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perceptual categorization

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136515/associations-between-feelings-of-social-anxiety-and-emotion-perception
#1
Spencer K Lynn, Eric Bui, Susanne S Hoeppner, Emily B O'Day, Sophie A Palitz, Lisa Feldman Barrett, Naomi M Simon
BACKGROUND: Abnormally biased perceptual judgment is a feature of many psychiatric disorders. Thus, individuals with social anxiety disorder are biased to recall or interpret social events negatively. Cognitive behavioral therapy addresses such bias by teaching patients, via verbal instruction, to become aware of and change pathological misjudgment. The present study examined whether targeting verbal instruction to specific decision parameters that influence perceptual judgment may affect changes in anger perception...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127530/eeg-frequency-tagging-and-input-output-comparison-in-rhythm-perception
#2
REVIEW
Sylvie Nozaradan, Peter E Keller, Bruno Rossion, André Mouraux
The combination of frequency-tagging with electroencephalography (EEG) has recently proved fruitful for understanding the perception of beat and meter in musical rhythm, a common behavior shared by humans of all cultures. EEG frequency-tagging allows the objective measurement of input-output transforms to investigate beat perception, its modulation by exogenous and endogenous factors, development, and neural basis. Recent doubt has been raised about the validity of comparing frequency-domain representations of auditory rhythmic stimuli and corresponding EEG responses, assuming that it implies a one-to-one mapping between the envelope of the rhythmic input and the neural output, and that it neglects the sensitivity of frequency-domain representations to acoustic features making up the rhythms...
November 10, 2017: Brain Topography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124352/brain-waves-from-an-isolated-cortex-contribution-of-the-anterior-insula-to-cognitive-functions
#3
Rinaldo Livio Perri, Marika Berchicci, Valentina Bianco, Donatella Spinelli, Francesco Di Russo
Using two independent electrical neuroimaging techniques (BESA and sLORETA), we tested a fMRI-seeded source modeling indicating that in visual discriminative tasks the anterior insula (aIns) participates in the generation of three prefrontal ERP components: the pN1 (at 115 ms), the pP1 (at 170 ms), and the pP2 (at 300 ms). This latter component represented the focus of the present study. Results showed that the pP2 had different activation profiles across hemispheres. The left aIns activity peaked at 420 ms (30 ms before the response) for both Go and No-go trials, that is independently from the ultimate choice (response or inhibition)...
November 9, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118108/network-configurations-in-the-human-brain-reflect-choice-bias-during-rapid-face-processing
#4
Tao Tu, Noam Schneck, Jordan Muraskin, Paul Sajda
Network interactions are likely to be instrumental in processes underlying rapid perception and cognition. Specifically, high-level and perceptual regions must interact to balance pre-existing models of the environment with new incoming stimuli. Simultaneous EEG/fMRI allows for the temporal characterization of brain-network interactions combined with improved anatomical localization of regional activity. In this paper we use simultaneous EEG/fMRI and multivariate dynamical systems (MDS) analysis to characterize network relationships between constitute brain areas that reflect a subject's choice for a face versus non-face categorization task...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108674/effects-of-vocal-function-exercises-a-systematic-review
#5
REVIEW
Vrushali Angadi, Daniel Croake, Joseph Stemple
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of the present review was to systematically analyze the evidence for the effectiveness of vocal function exercises (VFEs) in improving voice production. METHODS: A systematic literature search was performed by two independent reviewers using PubMed and EBSCOHost to access relevant databases and to locate outcome studies that used VFEs as an intervention. Articles that met inclusion criteria were appraised based on the American Speech-Language and Hearing Association's levels of evidence...
November 3, 2017: Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094372/a-model-based-approach-to-the-wisdom-of-the-crowd-in-category-learning
#6
Irina Danileiko, Michael D Lee
We apply the "wisdom of the crowd" idea to human category learning, using a simple approach that combines people's categorization decisions by taking the majority decision. We first show that the aggregated crowd category learning behavior found by this method performs well, learning categories more quickly than most or all individuals for 28 previously collected datasets. We then extend the approach so that it does not require people to categorize every stimulus. We do this using a model-based method that predicts the categorization behavior people would produce for new stimuli, based on their behavior with observed stimuli, and uses the majority of these predicted decisions...
