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perceptual categorization

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410461/gradients-of-fear-how-perception-influences-fear-generalization
#1
Dieter Struyf, Jonas Zaman, Dirk Hermans, Bram Vervliet
The current experiment investigated whether overgeneralization of fear could be due to an inability to perceptually discriminate the initial fear-evoking stimulus from similar stimuli, as fear learning-induced perceptual impairments have been reported but their influence on generalization gradients remain to be elucidated. Three hundred and sixty-eight healthy volunteers participated in a differential fear conditioning paradigm with circles of different sizes as conditioned stimuli (CS), of which one was paired to an aversive IAPS picture...
April 5, 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391488/selective-auditory-grouping-by-zebra-finches-testing-the-iambic-trochaic-law
#2
Michelle Spierings, Jeroen Hubert, Carel Ten Cate
Humans have a strong tendency to spontaneously group visual or auditory stimuli together in larger patterns. One of these perceptual grouping biases is formulated as the iambic/trochaic law, where humans group successive tones alternating in pitch and intensity as trochees (high-low and loud-soft) and alternating in duration as iambs (short-long). The grouping of alternations in pitch and intensity into trochees is a human universal and is also present in one non-human animal species, rats. The perceptual grouping of sounds alternating in duration seems to be affected by native language in humans and has so far not been found among animals...
April 8, 2017: Animal Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28385875/correlates-of-perceptual-orientation-biases-in-human-primary-visual-cortex
#3
Matthew L Patten, Damien J Mannion, Colin W G Clifford
Vision can be considered as a process of probabilistic inference. In a Bayesian framework, perceptual estimates from sensory information are combined with prior knowledge, with a stronger influence of the prior when the sensory evidence is less certain. Here, we explored the behavioral and neural consequences of manipulating stimulus certainty in the context of orientation processing. First, we asked participants to judge whether a stimulus was oriented closer to vertical or the clockwise primary oblique (45°) for two stimulus types (spatially-filtered noise textures, sinusoidal gratings) and three manipulations of certainty (orientation bandwidth, contrast, duration)...
April 6, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383111/changes-in-the-stimulus-preceding-negativity-and-lateralized-readiness-potential-during-reinforcement-learning
#4
Xi Ren, Fernando Valle-Inclán, Sergii Tukaiev, Steven A Hackley
According to reinforcement learning theory, dopamine-dependent anticipatory processes play a critical role in learning from action outcomes such as feedback or reward. To better understand outcome anticipation, we examined variation in slow cortical potentials and assessed their changes over the course of motor-skill acquisition. Healthy young adults learned a series of precisely timed, key press sequences. Feedback was delivered at a delay of either 2.5 or 8 s, to encourage use of either the striatally mediated, habit learning system or the hippocampus-dependent, episodic memory system, respectively...
April 6, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372076/auditory-display-of-seismic-data-on-the-use-of-experts-categorizations-and-verbal-descriptions-as-heuristics-for-geoscience
#5
Arthur Paté, Lapo Boschi, Danièle Dubois, Jean-Loïc Le Carrou, Benjamin Holtzman
Auditory display can complement visual representations in order to better interpret scientific data. A previous article showed that the free categorization of "audified seismic signals" operated by listeners can be explained by various geophysical parameters. The present article confirms this result and shows that cognitive representations of listeners can be used as heuristics for the characterization of seismic signals. Free sorting tests are conducted with audified seismic signals, with the earthquake/seismometer relative location, playback audification speed, and earthquake magnitude as controlled variables...
March 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28355623/quest-a-general-multidimensional-bayesian-adaptive-psychometric-method
#6
Andrew B Watson
QUEST+ is a Bayesian adaptive psychometric testing method that allows an arbitrary number of stimulus dimensions, psychometric function parameters, and trial outcomes. It is a generalization and extension of the original QUEST procedure and incorporates many subsequent developments in the area of parametric adaptive testing. With a single procedure, it is possible to implement a wide variety of experimental designs, including conventional threshold measurement; measurement of psychometric function parameters, such as slope and lapse; estimation of the contrast sensitivity function; measurement of increment threshold functions; measurement of noise-masking functions; Thurstone scale estimation using pair comparisons; and categorical ratings on linear and circular stimulus dimensions...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28349383/right-away-a-late-right-lateralized-category-effect-complements-an-early-left-lateralized-category-effect-in-visual-search
#7
Merryn D Constable, Stefanie I Becker
According to the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis, learned semantic categories can influence early perceptual processes. A central finding in support of this view is the lateralized category effect-namely, the finding that categorically different colors (e.g., blue and green hues) can be discriminated faster than colors within the same color category (e.g., different hues of green), especially when they are presented in the right visual field. Because the right visual field projects to the left hemisphere, this finding has been popularly couched in terms of the left-lateralization of language...
