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perceptual categorization

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917441/recognition-of-peer-emotions-in-children-with-adhd-evidence-from-an-animated-facial-expressions-task
#1
Aiste Jusyte, Marco Daniel Gulewitsch, Michael Schönenberg
A growing body of literature suggests that ADHD is associated with emotion recognition impairments that may be linked to deficient interpersonal functioning. However, our understanding of the mechanisms underlying these recognition impairments is extremely limited. Here, we used dynamic stimuli to investigate whether impaired emotion recognition in children with ADHD may be associated with impairments in perceptual sensitivity. Participants (ADHD: N = 26; Controls: N = 26) viewed video sequences of neutral faces slowly developing into one of the six basic emotional expressions (angry, happy, fearful, sad, disgusted and surprised) and were instructed to indicate via a button press the precise moment at which they were able to correctly recognize the emotional expression...
August 25, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914737/evidence-of-semantic-processing-impairments-in-behavioural-variant-frontotemporal-dementia-and-parkinson-s-disease
#2
Katheryn A Q Cousins, Murray Grossman
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Category-specific impairments caused by brain damage can provide important insights into how semantic concepts are organized in the brain. Recent research has demonstrated that disease to sensory and motor cortices can impair perceptual feature knowledge important to the representation of semantic concepts. This evidence supports the grounded cognition theory of semantics, the view that lexical knowledge is partially grounded in perceptual experience and that sensory and motor regions support semantic representations...
September 13, 2017: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28905126/neuroanatomical-correlates-of-haptic-object-processing-combined-evidence-from-tractography-and-functional-neuroimaging
#3
Haemy Lee Masson, Hyeok-Mook Kang, Laurent Petit, Christian Wallraven
Touch delivers a wealth of information already from birth, helping infants to acquire knowledge about a variety of important object properties using their hands. Despite the fact that we are touch experts as much as we are visual experts, surprisingly, little is known how our perceptual ability in touch is linked to either functional or structural aspects of the brain. The present study, therefore, investigates and identifies neuroanatomical correlates of haptic perceptual performance using a novel, multi-modal approach...
September 13, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903675/interactive-effects-of-obvious-and-ambiguous-social-categories-on-perceptions-of-leadership-when-double-minority-status-may-be-beneficial
#4
John Paul Wilson, Jessica D Remedios, Nicholas O Rule
Easily perceived identities (e.g., race) may interact with perceptually ambiguous identities (e.g., sexual orientation) in meaningful but elusive ways. Here, we investigated how intersecting identities impact impressions of leadership. People perceived gay Black men as better leaders than members of either single-minority group (i.e., gay or Black). Yet, different traits supported judgments of the leadership abilities of Black and White targets; for instance, warmth positively predicted leadership judgments for Black men but dominance positively predicted leadership judgments for White men...
June 2017: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899747/a-neural-signature-of-food-semantics-is-associated-with-body-mass-index
#5
Giulio Pergola, Francesco Foroni, Paola Mengotti, Georgette Argiris, Raffaella Ida Rumiati
Visual recognition of objects may rely on different features depending on the category to which they belong. Recognizing natural objects, such as fruits and plants, weighs more on their perceptual attributes, whereas recognizing man-made objects, such as tools or vehicles, weighs more upon the functions and actions they enable. Edible objects are perceptually rich but also prepared for specific functions, therefore it is unclear how perceptual and functional attributes affect their recognition. Two event-related potentials experiments investigated: (i) whether food categorization in the brain is differentially modulated by sensory and functional attributes, depending on whether the food is natural or transformed; (ii) whether these processes are modulated by participants' body mass index...
September 9, 2017: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887554/near-optimal-integration-of-facial-form-and-motion
#6
Katharina Dobs, Wei Ji Ma, Leila Reddy
Human perception consists of the continuous integration of sensory cues pertaining to the same object. While it has been fairly well shown that humans use an optimal strategy when integrating low-level cues proportional to their relative reliability, the integration processes underlying high-level perception are much less understood. Here we investigate cue integration in a complex high-level perceptual system, the human face processing system. We tested cue integration of facial form and motion in an identity categorization task and found that an optimal model could successfully predict subjects' identity choices...
