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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445885/patterns-of-microglial-cell-activation-in-alzheimer-disease-and-frontotemporal-lobar-degeneration
#1
Ricardo Taipa, Paulo Brochado, Andrew Robinson, Inês Reis, Patrício Costa, David M Mann, Manuel Melo Pires, Nuno Sousa
AIMS: Microglia-driven neuroinflammation can play an important role in the pathophysiology of neurodegenerative disorders. In this study, we sought to characterize the distribution of microglial cell activation in 2 neurodegenerative dementias with distinct protein signatures, Alzheimer disease (AD) and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) of the TDP subtype, and to determine if there was an anatomical correlation with the phenotypes most commonly associated with these conditions...
April 27, 2017: Neuro-degenerative Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445538/gene-expression-patterns-associated-with-neurological-disease-in-human-hiv-infection
#2
Pietro Paolo Sanna, Vez Repunte-Canonigo, Eliezer Masliah, Celine Lefebvre
The pathogenesis and nosology of HIV-associated neurological disease (HAND) remain incompletely understood. Here, to provide new insight into the molecular events leading to neurocognitive impairments (NCI) in HIV infection, we analyzed pathway dysregulations in gene expression profiles of HIV-infected patients with or without NCI and HIV encephalitis (HIVE) and control subjects. The Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) algorithm was used for pathway analyses in conjunction with the Molecular Signatures Database collection of canonical pathways (MSigDb)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445498/metabolic-profiles-by-1h-magnetic-resonance-spectroscopy-in-natalizumab-associated-post-pml-lesions-of-multiple-sclerosis-patients-who-survived-progressive-multifocal-leukoencephalopathy-pml
#3
Ruth Schneider, Barbara Bellenberg, Robert Hoepner, Eva-Maria Kolb, Gisa Ellrichmann, Aiden Haghikia, Ralf Gold, Carsten Lukas
PURPOSE: Early diagnosis and treatment of multiple sclerosis-related progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) significantly improve clinical outcomes. However, there is a lack of information regarding the restart of immunomodulatory therapy in the post-PML setting, when multiple sclerosis activity reappears. We aimed at the examination of metabolic differences using 1H-magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS) in multiple sclerosis patients at various post-PML stages and at the exploration of differences according to their disease and JC virus (JCV) status...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445084/brain-atrophy-15-years-after-cis-baseline-and-follow-up-clinico-radiological-correlations
#4
Angela Vidal-Jordana, Jaume Sastre-Garriga, Deborah Pareto, Carmen Tur, Georgina Arrambide, Susana Otero-Romero, Elena Huerga, Raquel Mitjana, Cristina Auger, Mar Tintoré, Alex Rovira, Xavier Montalban
BACKGROUND: Brain atrophy in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients is present since the very early stages of the disease and it has been related to long-term disability. OBJECTIVE: To estimate brain volume (BV) at 15 years after a clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) and to evaluate its relationship with disease outcomes. METHODS: From a prospective cohort including patients presenting with a CIS, 54 patients with a brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) performed 15 years after CIS were included...
April 1, 2017: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444635/the-leukocentric-theory-of-neurological-disorder-a-manifesto
#5
Robert Fern
Approximately half of the human brain is composed of white matter (WM), a specialized tissue housing the axonal projection of neurons and their necessary supporting glial cells. Axons course long distances from their parent soma, have a delicate structure, large surface area and in many cases are dependent upon a uniquely close morphological arrangement with myelinating oligodendrocyte partners; all factors that may predispose them to injury and disease. WM damage is central to a range of well-characterized disorders including multiple sclerosis and spinal cord injury and is also makes a significant contribution to disorders often considered to be largely focused in gray matter; for example, in stroke where ~49% of injury by volume is located in WM...
April 25, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442154/pathogenesis-and-treatment-of-sole-ulcers-and-white-line-disease
#6
REVIEW
Jan K Shearer, Sarel R van Amstel
Sole ulcers and white line disease are 2 of the most common claw horn lesions in confined dairy cattle. Predisposing causes include unbalanced weight bearing, and metabolic, enzymatic, and hormonal changes. The white line serves as the junction between the sole and axial and abaxial wall. It is vulnerable to trauma and separation, permitting organic matter to become entrapped. Colonization contributes to retrograde movement of the infection to the solar and perioplic corium, where an abscess forms resulting in pain and lameness...
