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white matter disease

Chenhui Mao, Jing Gao, Liri Jin, Bin Peng, Yupu Guo
Neurosyphilis occurs in the late stage of systemic syphilis infection; early diagnosis and treatment are crucial to the prognosis. We review 3 autopsy cases with different subtypes of neurosyphilis, that is cases with meningovascular, general paresis, and a combination of the 2, respectively. We investigated the gross morphology and leptomeninges, vessels, cerebral cortex, white matter, brainstem, cerebellum, olfactory bulb and spinal cord microscopically. We found that meningovascular inflammation exists in both early and late phases of neurosyphilis, not only in the meningovascular subtype...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
Sebhat Erqou, Jane E Clougherty, Oladipupo Olafiranye, Jared W Magnani, Aryan Aiyer, Sheila Tripathy, Ellen Kinnee, Kevin E Kip, Steven E Reis
OBJECTIVE: We aimed to assess racial differences in air pollution exposures to ambient fine particulate matter (particles with median aerodynamic diameter <2.5 µm [PM2.5 ]) and black carbon (BC) and their association with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, arterial endothelial function, incident CVD events, and all-cause mortality. APPROACH AND RESULTS: Data from the HeartSCORE study (Heart Strategies Concentrating on Risk Evaluation) were used to estimate 1-year average air pollution exposure to PM2...
March 15, 2018: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
Heather T Whittaker, Shenghua Zhu, Domenico L Di Curzio, Richard Buist, Xin-Min Li, Suzanna Noy, Frances K Wiseman, Jonathan D Thiessen, Melanie Martin
Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology causes microstructural changes in the brain. These changes, if quantified with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), could be studied for use as an early biomarker for AD. The aim of our study was to determine if T1 relaxation, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), and quantitative magnetization transfer imaging (qMTI) metrics could reveal changes within the hippocampus and surrounding white matter structures in ex vivo transgenic mouse brains overexpressing human amyloid precursor protein with the Swedish mutation...
March 12, 2018: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Sarah Caughlin, Shikhar Maheshwari, Yuksel Agca, Cansu Agca, Aaron J Harris, Kristina Jurcic, Ken K-C Yeung, David F Cechetto, Shawn N Whitehead
BACKGROUND: Accumulation of simple gangliosides GM2 and GM3, and gangliosides with longer long-chain bases (d20:1) have been linked to toxicity and the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Conversely, complex gangliosides, such as GM1, have been shown to be neuroprotective. Recent evidence using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization imaging mass spectrometry (MALDI-IMS) has demonstrated that a-series gangliosides are differentially altered during normal aging, yet it remains unclear how simple species are shifting relative to complex gangliosides in the prodromal stages of AD...
March 12, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Celeste Sassi, Michael A Nalls, Perry G Ridge, Jesse R Gibbs, Michelle K Lupton, Claire Troakes, Katie Lunnon, Safa Al-Sarraj, Kristelle S Brown, Christopher Medway, Jenny Lord, James Turton, Jose Bras, Sonja Blumenau, Mareike Thielke, Christa Josties, Dorette Freyer, Annette Dietrich, Monia Hammer, Michael Baier, Ulrich Dirnagl, Kevin Morgan, John F Powell, John S Kauwe, Carlos Cruchaga, Alison M Goate, Andrew B Singleton, Rita Guerreiro, Angela Hodges, John Hardy
Mendelian adult-onset leukodystrophies are a spectrum of rare inherited progressive neurodegenerative disorders affecting the white matter of the central nervous system. Among these, cerebral autosomal dominant and recessive arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy, cerebroretinal vasculopathy, metachromatic leukodystrophy, hereditary diffuse leukoencephalopathy with spheroids, and vanishing white matter disease present with rapidly progressive dementia as dominant feature and are caused by mutations in NOTCH3, HTRA1, TREX1, ARSA, CSF1R, EIF2B1, EIF2B2, EIF2B3, EIF2B4, and EIF2B5, respectively...
February 2, 2018: Neurobiology of Aging
G Fenu, L Lorefice, L Loi, V Sechi, F Contu, G Coghe, J Frau, G Spinicci, M A Barracciu, M G Marrosu, E Cocco
BACKGROUND: Paediatric onset multiple sclerosis (POMS) is associated with reduced brain and deep grey matter volume in comparison with that in healthy controls and individuals with adult onset multiple sclerosis (AOMS). The aim of our study was to evaluate the impact of POMS on adult brain volume with adjustment for other parameters, such as disease duration. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We recruited 20 POMS and 40 AOMS patients and 20 healthy controls matched for age and sex...
March 6, 2018: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
Hui Zhu, Zhixing Li, Jinglei Lv, Renliang Zhao
OBJECTIVE: Cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD) describes a syndrome of neuroimaging, pathological, and associated clinical features caused by small intracranial vascular lesions, which commonly coexists with large artery atherosclerosis (LAA) and has been identified as a major cause of motor impairment over time. In this review, we aim to summarize the relationship between CSVD and LAA, and discuss the effects of CSVD on the clinical outcome of patients with ischemic stroke caused by LAA...