September 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28880097/constructing-emotion-categorization-insights-from-developmental-psychology-applied-to-a-young-adult-sample
#7
Ashley L Ruba, Makeba Parramore Wilbourn, Devin M Ulrich, Lasana T Harris
Previous research has found that the categorization of emotional facial expressions is influenced by a variety of factors, such as processing time, facial mimicry, emotion labels, and perceptual cues. However, past research has frequently confounded these factors, making it impossible to ascertain how adults use this varied information to categorize emotions. The current study is the first to explore the magnitude of impact for each of these factors on emotion categorization in the same paradigm. Participants (N = 102) categorized anger and disgust emotional facial expressions in a novel computerized task, modeled on similar tasks in the developmental literature with preverbal infants...
September 7, 2017: Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866568/open-vs-closed-shapes-new-perceptual-categories
#8
David Burlinson, Kalpathi Subramanian, Paula Goolkasian
Effective communication using visualization relies in part on the use of viable encoding strategies. For example, a viewer's ability to rapidly and accurately discern between two or more categorical variables in a chart or figure is contingent upon the distinctiveness of the encodings applied to each variable. Research in perception suggests that color is a more salient visual feature when compared to shape and although that finding is supported by visualization studies, characteristics of shape also yield meaningful differences in distinctiveness...
August 29, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866538/extracting-and-retargeting-color-mappings-from-bitmap-images-of-visualizations
#9
Jorge Poco, Angela Mayhua, Jeffrey Heer
Visualization designers regularly use color to encode quantitative or categorical data. However, visualizations "in the wild" often violate perceptual color design principles and may only be available as bitmap images. In this work, we contribute a method to semi-automatically extract color encodings from a bitmap visualization image. Given an image and a legend location, we classify the legend as describing either a discrete or continuous color encoding, identify the colors used, and extract legend text using OCR methods...
August 29, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28846005/choice-as-an-engine-of-analytic-thought
#10
Krishna Savani, Nicole M Stephens, Hazel Rose Markus
Choice is a behavioral act that has a variety of well-documented motivational consequences-it fosters independence by allowing people to simultaneously express themselves and influence the environment. Given the link between independence and analytic thinking, the current research tested whether choice also leads people to think in a more analytic rather than holistic manner. Four experiments demonstrate that making choices, recalling choices, and viewing others make choices leads people to think more analytically, as indicated by their attitudes, perceptual judgments, categorization, and patterns of attention allocation...
September 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28844651/gender-perception-after-raising-vowel-fundamental-and-formant-frequencies-considerations-for-oral-resonance-research
#11
Sally J K Gallena, Betsy Stickels, Emily Stickels
OBJECTIVES: Voice feminization therapy for male-to-female transgender women typically targets increasing fundamental frequency (F0). Increasing vowel formant frequencies (FFs) has also been proposed. To better understand formant conditions that shift listeners' perception of gender from male to "not-male," individual and combined vowel FFs were incrementally raised, whereas F0 was held constant at a gender-ambiguous level. METHODS: The study used a prospective, experimental group design...
August 22, 2017: Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840520/five-mechanisms-of-sound-symbolic-association
#12
David M Sidhu, Penny M Pexman
Sound symbolism refers to an association between phonemes and stimuli containing particular perceptual and/or semantic elements (e.g., objects of a certain size or shape). Some of the best-known examples include the mil/mal effect (Sapir, Journal of Experimental Psychology, 12, 225-239, 1929) and the maluma/takete effect (Köhler, 1929). Interest in this topic has been on the rise within psychology, and studies have demonstrated that sound symbolic effects are relevant for many facets of cognition, including language, action, memory, and categorization...
August 24, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835814/the-impact-of-face-inversion-on-animacy-categorization
#13
Benjamin Balas, Amanda E van Lamsweerde, Amanda Auen, Alyson Saville
Face animacy perception is categorical: Gradual changes in the real/artificial appearance of a face lead to nonlinear behavioral responses. Neural markers of face processing are also sensitive to face animacy, further suggesting that these are meaningful perceptual categories. Artificial faces also appear to be an "out-group" relative to real faces such that behavioral markers of expert-level processing are less evident with artificial faces than real ones. In the current study, we examined how categorical processing of real versus doll faces was impacted by the face inversion effect, which is one of the most robust markers of expert face processing...
July 2017: I-Perception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811258/category-selective-human-brain-processes-elicited-in-fast-periodic-visual-stimulation-streams-are-immune-to-temporal-predictability
#14
Genevieve L Quek, Bruno Rossion
Recording direct neural activity when periodically inserting exemplars of a particular category in a rapid visual stream of other objects offers an objective and efficient way to quantify perceptual categorization and characterize its spatiotemporal dynamics. However, since periodicity entails predictability, perceptual categorization processes identified within this framework may be partly generated or modulated by temporal expectations. Here we present a stringent test of the hypothesis that temporal predictability generates or modulates category-selective neural processes as measured in a rapid periodic visual stimulation stream...
