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perceptual categorization

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319874/an-event-related-potential-study-on-the-time-course-of-mental-rotation-in-upper-limb-amputees
#1
Yuanyuan Lyu, Xiaoli Guo, Robin Bekrater-Bodmann, Herta Flor, Shanbao Tong
OBJECTIVE: Mental rotation of body parts involves sequential cognitive processes, including visual processing, categorization and the mental rotation process itself. However, how these processes are affected by the amputation of a limb is still unclear. METHODS: Twenty-five right upper-limb amputees and the same number of matched healthy controls participated in a hand mental rotation task. Thirty-two-channel electroencephalography (EEG) was recorded and the event-related potentials (ERPs) were analyzed...
February 22, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295342/an-information-theory-account-of-late-frontoparietal-erp-positivities-in-cognitive-control
#2
Francisco Barceló, Patrick S Cooper
ERP research on task switching has revealed distinct transient and sustained positive waveforms (latency circa 300-900 ms) while shifting task rules or stimulus-response (S-R) mappings. However, it remains unclear whether such switch-related positivities show similar scalp topography and index context-updating mechanisms akin to those posed for domain-general (i.e., classic P300) positivities in many task domains. To examine this question, ERPs were recorded from 31 young adults (18-30 years) while they were intermittently cued to switch or repeat their perceptual categorization of Gabor gratings varying in color and thickness (switch task), or else they performed two visually identical control tasks (go/no-go and oddball)...
March 15, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286346/integrating-theoretical-models-with-functional-neuroimaging
#3
Michael S Pratte, Frank Tong
The development of mathematical models to characterize perceptual and cognitive processes dates back almost to the inception of the field of psychology. Since the 1990s, human functional neuroimaging has provided for rapid empirical and theoretical advances across a variety of domains in cognitive neuroscience. In more recent work, formal modeling and neuroimaging approaches are being successfully combined, often producing models with a level of specificity and rigor that would not have been possible by studying behavior alone...
February 2017: Journal of Mathematical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284798/interactions-between-the-anterior-cingulate-insula-network-and-the-fronto-parietal-network-during-perceptual-decision-making
#4
Ganesh B Chand, Mukesh Dhamala
Information processing in the human brain during cognitively demanding goal-directed tasks is thought to involve several large-scale brain networks, including the anterior cingulate-insula network (aCIN) and the fronto-parietal network (FPN). Recent functional MRI (fMRI) studies have provided clues that the aCIN initiates activity changes in the FPN. However, when and how often these networks interact remains largely unknown to date. Here, we systematically examined the oscillatory interactions between the aCIN and the FPN by using the spectral Granger causality analysis of reconstructed brain source signals from the scalp electroencephalography (EEG) recorded from human participants performing a face-house perceptual categorization task...
March 8, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261141/neural-correlates-of-subjective-awareness-for-natural-scene-categorization-of-color-photographs-and-line-drawings
#5
Qiufang Fu, Yong-Jin Liu, Zoltan Dienes, Jianhui Wu, Wenfeng Chen, Xiaolan Fu
It remains controversial whether visual awareness is correlated with early activation indicated by VAN (visual awareness negativity), as the recurrent process hypothesis theory proposes, or with later activation indicated by P3 or LP (late positive), as suggested by global workspace theories. To address this issue, a backward masking task was adopted, in which participants were first asked to categorize natural scenes of color photographs and line-drawings and then to rate the clarity of their visual experience on a Perceptual Awareness Scale (PAS)...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261047/editorial-neural-mechanisms-of-perceptual-categorization-as-precursors-to-speech-perception
#6
EDITORIAL
Einat Liebenthal, Lynne E Bernstein
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253661/consonant-categorization-exhibits-a-graded-influence-of-surrounding-spectral-context
#7
Christian E Stilp, Ashley A Assgari
When spectral properties differ across successive sounds, this difference is perceptually magnified, resulting in spectral contrast effects (SCEs). Recently, Stilp, Anderson, and Winn [(2015) J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 137(6), 3466-3476] revealed that SCEs are graded: more prominent spectral peaks in preceding sounds produced larger SCEs (i.e., category boundary shifts) in categorization of subsequent vowels. Here, a similar relationship between spectral context and SCEs was replicated in categorization of voiced stop consonants...
