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Liang Meng, Binling Zhu, Kefang Zheng, Shanlin Fu
A novel microextraction technique based on ultrasound-assisted low-density solvent dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (UA-LDS-DLLME) had been applied for the determination of 4 designer benzodiazepines (phenazepam, diclazepam, flubromazepam and etizolam) in urine samples by gas chromatography- triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC-QQQ-MS). Ethyl acetate (168μL) was added into the urine samples after adjusting pH to 11.3. The samples were sonicated in an ultrasonic bath for 5.5min to form a cloudy suspension...
April 4, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Jana Tomková, Martin Švidrnoch, Vítězslav Maier, Peter Ondra
A new ultra high performance liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization time of flight mass spectrometry method for the selective and sensitive separation, identification, and determination of selected designer benzodiazepines (namely, pyrazolam, phenazepam, etizolam, flubromazepam, diclazepam, deschloroetizolam, bentazepam, nimetazepam, and flubromazolam) in human serum was developed. The separation of the studied designer benzodiazepines was achieved on C18 chromatographic column using gradient elution within 6 min without any significant matrix interferences...
March 7, 2017: Journal of Separation Science
Souleiman El Balkhi, Maxime Chaslot, Nicolas Picard, Sylvain Dulaurent, Martine Delage, Olivier Mathieu, Franck Saint-Marcoux
Designer benzodiazepines (DBZDs) have become of particular importance in the past few years. The metabolite monitoring of DBZD in biological fluids could be of great interest in clinical and forensic toxicology. However, DBZD metabolites are not known or not commercially available. The identification of some DBZD metabolites has been mostly explored by self-administration studies or by in vitro studies followed by high-resolution mass spectrometry. The question arose whether a unit resolution instrument could be efficient enough to allow the identification of DBZD metabolites...
February 4, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Marieke De Boeck, Sophie Missotten, Wim Dehaen, Jan Tytgat, Eva Cuypers
To date, thorough clean-up of complex biological samples remains an essential part of the analytical process. The solid phase extraction (SPE) technique is the well-known standard, however, its main weaknesses are the labor-intensive and time-consuming protocols. In this respect, dispersive liquid-liquid microextractions (DLLME) seem to offer less complex and more efficient extraction procedures. Furthermore, ionic liquids (ILs) - liquid salts - are emerging as new promising extraction solvents, thanks to their non-flammable nature, negligible vapor pressure and easily adaptable physiochemical properties...
May 2017: Forensic Science International
Gudrun Høiseth, Silja Skogstad Tuv, Ritva Karinen
INTRODUCTION: A number of new designer benzodiazepines have reached the illegal drug market over the past years. Toxicological interpretation of concentrations of these drugs in blood is quite challenging as very limited human data have previously been published. The aim of this study was to report blood concentrations of new designer benzodiazepines in a population of drugged drivers as well as some other criminal offenders, and to relate this to clinical impairment. METHODS: The present material represents cases involving new designer benzodiazepines (clonazolam, diclazepam, flubromazepam, flubromazolam and pyrazolam) and etizolam, submitted for analyses during the period July 1, 2013-May 31, 2016...
November 2016: Forensic Science International
Madeleine Pettersson Bergstrand, Anders Helander, Therese Hansson, Olof Beck
The emerging new psychoactive substances made available for recreational drug use have recently started to include designer benzodiazepines. As a consequence, the routine immunoassay drug testing for benzodiazepines may become less effective, due to an increased occurrence of 'false negative' and 'false positive' results. This work aimed to extend the knowledge of analytical cross-reactivity of 13 designer benzodiazepines in the CEDIA, EMIT II Plus, HEIA, and KIMS II immunoassays. Urine standards were prepared by spiking blank urine with clonazolam, deschloroetizolam, diclazepam, estazolam, etizolam, flubromazepam, flubromazolam, flutazolam, 3-hydroxyphenazepam, meclonazepam, nifoxipam, phenazepam, and pyrazolam...
July 1, 2016: Drug Testing and Analysis
Donna Papsun, Alison Krywanczyk, James C Vose, Elizabeth A Bundock, Barry K Logan
MT-45 (1-cyclohexyl-4-(1,2-diphenylethyl)piperazine) is just one of the many novel psychoactive substances (NPS) to have reached the recreational drug market in the twenty-first century; it is however, one of the first designer opioids to achieve some degree of popularity, in a market currently dominated by synthetic cannabinoids and designer stimulants. A single fatality involving MT-45 and etizolam is described. A method for the quantitation of MT-45 in whole blood using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was developed and validated...
