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perceptual categorization

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900467/what-makes-a-smiling-face-look-happy-visual-saliency-distinctiveness-and-affect
#1
Manuel G Calvo, Aida Gutiérrez-García, Mario Del Líbano
We investigated the relative contribution of (a) perceptual (eyes and mouth visual saliency), (b) conceptual or categorical (eye expression distinctiveness), and (c) affective (rated valence and arousal) factors, and (d) specific morphological facial features (Action Units; AUs), to the recognition of facial happiness. The face stimuli conveyed truly happy expressions with a smiling mouth and happy eyes, or blended expressions with a smile but non-happy eyes (neutral, sad, fearful, disgusted, surprised, or angry)...
November 29, 2016: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893274/perceptual-adaptation-of-vowels-generalizes-across-the-phonology-and-does-not-require-local-context
#2
Kateřina Chládková, Václav Jonáš Podlipský, Anastasia Chionidou
Listeners usually understand without difficulty even speech that sounds atypical. When they encounter noncanonical realizations of speech sounds, listeners can make short-term adjustments of their long-term representations of those sounds. Previous research, focusing mostly on adaptation in consonants, has suggested that for perceptual adaptation to take place some local cues (lexical, phonotactic, or visual) have to guide listeners' interpretation of the atypical sounds. In the present experiment we investigated perceptual adaptation in vowels...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875201/categorical-colormap-optimization-with-visualization-case-studies
#3
H Fang, S Walton, E Delahaye, J Harris, D A Storchak, M Chen
Mapping a set of categorical values to different colors is an elementary technique in data visualization. Users of visualization software routinely rely on the default colormaps provided by a system, or colormaps suggested by software such as ColorBrewer. In practice, users often have to select a set of colors in a semantically meaningful way (e.g., based on conventions, color metaphors, and logological associations), and consequently would like to ensure their perceptual differentiation is optimized. In this paper, we present an algorithmic approach for maximizing the perceptual distances among a set of given colors...
January 2017: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875168/colorgorical-creating-discriminable-and-preferable-color-palettes-for-information-visualization
#4
Connor C Gramazio, David H Laidlaw, Karen B Schloss
We present an evaluation of Colorgorical, a web-based tool for creating discriminable and aesthetically preferable categorical color palettes. Colorgorical uses iterative semi-random sampling to pick colors from CIELAB space based on user-defined discriminability and preference importances. Colors are selected by assigning each a weighted sum score that applies the user-defined importances to Perceptual Distance, Name Difference, Name Uniqueness, and Pair Preference scoring functions, which compare a potential sample to already-picked palette colors...
January 2017: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872293/emergence-of-an-abstract-categorical-code-enabling-the-discrimination-of-temporally-structured-tactile-stimuli
#5
Román Rossi-Pool, Emilio Salinas, Antonio Zainos, Manuel Alvarez, José Vergara, Néstor Parga, Ranulfo Romo
The problem of neural coding in perceptual decision making revolves around two fundamental questions: (i) How are the neural representations of sensory stimuli related to perception, and (ii) what attributes of these neural responses are relevant for downstream networks, and how do they influence decision making? We studied these two questions by recording neurons in primary somatosensory (S1) and dorsal premotor (DPC) cortex while trained monkeys reported whether the temporal pattern structure of two sequential vibrotactile stimuli (of equal mean frequency) was the same or different...
November 21, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870892/body-weight-can-change-how-your-emotions-are-perceived
#6
Yujung Oh, Norah C Hass, Seung-Lark Lim
Accurately interpreting other's emotions through facial expressions has important adaptive values for social interactions. However, due to the stereotypical social perception of overweight individuals as carefree, humorous, and light-hearted, the body weight of those with whom we interact may have a systematic influence on our emotion judgment even though it has no relevance to the expressed emotion itself. In this experimental study, we examined the role of body weight in faces on the affective perception of facial expressions...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866990/longitudinal-auditory-learning-facilitates-auditory-cognition-as-revealed-by-microstate-analysis
#7
Nathalie Giroud, Ulrike Lemke, Philip Reich, Katarina L Matthes, Martin Meyer
The current study investigates cognitive processes as reflected in late auditory-evoked potentials as a function of longitudinal auditory learning. A normal hearing adult sample (n=15) performed an active oddball task at three consecutive time points (TPs) arranged at two week intervals, and during which EEG was recorded. The stimuli comprised of syllables consisting of a natural fricative (/sh/,/s/,/f/) embedded between two /a/ sounds, as well as morphed transitions of the two syllables that served as deviants...
