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perceptual categorization

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712468/the-impact-of-counter-perceptual-testimony-on-children-s-categorization-after-a-delay
#1
Samuel Ronfard, Jonathan D Lane, Muanjing Wang, Paul L Harris
When preschoolers are presented with a label for an entity that conflicts with its appearance, they sometimes rely on the new label rather than on the entity's appearance to categorize the entity and to infer its properties. We examined whether children's learning from such claims is short-lived or long-lasting and whether the persistence of their learning depends on the degree of fit between those claims and the available perceptual evidence. Children aged 3-5years (N=71) were asked to categorize hybrids. These hybrids combined 75% of the features from one animal or object with 25% of the features from a different animal or object...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704729/longitudinal-association-between-physical-activity-engagement-during-adolescence-and-mental-health-outcomes-in-young-adults-a-21-year-birth-cohort-study
#2
Shuichi Suetani, Abdullah Mamun, Gail M Williams, Jake M Najman, John J McGrath, James G Scott
OBJECTIVE: Previous studies provide mixed evidence that physical activity engagement (PAE) in adolescence is associated with later mental health outcomes. This study aimed to examine the association between PAE at age 14 and mental health outcomes at age 21 using a large birth cohort study. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Prospective data from the Mater-University of Queensland Study of Pregnancy, consisting of 3493 young adults, were analyzed. PAE at age 14 was estimated using self-report, and participants were categorized into; (1) frequent, (2) infrequent, or (3) no PAE group...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700445/auditory-brainstem-implant-array-position-varies-widely-among-adult-and-pediatric-patients-and-is-associated-with-perception
#3
Samuel R Barber, Elliott D Kozin, Aaron K Remenschneider, Sidharth V Puram, Max Smith, Barbara S Herrmann, Mary E Cunnane, M Christian Brown, Daniel J Lee
OBJECTIVES: The auditory brainstem implant (ABI) provides sound awareness to patients who are ineligible for cochlear implantation. Auditory performance varies widely among similar ABI cohorts. We hypothesize that differences in electrode array position contribute to this variance. Herein, we classify ABI array position based on postoperative imaging and investigate the relationship between position and perception. DESIGN: Retrospective review of pediatric and adult ABI users with postoperative computed tomography...
July 11, 2017: Ear and Hearing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683424/prenatal-phenolic-compounds-exposure-and-neurobehavioral-development-at-2-and-7years-of-age
#4
Ching-Chun Lin, Chun-Ju Chien, Meng-Shan Tsai, Chia-Jung Hsieh, Wu-Shiun Hsieh, Pau-Chung Chen
BACKGROUND: Phenolic compounds such as bisphenol A (BPA), nonylphenol (NP), and octylphenol (OP) are known as endocrine-disrupting compounds and are commonly used. Their impacts on the neurodevelopment of children are inconclusive. The current study aims to investigate the association between umbilical cord blood levels of BPA, NP, OP and neurodevelopmental outcomes at 2 and 7years of age. METHODS: The study was based on the Taiwan Birth Panel Study, a prospective birth cohort...
July 3, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680950/change-deafness-for-real-spatialized-environmental-scenes
#5
Jeremy Gaston, Kelly Dickerson, Daniel Hipp, Peter Gerhardstein
The everyday auditory environment is complex and dynamic; often, multiple sounds co-occur and compete for a listener's cognitive resources. 'Change deafness', framed as the auditory analog to the well-documented phenomenon of 'change blindness', describes the finding that changes presented within complex environments are often missed. The present study examines a number of stimulus factors that may influence change deafness under real-world listening conditions. Specifically, an AX (same-different) discrimination task was used to examine the effects of both spatial separation over a loudspeaker array and the type of change (sound source additions and removals) on discrimination of changes embedded in complex backgrounds...
2017: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674173/occipitotemporal-category-representations-are-sensitive-to-abstract-category-boundaries-defined-by-generalization-demands
#6
Kurt Braunlich, Zhiya Liu, Carol A Seger
Categorization involves organizing perceptual information so as maximize differences along dimensions that predict class membership, while minimizing differences along dimensions that do not. In the current experiment, we investigated how neural representations reflecting learned category structure vary according to generalization demands. We asked male and female human participants to switch between two rules when determining whether stimuli should be considered members of a single known category. When categorizing according to the "strict" rule, participants were required to limit generalization in order to make fine-grained distinctions between stimuli and the category prototype...
