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perceptual categorization

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29341346/a-systematic-review-and-classification-of-interventions-for-speech-sound-disorder-in-preschool-children
#1
REVIEW
Yvonne Wren, Sam Harding, Juliet Goldbart, Sue Roulstone
BACKGROUND: Multiple nterventions have been developed to address speech sound disorder (SSD) in children. Many of these have been evaluated but the evidence for these has not been considered within a model which categorizes types of intervention. The opportunity to carry out a systematic of interventions for SSD arose as part of a larger scale study of interventions for primary speech and language impairment in preschool children. AIMS: To review systematically the evidence for interventions for SSD in preschool children and to categorize them within a classification of interventions for SSD...
January 16, 2018: International Journal of Language & Communication Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321634/navon-s-classical-paradigm-concerning-local-and-global-processing-relates-systematically-to-visual-object-classification-performance
#2
Christian Gerlach, Nicolas Poirel
Forty years ago David Navon tried to tackle a central problem in psychology concerning the time course of perceptual processing: Do we first see the details (local level) followed by the overall outlay (global level) or is it rather the other way around? He did this by developing a now classical paradigm involving the presentation of compound stimuli; large letters composed of smaller letters. Despite the usefulness of this paradigm it remains uncertain whether effects found with compound stimuli relate directly to visual object recognition...
January 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29260010/musical-visual-and-cognitive-deficits-after-middle-cerebral-artery-infarction
#3
Stephanie Rosemann, Freimuth Brunner, Andreas Kastrup, Manfred Fahle
The perception of music can be impaired after a stroke. This dysfunction is called amusia and amusia patients often also show deficits in visual abilities, language, memory, learning, and attention. The current study investigated whether deficits in music perception are selective for musical input or generalize to other perceptual abilities. Additionally, we tested the hypothesis that deficits in working memory or attention account for impairments in music perception. Twenty stroke patients with small infarctions in the supply area of the middle cerebral artery were investigated with tests for music and visual perception, categorization, neglect, working memory and attention...
March 2017: ENeurologicalSci
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238912/hue-distinctiveness-overrides-category-in-determining-performance-in-multiple-object-tracking
#4
Mengdan Sun, Xuemin Zhang, Lingxia Fan, Luming Hu
The visual distinctiveness between targets and distractors can significantly facilitate performance in multiple object tracking (MOT), in which color is a feature that has been commonly used. However, the processing of color can be more than "visual." Color is continuous in chromaticity, while it is commonly grouped into discrete categories (e.g., red, green). Evidence from color perception suggested that color categories may have a unique role in visual tasks independent of its chromatic appearance. Previous MOT studies have not examined the effect of chromatic and categorical distinctiveness on tracking separately...
December 13, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222526/numerical-value-biases-sound-localization
#5
Edward J Golob, Jörg Lewald, Stephan Getzmann, Jeffrey R Mock
Speech recognition starts with representations of basic acoustic perceptual features and ends by categorizing the sound based on long-term memory for word meaning. However, little is known about whether the reverse pattern of lexical influences on basic perception can occur. We tested for a lexical influence on auditory spatial perception by having subjects make spatial judgments of number stimuli. Four experiments used pointing or left/right 2-alternative forced choice tasks to examine perceptual judgments of sound location as a function of digit magnitude (1-9)...
December 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193776/bayesian-statistical-approaches-to-evaluating-cognitive-models
#6
REVIEW
Jeffrey Annis, Thomas J Palmeri
Cognitive models aim to explain complex human behavior in terms of hypothesized mechanisms of the mind. These mechanisms can be formalized in terms of mathematical structures containing parameters that are theoretically meaningful. For example, in the case of perceptual decision making, model parameters might correspond to theoretical constructs like response bias, evidence quality, response caution, and the like. Formal cognitive models go beyond verbal models in that cognitive mechanisms are instantiated in terms of mathematics and they go beyond statistical models in that cognitive model parameters are psychologically interpretable...
November 28, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193476/mere-social-knowledge-impacts-children-s-consumption-and-categorization-of-foods
#7
Jasmine M DeJesus, Kristin Shutts, Katherine D Kinzler
How does social information affect the perception of taste early in life? Does mere knowledge of other people's food preferences impact children's own experience when eating? In Experiment 1, 5- and 6-year-old children consumed more of a food described as popular with other children than a food that was described as unpopular with other children, even though the two foods were identical. In Experiment 2, children ate more of a food described as popular with children than a food described as popular with adults...
