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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514703/bacterial-infections-and-hepatic-encephalopathy-in-liver-cirrhosis-prophylaxis-and-treatment
#1
REVIEW
Damian Piotrowski, Anna Boroń-Kaczmarska
Infections are common among patients with liver cirrhosis. They occur more often in cirrhotic patient groups than in the general population and result in higher mortality. One reason for this phenomenon is bacterial translocation from the intestinal lumen that occurs as a consequence of intestinal bacterial overgrowth, increased permeability and decreased motility. The most common infections in cirrhotic patients are spontaneous bacterial peritonitis and urinary tract infections, followed by pneumonia, skin and soft tissue infections...
May 14, 2017: Advances in Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513629/post-infectious-ibs-tropical-sprue-and-small-intestinal-bacterial-overgrowth-the-missing-link
#2
REVIEW
Uday C Ghoshal, Kok-Ann Gwee
Evidence is emerging that IBS, a hitherto enigmatic disorder thought to be predominantly related to psychological factors, has a microorganic basis in a subset of patients with the disease. Post-infectious IBS (PI-IBS), commonly of the diarrhoea-predominant subtype (defined as new development of IBS following acute infectious diarrhoea), is one such condition known to occur in up to 10-30% individuals after acute gastroenteritis. However, following acute infectious gastroenteritis, patients can also develop post-infectious malabsorption syndrome (PI-MAS), popularly known as tropical sprue...
May 17, 2017: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502180/metal-nanoparticle-growth-within-clay-polymer-nacre-inspired-materials-for-improved-catalysis-and-plasmonic-detection-in-complex-biofluids
#3
Eric H Hill, Christoph Hanske, Alexander Johnson, Luis Yate, Hans Jelitto, Gerold A Schneider, Luis M Liz-Marzán
Recent studies have shown that layered silicate clays can be used to form a nacre-like bioinspired layered structure with various polymer fillers, leading to composite films with good material strength, gas barrier properties, and high loading capacity. We go one step farther by in situ growing metal nanoparticles in nacre-like layered films based on layered silicate clays, which can be used for applications in plasmonic sensing and catalysis. The degree of anisotropy of the nanoparticles grown in the film can be controlled by adjusting the ratio of clay to polymer, gold to clay, and reducing agent concentration, as well as silver overgrowth, which greatly enhances the surface-enhanced Raman scattering activity of the composite...
May 13, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498296/interleukin-22-prevents-microbial-dysbiosis-and-promotes-intestinal-barrier-regeneration-following-acute-injury
#4
Adam M Hammer, Niya L Morris, Abigail R Cannon, Omair M Khan, Robin C Gagnon, Nellie V Movtchan, Ilse van Langeveld, Xiaoling Li, Bin Gao, Mashkoor A Choudhry
Intestine barrier disruption and bacterial translocation can contribute to sepsis and multiple organ failure- leading causes of mortality in burn-injured patients. Additionally, findings suggest ethanol (alcohol) intoxication at the time of injury worsens symptoms associated with burn injury. We have previously shown that interleukin-22 (IL-22) protects from intestinal leakiness and prevents overgrowth of Gram-negative bacteria following ethanol and burn injury, but how IL-22 mediates these effects has not been established...
May 11, 2017: Shock
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495833/dequalinium-for-bacterial-vaginosis
#5
(no author information available yet)
Bacterial vaginosis is an infection characterised by overgrowth of anaerobic bacteria in the vagina with an accompanying loss of lactobacilli, and is thought to be the most common cause of abnormal vaginal discharge in women of child-bearing age.(1) Standard treatment for symptomatic bacterial vaginosis consists of a short course of an oral or topical antibiotic.(2) Dequalinium, a topical antiseptic agent, has been available for many years as a treatment for oral infections.(3) A new formulation, dequalinium 10mg vaginal tablets (Fluomizin-Kora Healthcare), was licensed in the UK in June 2015 for the treatment of bacterial vaginosis...