November 17, 2016: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858379/effects-of-varying-presentation-time-on-long-term-recognition-memory-for-scenes-verbatim-and-gist-representations
#8
Fahad N Ahmad, Morris Moscovitch, William E Hockley
Konkle, Brady, Alvarez and Oliva (Psychological Science, 21, 1551-1556, 2010) showed that participants have an exceptional long-term memory (LTM) for photographs of scenes. We examined to what extent participants' exceptional LTM for scenes is determined by presentation time during encoding. In addition, at retrieval, we varied the nature of the lures in a forced-choice recognition task so that they resembled the target in gist (i.e., global or categorical) information, but were distinct in verbatim information (e...
November 17, 2016: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814562/gender-differences-in-category-specificity-do-not-reflect-innate-dispositions
#9
Christian Gerlach, Guido Gainotti
It is well established that certain categories of objects are processed more efficiently than others in specific tasks; a phenomenon known as category-specificity in perceptual and conceptual processing. In the last two decades there have also been several reports of gender differences in category-specificity. In the present experiments we test the proposition that such gender differences have an evolutionary origin. If they do, we would expect them to emerge even when the population tested comprises young individuals raised in a gender-equality oriented society...
October 15, 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803794/the-time-course-of-ultrarapid-categorization-the-influence-of-scene-congruency-and-top-down-processing
#10
Steven Vanmarcke, Filip Calders, Johan Wagemans
Although categorization can take place at different levels of abstraction, classic studies on semantic labeling identified the basic level, for example, dog, as entry point for categorization. Ultrarapid categorization tasks have contradicted these findings, indicating that participants are faster at detecting superordinate-level information, for example, animal, in a complex visual image. We argue that both seemingly contradictive findings can be reconciled within the framework of parallel distributed processing and its successor Leabra (Local, Error-driven and Associative, Biologically Realistic Algorithm)...
September 2016: I-Perception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27794320/development-of-a-multi-category-psychometric-function-to-model-categorical-loudness-measurements
#11
Andrea C Trevino, Walt Jesteadt, Stephen T Neely
A multi-category psychometric function (MCPF) is introduced for modeling the stimulus-level dependence of perceptual categorical probability distributions. The MCPF is described in the context of individual-listener categorical loudness scaling (CLS) data. During a CLS task, listeners select the loudness category that best corresponds to their perception of the presented stimulus. In this study, CLS MCPF results are reported for 37 listeners (15 normal hearing, 22 with hearing loss). Individual-listener MCPFs were parameterized, and a principal component analysis (PCA) was used to identify sources of inter-subject variability and reduce the dimensionality of the data...
October 2016: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790172/auditory-induced-emotion-mediates-perceptual-categorization-of-everyday-sounds
#12
Penny Bergman, Daniel Västfjäll, Ana Tajadura-Jiménez, Erkin Asutay
Research has shown that emotion categorization plays an important role in perception and categorization in the visual domain. In the present paper, we investigated the role of auditory-induced emotions for auditory perception. We further investigated whether the emotional responses mediate other perceptual judgments of sounds. In an experiment, participants either rated general dissimilarities between sounds or dissimilarities of specific aspects of sounds. The results showed that the general perceptual salience map could be explained by both the emotional responses to, and perceptual aspects of, the sounds...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27775412/personality-pathology-and-relationship-satisfaction-in-dating-and-married-couples
#13
Mieke Decuyper, Fien Gistelinck, Jasmine Vergauwe, Gina Pancorbo, Filip De Fruyt
Personality disorders (PDs) are inherently associated with deficits in relating to other people. Previous research has shown consistent negative associations between categorical PD symptoms and relationship satisfaction. The present studies extend on these findings by examining the role of maladaptive traits in a number of ways. Self- and partner-reported maladaptive traits of both partners are included. Moreover, the present studies add a couple-centered approach by investigating the effects of actual similarity, perceptual similarity, and perceptual accuracy of the maladaptive trait profile on relationship satisfaction...
October 24, 2016: Personality Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27767240/a-somatosensory-to-motor-cascade-of-cortical-areas-engaged-in-perceptual-decision-making-during-tactile-pattern-discrimination
#14
Yiwen Li Hegner, Axel Lindner, Christoph Braun
The processes underlying perceptual decision making are diverse and typically engage a distributed network of brain areas. It is a particular challenge to establish a sensory-to-motor functional hierarchy in such networks. This is because single-cell recordings mainly study the nodes of decision networks in isolation but seldom simultaneously. Moreover, imaging methods, which allow simultaneously accessing information from overall networks, typically suffer from either the temporal or the spatial resolution necessary to establish a detailed functional hierarchy in terms of a sequential recruitment of areas during a decision process...