November 29, 2017: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175027/measuring-perceptions-related-to-e-cigarettes-important-principles-and-next-steps-to-enhance-study-validity
#8
REVIEW
Laura A Gibson, MeLisa R Creamer, Alison B Breland, Aida Luz Giachello, Annette Kaufman, Grace Kong, Terry F Pechacek, Jessica K Pepper, Eric K Soule, Bonnie Halpern-Felsher
Measuring perceptions associated with e-cigarette use can provide valuable information to help explain why youth and adults initiate and continue to use e-cigarettes. However, given the complexity of e-cigarette devices and their continuing evolution, measures of perceptions of this product have varied greatly. Our goal, as members of the working group on e-cigarette measurement within the Tobacco Centers of Regulatory Science (TCORS) network, is to provide guidance to researchers developing surveys concerning e-cigarette perceptions...
November 20, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163324/practice-and-preparation-time-facilitate-system-switching-in-perceptual-categorization
#9
Sébastien Hélie
Mounting evidence suggests that category learning is achieved using different psychological and biological systems. While existing multiple-system theories and models of categorization may disagree about the number or nature of the different systems, all assume that people can switch between systems seamlessly. However, little empirical data has been collected to test this assumption, and recent available data suggest that system-switching is difficult. The main goal of this article is to identify factors influencing the proportion of participants who successfully learn to switch between procedural and declarative systems on a trial-by-trial basis...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152591/the-idiosyncratic-nature-of-confidence
#10
Joaquin Navajas, Chandni Hindocha, Hebah Foda, Mehdi Keramati, Peter E Latham, Bahador Bahrami
Confidence is the 'feeling of knowing' that accompanies decision making. Bayesian theory proposes that confidence is a function solely of the perceived probability of being correct. Empirical research has suggested, however, that different individuals may perform different computations to estimate confidence from uncertain evidence. To test this hypothesis, we collected confidence reports in a task where subjects made categorical decisions about the mean of a sequence. We found that for most individuals, confidence did indeed reflect the perceived probability of being correct...
November 2017: Nature Human Behaviour
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136515/associations-between-feelings-of-social-anxiety-and-emotion-perception
#11
Spencer K Lynn, Eric Bui, Susanne S Hoeppner, Emily B O'Day, Sophie A Palitz, Lisa Feldman Barrett, Naomi M Simon
BACKGROUND: Abnormally biased perceptual judgment is a feature of many psychiatric disorders. Thus, individuals with social anxiety disorder are biased to recall or interpret social events negatively. Cognitive behavioral therapy addresses such bias by teaching patients, via verbal instruction, to become aware of and change pathological misjudgment. The present study examined whether targeting verbal instruction to specific decision parameters that influence perceptual judgment may affect changes in anger perception...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127530/eeg-frequency-tagging-and-input-output-comparison-in-rhythm-perception
#12
REVIEW
Sylvie Nozaradan, Peter E Keller, Bruno Rossion, André Mouraux
The combination of frequency-tagging with electroencephalography (EEG) has recently proved fruitful for understanding the perception of beat and meter in musical rhythm, a common behavior shared by humans of all cultures. EEG frequency-tagging allows the objective measurement of input-output transforms to investigate beat perception, its modulation by exogenous and endogenous factors, development, and neural basis. Recent doubt has been raised about the validity of comparing frequency-domain representations of auditory rhythmic stimuli and corresponding EEG responses, assuming that it implies a one-to-one mapping between the envelope of the rhythmic input and the neural output, and that it neglects the sensitivity of frequency-domain representations to acoustic features making up the rhythms...
November 10, 2017: Brain Topography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124352/brain-waves-from-an-isolated-cortex-contribution-of-the-anterior-insula-to-cognitive-functions
#13
Rinaldo Livio Perri, Marika Berchicci, Valentina Bianco, Donatella Spinelli, Francesco Di Russo
Using two independent electrical neuroimaging techniques (BESA and sLORETA), we tested a fMRI-seeded source modeling indicating that in visual discriminative tasks the anterior insula (aIns) participates in the generation of three prefrontal ERP components: the pN1 (at 115 ms), the pP1 (at 170 ms), and the pP2 (at 300 ms). This latter component represented the focus of the present study. Results showed that the pP2 had different activation profiles across hemispheres. The left aIns activity peaked at 420 ms (30 ms before the response) for both Go and No-go trials, that is independently from the ultimate choice (response or inhibition)...