May 2017: Drug and Therapeutics Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492501/urinary-metabolomics-in-pediatric-obesity-and-nafld-identifies-metabolic-pathways-metabolites-related-to-dietary-habits-and-gut-liver-axis-perturbations
#6
Jacopo Troisi, Luca Pierri, Annamaria Landolfi, Francesca Marciano, Antonella Bisogno, Federica Belmonte, Carmen Palladino, Salvatore Guercio Nuzio, Pietro Campiglia, Pietro Vajro
To get insight into still elusive pathomechanisms of pediatric obesity and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) we explored the interplay among GC-MS studied urinary metabolomic signature, gut liver axis (GLA) abnormalities, and food preferences (Kid-Med). Intestinal permeability (IP), small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO), and homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance were investigated in forty children (mean age 9.8 years) categorized as normal weight (NW) or obese (body mass index <85th or >95th percentile, respectively) ± ultrasonographic bright liver and hypertransaminasemia (NAFLD)...
May 11, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490481/vitamin-a-deficiency-due-to-chronic-malabsorption-an-ophthalmic-manifestation-of-a-systemic-condition
#7
James Cheshire, Sai Kolli
A 47-year-old woman presented with a 4-week history of progressive loss of vision, first manifesting as night blindness. Additionally, the patient reported frequent severe episodes of diarrhoea over the past month. Her medical history included end-stage renal failure for which she was currently on haemodialysis after a failed renal transplant, chronic pancreatitis and autonomic diabetes mellitus. Ophthalmological examination revealed severe bilateral corneal xerosis, bilateral Bitot's spots and inferior ulceration of the right cornea...
May 10, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28480652/obesity-is-inversely-related-to-hydrogen-producing-small-intestinal-bacterial-overgrowth-in-non-constipation-irritable-bowel-syndrome
#8
Seung Eun Jung, Nam Seok Joo, Kyung Sun Han, Kyu Nam Kim
There have been inconsistent findings on the association of obesity and non-constipation irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) with hydrogen (H₂) gas forming-microflora causes non-constipation IBS. But, the effect of H₂ producing SIBO on obesity in non-constipation IBS patients has not been studied yet. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between obesity and SIBO in non-constipation IBS patients. We reviewed the charts of patients who showed IBS symptoms along with the documented results of their lactulose hydrogen breath test (LHBT) for SIBO...
June 2017: Journal of Korean Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470846/systematic-review-interventions-for-abdominal-pain-management-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#9
REVIEW
C Norton, W Czuber-Dochan, M Artom, L Sweeney, A Hart
BACKGROUND: Abdominal pain is frequently reported by people with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), including in remission. Pain is an under-treated symptom. AIM: To systematically review evidence on interventions (excluding disease-modifying interventions) for abdominal pain management in IBD. METHODS: Databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycInfo, CINAHL, Scopus, Cochrane Library) were searched (February 2016). Two researchers independently screened references and extracted data...
May 4, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464257/significant-positive-association-of-endotoxemia-with-histological-severity-in-237-patients-with-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#10
J Pang, W Xu, X Zhang, G L-H Wong, A W-H Chan, H-Y Chan, C-H Tse, S S-T Shu, P C-L Choi, H L-Y Chan, J Yu, V W-S Wong
BACKGROUND: Patients with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) have gut dysbiosis and intestinal bacterial overgrowth. AIM: To test the hypothesis that endotoxemia is associated with the histological severity of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and determine factors associated with endotoxemia. METHODS: The endotoxemia markers lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP) and endotoxin levels were measured in 237 NAFLD patients 1 day before liver biopsy...
