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perceptual categorization

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622759/catching-audiovisual-interactions-with-a-first-person-fisherman-video-game
#1
Yile Sun, Timothy J Hickey, Barbara Shinn-Cunningham, Robert Sekuler
The human brain is excellent at integrating information from different sources across multiple sensory modalities. To examine one particularly important form of multisensory interaction, we manipulated the temporal correlation between visual and auditory stimuli in a first-person fisherman video game. Subjects saw rapidly swimming fish whose size oscillated, either at 6 or 8 Hz. Subjects categorized each fish according to its rate of size oscillation, while trying to ignore a concurrent broadband sound seemingly emitted by the fish...
July 2017: Perception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620238/a-data-driven-approach-to-understanding-the-organization-of-high-level-visual-cortex
#2
David M Watson, Timothy J Andrews, Tom Hartley
The neural representation in scene-selective regions of human visual cortex, such as the PPA, has been linked to the semantic and categorical properties of the images. However, the extent to which patterns of neural response in these regions reflect more fundamental organizing principles is not yet clear. Existing studies generally employ stimulus conditions chosen by the experimenter, potentially obscuring the contribution of more basic stimulus dimensions. To address this issue, we used a data-driven approach to describe a large database of scenes (>100,000 images) in terms of their visual properties (orientation, spatial frequency, spatial location)...
June 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606387/the-effect-of-integration-masking-on-visual-processing-in-perceptual-categorization
#3
Sébastien Hélie
Learning to recognize and categorize objects is an essential cognitive skill allowing animals to function in the world. However, animals rarely have access to a canonical view of an object in an uncluttered environment. Hence, it is essential to study categorization under noisy, degraded conditions. In this article, we explore how the brain processes categorization stimuli in low signal-to-noise conditions using multivariate pattern analysis. We used an integration masking paradigm with mask opacity of 50%, 60%, and 70% inside a magnetic resonance imaging scanner...
August 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605007/racial-categorization-predicts-implicit-racial-bias-in-preschool-children
#4
Peipei Setoh, Kristy J J Lee, Lijun Zhang, Miao K Qian, Paul C Quinn, Gail D Heyman, Kang Lee
This research investigated the relation between racial categorization and implicit racial bias in majority and minority children. Chinese and Indian 3- to 7-year-olds from Singapore (N = 158) categorized Chinese and Indian faces by race and had their implicit and explicit racial biases measured. Majority Chinese children, but not minority Indian children, showed implicit bias favoring own race. Regardless of ethnicity, children's racial categorization performance correlated positively with implicit racial bias...
June 12, 2017: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604040/emotion-words-adding-face-value
#5
Jennifer M B Fugate, Maria Gendron, Satoshi F Nakashima, Lisa Feldman Barrett
Despite a growing number of studies suggesting that emotion words affect perceptual judgments of emotional stimuli, little is known about how emotion words affect perceptual memory for emotional faces. In Experiments 1 and 2 we tested how emotion words (compared with control words) affected participants' abilities to select a target emotional face from among distractor faces. Participants were generally more likely to false alarm to distractor emotional faces when primed with an emotion word congruent with the face (compared with a control word)...
June 12, 2017: Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28602448/adaptation-of-social-and-non-social-cues-to-direction-in-adults-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-and-neurotypical-adults-with-autistic-traits
#6
Rebecca P Lawson, Jessica Aylward, Jonathan P Roiser, Geraint Rees
Perceptual constancy strongly relies on adaptive gain control mechanisms, which shift perception as a function of recent sensory history. Here we examined the extent to which individual differences in magnitude of adaptation aftereffects for social and non-social directional cues are related to autistic traits and sensory sensitivity in healthy participants (Experiment 1); and also whether adaptation for social and non-social directional cues is differentially impacted in adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) relative to neurotypical (NT) controls (Experiment 2)...
May 17, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599541/prosodic-exaggeration-within-infant-directed-speech-consequences-for-vowel-learnability
#7
Frans Adriaans, Daniel Swingley
Perceptual experiments with infants show that they adapt their perception of speech sounds toward the categories of the native language. How do infants learn these categories? For the most part, acoustic analyses of natural infant-directed speech have suggested that phonetic categories are not presented to learners as separable clusters of sounds in acoustic space. As a step toward explaining how infants begin to solve this problem, the current study proposes that the exaggerated prosody characteristic of infant-directed speech may highlight for infants certain speech-sound tokens that collectively form more readily identifiable categories...