March 15, 2018: Neurological Research
Piotr Sowa, Hanne F Harbo, Nathan S White, Elisabeth G Celius, Hauke Bartsch, Pål Berg-Hansen, Stine M Moen, Atle Bjørnerud, Lars T Westlye, Ole A Andreassen, Anders M Dale, Mona K Beyer
BACKGROUND: Restriction spectrum imaging (RSI) is a recently introduced magnetic resonance imaging diffusion technique. The utility of RSI in multiple sclerosis (MS) is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association between RSI-derived parameters and neurological disability in MS. METHODS: Seventy-seven relapsing-remitting MS patients were scanned with RSI on a 3-T scanner. RSI-derived parameters: fast and slow apparent diffusion coefficient (sADC), fractional anisotropy, restricted fractional anisotropy, neurite density (ND), cellularity, extracellular water fraction, and free water fraction, were obtained in white matter lesions (WML) and normal appearing white matter (NAWM)...
March 1, 2018: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
Farzaneh Ghazi Sherbaf, Mahtab Mojtahed Zadeh, Maryam Haghshomar, Mohammad Hadi Aarabi
Psychiatric symptoms and motor impairment are major contributions to the poor quality of life in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Here, we applied a novel diffusion-weighted imaging approach, diffusion MRI connectometry, to investigate the correlation of quality of life, evaluated by Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire (PDQ39) with the white matter structural connectivity in 27 non-demented PD patients (disease duration of 5.3 ± 2.9 years, H and Y stage = 1.5 ± 0.6, UPDRS-III = 13.7 ± 6.5, indicating unilateral and mild motor involvement)...
March 14, 2018: Acta Neurologica Belgica
Futoshi Matsushita, Hirotaka Kida, Ken-Ichi Tabei, Chizuru Nakano, Keita Matsuura, Yuichiro Ii, Ryogen Sasaki, Akira Taniguchi, Yugo Narita, Masayuki Maeda, Masayuki Satoh, Hidekazu Tomimoto
Introduction: This study aims to investigate the association between the presence and frequency of cortical lesions (CLs), and the clinical and psychological features of multiple sclerosis (MS). Methods: A total of 19 patients with MS were examined using double inversion recovery (DIR) sequences with 3T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and classified into two groups: CL and non-CL. In-house software was used to quantitatively determine the atrophy of each brain region...
March 2018: Brain and Behavior
Yan Liang, Yang-Kun Chen, Vincent Chung-Tong Mok, De-Feng Wang, Gabor S Ungvari, Winnie Chiu-Wing Chu, Hee-Ju Kang, Wai-Kwong Tang
Objective: All types of cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) markers including lacune, white matter hyperintensities (WMH), cerebral microbleeds, and perivascular spaces were found to be associated with poststroke depressive symptoms (PDS). This study explored whether the combination of the four markers constituting an overall SVD burden was associated with PDS. Methods: A cohort of 563 patients with acute ischemic stroke were followed over a 15-month period after the index stroke. A score of ≥7 on the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale was defined as clinically significant PDS...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Changqing Lu, Lihua Dong, Hui Zhou, Qianmei Li, Guojiao Huang, Shu Jun Bai, Linchuan Liao
Oligodendrocytes are the myelin-producing cells of the central nervous system (CNS). A variety of brain disorders from "classical" demyelinating diseases, such as multiple sclerosis, stroke, schizophrenia, depression, Down syndrome and autism, are shown myelination defects. Oligodendrocyte myelination is regulated by a complex interplay of intrinsic, epigenetic and extrinsic factors. Gpr17 (G protein-coupled receptor 17) is a G protein-coupled receptor, and has been identified to be a regulator for oligodendrocyte development...
March 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Esther M C van Leijsen, H Bea Kuiperij, Iris Kersten, Mayra I Bergkamp, Ingeborg W M van Uden, Hugo Vanderstichele, Erik Stoops, Jurgen A H R Claassen, Ewoud J van Dijk, Frank-Erik de Leeuw, Marcel M Verbeek
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) is a frequent pathology in aging and contributor to the development of dementia. Plasma Aβ (amyloid β) levels may be useful as early biomarker, but the role of plasma Aβ in SVD remains to be elucidated. We investigated the association of plasma Aβ levels with severity and progression of SVD markers. METHODS: We studied 487 participants from the RUN DMC study (Radboud University Nijmegen Diffusion Tensor and Magnetic Resonance Imaging Cohort) of whom 258 participants underwent 3 MRI assessments during 9 years...
March 14, 2018: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
G Oriolo, E Egmond, Z Mariño, M Cavero, R Navines, L Zamarrenho, R Solà, J Pujol, N Bargallo, X Forns, R Martin-Santos
BACKGROUND: Chronic hepatitis C is considered a systemic disease because of extra-hepatic manifestations. Neuroimaging has been employed in hepatitis C virus-infected patients to find in vivo evidence of central nervous system alterations. AIMS: Systematic review and meta-analysis of neuroimaging research in chronic hepatitis C treatment naive patients, or patients previously treated without sustained viral response, to study structural and functional brain impact of hepatitis C...