May 2, 2017: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443513/the-gastrointestinal-dysmotility-and-infections-in-systemic-sclerosis-a-real-world-scenario
#11
Shefali Khanna Sharma, M B Adarsh, Saroj K Sinha, Anish Bhattacharya, Satyavati Rana, Surjit Singh, Varun Dhir
INTRODUCTION: Systemic Sclerosis is known to involve the gastrointestinal system and can lead to multitude of problems predominantly affecting the GI motility. METHODS: It was a prospective, observational, single centre study of fifty consecutive patients with SSc who presented to rheumatology clinic. Gut score was assessed using UCLA SCTC GIT 2.0 questionnaire. 35 patients underwent esophago- gastro duodenoscopy(UGIE), 31 underwent esophageal manometry, 37 underwent lactulose breath test to assess orocaecal transit time (OCTT) and glucose breath test for detecting small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) and 36 underwent gastric emptying scintigraphy to measure gastric emptying time...
April 25, 2017: Current Rheumatology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435139/the-role-of-lactic-acid-production-by-probiotic-lactobacillus-species-in-vaginal-health
#12
Gilda Tachedjian, Muriel Aldunate, Catronia S Bradshaw, Richard A Cone
Vaginal eubiosis is characterised by beneficial lactobacillus-dominated microbiota. In contrast, vaginal dysbiosis (e.g. bacterial vaginosis, BV), characterised by an overgrowth of multiple anaerobes, is associated with an increased risk of adverse urogenital and reproductive health outcomes. A major distinguishing feature between the vaginal environment in states of eubiosis and dysbiosis is a high concentration of lactic acid, produced by lactobacilli, that acidifies the vagina in eubiosis versus a sharp drop in lactic acid and an increase in pH in dysbiosis...
April 20, 2017: Research in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431414/intratracheal-instillation-of-neutrophils-rescues-bacterial-overgrowth-initiated-by-trauma-damage-associated-molecular-patterns
#13
Kiyoshi Itagaki, Ingred Riça, Jing Zhang, Dave Gallo, Melissa DePrato, Leo E Otterbein, Carl J Hauser
BACKGROUND: Nosocomial pneumonias are common in trauma patients and so interventions to prevent and treat nosocomial pneumonia may improve outcomes. Our prior work strongly suggests that tissue injury predisposes to infections like nosocomial pneumonia because mitochondrial debris originating from injured cells contains damage-associated molecular patterns that can reduce neutrophil (PMN) migration into the airway and diminish PMN function in response to bacterial inoculation of the airway...
May 2017: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425146/a-deep-nasopharyngeal-swab-versus-nonendoscopic-bronchoalveolar-lavage-for-isolation-of-bacterial-pathogens-from-preweaned-calves-with-respiratory-disease
#14
L Van Driessche, B R Valgaeren, L Gille, F Boyen, R Ducatelle, F Haesebrouck, P Deprez, B Pardon
BACKGROUND: Nonendoscopic bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) is a practical alternative for a deep nasopharyngeal swab (DNS) to sample the airways of a large number of calves in a short period of time. The extent of commensal overgrowth and agreement of BAL with DNS culture results in preweaned calves are unknown. OBJECTIVES: To compare commensal overgrowth and bacterial culture results between DNS and BAL samples. ANIMALS: A total of 183 preweaned calves (144 with bovine respiratory disease and 39 healthy animals)...
May 2017: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421185/changes-in-composition-of-the-gut-bacterial-microbiome-after-fecal-microbiota-transplantation-for-recurrent-clostridium-difficile-infection-in-a-pediatric-heart-transplant-patient
#15
Kyle L Flannigan, Taylor Rajbar, Andrew Moffat, Leanna S McKenzie, Frank Dicke, Kevin Rioux, Matthew L Workentine, Thomas J Louie, Simon A Hirota, Steven C Greenway
The microbiome is increasingly recognized as an important influence on human health and many of the comorbidities that affect patients after solid organ transplantation (SOT) have been shown to involve changes in gut bacterial populations. Thus, microbiome changes in an individual patient may have important health implications after SOT but this area remains understudied. We describe changes in the composition of the fecal microbiome from a pediatric heart transplant recipient before and >2.5 years after he underwent repeated fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) for recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (CDI)...