May 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28599538/children-s-and-adults-perception-of-questions-and-statements-from-terminal-fundamental-frequency-contours
#8
Mathieu R Saindon, Laura K Cirelli, E Glenn Schellenberg, Pascal van Lieshout, Sandra E Trehub
The present study compared children's and adults' identification and discrimination of declarative questions and statements on the basis of terminal cues alone. Children (8-11 years, n = 41) and adults (n = 21) judged utterances as statements or questions from sentences with natural statement and question endings and with manipulated endings that featured intermediate fundamental frequency (F0) values. The same adults and a different sample of children (n = 22) were also tested on their discrimination of the utterances...
May 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588538/object-recognition-in-mental-representations-directions-for-exploring-diagnostic-features-through-visual-mental-imagery
#9
REVIEW
Stephanie M Roldan
One of the fundamental goals of object recognition research is to understand how a cognitive representation produced from the output of filtered and transformed sensory information facilitates efficient viewer behavior. Given that mental imagery strongly resembles perceptual processes in both cortical regions and subjective visual qualities, it is reasonable to question whether mental imagery facilitates cognition in a manner similar to that of perceptual viewing: via the detection and recognition of distinguishing features...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574998/expertise-with-unfamiliar-objects-is-flexible-to-changes-in-task-but-not-changes-in-class
#10
Rachel A Searston, Jason M Tangen
Perceptual expertise is notoriously specific and bound by familiarity; generalizing to novel or unfamiliar images, objects, identities, and categories often comes at some cost to performance. In forensic and security settings, however, examiners are faced with the task of discriminating unfamiliar images of unfamiliar objects within their general domain of expertise (e.g., fingerprints, faces, or firearms). The job of a fingerprint expert, for instance, is to decide whether two unfamiliar fingerprint images were left by the same unfamiliar finger (e...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573716/painful-decisions-how-classifying-sensations-can-change-the-experience-of-pain
#11
M A van der Meulen, F Anton, S Petersen
BACKGROUND: Categorizing perceptual stimuli is a mechanism for facilitating the processing of sensory input from our environment. This facilitation of perception is achieved through generalization (assimilation) of stimulus characteristics within categories and accentuation between categories. These categorization processes have been demonstrated in visual, auditory, tactile and social perception, but never in pain perception. METHOD: We presented participants with six thermal noxious stimuli, increasing in steps of 0...
June 2, 2017: European Journal of Pain: EJP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546309/inferential-learning-of-serial-order-of-perceptual-categories-by-rhesus-monkeys-macaca-mulatta
#12
Natalie Tanner, Greg Jensen, Vincent P Ferrera, Herbert S Terrace
Category learning in animals is typically trained explicitly, in most instances by varying the exemplars of a single category in a matching-to-sample task. Here, we show that male rhesus macaques can learn categories by a transitive inference paradigm in which novel exemplars of five categories were presented throughout training. Instead of requiring decisions about a constant set of repetitively presented stimuli, we studied the macaque's ability to determine the relative order of multiple exemplars of particular stimuli that were rarely repeated...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539425/perceptual-competition-promotes-suppression-of-reward-salience-in-behavioral-selection-and-neural-representation
#13
Mengyuan Gong, Ke Jia, Sheng Li
Visual attentional selection is influenced by the value of objects. Previous studies have demonstrated that reward-associated items lead to rapid distraction and associated behavioral costs, which are difficult to override with top-down control. However, it has not been determined whether a perceptually competitive environment could render the reward-driven distraction more susceptible to top-down suppression. Here, we trained both genders of human subjects to associate two orientations with high and low magnitudes of reward...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533182/biased-visceral-perception-through-fear-learning-biased-intensity-judgements-of-visceral-sensations-after-learning-to-fear-visceral-stimuli-a-drift-diffusion-approach
#14
Jonas Zaman, Victoria J Madden, Julie Iven, Katja Wiech, Nathalie Weltens, Huynh Giao Ly, Johan W S Vlaeyen, Lukas Van Oudenhove, Ilse Van Diest