May 2016: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Katerina Liveri, Maria A Constantinou, Maria Afxentiou, Popi Kanari
This is a case report of a fatal intoxication in Cyprus related to 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV) and 2-(methylamino)-1-phenylpentan-1-one (pentedrone) intake combined with antipsychotic and antidepressant substances. A 42- year old man with a history of serious psychiatric illness was found unresponsive in his bed. Seized materials were also found close to his body. The forensic autopsy reported myocardial infarction due to multidrug intoxication. Toxicology screening in blood and urine was applied...
August 2016: Forensic Science International
Dushad Ram, Shwetha Patil, Basavana Gowdappa, Iyshwarya Rajalakshmi
Atomoxetine, a selective norepinephrine inhibitor, is effective in comorbid anxiety and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, however its role in panic disorder is unknown. We are presenting a case of panic disorder, who initially partially responded to clonazepam. When clonazepam was added with sertraline, escitalopram, desvenlafaxin, she did not improve significantly until paroxetine was added. When clonazepam-paroxetine combination was added with propranolol, etizolam, olanzepine, risperidone and amisulpride the symptom remission did not occur until a trial of Atomoxetine was done...
December 31, 2015: Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience: the Official Scientific Journal of the Korean College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Magdalena Łukasik-Głębocka, Karina Sommerfeld, Artur Teżyk, Barbara Zielińska-Psuja, Paweł Panieński, Czesław Żaba
CONTEXT: In addition to designer benzodiazepines such as etizolam, deschloroetizolam, pyrazolam, diclazepam, nifoxipam, or clonazolam, a new psychoactive substance like flubromazolam, triazole of flubromazepam has become available. Flubromazolam is currently not marketed as a medication but rather as a research chemical and recreational drug. It mostly causes sedative effects but also has moderate anti-anxiety and muscle relaxant effects. A case of a severe intoxication of flubromazolam has been reported...
2016: Clinical Toxicology
Sumit Gupta, Bhavuk Garg
Etizolam is a thienodiazepine anxiolytic which is said to have lower dependence potential than other benzodiazepines. We report a case of etizolam dependence in a young male with social anxiety disorder and moderate depression. This case report highlights the fact that the same caution be exercised while prescribing etizolam with respect to its potential to cause dependence as with any other benzodiazepine.
November 2014: Indian Journal of Pharmacology
Takako Shiota, Kazumasa Torimoto, Hitoshi Momose, Takuya Nakamuro, Hiroshi Mochizuki, Hiromi Kumamoto, Akihide Hirayama, Kiyohide Fujimoto
BACKGROUND: Cognitive impairment is one of the side effects of using anticholinergic medicines for overactive bladder; however, its incidence has not been fully reported. We experienced two elderly Japanese patients with overactive bladder who had temporary cognitive impairment caused by anticholinergic medicines. CASE PRESENTATION: The first case was a 79-year-old female patient to whom imidafenacin (0.2 mg) was administered daily to control her frequent micturition and urgency...
2014: BMC Research Notes
Ritva Karinen, Silja Skogstad Tuv, Sidsel Rogde, Mariana Dadalto Peres, Unni Johansen, Joachim Frost, Vigdis Vindenes, Åse Marit Leere Øiestad
AH-7921 is a synthetic μ-opioid agonist, approximately equipotent with morphine. We report the death of two young individuals after ingestion of AH-7921 in combination with other psychoactive drugs. In the first case a young man died shortly after ingesting Internet drugs. Toxicological analysis of post mortem peripheral blood revealed AH-7921 (0.43 mg/L), 2-FMA (0.0069 mg/L) and 3-MMC (0.0021 mg/L) as well as codeine (0.42 mg/L), codeine-6-glucuronide (0.77 mg/L) and acetaminophen (18.7 mg/L). The second case involved a young female found dead at home...
November 2014: Forensic Science International
Shigeki Nishii, Hikaru Hori, Toshifumi Kishimoto, Jun Nakamura
The prevalence of benzodiazepine consumption in Japan is one of the highest worldwide. Etizolam is the most abused drug of the benzodiazepine class. The treatment of benzodiazepine dependence is difficult. We report a case of successful dosage reduction in a 24-year-old female patient with etizolam dependence. She was diagnosed with etizolam dependence at the age of 22 years old. We proposed a benzodiazepine dependence treatment that involved replacing etizolam with a long-acting benzodiazepine class drug in conjunction with a long-term weaning plan...