April 22, 2017: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Food Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439961/involvement-of-the-cerebellum-in-parkinson-s-disease-and-dementia-with-lewy-bodies
#7
K Seidel, M Bouzrou, N Heidemann, R Krüger, L Schöls, Wfa den Dunnen, H-W Korf, U Rüb
Patient brains with Parkinson's disease or Dementia with Lewy bodies show aggregation of alpha-synuclein in pre-cerebellar brainstem structures. Furthermore, patients exhibit resting tremor, unstable gait and impaired balance which may be associated with cerebellar dysfunction. Therefore, we screened the cerebella of 12 patients with alpha-synucleinopathies for neuropathological changes. Cerebellar nuclei and neighboring white matter displayed numerous aggregates, while lobules were mildly affected. Cerebellar aggregation pathology may suggest a prion-like spread originating from affected precerebellar structures and the high homogeneity between patients with Dementia with Lewy bodies and Parkinson's disease shows that both diseases likely belong to the same neuropathological spectrum...
April 25, 2017: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438696/altered-temporal-lobe-white-matter-lipid-ion-profiles-in-an-experimental-model-of-sporadic-alzheimer-s-disease
#8
Ming Tong, Raiane Leão, Gina V Vimbela, Emine B Yalcin, Jared Kay, Alexander Krotow, Suzanne M de la Monte
BACKGROUND: White matter is an early and important yet under-evaluated target of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Metabolic impairments due to insulin and insulin-like growth factor resistance contribute to white matter degeneration because corresponding signal transduction pathways maintain oligodendrocyte function and survival. METHODS: This study utilized a model of sporadic AD in which adult Long Evans rats administered intracerebral streptozotocin (i.c. STZ) developed AD-type neurodegeneration...
April 21, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438531/altered-gray-and-white-matter-microstructure-in-cushing-s-disease-a-diffusional-kurtosis-imaging-study
#9
Hong Jiang, Na-Ying He, Yu-Hao Sun, Fang-Fang Jian, Liu-Guan Bian, Jian-Kang Shen, Fu-Hua Yan, Si-Jian Pan, Qing-Fang Sun
Exposure to chronic hypercortisolism has multiple adverse effects on brain biology in humans. Cushing's disease (CD) represents a unique and natural human model for examining the effects of hypercortisolism on the brain. This cross-sectional study used Diffusional Kurtosis Imaging (DKI) to investigate the microstructure alterations in both white matter (WM) and gray matter (GM) of CD patients and to determine the relationship of these changes with clinical characteristics. DKI images were obtained from 15 active CD patients...
April 21, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438223/extrastriatal-changes-in-patients-with-late-onset-glutaric-aciduria-type-i-highlight-the-risk-of-long-term-neurotoxicity
#10
Nikolas Boy, Jana Heringer, Renate Brackmann, Olaf Bodamer, Angelika Seitz, Stefan Kölker, Inga Harting
BACKGROUND: Without neonatal initiation of treatment, 80-90% of patients with glutaric aciduria type 1 (GA1) develop striatal injury during the first six years of life resulting in a complex, predominantly dystonic movement disorder. Onset of motor symptoms may be acute following encephalopathic crisis or insidious without apparent crisis. Additionally, so-called late-onset GA1 has been described in single patients diagnosed after the age of 6 years. With the aim of better characterizing and understanding late-onset GA1 we analyzed clinical findings, biochemical phenotype, and MRI changes of eight late-onset patients and compared these to eight control patients over the age of 6 years with early diagnosis and start of treatment...
April 24, 2017: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435392/a-systemic-literature-review-of-neuroimaging-studies-in-women-with-breast-cancer-treated-with-adjuvant-chemotherapy
#11
REVIEW
Paulina Andryszak, Monika Wiłkość, Paweł Izdebski, Bogdan Żurawski
Chemotherapy-induced cognitive deficits in patients with breast cancer, predominantly in attention and verbal memory, have been observed in numerous studies. These neuropsychological findings are corroborated by the results of neuroimaging studies. The aim of this paper was to survey the reports on cerebral structural and functional alterations in women with breast cancer treated with chemotherapy (CTx). First, we discuss the host-related and disease-related mechanisms underlying cognitive impairment after CTx...
