colon-cancer-frequency-causes-and-treatment-options
#6
REVIEW
Jonathan Yde, Helene M Larsen, Søren Laurberg, Klaus Krogh, Hanne B Moeller
PURPOSE: The growing population of survivors after colon cancer warrants increased attention to the long-term outcome of surgical treatment. The change in bowel anatomy after resection disrupts normal gastrointestinal function and may cause symptoms. Thus, many patients surviving colon cancer have to cope with bowel dysfunction for the rest of their lives. We here aim to provide an overview of the literature on this topic. METHODS: We review long-term functional outcomes of surgical treatment for colon cancer, the underlying pathology, and treatment options...
March 27, 2018: International Journal of Colorectal Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29580173/reinforced-electrospun-polycaprolactone-nanofibers-for-tracheal-repair-in-an-in-vivo-ovine-model
#7
Jakob M Townsend, Lindsey M Ott, Jean R Salash, Kar-Ming Fung, Jeremiah T Easley, Howard B Seim, Jed Johnson, Robert A Weatherly, Michael Scott Detamore
Tracheal stenosis caused by congenital anomalies, tumors, trauma, or intubation-related damage can cause severe breathing issues, diminishing the quality of life, and potentially becoming fatal. Current treatment methods include laryngotracheal reconstruction or slide tracheoplasty. Laryngotracheal reconstruction utilizes rib cartilage harvested from the patient, requiring a second surgical site. Slide tracheoplasty involves a complex surgical procedure to splay open the trachea and reconnect both segments to widen the lumen...
March 27, 2018: Tissue Engineering. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29574688/dosing-of-ceftriaxone-and-metronidazole-for-children-with-severe-acute-malnutrition
#8
Joseph F Standing, Martin O Ongas, Caroline Ogwang, Nancy Kagwanja, Sheila Murunga, Shalton Mwaringa, Rehema Ali, Neema Mturi, Moline Timbwa, Christine Manyasi, Laura Mwalekwa, Victor L Bandika, Bernhards Ogutu, Joseph Waichungo, Karin Kipper, James A Berkley
Infants and young children with severe acute malnutrition (SAM) are treated with empiric broad-spectrum antimicrobials. Parenteral ceftriaxone is currently a second-line agent for invasive infection. Oral metronidazole principally targets small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. Children with SAM may have altered drug absorption, distribution, metabolism and elimination. Population pharmacokinetics of ceftriaxone and metronidazole were studied, with the aim of recommending optimal dosing. Eighty-one patients with SAM (aged 2-45 months) provided 234 post-dose pharmacokinetic samples for total ceftriaxone, metronidazole and hydroxymetronidazole...
March 25, 2018: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29563853/gut-microbiota-immune-system-crosstalk-and-pancreatic-disorders
#9
REVIEW
D Pagliari, A Saviano, E E Newton, M L Serricchio, A A Dal Lago, A Gasbarrini, R Cianci
Gut microbiota is key to the development and modulation of the mucosal immune system. It plays a central role in several physiological functions, in the modulation of inflammatory signaling and in the protection against infections. In healthy states, there is a perfect balance between commensal and pathogens, and microbiota and the immune system interact to maintain gut homeostasis. The alteration of such balance, called dysbiosis, determines an intestinal bacterial overgrowth which leads to the disruption of the intestinal barrier with systemic translocation of pathogens...
2018: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29560647/hepatic-complications-of-bariatric-surgery-the-reverse-side-of-the-coin
#10
REVIEW
U Vespasiani-Gentilucci, F Vorini, S Carotti, A De Vincentis, G Galati, P Gallo, N Scopinaro, A Picardi
BACKGROUND: Even if the jejunoileal bypass has been definitely abandoned due to the high rate of hepatic complications, cases of liver injury after the new bariatric procedures are still reported. We aimed to review the available literature concerning liver damage associated with the older and newer types of bariatric surgeries. METHODS: An extensive literature search of MEDLINE was performed using different combinations of the following terms: "bariatric surgery OR biliopancreatic diversion OR jejunoileal bypass OR roux-en-y gastric bypass OR vertical banded gastroplasty OR laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding" AND "hepatic/liver damage OR hepatic/liver impairment OR hepatic/liver failure"...