March 27, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345948/the-impact-of-cross-modal-correspondences-on-working-memory-performance
#8
Riccardo Brunetti, Allegra Indraccolo, Serena Mastroberardino, Charles Spence, Valerio Santangelo
Cross-modal correspondences influence perceptual performance in adults, infants, and even nonhuman primates across a variety of different sensory modalities, including tasks involving speeded detection and categorization. However, to date, it is still unclear whether and how correspondences could modulate post-perceptual processes, such as working memory (WM). We investigated this issue using an audiovisual two-back task. In Experiment 1, 3 kinds of correspondences were used: audio/visual numerosity, pitch/shape, and pitch/elevation, each presented congruently (e...
April 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338829/seeing-is-not-stereotyping-the-functional-independence-of-categorization-and-stereotype-activation
#9
Tiffany A Ito, Silvia Tomelleri
Social categorization has been viewed as necessarily resulting in stereotyping, yet extant research suggests the two processes are differentially sensitive to task manipulations. Here we simultaneously test the degree to which race perception and stereotyping are conditionally automatic. Participants performed a sequential priming task while either explicitly attending to the race of face primes or directing attention away from their semantic nature. We find a dissociation between the perceptual encoding of race and subsequent activation of associated stereotypes, with race perception occurring in both task conditions, but implicit stereotyping occurring only when attention is directed to the race of the face primes...
February 23, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327383/sigueme-technology-based-intervention-for-low-functioning-autism-to-train-skills-to-work-with-visual-signifiers-and-concepts
#10
María Vélez-Coto, María José Rodríguez-Fórtiz, María Luisa Rodriguez-Almendros, Marcelino Cabrera-Cuevas, Carlos Rodríguez-Domínguez, Tomás Ruiz-López, Ángeles Burgos-Pulido, Inmaculada Garrido-Jiménez, Juan Martos-Pérez
BACKGROUND: People with low-functioning ASD and other disabilities often find it difficult to understand the symbols traditionally used in educational materials during the learning process. Technology-based interventions are becoming increasingly common, helping children with cognitive disabilities to perform academic tasks and improve their abilities and knowledge. Such children often find it difficult to perform certain tasks contained in educational materials since they lack necessary skills such as abstract reasoning...
March 16, 2017: Research in Developmental Disabilities
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326030/expansion-of-perceptual-body-maps-near-but-not-across-the-wrist
#11
Matthew R Longo
Perceiving the external spatial location of touch requires that tactile information about the stimulus location on the skin be integrated with proprioceptive information about the location of the body in external space, a process called tactile spatial remapping. Recent results have suggested that this process relies on a distorted representation of the hand. Here, I investigated whether similar distortions are also found on the forearm and how they are affected by the presence of the wrist joint, which forms a categorical, segmental boundary between the hand and the arm...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319874/an-event-related-potential-study-on-the-time-course-of-mental-rotation-in-upper-limb-amputees
#12
Yuanyuan Lyu, Xiaoli Guo, Robin Bekrater-Bodmann, Herta Flor, Shanbao Tong
OBJECTIVE: Mental rotation of body parts involves sequential cognitive processes, including visual processing, categorization and the mental rotation process itself. However, how these processes are affected by the amputation of a limb is still unclear. METHODS: Twenty-five right upper-limb amputees and the same number of matched healthy controls participated in a hand mental rotation task. Thirty-two-channel electroencephalography (EEG) was recorded and the event-related potentials (ERPs) were analyzed...
May 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295342/an-information-theory-account-of-late-frontoparietal-erp-positivities-in-cognitive-control
#13
Francisco Barceló, Patrick S Cooper
ERP research on task switching has revealed distinct transient and sustained positive waveforms (latency circa 300-900 ms) while shifting task rules or stimulus-response (S-R) mappings. However, it remains unclear whether such switch-related positivities show similar scalp topography and index context-updating mechanisms akin to those posed for domain-general (i.e., classic P300) positivities in many task domains. To examine this question, ERPs were recorded from 31 young adults (18-30 years) while they were intermittently cued to switch or repeat their perceptual categorization of Gabor gratings varying in color and thickness (switch task), or else they performed two visually identical control tasks (go/no-go and oddball)...