2017: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412519/vitamin-d-signaling-in-intestinal-innate-immunity-and-homeostasis
#16
REVIEW
Vassil Dimitrov, John H White
The lumen of the gut hosts a plethora of microorganisms that participate in food assimilation, inactivation of harmful particles and in vitamin synthesis. On the other hand, enteric flora, a number of food antigens, and toxins are capable of triggering immune responses causing inflammation, which, when unresolved, may lead to chronic conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). It is important, therefore, to contain the gut bacteria within the lumen, control microbial load and composition, as well as ensure adequate innate and adaptive immune responses to pathogenic threats...
April 12, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380179/liver-failure-following-biliopancreatic-diversions-a-narrative-review
#17
Everton Cazzo, José Carlos Pareja, Elinton Adami Chaim
CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Occurrences of liver failure following jejunoileal bypass were extensively reported in the past and were one of the main factors that led to abandonment of this procedure. The newer predominantly malabsorptive procedures called biliopancreatic diversions (BPDs) have also been implicated in several cases of acute and subacute liver failure. The aim here was to review the current available evidence on occurrences of liver failure following BPDs. DESIGN AND SETTING: Narrative review; bariatric surgery service of a public university hospital...
January 2017: São Paulo Medical Journal, Revista Paulista de Medicina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365584/antifibrillarin-antibodies-are-associated-with-native-north-american-ethnicity-and-poorer-survival-in-systemic-sclerosis
#18
Carolina Mejia Otero, Shervin Assassi, Marie Hudson, Maureen D Mayes, Rosa Estrada-Y-Martin, Claudia Pedroza, Tingting W Mills, Jennifer Walker, Murray Baron, Wendy Stevens, Susanna M Proudman, Mandana Nikpour, Sonal Mehra, Mianbo Wang, Marvin J Fritzler
OBJECTIVE: To examine the clinical correlates and survival in patients with antifibrillarin antibodies (AFA) in a large international study population consisting of well-characterized systemic sclerosis (SSc) cohorts from Canada, Australia, and the United States. METHODS: Baseline clinical data from the prospective cohorts (Canadian Scleroderma Research Group, the Australian Scleroderma Cohort Study, and the American Genetics versus Environment in Scleroderma Outcome Study) were investigated...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323273/hydrogen-and-methane-based-breath-testing-in-gastrointestinal-disorders-the-north-american-consensus
#19
Ali Rezaie, Michelle Buresi, Anthony Lembo, Henry Lin, Richard McCallum, Satish Rao, Max Schmulson, Miguel Valdovinos, Salam Zakko, Mark Pimentel
OBJECTIVES: Breath tests (BTs) are important for the diagnosis of carbohydrate maldigestion syndromes and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO). However, standardization is lacking regarding indications for testing, test methodology and interpretation of results. A consensus meeting of experts was convened to develop guidelines for clinicians and research. METHODS: Pre-meeting survey questions encompassing five domains; indications, preparation, performance, interpretation of results, and knowledge gaps, were sent to 17 clinician-scientists, and 10 attended a live meeting...
May 2017: American Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321329/utility-of-the-wireless-motility-capsule-and-lactulose-breath-testing-in-the-evaluation-of-patients-with-parkinson-s-disease-who-present-with-functional-gastrointestinal-symptoms
#20
Andrew Su, Rita Gandhy, Carrolee Barlow, George Triadafilopoulos
BACKGROUND: The aetiology and origin of gastrointestinal symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD) remains poorly understood. Gastroparesis, small bowel transit delay and bacterial overgrowth may, individually or collectively, play a role. AIMS: In patients with PD and functional gastrointestinal symptoms, we aimed to determine the utility of the wireless motility capsule and lactulose breath tests in further defining their symptoms' aetiology. METHODS: In this retrospective cohort study, consecutive patients with PD and functional gastrointestinal symptoms underwent clinical assessment, as well as wireless motility capsule and lactulose breath testing using standard protocols...
2017: BMJ Open Gastroenterology
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