October 2017: Acta Gastro-enterologica Belgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29556803/molecular-mechanisms-driving-streptococcus-mitis-entry-into-human-gingival-fibroblasts-in-presence-of-chitlac-nag-and-saliva
#11
M Di Giulio, V Di Valerio, D Bosco, E Marsich, A Cataldi, L Cellini, S Sancilio
The molecular mechanisms leading to Streptococcus mitis capability of entering oral cells were investigated in a co-culture of S. mitis and Human Gingival Fibroblasts (HGFs) in the presence of saliva. An innovative colloidal solution based on silver nanoparticles (Chitlac-nAg), a promising device for daily oral care, was added to the experimental system in order to study the effects of silver on the bacterial overgrowth and ability to enter non-phagocytic eukaryotic cells. The entry of bacteria into the eukaryotic cells is mediated by a signalling pathway involving FAK, integrin β1, and the two cytoskeleton proteins vinculin and F-actin, and down-regulated by the presence of saliva both at 3 and 48 h of culture, whereas Chitlac-n Ag exposure seems to influence, by incrementing it, the number of bacteria entering the fibroblasts only at 48 h...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Materials Science. Materials in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29554272/the-artificial-sweetener-splenda-promotes-gut-proteobacteria-dysbiosis-and-myeloperoxidase-reactivity-in-crohn-s-disease-like-ileitis
#12
Alexander Rodriguez-Palacios, Andrew Harding, Paola Menghini, Catherine Himmelman, Mauricio Retuerto, Kourtney P Nickerson, Minh Lam, Colleen M Croniger, Mairi H McLean, Scott K Durum, Theresa T Pizarro, Mahmoud A Ghannoum, Sanja Ilic, Christine McDonald, Fabio Cominelli
Background: Epidemiological studies indicate that the use of artificial sweeteners doubles the risk for Crohn's disease (CD). Herein, we experimentally quantified the impact of 6-week supplementation with a commercial sweetener (Splenda; ingredients sucralose maltodextrin, 1:99, w/w) on both the severity of CD-like ileitis and the intestinal microbiome alterations using SAMP1/YitFc (SAMP) mice. Methods: Metagenomic shotgun DNA sequencing was first used to characterize the microbiome of ileitis-prone SAMP mice...
March 15, 2018: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29534710/sarcoptes-infestation-in-two-miniature-pigs-with-zoonotic-transmission-a-case-report
#13
Alexander Grahofer, Jeanette Bannoehr, Heiko Nathues, Petra Roosje
BACKGROUND: Scabies is a contagious skin disease rarely described in miniature pigs. To the best of the authors' knowledge, a zoonotic transfer from infected pet pigs to humans has not been reported previously. CASE PRESENTATION: This case report describes the infestation with Sarcoptes scabiei mites in two miniature pigs presenting with unusual clinical signs, and disease transmission to a child. Two 7-month-old male castrated miniature pig siblings were examined...
March 13, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29508268/effect-of-a-preparation-of-four-probiotics-on-symptoms-of-patients-with-irritable-bowel-syndrome-association-with-intestinal-bacterial-overgrowth
#14
Konstantinos Leventogiannis, Paraskevas Gkolfakis, Georgios Spithakis, Aikaterini Tsatali, Aikaterini Pistiki, Athanasios Sioulas, Evangelos J Giamarellos-Bourboulis, Konstantinos Triantafyllou
The effect of probiotics on small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) has never been studied so far. In this prospective trial, five patients with IBS and SIBO and 21 patients with IBS without SIBO were administered an oral capsule containing Saccharomyces boulardii, Bifidobacterium lactis, Lactobacillus acidophilus, and Lactobacillus plantarum (Lactolevure® ) every 12 h for 30 days. SIBO was defined by quantitative culture of the third part of the duodenum; IBS was defined by the Rome III criteria...
March 5, 2018: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29502987/the-prevalence-of-small-intestinal-bacterial-overgrowth-in-non-surgical-patients-with-chronic-pancreatitis-and-pancreatic-exocrine-insufficiency-pei
#15
Hazel M Ní Chonchubhair, Yasir Bashir, Mark Dobson, Barbara M Ryan, Sinead N Duggan, Kevin C Conlon
BACKGROUND: Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) is a condition characterised by symptoms similar to pancreatic exocrine insufficiency (PEI) in chronic pancreatitis patients. SIBO is thought to complicate chronic pancreatitis in up to 92% of cases; however, studies are heterogeneous and protocols non-standardised. SIBO may be determined by measuring lung air-expiration of either hydrogen or methane which are by-products of small bowel bacterial fermentation of intraluminal substrates such as carbohydrates...
