keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

perceptual categorization

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546309/inferential-learning-of-serial-order-of-perceptual-categories-by-rhesus-monkeys-macaca-mulatta
#1
Natalie Tanner, Greg Jensen, Vincent P Ferrera, Herbert S Terrace
Category learning in animals is typically trained explicitly, in most instances by varying the exemplars of a single category in a matching-to-sample task. Here, we show that male rhesus macaques can learn categories by a transitive inference paradigm in which novel exemplars of five categories were presented throughout training. Instead of requiring decisions about a constant set of repetitively presented stimuli, we studied the macaque's ability to determine the relative order of multiple exemplars of particular stimuli that were rarely repeated...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539425/perceptual-competition-promotes-suppression-of-reward-salience-in-behavioral-selection-and-neural-representation
#2
Mengyuan Gong, Ke Jia, Sheng Li
Visual attentional selection is influenced by the value of objects. Previous studies have demonstrated that reward-associated items lead to rapid distraction and associated behavioral costs, which are difficult to override with top-down control. However, it has not been determined whether a perceptually competitive environment could render the reward-driven distraction more susceptible to top-down suppression. Here, we trained both genders of human subjects to associate two orientations with high and low magnitudes of reward...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533182/biased-visceral-perception-through-fear-learning-biased-intensity-judgements-of-visceral-sensations-after-learning-to-fear-visceral-stimuli-a-drift-diffusion-approach
#3
Jonas Zaman, Victoria J Madden, Julie Iven, Katja Wiech, Nathalie Weltens, Huynh Giao Ly, Johan W S Vlaeyen, Lukas Van Oudenhove, Ilse Van Diest
A growing body of research has identified fear of visceral sensations as a potential mechanism in the development and maintenance of visceral pain disorders. However, the extent to which such learned fear affects visceroception remains unclear. To address this question, we used a differential fear conditioning paradigm with non-painful esophageal balloon distensions of two different intensities as conditioning stimuli (CSs). The experiment comprised pre-acquisition, acquisition and post-acquisition phases during which participants categorized the CSs with respect to their intensity...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527540/whispering-by-individuals-using-tracheoesophageal-speech
#4
Jeff Searl
OBJECTIVES: This study compared whispering attempts by adults using tracheoesophageal (TE) speech with those by adults with a larynx. Comparisons were based on listener judgments, visual-perceptual assessment of spectrograms, and measures of the acoustic signal. STUDY DESIGN: This was a prospective, cross-sectional study. METHODS: Seventeen TE and 10 laryngeal speakers produced sentences in a whisper and in their spoken voice. Listeners judged sentences as whispered or spoken...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505664/temporal-brightness-illusion-changes-color-perception-of-the-dress
#5
Laila Hugrass, Jana Slavikova, Melissa Horvat, Alaa Al Musawi, David Crewther
"The dress" has provoked intensive commentary among psychophysicists, especially in relation to color vision. Researchers have shown that manipulating illuminance cues can influence the perceived colors of the dress. Here we investigate whether illusory shifts in brightness can shift color perception of the dress. Drifting achromatic gratings with fast off and fast on shading profiles are known to give an illusion of brightening or darkening, respectively. We superimposed rotating sawtooth gratings on a series of dress images that morphed from extreme white/gold through to blue/black...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495972/multiple-transient-signals-in-human-visual-cortex-associated-with-an-elementary-decision
#6
Thomas Meindertsma, Niels A Kloosterman, Guido Nolte, Andreas K Engel, Tobias H Donner
The cerebral cortex continuously undergoes changes in its state, which manifest in transient modulations of the cortical power spectrum. Cortical state changes occur also at full wakefulness, during rapid cognitive acts, such as perceptual decisions. Previous studies found a global modulation of beta-band (12-30 Hz) activity in human and monkey visual cortex during an elementary visual decision: reporting the appearance or disappearance of salient visual targets surrounded by a distractor. The previous studies did neither disentangle the motor action associated with behavioral report, nor other secondary processes, such as arousal, from perceptual decision processing per se...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481574/knowing-how-you-are-feeling-depends-on-what-s-on-my-mind-cognitive-load-and-expression-categorization
#7
Lubna Ahmed
The ability to correctly interpret facial expressions is key to effective social interactions. People are well rehearsed and generally very efficient at correctly categorizing expressions. However, does their ability to do so depend on how cognitively loaded they are at the time? Using repeated-measures designs, we assessed the sensitivity of facial expression categorization to cognitive resources availability by measuring people's expression categorization performance during concurrent low and high cognitive load situations...