November 9, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118108/network-configurations-in-the-human-brain-reflect-choice-bias-during-rapid-face-processing
#14
Tao Tu, Noam Schneck, Jordan Muraskin, Paul Sajda
Network interactions are likely to be instrumental in processes underlying rapid perception and cognition. Specifically, high-level and perceptual regions must interact to balance pre-existing models of the environment with new incoming stimuli. Simultaneous EEG/fMRI allows for the temporal characterization of brain-network interactions combined with improved anatomical localization of regional activity. In this paper we use simultaneous EEG/fMRI and multivariate dynamical systems (MDS) analysis to characterize network relationships between constitute brain areas that reflect a subject's choice for a face versus non-face categorization task...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108674/effects-of-vocal-function-exercises-a-systematic-review
#15
REVIEW
Vrushali Angadi, Daniel Croake, Joseph Stemple
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of the present review was to systematically analyze the evidence for the effectiveness of vocal function exercises (VFEs) in improving voice production. METHODS: A systematic literature search was performed by two independent reviewers using PubMed and EBSCOHost to access relevant databases and to locate outcome studies that used VFEs as an intervention. Articles that met inclusion criteria were appraised based on the American Speech-Language and Hearing Association's levels of evidence...
November 3, 2017: Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094372/a-model-based-approach-to-the-wisdom-of-the-crowd-in-category-learning
#16
Irina Danileiko, Michael D Lee
We apply the "wisdom of the crowd" idea to human category learning, using a simple approach that combines people's categorization decisions by taking the majority decision. We first show that the aggregated crowd category learning behavior found by this method performs well, learning categories more quickly than most or all individuals for 28 previously collected datasets. We then extend the approach so that it does not require people to categorize every stimulus. We do this using a model-based method that predicts the categorization behavior people would produce for new stimuli, based on their behavior with observed stimuli, and uses the majority of these predicted decisions...
November 2, 2017: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093696/a-neurocomputational-approach-to-trained-and-transitive-relations-in-equivalence-classes
#17
Ángel E Tovar, Gert Westermann
A stimulus class can be composed of perceptually different but functionally equivalent stimuli. The relations between the stimuli that are grouped in a class can be learned or derived from other stimulus relations. If stimulus A is equivalent to B, and B is equivalent to C, then the equivalence between A and C can be derived without explicit training. In this work we propose, with a neurocomputational model, a basic learning mechanism for the formation of equivalence. We also describe how the relatedness between the members of an equivalence class is developed for both trained and derived stimulus relations...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091943/sound-iconicity-of-abstract-concepts-place-of-articulation-is-implicitly-associated-with-abstract-concepts-of-size-and-social-dominance
#18
Jan Auracher
The concept of sound iconicity implies that phonemes are intrinsically associated with non-acoustic phenomena, such as emotional expression, object size or shape, or other perceptual features. In this respect, sound iconicity is related to other forms of cross-modal associations in which stimuli from different sensory modalities are associated with each other due to the implicitly perceived correspondence of their primal features. One prominent example is the association between vowels, categorized according to their place of articulation, and size, with back vowels being associated with bigness and front vowels with smallness...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073108/visual-perception-as-retrospective-bayesian-decoding-from-high-to-low-level-features
#19
Stephanie Ding, Christopher J Cueva, Misha Tsodyks, Ning Qian
When a stimulus is presented, its encoding is known to progress from low- to high-level features. How these features are decoded to produce perception is less clear, and most models assume that decoding follows the same low- to high-level hierarchy of encoding. There are also theories arguing for global precedence, reversed hierarchy, or bidirectional processing, but they are descriptive without quantitative comparison with human perception. Moreover, observers often inspect different parts of a scene sequentially to form overall perception, suggesting that perceptual decoding requires working memory, yet few models consider how working-memory properties may affect decoding hierarchy...
October 24, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070901/the-neural-representation-of-human-versus-nonhuman-bipeds-and-quadrupeds
#20
Liuba Papeo, Moritz F Wurm, Nikolaas N Oosterhof, Alfonso Caramazza
How do humans recognize humans among other creatures? Recent studies suggest that a preference for conspecifics may emerge already in perceptual processing, in regions such as the right posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS), implicated in visual perception of biological motion. In the current functional MRI study, participants viewed point-light displays of human and nonhuman creatures moving in their typical bipedal (man and chicken) or quadrupedal mode (crawling-baby and cat). Stronger activity for man and chicken versus baby and cat was found in the right pSTS responsive to biological motion...
October 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
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