A growing body of research has identified fear of visceral sensations as a potential mechanism in the development and maintenance of visceral pain disorders. However, the extent to which such learned fear affects visceroception remains unclear. To address this question, we used a differential fear conditioning paradigm with non-painful esophageal balloon distensions of two different intensities as conditioning stimuli (CSs). The experiment comprised pre-acquisition, acquisition and post-acquisition phases during which participants categorized the CSs with respect to their intensity...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527540/whispering-by-individuals-using-tracheoesophageal-speech
#15
Jeff Searl
OBJECTIVES: This study compared whispering attempts by adults using tracheoesophageal (TE) speech with those by adults with a larynx. Comparisons were based on listener judgments, visual-perceptual assessment of spectrograms, and measures of the acoustic signal. STUDY DESIGN: This was a prospective, cross-sectional study. METHODS: Seventeen TE and 10 laryngeal speakers produced sentences in a whisper and in their spoken voice. Listeners judged sentences as whispered or spoken...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505664/temporal-brightness-illusion-changes-color-perception-of-the-dress
#16
Laila Hugrass, Jana Slavikova, Melissa Horvat, Alaa Al Musawi, David Crewther
"The dress" has provoked intensive commentary among psychophysicists, especially in relation to color vision. Researchers have shown that manipulating illuminance cues can influence the perceived colors of the dress. Here we investigate whether illusory shifts in brightness can shift color perception of the dress. Drifting achromatic gratings with fast off and fast on shading profiles are known to give an illusion of brightening or darkening, respectively. We superimposed rotating sawtooth gratings on a series of dress images that morphed from extreme white/gold through to blue/black...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495972/multiple-transient-signals-in-human-visual-cortex-associated-with-an-elementary-decision
#17
Thomas Meindertsma, Niels A Kloosterman, Guido Nolte, Andreas K Engel, Tobias H Donner
The cerebral cortex continuously undergoes changes in its state, which are manifested in transient modulations of the cortical power spectrum. Cortical state changes also occur at full wakefulness and during rapid cognitive acts, such as perceptual decisions. Previous studies found a global modulation of beta-band (12-30 Hz) activity in human and monkey visual cortex during an elementary visual decision: reporting the appearance or disappearance of salient visual targets surrounded by a distractor. The previous studies disentangled neither the motor action associated with behavioral report nor other secondary processes, such as arousal, from perceptual decision processing per se...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481574/knowing-how-you-are-feeling-depends-on-what-s-on-my-mind-cognitive-load-and-expression-categorization
#18
Lubna Ahmed
The ability to correctly interpret facial expressions is key to effective social interactions. People are well rehearsed and generally very efficient at correctly categorizing expressions. However, does their ability to do so depend on how cognitively loaded they are at the time? Using repeated-measures designs, we assessed the sensitivity of facial expression categorization to cognitive resources availability by measuring people's expression categorization performance during concurrent low and high cognitive load situations...
May 8, 2017: Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469746/low-carbohydrate-high-fat-diet-can-it-help-exercise-performance
#19
Chen-Kang Chang, Katarina Borer, Po-Ju Lin
Low-carbohydrate-high-fat (LCHF) diets have been used as a means of weight loss and control of symptoms in several clinical conditions. There is emerging evidence that the metabolic changes induced by LCHF diets enhance endurance performance. The aims of this review are to examine the evidence of LCHF diets in improving various aspects of athletic performance. Long-term LCHF dietary intake may help control body weight and fat mass while maintaining lean body mass in athletes in weight-sensitive sports. LCHF-adapted endurance athletes can reach the maximal fat oxidation rate of approximately 1...
February 2017: Journal of Human Kinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464681/sensorimotor-adaptation-affects-perceptual-compensation-for-coarticulation
#20
William L Schuerman, Srikantan Nagarajan, James M McQueen, John Houde
A given speech sound will be realized differently depending on the context in which it is produced. Listeners have been found to compensate perceptually for these coarticulatory effects, yet it is unclear to what extent this effect depends on actual production experience. In this study, whether changes in motor-to-sound mappings induced by adaptation to altered auditory feedback can affect perceptual compensation for coarticulation is investigated. Specifically, whether altering how the vowel [i] is produced can affect the categorization of a stimulus continuum between an alveolar and a palatal fricative whose interpretation is dependent on vocalic context is tested...
April 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
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