2017: Contemporary Oncology Współczesna Onkologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432784/contributions-of-imprecision-in-pet-mri-rigid-registration-to-imprecision-in-amyloid-pet-suvr-measurements
#12
Christopher G Schwarz, David T Jones, Jeffrey L Gunter, Val J Lowe, Prashanthi Vemuri, Matthew L Senjem, Ronald C Petersen, David S Knopman, Clifford R Jack
Quantitative measurement of β-amyloid from amyloid PET scans typically relies on localizing target and reference regions by image registration to MRI. In this work, we present a series of simulations where 50 small random perturbations of starting location and orientation were applied to each subject's PET scan, and rigid registration using spm_coreg was performed between each perturbed PET scan and its corresponding MRI. We then measured variation in the output PET-MRI registrations and how this variation affected the resulting SUVR measurements...
April 22, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432077/aerobic-exercise-promotes-executive-functions-and-impacts-functional-neural-activity-among-older-adults-with-vascular-cognitive-impairment
#13
Chun Liang Hsu, John R Best, Jennifer C Davis, Lindsay S Nagamatsu, Shirley Wang, Lara A Boyd, Gy Robin Hsiung, Michelle W Voss, Janice Jennifer Eng, Teresa Liu-Ambrose
BACKGROUND: Vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) results from cerebrovascular disease, and worldwide, it is the second most common type of cognitive dysfunction. While targeted aerobic training is a promising approach to delay the progression of VCI by reducing cardiometabolic risk factors, few randomised controlled trials to date have specifically assessed the efficacy of aerobic training on cognitive and brain outcomes in this group at risk for functional decline. AIM: To examine the effect of moderate-intensity aerobic training on executive functions and functional neural activity among older adults with mild subcortical ischaemic VCI (SIVCI)...
April 21, 2017: British Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431735/characterization-of-an-amyloid-only-transgenic-b6c3-tg-appswe-psen1de9-85dbo-mmjax-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#14
G S Finnie, R Gunnarsson, J Manavis, P C Blumbergs, K A Mander, S Edwards, C Van den Heuvel, J W Finnie
The spatiotemporal pattern of cerebral amyloid deposition, detectable as light microscopically recognizable aggregates in an 'amyloid only' transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease, B6C3-Tg(APPswe,PSEN1dE9)85Dbo/Mmjax, is reported for the first time in this strain. Monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies were used to detect amyloid deposition immunohistochemically in brains collected from these mice at 3-12 months of age. Amyloid aggregates (20-200 μm) were first found in serial, whole coronal sections of brain at 4 months of age and these increased progressively, plateauing at 11-12 months...
April 18, 2017: Journal of Comparative Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431605/global-brain-atrophy-and-metabolic-dysfunction-in-lgi1-encephalitis-a-prospective-multimodal-mri-study
#15
Monika Szots, Morten Blaabjerg, Gergely Orsi, Pernille Iversen, Daniel Kondziella, Camilla G Madsen, Ellen Garde, Peter O Magnusson, Peter Barsi, Ferenc Nagy, Hartwig R Siebner, Zsolt Illes
BACKGROUND: Chronic cognitive deficits are frequent in leucin-rich glioma-inactivated 1 protein (LGI1) encephalitis. We examined structural and metabolic brain abnormalities following LGI1 encephalitis and correlated findings with acute and follow-up clinical outcomes. METHODS: Nine patients underwent prospective multimodal 3 Tesla MRI 33.1±18months after disease onset, including automated volumetry, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS)...