March 15, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286346/integrating-theoretical-models-with-functional-neuroimaging
#14
Michael S Pratte, Frank Tong
The development of mathematical models to characterize perceptual and cognitive processes dates back almost to the inception of the field of psychology. Since the 1990s, human functional neuroimaging has provided for rapid empirical and theoretical advances across a variety of domains in cognitive neuroscience. In more recent work, formal modeling and neuroimaging approaches are being successfully combined, often producing models with a level of specificity and rigor that would not have been possible by studying behavior alone...
February 2017: Journal of Mathematical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284798/interactions-between-the-anterior-cingulate-insula-network-and-the-fronto-parietal-network-during-perceptual-decision-making
#15
Ganesh B Chand, Mukesh Dhamala
Information processing in the human brain during cognitively demanding goal-directed tasks is thought to involve several large-scale brain networks, including the anterior cingulate-insula network (aCIN) and the fronto-parietal network (FPN). Recent functional MRI (fMRI) studies have provided clues that the aCIN initiates activity changes in the FPN. However, when and how often these networks interact remains largely unknown to date. Here, we systematically examined the oscillatory interactions between the aCIN and the FPN by using the spectral Granger causality analysis of reconstructed brain source signals from the scalp electroencephalography (EEG) recorded from human participants performing a face-house perceptual categorization task...
March 8, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261141/neural-correlates-of-subjective-awareness-for-natural-scene-categorization-of-color-photographs-and-line-drawings
#16
Qiufang Fu, Yong-Jin Liu, Zoltan Dienes, Jianhui Wu, Wenfeng Chen, Xiaolan Fu
It remains controversial whether visual awareness is correlated with early activation indicated by VAN (visual awareness negativity), as the recurrent process hypothesis theory proposes, or with later activation indicated by P3 or LP (late positive), as suggested by global workspace theories. To address this issue, a backward masking task was adopted, in which participants were first asked to categorize natural scenes of color photographs and line-drawings and then to rate the clarity of their visual experience on a Perceptual Awareness Scale (PAS)...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261047/editorial-neural-mechanisms-of-perceptual-categorization-as-precursors-to-speech-perception
#17
EDITORIAL
Einat Liebenthal, Lynne E Bernstein
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28253661/consonant-categorization-exhibits-a-graded-influence-of-surrounding-spectral-context
#18
Christian E Stilp, Ashley A Assgari
When spectral properties differ across successive sounds, this difference is perceptually magnified, resulting in spectral contrast effects (SCEs). Recently, Stilp, Anderson, and Winn [(2015) J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 137(6), 3466-3476] revealed that SCEs are graded: more prominent spectral peaks in preceding sounds produced larger SCEs (i.e., category boundary shifts) in categorization of subsequent vowels. Here, a similar relationship between spectral context and SCEs was replicated in categorization of voiced stop consonants...
February 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250149/perceptual-and-categorical-decision-making-goal-relevant-representation-of-two-domains-at-different-levels-of-abstraction
#19
Swetha Shankar, Andrew S Kayser
To date it has been unclear whether perceptual decision making and rule-based categorization reflect activation of similar cognitive processes and brain regions. On the one hand, both map potentially ambiguous stimuli to a smaller set of motor responses. On the other, decisions about perceptual salience typically concern concrete sensory representations derived from a noisy stimulus, while categorization is typically conceptualized as an abstract decision about membership in a potentially arbitrary set. Previous work has primarily examined these types of decisions in isolation...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235664/alignability-based-free-categorization
#20
John P Clapper
Much evidence suggests that real-world natural kinds are based on overall similarity or family resemblance, but people often appear surprisingly insensitive to family resemblance in laboratory studies of sorting or free categorization. In such experiments, all stimuli generally vary along the same discretely-varying dimensions and family resemblance is defined in terms of the proportion of matching or mismatching values along those dimensions. This article argues for an alternative conception of family resemblance based on structural alignability, i...
February 18, 2017: Cognition
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