August 12, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808897/should-posttraumatic-stress-be-a-disorder-or-a-specifier-towards-improved-nosology-within-the-dsm-categorical-classification-system
#15
REVIEW
Jeffrey Guina, Matthew Baker, Kelly Stinson, Jon Maust, Joseph Coles, Pamela Broderick
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Since 1980, posttraumatic stress (PTS) disorder has been controversial because of its origin as a social construct, its discriminating trauma definition, and the Procrustean array of symptoms/clusters chosen for inclusion/exclusion. This review summarizes the history of trauma-related nosology and proposed changes, within current categorical models (trauma definitions, symptoms/clusters, subtypes/specifiers, disorders) and new models. RECENT FINDINGS: Considering that trauma is a risk factor for virtually all mental disorders (particularly depressive, anxiety, dissociative, personality), the multi-finality of trauma (some survivors are resilient, and some develop PTS and/or non-PTS symptoms), and the various symptoms that trauma survivors express (mood, cognitive, perceptual, somatic), it is difficult to classify PTS...
August 15, 2017: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808826/use-of-evidence-in-a-categorization-task-analytic-and-holistic-processing-modes
#16
Alberto Greco, Stefania Moretti
Category learning performance can be influenced by many contextual factors, but the effects of these factors are not the same for all learners. The present study suggests that these differences can be due to the different ways evidence is used, according to two main basic modalities of processing information, analytically or holistically. In order to test the impact of the information provided, an inductive rule-based task was designed, in which feature salience and comparison informativeness between examples of two categories were manipulated during the learning phases, by introducing and progressively reducing some perceptual biases...
August 14, 2017: Cognitive Processing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806417/phonetic-complexity-affects-children-s-mandarin-tone-production-accuracy-in-disyllabic-words-a-perceptual-study
#17
Puisan Wong, Winifred Strange
This is the first study to examine the effect of phonetic contexts on children's lexical tone production. Mandarin tones in disyllabic words produced by forty-four 2- to 6-year-old children and twelve mothers were low-pass filtered to eliminate lexical information. Native Mandarin-speaking adults categorized the tones based on the pitch information in the filtered stimuli. All mothers' tones were categorized with ceiling accuracy. Counter to the findings in most previous studies on children's tone acquisition and the prevailing assumption in models of speech development that children acquire suprasegmental features much earlier than segmental features, this study found that children as old as six years of age have not mastered the production of Mandarin tones...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805133/the-shape-of-things-to-come-in-speech-production-visual-form-interference-during-lexical-access
#18
Greig I de Zubicaray, Mia McLean, Frank Oppermann, Aidan Hegarty, Katie McMahon, Jörg D Jescheniak
Naming a picture is slower in categorically related compared to unrelated contexts, an effect termed semantic interference. This effect has informed the development of all contemporary models of lexical access in speech production. However, category members typically share visual features, so semantic interference might in part reflect this confound. Surprisingly little work has addressed this issue, and the relative absence of evidence for visual form interference has been proposed to be problematic for production models implementing competitive lexical selection mechanisms...
August 13, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805109/glucose-regulation-and-face-recognition-deficits-in-older-adults-the-role-of-attention
#19
Nicola Jones, Leigh M Riby, Michael A Smith
The present study investigated the perceptual, attentional, and memory processes underlying face recognition deficits observed in older adults with impaired glucoregulation. Participants were categorized as good glucoregulators or poor glucoregulators on the basis of an oral glucose tolerance test. Using event-related potential (ERP) methodology, 23 participants (62-88 years) performed a 2-stimulus oddball task. Participants were asked to rate and memorize 10 "target" faces, which were then presented amongst 120 unfamiliar foils...
August 13, 2017: Neuropsychology, Development, and Cognition. Section B, Aging, Neuropsychology and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803219/revealing-the-mechanisms-of-human-face-perception-using-dynamic-apertures
#20
Jennifer Murphy, Richard Cook
Faces are notoriously hard to perceive when turned upside-down. It is often claimed that perceptual decrements reflect a qualitative switch from parallel whole-face processing, to a serial analysis of individual features. To test this view, we examined observers' ability to categorize faces presented in their entirety, or viewed through a dynamic aperture that moved incrementally across the facial image. Exposing faces region-by-region disrupts holistic processing, but permits serial analysis of local features...
August 10, 2017: Cognition
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