February 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250149/perceptual-and-categorical-decision-making-goal-relevant-representation-of-two-domains-at-different-levels-of-abstraction
#8
Swetha Shankar, Andrew S Kayser
To date it has been unclear whether perceptual decision making and rule-based categorization reflect activation of similar cognitive processes and brain regions. On the one hand, both map potentially ambiguous stimuli to a smaller set of motor responses. On the other, decisions about perceptual salience typically concern concrete sensory representations derived from a noisy stimulus, while categorization is typically conceptualized as an abstract decision about membership in a potentially arbitrary set. Previous work has primarily examined these types of decisions in isolation...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235664/alignability-based-free-categorization
#9
John P Clapper
Much evidence suggests that real-world natural kinds are based on overall similarity or family resemblance, but people often appear surprisingly insensitive to family resemblance in laboratory studies of sorting or free categorization. In such experiments, all stimuli generally vary along the same discretely-varying dimensions and family resemblance is defined in terms of the proportion of matching or mismatching values along those dimensions. This article argues for an alternative conception of family resemblance based on structural alignability, i...
February 18, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214576/amplified-induced-neural-oscillatory-activity-predicts-musicians-benefits-in-categorical-speech-perception
#10
Gavin M Bidelman
Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) reveal musical experience refines neural encoding and confers stronger categorical perception (CP) and neural organization for speech sounds. In addition to evoked brain activity, the human EEG can be decomposed into induced (non-phase-locked) responses whose various frequency bands reflect different mechanisms of perceptual-cognitive processing. Here, we aimed to clarify which spectral properties of these neural oscillations are most prone to music-related neuroplasticity and which are linked to behavioral benefits in the categorization of speech...
February 15, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209734/neural-representations-of-observed-actions-generalize-across-static-and-dynamic-visual-input
#11
Alon Hafri, John C Trueswell, Russell A Epstein
People interact with other people and with objects in distinct and categorizable ways (e.g., kicking is making contact with foot). We can recognize these action categories across variations in actors, objects, and settings; moreover, we can recognize them from both dynamic and static visual input. However, the neural systems that support action recognition across these perceptual differences are unclear. Here we used multivoxel pattern analysis of fMRI data to identify brain regions that support visual action categorization in a format-independent way...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207350/shifting-attention-between-visual-dimensions-as-a-source-of-switch-costs
#12
Heike Elchlepp, Maisy Best, Aureliu Lavric, Stephen Monsell
Task-switching experiments have documented a puzzling phenomenon: Advance warning of the switch reduces but does not eliminate the switch cost. Theoretical accounts have posited that the residual switch cost arises when one selects the relevant stimulus-response mapping, leaving earlier perceptual processes unaffected. We put this assumption to the test by seeking electrophysiological markers of encoding a perceptual dimension. Participants categorized a colored letter as a vowel or consonant or its color as "warm" or "cold...
February 1, 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191001/acoustic-properties-predict-perception-of-unfamiliar-dutch-vowels-by-adult-australian-english-and-peruvian-spanish-listeners
#13
Samra Alispahic, Karen E Mulak, Paola Escudero
Research suggests that the size of the second language (L2) vowel inventory relative to the native (L1) inventory may affect the discrimination and acquisition of L2 vowels. Models of non-native and L2 vowel perception stipulate that naïve listeners' non-native and L2 perceptual patterns may be predicted by the relationship in vowel inventory size between the L1 and the L2. Specifically, having a smaller L1 vowel inventory than the L2 impedes L2 vowel perception, while having a larger one often facilitates it...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185587/local-self-governance-in-health-a-study-of-it-s-functioning-in-odisha-india
#14
Bhuputra Panda, Sanjay P Zodpey, Harshad P Thakur
BACKGROUND: Local decision making is linked to several service quality improvement parameters. Rogi Kalyan Samitis (RKS) at peripheral decision making health units (DMHU) are composite bodies that are mandated to ensure accountability and transparency in governance, improve quality of services, and facilitate local responsiveness. There is scant literature on the nature of functioning of these institutions in Odisha. This study aimed to assess the perception of RKS members about their roles, involvement and practices with respect to local decision making and management of DMHUs; it further examined perceptual and functional differences between priority and non-priority district set-ups; and identified predictors of involvement of RKS members in local governance of health units...