July 3, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669719/changing-similarity-stable-and-flexible-modulations-of-psychological-dimensions
#7
Michael Dieciuc, Nelson A Roque, Jonathan R Folstein
Successfully categorizing objects requires discriminating between relevant and irrelevant dimensions (e.g., shape, color). Categorization can lead to changes in the visual system that stretch psychological space, making relevant dimensions more distinct and irrelevant dimensions more similar. These changes are known as dimensional modulation (DM) and they can be both stable and flexible in nature. The current study examined the interaction between stable DM and flexible DM, as well as the time course of relative changes in similarity...
June 29, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667296/somatosensory-lateral-inhibition-processes-modulate-motor-response-inhibition-an-eeg-source-localization-study
#8
Julia Friedrich, Moritz Mückschel, Christian Beste
Motor inhibitory control is a central executive function, but only recently the importance of perceptual mechanisms for these processes has been focused. It is elusive whether basic mechanisms governing sensory perception affect motor inhibitory control. We examine whether sensory lateral inhibition (LI) processes modulate motor inhibitory control using a system neurophysiological approach combining EEG signal decomposition with source localization methods in a somatosensory GO/NOGO task. The results show that inter-individual variations in the strength of LI effects predominantly affect processes when information needs to be integrated between cerebral hemispheres...
June 30, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655038/kinematic-analysis-of-speech-sound-sequencing-errors-induced-by-delayed-auditory-feedback
#9
Gabriel J Cler, Jackson C Lee, Talia Mittelman, Cara E Stepp, Jason W Bohland
Purpose: Delayed auditory feedback (DAF) causes speakers to become disfluent and make phonological errors. Methods for assessing the kinematics of speech errors are lacking, with most DAF studies relying on auditory perceptual analyses, which may be problematic, as errors judged to be categorical may actually represent blends of sounds or articulatory errors. Method: Eight typical speakers produced nonsense syllable sequences under normal and DAF (200 ms). Lip and tongue kinematics were captured with electromagnetic articulography...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622759/catching-audiovisual-interactions-with-a-first-person-fisherman-video-game
#10
Yile Sun, Timothy J Hickey, Barbara Shinn-Cunningham, Robert Sekuler
The human brain is excellent at integrating information from different sources across multiple sensory modalities. To examine one particularly important form of multisensory interaction, we manipulated the temporal correlation between visual and auditory stimuli in a first-person fisherman video game. Subjects saw rapidly swimming fish whose size oscillated, either at 6 or 8 Hz. Subjects categorized each fish according to its rate of size oscillation, while trying to ignore a concurrent broadband sound seemingly emitted by the fish...
July 2017: Perception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620238/a-data-driven-approach-to-understanding-the-organization-of-high-level-visual-cortex
#11
David M Watson, Timothy J Andrews, Tom Hartley
The neural representation in scene-selective regions of human visual cortex, such as the PPA, has been linked to the semantic and categorical properties of the images. However, the extent to which patterns of neural response in these regions reflect more fundamental organizing principles is not yet clear. Existing studies generally employ stimulus conditions chosen by the experimenter, potentially obscuring the contribution of more basic stimulus dimensions. To address this issue, we used a data-driven approach to describe a large database of scenes (>100,000 images) in terms of their visual properties (orientation, spatial frequency, spatial location)...
June 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606387/the-effect-of-integration-masking-on-visual-processing-in-perceptual-categorization
#12
Sébastien Hélie
Learning to recognize and categorize objects is an essential cognitive skill allowing animals to function in the world. However, animals rarely have access to a canonical view of an object in an uncluttered environment. Hence, it is essential to study categorization under noisy, degraded conditions. In this article, we explore how the brain processes categorization stimuli in low signal-to-noise conditions using multivariate pattern analysis. We used an integration masking paradigm with mask opacity of 50%, 60%, and 70% inside a magnetic resonance imaging scanner...
August 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605007/racial-categorization-predicts-implicit-racial-bias-in-preschool-children
#13
Peipei Setoh, Kristy J J Lee, Lijun Zhang, Miao K Qian, Paul C Quinn, Gail D Heyman, Kang Lee
This research investigated the relation between racial categorization and implicit racial bias in majority and minority children. Chinese and Indian 3- to 7-year-olds from Singapore (N = 158) categorized Chinese and Indian faces by race and had their implicit and explicit racial biases measured. Majority Chinese children, but not minority Indian children, showed implicit bias favoring own race. Regardless of ethnicity, children's racial categorization performance correlated positively with implicit racial bias...