May 8, 2017: Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469746/low-carbohydrate-high-fat-diet-can-it-help-exercise-performance
#8
Chen-Kang Chang, Katarina Borer, Po-Ju Lin
Low-carbohydrate-high-fat (LCHF) diets have been used as a means of weight loss and control of symptoms in several clinical conditions. There is emerging evidence that the metabolic changes induced by LCHF diets enhance endurance performance. The aims of this review are to examine the evidence of LCHF diets in improving various aspects of athletic performance. Long-term LCHF dietary intake may help control body weight and fat mass while maintaining lean body mass in athletes in weight-sensitive sports. LCHF-adapted endurance athletes can reach the maximal fat oxidation rate of approximately 1...
February 2017: Journal of Human Kinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464681/sensorimotor-adaptation-affects-perceptual-compensation-for-coarticulation
#9
William L Schuerman, Srikantan Nagarajan, James M McQueen, John Houde
A given speech sound will be realized differently depending on the context in which it is produced. Listeners have been found to compensate perceptually for these coarticulatory effects, yet it is unclear to what extent this effect depends on actual production experience. In this study, whether changes in motor-to-sound mappings induced by adaptation to altered auditory feedback can affect perceptual compensation for coarticulation is investigated. Specifically, whether altering how the vowel [i] is produced can affect the categorization of a stimulus continuum between an alveolar and a palatal fricative whose interpretation is dependent on vocalic context is tested...
April 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464656/perceptual-evaluation-of-violins-a-psycholinguistic-analysis-of-preference-verbal-descriptions-by-experienced-musicians
#10
Charalampos Saitis, Claudia Fritz, Gary P Scavone, Catherine Guastavino, Danièle Dubois
In this paper, how the notion of violin quality is conveyed in spontaneous verbalizations by experienced violinists during preference judgments is investigated. The aims of the study were to better understand how musicians conceptualize violin quality, what aspects of the sound and the playing experience are essential, and what associations are formed between perceptual evaluation and physical description. Upon comparing violins of varying make and age, players were interviewed about their preferences using open-ended questions...
April 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452405/modulations-of-cognitive-flexibility-in-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-reflect-dysfunctions-of-perceptual-categorization
#11
Nicole Wolff, Judith Buse, Jadwiga Tost, Veit Roessner, Christian Beste
BACKGROUND: Despite cognitive inflexibility is trait like in obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) patients and underlies clinical symptomatology, it is elusive at what stage of information processing deficits, leading to cognitive inflexibility, emerges. We hypothesize that inhibitory control mechanisms during early stimulus categorization and integration into a knowledge system underlie these deficits. METHODS: We examined N = 25 adolescent OCD patients and matched healthy controls (HC) in a paradigm manipulating the importance of the knowledge system to perform task switching...
April 28, 2017: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444371/neural-correlates-of-both-perception-and-memory-for-objects-in-the-rodent-perirhinal-cortex
#12
Jae-Rong Ahn, Inah Lee
Despite its anatomical positioning as an interface between the perceptual and memory systems, the perirhinal cortex (PER) has long been considered dedicated for object recognition memory. Whether the PER is also involved in object perception has been intensely debated in recent studies, but physiological evidence has been lacking. We recorded single units from the PER while the rat made categorical responses immediately after sampling a visual object as the originally learned objects were ambiguously morphed to varying degrees...
April 24, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439250/differential-impact-of-visuospatial-working-memory-on-rule-based-and-information-integration-category-learning
#13
Qiang Xing, Hailong Sun
Previous studies have indicated that the category learning system is a mechanism with multiple processing systems, and that working memory has different effects on category learning. But how does visuospatial working memory affect perceptual category learning? As there is no definite answer to this question, we conducted three experiments. In Experiment 1, the dual-task paradigm with sequential presentation was adopted to investigate the influence of visuospatial working memory on rule-based and information-integration category learning...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410461/gradients-of-fear-how-perception-influences-fear-generalization
#14
Dieter Struyf, Jonas Zaman, Dirk Hermans, Bram Vervliet
The current experiment investigated whether overgeneralization of fear could be due to an inability to perceptually discriminate the initial fear-evoking stimulus from similar stimuli, as fear learning-induced perceptual impairments have been reported but their influence on generalization gradients remain to be elucidated. Three hundred and sixty-eight healthy volunteers participated in a differential fear conditioning paradigm with circles of different sizes as conditioned stimuli (CS), of which one was paired to an aversive IAPS picture...