October 31, 2016: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174545/categorization-of-natural-whistled-vowels-by-na%C3%A3-ve-listeners-of-different-language-background
#15
Julien Meyer, Laure Dentel, Fanny Meunier
Whistled speech in a non-tonal language consists of the natural emulation of vocalic and consonantal qualities in a simple modulated whistled signal. This special speech register represents a natural telecommunication system that enables high levels of sentence intelligibility by trained speakers and is not directly intelligible to naïve listeners. Yet, it is easily learned by speakers of the language that is being whistled, as attested by the current efforts of the revitalization of whistled Spanish in the Canary Islands...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160440/representation-of-speech-variability
#16
REVIEW
Tessa Bent, Rachael F Holt
Speech signals provide both linguistic information (e.g., words and sentences) as well as information about the speaker who produced the message (i.e., social-indexical information). Listeners store highly detailed representations of these speech signals, which are simultaneously indexed with linguistic and social category membership. A variety of methodologies-forced-choice categorization, rating, and free classification-have shed light on listeners' cognitive-perceptual representations of the social-indexical information present in the speech signal...
February 3, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155185/dutch-modality-exclusivity-norms-simulating-perceptual-modality-in-space
#17
Laura J Speed, Asifa Majid
Perceptual information is important for the meaning of nouns. We present modality exclusivity norms for 485 Dutch nouns rated on visual, auditory, haptic, gustatory, and olfactory associations. We found these nouns are highly multimodal. They were rated most dominant in vision, and least in olfaction. A factor analysis identified two main dimensions: one loaded strongly on olfaction and gustation (reflecting joint involvement in flavor), and a second loaded strongly on vision and touch (reflecting joint involvement in manipulable objects)...
February 2, 2017: Behavior Research Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28140764/the-two-body-inversion-effect
#18
Liuba Papeo, Timo Stein, Salvador Soto-Faraco
How does one perceive groups of people? It is known that functionally interacting objects (e.g., a glass and a pitcher tilted as if pouring water into it) are perceptually grouped. Here, we showed that processing of multiple human bodies is also influenced by their relative positioning. In a series of categorization experiments, bodies facing each other (seemingly interacting) were recognized more accurately than bodies facing away from each other (noninteracting). Moreover, recognition of facing body dyads (but not nonfacing body dyads) was strongly impaired when those stimuli were inverted, similar to what has been found for individual bodies...
March 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129455/the-role-of-generic-language-in-the-early-development-of-social-categorization
#19
Marjorie Rhodes, Sarah-Jane Leslie, Lydia Bianchi, Lisa Chalik
Classifying people into categories not only helps humans simplify a complex social world but also contributes to stereotyping and discrimination. This research examines how social categorization develops by testing how language imbues with meaning otherwise arbitrary differences between people. Experimental studies (N = 129) with 2-year-olds showed that generic language-language that refers to abstract kinds-guides the development of social categorization. Toddlers learned a new category after hearing generic language about individuals who shared an arbitrary perceptual feature but not after hearing matched specific language, simple labels, or plural (but nongeneric) language about the same set of individuals...
January 27, 2017: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125254/is-that-a-human-categorization-dis-fluency-drives-evaluations-of-agents-ambiguous-on-human-likeness
#20
Evan W Carr, Galit Hofree, Kayla Sheldon, Ayse P Saygin, Piotr Winkielman
A fundamental and seemingly unbridgeable psychological boundary divides humans and nonhumans. Essentialism theories suggest that mixing these categories violates "natural kinds." Perceptual theories propose that such mixing creates incompatible cues. Most theories suggest that mixed agents, with both human and nonhuman features, obligatorily elicit discomfort. In contrast, we demonstrate top-down, cognitive control of these effects-such that the discomfort with mixed agents is partially driven by disfluent categorization of ambiguous features that are pertinent to the agent...
January 26, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
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