May 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431323/transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-in-developmental-stuttering-relations-with-previous-neurophysiological-research-and-future-perspectives
#16
REVIEW
P Busan, P P Battaglini, M Sommer
Developmental stuttering (DS) is a disruption of the rhythm of speech, and affected people may be unable to execute fluent voluntary speech. There are still questions about the exact causes of DS. Evidence suggests there are differences in the structure and functioning of motor systems used for preparing, executing, and controlling motor acts, especially when they are speech related. Much research has been obtained using neuroimaging methods, ranging from functional magnetic resonance to diffusion tensor imaging and electroencephalography/magnetoencephalography...
April 3, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431180/collagenosis-of-the-deep-medullary-veins-an-underrecognized-pathologic-correlate-of-white-matter-hyperintensities-and-periventricular-infarction
#17
Julia Keith, Fu-Qiang Gao, Raza Noor, Alex Kiss, Gayathiri Balasubramaniam, Kelvin Au, Ekaterina Rogaeva, Mario Masellis, Sandra E Black
White matter hyperintensities (WMH) are prevalent. Although arteriolar disease has been implicated in their pathogenesis, venous pathology warrants consideration. We investigated relationships of WMH with histologic venous, arteriolar and white matter abnormalities and correlated findings with premortem neuroimaging. Three regions of periventricular white matter were sampled from archived autopsy brains of 24 pathologically confirmed Alzheimer disease (AD) and 18 age-matched nonAD patients. Using trichrome staining, venous collagenosis (VC) of periventricular veins (<150 µm in diameter) was scored for severity of wall thickening and occlusion; percent stenosis by collagenosis of large caliber (>200 µm) veins (laVS) was measured...
April 1, 2017: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430290/frequency-and-topography-of-small-cerebrovascular-lesions-in-vascular-and-in-mixed-dementia-a-post-mortem-7-tesla-magnetic-resonance-imaging-study-with-neuropathological-correlates
#18
Jacques De Reuck, Florent Auger, Nicolas Durieux, Vincent Deramecourt, Claude-Alain Maurage, Charlotte Cordonnier, Florence Pasquier, Didier Leys, Regis Bordet
<i><b>Introduction</b>: Mixed dementia (MixD) refers to a combination of definite Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vascular encephalopathy. The existence of a "pure" type of vascular dementia (VaD) is controversial. There is a need to find magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) characteristics allowing the distinction between VaD and MixD. The present post-mortem 7.0-tesla MRI compares the frequency or severity and the topography of the small cerebrovascular lesions in brains of patients with VaD and with MixD...
2017: Folia Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429448/white-matter-microstructure-variations-contribute-to-neurological-soft-signs-in-healthy-adults
#19
Dusan Hirjak, Philipp A Thomann, Robert C Wolf, Katharina M Kubera, Caspar Goch, Jan Hering, Klaus H Maier-Hein
OBJECTIVE: Neurological soft signs (NSS) are core features of psychiatric disorders with significant neurodevelopmental origin. However, it is unclear whether NSS correlates are associated with neuropathological processes underlying the disease or if they are confounded by medication. Given that NSS are also present in healthy persons (HP), investigating HP could reveal NSS correlates, which are not biased by disease-specific processes or drug treatment. Therefore, we used a combination of diffusion MRI analysis tools to provide a framework of specific white matter (WM) microstructure variations underlying NSS in HP...
April 21, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428977/19th-workshop-of-the-international-stroke-genetics-consortium-april-28-29-2016-boston-massachusetts-usa-2016-001-mri-defined-cerebrovascular-genomics-the-charge-consortium
#20
S Debette, Y Saba, D Vojinovic, X Jian, H Adams, G Chauhan, M Sargurupremraj, S Kaffashian, J Ding, J C Bis, P Nyquist, K Mather, C Van Duijn, L J Launer, M A Ikram, H Schmidt, W T Longstreth, M Fornage, S Seshadri
The CHARGE consortium is an investigator-initiated collaboration to facilitate meta-analyses of genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and genomic analyses based on next generation sequencing (NGS), among multiple large and well-phenotyped population-based cohort studies around the world (http://www.chargeconsortium.com). Within the neuro-CHARGE working group, we are presenting an update of ongoing genomic studies on MRI-markers of cerebrovascular disease. Large population-based studies have shown that the burden of cerebrovascular disease extends far beyond that of clinical stroke...
March 2017: Neurology. Genetics
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