June 12, 2017: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604040/emotion-words-adding-face-value
#14
Jennifer M B Fugate, Maria Gendron, Satoshi F Nakashima, Lisa Feldman Barrett
Despite a growing number of studies suggesting that emotion words affect perceptual judgments of emotional stimuli, little is known about how emotion words affect perceptual memory for emotional faces. In Experiments 1 and 2 we tested how emotion words (compared with control words) affected participants' abilities to select a target emotional face from among distractor faces. Participants were generally more likely to false alarm to distractor emotional faces when primed with an emotion word congruent with the face (compared with a control word)...
June 12, 2017: Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602448/adaptation-of-social-and-non-social-cues-to-direction-in-adults-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-and-neurotypical-adults-with-autistic-traits
#15
Rebecca P Lawson, Jessica Aylward, Jonathan P Roiser, Geraint Rees
Perceptual constancy strongly relies on adaptive gain control mechanisms, which shift perception as a function of recent sensory history. Here we examined the extent to which individual differences in magnitude of adaptation aftereffects for social and non-social directional cues are related to autistic traits and sensory sensitivity in healthy participants (Experiment 1); and also whether adaptation for social and non-social directional cues is differentially impacted in adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) relative to neurotypical (NT) controls (Experiment 2)...
May 17, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599541/prosodic-exaggeration-within-infant-directed-speech-consequences-for-vowel-learnability
#16
Frans Adriaans, Daniel Swingley
Perceptual experiments with infants show that they adapt their perception of speech sounds toward the categories of the native language. How do infants learn these categories? For the most part, acoustic analyses of natural infant-directed speech have suggested that phonetic categories are not presented to learners as separable clusters of sounds in acoustic space. As a step toward explaining how infants begin to solve this problem, the current study proposes that the exaggerated prosody characteristic of infant-directed speech may highlight for infants certain speech-sound tokens that collectively form more readily identifiable categories...
May 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599538/children-s-and-adults-perception-of-questions-and-statements-from-terminal-fundamental-frequency-contours
#17
Mathieu R Saindon, Laura K Cirelli, E Glenn Schellenberg, Pascal van Lieshout, Sandra E Trehub
The present study compared children's and adults' identification and discrimination of declarative questions and statements on the basis of terminal cues alone. Children (8-11 years, n = 41) and adults (n = 21) judged utterances as statements or questions from sentences with natural statement and question endings and with manipulated endings that featured intermediate fundamental frequency (F0) values. The same adults and a different sample of children (n = 22) were also tested on their discrimination of the utterances...
May 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588538/object-recognition-in-mental-representations-directions-for-exploring-diagnostic-features-through-visual-mental-imagery
#18
REVIEW
Stephanie M Roldan
One of the fundamental goals of object recognition research is to understand how a cognitive representation produced from the output of filtered and transformed sensory information facilitates efficient viewer behavior. Given that mental imagery strongly resembles perceptual processes in both cortical regions and subjective visual qualities, it is reasonable to question whether mental imagery facilitates cognition in a manner similar to that of perceptual viewing: via the detection and recognition of distinguishing features...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574998/expertise-with-unfamiliar-objects-is-flexible-to-changes-in-task-but-not-changes-in-class
#19
Rachel A Searston, Jason M Tangen
Perceptual expertise is notoriously specific and bound by familiarity; generalizing to novel or unfamiliar images, objects, identities, and categories often comes at some cost to performance. In forensic and security settings, however, examiners are faced with the task of discriminating unfamiliar images of unfamiliar objects within their general domain of expertise (e.g., fingerprints, faces, or firearms). The job of a fingerprint expert, for instance, is to decide whether two unfamiliar fingerprint images were left by the same unfamiliar finger (e...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573716/painful-decisions-how-classifying-sensations-can-change-the-experience-of-pain
#20
M A van der Meulen, F Anton, S Petersen
BACKGROUND: Categorizing perceptual stimuli is a mechanism for facilitating the processing of sensory input from our environment. This facilitation of perception is achieved through generalization (assimilation) of stimulus characteristics within categories and accentuation between categories. These categorization processes have been demonstrated in visual, auditory, tactile and social perception, but never in pain perception. METHOD: We presented participants with six thermal noxious stimuli, increasing in steps of 0...
June 2, 2017: European Journal of Pain: EJP
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