October 21, 2016: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27710893/pitch-perception-deficits-in-nonverbal-learning-disability
#15
I Fernández-Prieto, C Caprile, D Tinoco-González, B Ristol-Orriols, A López-Sala, P Póo-Argüelles, F Pons, J Navarra
The nonverbal learning disability (NLD) is a neurological dysfunction that affects cognitive functions predominantly related to the right hemisphere such as spatial and abstract reasoning. Previous evidence in healthy adults suggests that acoustic pitch (i.e., the relative difference in frequency between sounds) is, under certain conditions, encoded in specific areas of the right hemisphere that also encode the spatial elevation of external objects (e.g., high vs. low position). Taking this evidence into account, we explored the perception of pitch in preadolescents and adolescents with NLD and in a group of healthy participants matched by age, gender, musical knowledge and handedness...
October 3, 2016: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27708127/creating-body-shapes-from-verbal-descriptions-by-linking-similarity-spaces
#16
Matthew Q Hill, Stephan Streuber, Carina A Hahn, Michael J Black, Alice J O'Toole
Brief verbal descriptions of people's bodies (e.g., "curvy," "long-legged") can elicit vivid mental images. The ease with which these mental images are created belies the complexity of three-dimensional body shapes. We explored the relationship between body shapes and body descriptions and showed that a small number of words can be used to generate categorically accurate representations of three-dimensional bodies. The dimensions of body-shape variation that emerged in a language-based similarity space were related to major dimensions of variation computed directly from three-dimensional laser scans of 2,094 bodies...
October 5, 2016: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27695104/are-categorical-spatial-relations-encoded-by-shifting-visual-attention-between-objects
#17
Lei Yuan, David Uttal, Steven Franconeri
Perceiving not just values, but relations between values, is critical to human cognition. We tested the predictions of a proposed mechanism for processing categorical spatial relations between two objects-the shift account of relation processing-which states that relations such as 'above' or 'below' are extracted by shifting visual attention upward or downward in space. If so, then shifts of attention should improve the representation of spatial relations, compared to a control condition of identity memory...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27684608/how-mere-is-the-mere-ownership-effect-in-memory-evidence-for-semantic-organization-processes
#18
Julia Englert, Dirk Wentura
Memory is better for items arbitrarily assigned to the self than for items assigned to another person (mere ownership effect, MOE). In a series of six experiments, we investigated the role of semantic processes for the MOE. Following successful replication, we investigated whether the MOE was contingent upon semantic processing: For meaningless stimuli, there was no MOE. Testing for a potential role of semantic elaboration using meaningful stimuli in an encoding task without verbal labels, we found evidence of spontaneous semantic processing irrespective of self- or other-assignment...
September 26, 2016: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27672555/disorder-specific-characteristics-of-borderline-personality-disorder-with-co-occurring-depression-and-its-comparison-with-major-depression-an-fmri-study-with-emotional-interference-task
#19
Natalia Chechko, Thilo Kellermann, Marc Augustin, Michael Zvyagintsev, Frank Schneider, Ute Habel
Borderline personality disorder (BPD) and major depressive disorder (MDD) are both associated with abnormalities in the regulation of emotion, with BPD being highly comorbid with MDD. Disorder-specific dysfunctions in BPD, however, have hardly been addressed, hence the lack of knowledge pertaining to the specificity of emotion processing deficits and their commonality with MDD. 24 healthy comparison subjects, 21 patients with MDD, and 13 patients with comorbid BPD and MDD (BPD + MDD group) were studied using functional MRI...
2016: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27666146/dimension-based-statistical-learning-affects-both-speech-perception-and-production
#20
Matthew Lehet, Lori L Holt
Multiple acoustic dimensions signal speech categories. However, dimensions vary in their informativeness; some are more diagnostic of category membership than others. Speech categorization reflects these dimensional regularities such that diagnostic dimensions carry more "perceptual weight" and more effectively signal category membership to native listeners. Yet perceptual weights are malleable. When short-term experience deviates from long-term language norms, such as in a foreign accent, the perceptual weight of acoustic dimensions in signaling speech category membership rapidly adjusts...
September 25, 2016: Cognitive Science
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