June 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391488/selective-auditory-grouping-by-zebra-finches-testing-the-iambic-trochaic-law
#15
Michelle Spierings, Jeroen Hubert, Carel Ten Cate
Humans have a strong tendency to spontaneously group visual or auditory stimuli together in larger patterns. One of these perceptual grouping biases is formulated as the iambic/trochaic law, where humans group successive tones alternating in pitch and intensity as trochees (high-low and loud-soft) and alternating in duration as iambs (short-long). The grouping of alternations in pitch and intensity into trochees is a human universal and is also present in one non-human animal species, rats. The perceptual grouping of sounds alternating in duration seems to be affected by native language in humans and has so far not been found among animals...
April 8, 2017: Animal Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385875/correlates-of-perceptual-orientation-biases-in-human-primary-visual-cortex
#16
Matthew L Patten, Damien J Mannion, Colin W G Clifford
Vision can be considered as a process of probabilistic inference. In a Bayesian framework, perceptual estimates from sensory information are combined with prior knowledge, with a stronger influence of the prior when the sensory evidence is less certain. Here, we explored the behavioral and neural consequences of manipulating stimulus certainty in the context of orientation processing. First, we asked participants to judge whether a stimulus was oriented closer to vertical or the clockwise primary oblique (45°) for two stimulus types (spatially filtered noise textures and sinusoidal gratings) and three manipulations of certainty (orientation bandwidth, contrast, and duration)...
May 3, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383111/changes-in-the-stimulus-preceding-negativity-and-lateralized-readiness-potential-during-reinforcement-learning
#17
Xi Ren, Fernando Valle-Inclán, Sergii Tukaiev, Steven A Hackley
According to reinforcement learning theory, dopamine-dependent anticipatory processes play a critical role in learning from action outcomes such as feedback or reward. To better understand outcome anticipation, we examined variation in slow cortical potentials and assessed their changes over the course of motor-skill acquisition. Healthy young adults learned a series of precisely timed, key press sequences. Feedback was delivered at a delay of either 2.5 or 8 s, to encourage use of either the striatally mediated, habit learning system or the hippocampus-dependent, episodic memory system, respectively...
April 6, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372076/auditory-display-of-seismic-data-on-the-use-of-experts-categorizations-and-verbal-descriptions-as-heuristics-for-geoscience
#18
Arthur Paté, Lapo Boschi, Danièle Dubois, Jean-Loïc Le Carrou, Benjamin Holtzman
Auditory display can complement visual representations in order to better interpret scientific data. A previous article showed that the free categorization of "audified seismic signals" operated by listeners can be explained by various geophysical parameters. The present article confirms this result and shows that cognitive representations of listeners can be used as heuristics for the characterization of seismic signals. Free sorting tests are conducted with audified seismic signals, with the earthquake/seismometer relative location, playback audification speed, and earthquake magnitude as controlled variables...
March 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28355623/quest-a-general-multidimensional-bayesian-adaptive-psychometric-method
#19
Andrew B Watson
QUEST+ is a Bayesian adaptive psychometric testing method that allows an arbitrary number of stimulus dimensions, psychometric function parameters, and trial outcomes. It is a generalization and extension of the original QUEST procedure and incorporates many subsequent developments in the area of parametric adaptive testing. With a single procedure, it is possible to implement a wide variety of experimental designs, including conventional threshold measurement; measurement of psychometric function parameters, such as slope and lapse; estimation of the contrast sensitivity function; measurement of increment threshold functions; measurement of noise-masking functions; Thurstone scale estimation using pair comparisons; and categorical ratings on linear and circular stimulus dimensions...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28349383/right-away-a-late-right-lateralized-category-effect-complements-an-early-left-lateralized-category-effect-in-visual-search
#20
Merryn D Constable, Stefanie I Becker
According to the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis, learned semantic categories can influence early perceptual processes. A central finding in support of this view is the lateralized category effect-namely, the finding that categorically different colors (e.g., blue and green hues) can be discriminated faster than colors within the same color category (e.g., different hues of green), especially when they are presented in the right visual field. Because the right visual field projects to the left hemisphere, this finding has been popularly couched in terms of the left-lateralization of language...
March 27, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
keyword
keyword
50412
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"