March 14, 2018: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Boldizsár Czéh, Szilvia A Nagy
Depressive disorders are complex, multifactorial mental disorders with unknown neurobiology. Numerous theories aim to explain the pathophysiology. According to the "gliocentric theory", glial abnormalities are responsible for the development of the disease. The aim of this review article is to summarize the rapidly growing number of cellular and molecular evidences indicating disturbed glial functioning in depressive disorders. We focus here exclusively on the clinical studies and present the in vivo neuroimaging findings together with the postmortem molecular and histopathological data...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
Christiane Graetz, Adriane Gröger, Felix Luessi, Anke Salmen, Daniela Zöller, Janine Schultz, Nelly Siller, Vinzenz Fleischer, Barbara Bellenberg, Achim Berthele, Viola Biberacher, Joachim Havla, Michael Hecker, Reinhard Hohlfeld, Carmen Infante-Duarte, Jan S Kirschke, Tania Kümpfel, Ralf Linker, Friedemann Paul, Steffen Pfeuffer, Philipp Sämann, Gerrit Toenges, Frank Weber, Uwe K Zettl, Antje Jahn-Eimermacher, Gisela Antony, Sergiu Groppa, Heinz Wiendl, Bernhard Hemmer, Mark Mühlau, Carsten Lukas, Ralf Gold, Christina M Lill, Frauke Zipp
BACKGROUND: The course of multiple sclerosis (MS) shows substantial inter-individual variability. The underlying determinants of disease severity likely involve genetic and environmental factors. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the impact of APOE and HLA polymorphisms as well as smoking and body mass index (BMI) in the very early MS course. METHODS: Untreated patients ( n = 263) with a recent diagnosis of relapsing-remitting (RR) MS or clinically isolated syndrome underwent standardized magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)...
March 1, 2018: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
Fei Cong, Jia-Wei Wang, Bo Wang, Zhangyan Yang, Jing An, Zhentao Zuo, Zihao Zhang, Yu-Qing Zhang, Yan Zhuo
OBJECTIVES: To image the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPN), a deep brain stimulation (DBS) target for Parkinson disease, using MRI with validated results. METHODS: This study used the MP2RAGE sequence with high resolution and enhanced grey-white matter contrast on a 7-T ultra-high-field MRI system to image the PPN as well as a diffusion spectrum imaging method on a 3-T MRI system to reconstruct the main fibre systems surrounding the PPN. The coordinates of the rostral and caudal PPN poles of both sides were measured in relation to the third and fourth ventricular landmarks on the 7-T image...
March 12, 2018: European Radiology
Masataka Tanaka, Naoki Tani, Tomoyuki Maruo, Satoru Oshino, Koichi Hosomi, Youichi Saitoh, Haruhiko Kishima
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence of and risk factors for postoperative delirium (POD) after deep brain stimulation (DBS) surgery in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). METHODS: We analyzed the preoperative T1-weigthed magnetic resonance imaging data of 71 PD patients who underwent DBS surgery. Multiple regression analysis was done with age, l-dopa equivalent daily dose, laterality of the surgery, target regions, number of electrode trajectories tried, grey matter (GM) volume, and white matter (WM) volume as explanatory variables and the duration (number of days) of POD as the response variable...
March 9, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Menuka Pallebage-Gamarallage, Sean Foxley, Ricarda A L Menke, Istvan N Huszar, Mark Jenkinson, Benjamin C Tendler, Chaoyue Wang, Saad Jbabdi, Martin R Turner, Karla L Miller, Olaf Ansorge
BACKGROUND: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a clinically and histopathologically heterogeneous neurodegenerative disorder, in which therapy is hindered by the rapid progression of disease and lack of biomarkers. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has demonstrated its potential for detecting the pathological signature and tracking disease progression in ALS. However, the microstructural and molecular pathological substrate is poorly understood and generally defined histologically...
March 13, 2018: BMC Neuroscience
Martin Paucar, Åsa Bergendal, Peter Gustavsson, Magnus Nordenskjöld, José Laffita-Mesa, Irina Savitcheva, Per Svenningsson
Spinocerebellar ataxia type 19 (SCA19), allelic with spinocerebellar ataxia type 22 (SCA22), is a rare syndrome caused by mutations in the KCND3 gene which encodes the potassium channel Kv4.3. Only 18 SCA19/22 families and sporadic cases of different ethnic backgrounds have been previously reported. As in other SCAs, the SCA19/22 phenotype is variable and usually consists of adult-onset slowly progressive ataxia and cognitive impairment; myoclonus and seizures; mild Parkinsonism occurs in some cases. Here we describe a Swedish SCA19/22 family spanning five generations and harboring the T377M mutation in KCND3...
March 12, 2018: Cerebellum
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