2014: International Medical Case Reports Journal
Aiko Torikoshi, Akira Namera, Yousuke Arima, Hirokazu Toubou, Takashi Tajima, Hiroaki Shiraishi, Masataka Nagao
Immunoassays are useful methods for the determination of regulated drugs in clinical and forensic laboratories. Although the Instant-View M-1 (IV M-1) immunoassay kit is frequently used to screen drugs in laboratories in Japan, basic information about the IV M-1 such as its specificity and reactivity is not available. In this study, we determined the specificity and cross-reactivity of IV M-1 for the detection of benzodiazepine-related drugs and their metabolites in urine. The IV M-1 could detect triazolobenzodiazepines such as triazolam in urine at concentrations > or = 300 ng/mL...
March 2014: Chūdoku Kenkyū: Chūdoku Kenkyūkai Jun Kikanshi, the Japanese Journal of Toxicology
Bjoern Moosmann, Laura M Huppertz, Melanie Hutter, Armin Buchwald, Sascha Ferlaino, Volker Auwärter
The appearance of pyrazolam in Internet shops selling 'research chemicals' in 2012 marked the beginning of designer benzodiazepines being sold as recreational drugs or 'self medication'. With recent changes in national narcotics laws in many countries, where two uncontrolled benzodiazepines (phenazepam and etizolam), which were marketed by pharmaceutical companies in some countries, were scheduled, clandestine laboratories seem to turn to poorly characterized research drug candidates as legal substitutes. Following the appearance of pyrazolam, it comes with no surprise that recently, flubromazepam (7-bromo-5-(2-fluorophenyl)-1,3-dihydro-2H-1,4-benzodiazepin-2-one), a second designer benzodiazepine, was offered on the market...
November 2013: Journal of Mass Spectrometry: JMS
Shun Kishimoto, Kumi Nakamura, Toshiyuki Arai, Ogino Yukimasa, Norihiko Fukami
A 75-year-old man who had undergone left upper lobectomy of the lung exhibited fever and insomnia on postoperative day (POD) 1 and muscle rigidity, autonomic instability, and somnolence on POD2 after epidural administration of droperidol and withdrawal of oral etizolam. He had not been known to have any neuromuscular diseases or psychiatric diseases, with the exception of anxiety disorder. Brain computed tomography did not show cerebrovascular disorders. Consultation with a neurologist led to a suspicion of neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS)...
October 2013: Journal of Anesthesia
K Kai, M Kono, S Karakida, T Sasaki, K Nasu, H Narahara
PURPOSE OF INVESTIGATION: To report a case of a pregnant woman with traumatic spinal cord injury complicated with a psychiatric disorder. CASE REPORT: A 24-year-old woman at 18 weeks of gestation was transferred to our hospital with a history of having jumped from a third-floor apartment patio. RESULT: A trauma survey showed no life-threatening hemorrhage, and fetal wellbeing was confirmed. Neurological examination showed complete loss of motor and sensory function in her lower extremities...
2012: Clinical and Experimental Obstetrics & Gynecology
Takuya Shimane, Toshihiko Matsumoto, Kiyoshi Wada
The nonmedical use or abuse of prescription drugs, including psychotropic medicines, is a growing health problem in Japan. Patient access to psychotropic drugs, specifically from the oversupply of medications due to overlapping prescriptions, may increase the risk of drug abuse and dependence. However, very little is known about such overlapping prescriptions. Today, the dispensing of prescriptions is generally moving from inside to outside of hospitals, with psychotropic drugs mainly dispensed at community pharmacies...
October 2012: Nihon Arukōru Yakubutsu Igakkai Zasshi, Japanese Journal of Alcohol Studies & Drug Dependence
Alfredo Carlo Altamura, Donatella Moliterno, Silvia Paletta, Michele Maffini, Massimo Carlo Mauri, Silvio Bareggi
INTRODUCTION: Anxiety disorders are considered the most common mental disorders and they can increase the risk for comorbid mood and substance use disorders, significantly contributing to the global burden of disease. For this reason, anxiolytics are the most prescribed psychoactive drugs, particularly in the Western world. AREAS COVERED: This review aims to analyze pharmacokinetic profile, plasma level variations so as the metabolism, interactions and possible relation to clinical effect of several drugs which are used primarily as anxiolytics...
April 2013: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
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