February 24, 2018: Pancreatology: Official Journal of the International Association of Pancreatology (IAP) ... [et Al.]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29488821/bacterial-host-interactions-physiology-and-pathophysiology-of-respiratory-infection
#16
A P Hakansson, C J Orihuela, D Bogaert
It has long been thought that respiratory infections are the direct result of acquisition of pathogenic viruses or bacteria, followed by their overgrowth, dissemination, and in some instances tissue invasion. In the last decades, it has become apparent that in contrast to this classical view, the majority of microorganisms associated with respiratory infections and inflammation are actually common members of the respiratory ecosystem and only in rare circumstances do they cause disease. This suggests that a complex interplay between host, environment, and properties of colonizing microorganisms together determines disease development and its severity...
April 1, 2018: Physiological Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29485256/the-association-between-cigarettes-smoke-small-intestine-bacterial-overgrowth-and-rosacea
#17
Francesco Drago, Giulia Ciccarese, Astrid Herzum, Francesca Drago, Alfredo Rebora, Aurora Parodi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 26, 2018: Giornale Italiano di Dermatologia e Venereologia: Organo Ufficiale, Società Italiana di Dermatologia e Sifilografia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29480046/-review-of-the-relation-between-gut-microbiome-metabolic-disease-and-hypertension
#18
István Barna, Dóra Nyúl, Tamás Szentes, Richárd Schwab
Gut flora has personal characteristics for each individual, similar to the fingerprints, consisting of a special mixture of bacterial species living in the intestines, now referred to as the gut microbiome. There is a strong correlation between the loss of microbial diversity and the functional bowel disorders, obesity, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease as well as many autoimmune disorders. With genetic testing of stool diversity of the gut microbiome and exact analysis of the species and phylogenetic classification of the gut flora, the changes of diversity can be identified and the overgrowth of some bacteria can be revealed...
March 2018: Orvosi Hetilap
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29475109/solar-treatment-h-2-o-2-tio-2-p25-and-go-tio-2-photocatalysis-photo-fenton-of-organic-micropollutants-human-pathogen-indicators-antibiotic-resistant-bacteria-and-related-genes-in-urban-wastewater
#19
Nuno F F Moreira, Carlos Narciso-da-Rocha, M Inmaculada Polo-López, Luisa M Pastrana-Martínez, Joaquim L Faria, Célia M Manaia, Pilar Fernández-Ibáñez, Olga C Nunes, Adrián M T Silva
Solar-driven advanced oxidation processes were studied in a pilot-scale photoreactor, as tertiary treatments of effluents from an urban wastewater treatment plant. Solar-H2 O2 , heterogeneous photocatalysis (with and/or without the addition of H2 O2 and employing three different photocatalysts) and the photo-Fenton process were investigated. Chemical (sulfamethoxazole, carbamazepine, and diclofenac) and biological contaminants (faecal contamination indicators, their antibiotic resistant counterparts, 16S rRNA and antibiotic resistance genes), as well as the whole bacterial community, were characterized...
February 3, 2018: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29469038/bacterial-translocation-is-linked-to-increased-intestinal-ifn-%C3%AE-il-4-il-17-and-mucin-2-in-cholestatic-rats
#20
Natali Vega-Magaña, Vidal Delgado-Rizo, Leonel García-Benavides, Susana Del Toro-Arreola, Jorge Segura-Ortega, Adelaida Sara M Zepeda Morales, José Sergio Zepeda-Nuño, Marta Escarra-Senmarti, Jorge Gutiérrez-Franco, Jesse Haramati, Miriam R Bueno-Topete
Background and rationale for the study. Bacterial translocation is an important triggering factor of infection and mortality in cirrhosis. In a rat model using bile duct ligation (BDL), bacterial translocation appears within 24 h after ligation. The dynamic between TH1/TH2/TH17 cytokines and the integrity of the colonic mucosa in the context of cirrhosis is little known. This study aims to determine the link between bacterial translocation and intestinal inflammation in a cholestasis model. Additionally, alterations of the colonic mucus layer and the bacterial load were also addressed...
March 1, 2018: Annals of Hepatology
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