November 2, 2017: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093696/a-neurocomputational-approach-to-trained-and-transitive-relations-in-equivalence-classes
#7
Ángel E Tovar, Gert Westermann
A stimulus class can be composed of perceptually different but functionally equivalent stimuli. The relations between the stimuli that are grouped in a class can be learned or derived from other stimulus relations. If stimulus A is equivalent to B, and B is equivalent to C, then the equivalence between A and C can be derived without explicit training. In this work we propose, with a neurocomputational model, a basic learning mechanism for the formation of equivalence. We also describe how the relatedness between the members of an equivalence class is developed for both trained and derived stimulus relations...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091943/sound-iconicity-of-abstract-concepts-place-of-articulation-is-implicitly-associated-with-abstract-concepts-of-size-and-social-dominance
#8
Jan Auracher
The concept of sound iconicity implies that phonemes are intrinsically associated with non-acoustic phenomena, such as emotional expression, object size or shape, or other perceptual features. In this respect, sound iconicity is related to other forms of cross-modal associations in which stimuli from different sensory modalities are associated with each other due to the implicitly perceived correspondence of their primal features. One prominent example is the association between vowels, categorized according to their place of articulation, and size, with back vowels being associated with bigness and front vowels with smallness...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073108/visual-perception-as-retrospective-bayesian-decoding-from-high-to-low-level-features
#9
Stephanie Ding, Christopher J Cueva, Misha Tsodyks, Ning Qian
When a stimulus is presented, its encoding is known to progress from low- to high-level features. How these features are decoded to produce perception is less clear, and most models assume that decoding follows the same low- to high-level hierarchy of encoding. There are also theories arguing for global precedence, reversed hierarchy, or bidirectional processing, but they are descriptive without quantitative comparison with human perception. Moreover, observers often inspect different parts of a scene sequentially to form overall perception, suggesting that perceptual decoding requires working memory, yet few models consider how working-memory properties may affect decoding hierarchy...
October 24, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070901/the-neural-representation-of-human-versus-nonhuman-bipeds-and-quadrupeds
#10
Liuba Papeo, Moritz F Wurm, Nikolaas N Oosterhof, Alfonso Caramazza
How do humans recognize humans among other creatures? Recent studies suggest that a preference for conspecifics may emerge already in perceptual processing, in regions such as the right posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS), implicated in visual perception of biological motion. In the current functional MRI study, participants viewed point-light displays of human and nonhuman creatures moving in their typical bipedal (man and chicken) or quadrupedal mode (crawling-baby and cat). Stronger activity for man and chicken versus baby and cat was found in the right pSTS responsive to biological motion...
October 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066846/specific-neurophysiological-mechanisms-underlie-cognitive-inflexibility-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#11
Vanessa A Petruo, Sebastian Zeißig, Renate Schmelz, Jochen Hampe, Christian Beste
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is highly prevalent. While the pathophysiological mechanisms of IBD are increasingly understood, there is a lack of knowledge concerning cognitive dysfunctions in IBD. This is all the more the case concerning the underlying neurophysiological mechanisms. In the current study we focus on possible dysfunctions of cognitive flexibility (task switching) processes in IBD patients using a system neurophysiological approach combining event-related potential (ERP) recordings with source localization analyses...
October 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058939/tests-of-an-exemplar-memory-model-of-classification-learning-in-a-high-dimensional-natural-science-category-domain
#12
Robert M Nosofsky, Craig A Sanders, Mark A McDaniel
Experiments were conducted in which novice participants learned to classify pictures of rocks into real-world, scientifically defined categories. The experiments manipulated the distribution of training instances during an initial study phase, and then tested for correct classification and generalization performance during a transfer phase. The similarity structure of the to-be-learned categories was also manipulated across the experiments. A low-parameter version of an exemplar-memory model, used in combination with a high-dimensional feature-space representation for the rock stimuli, provided good overall accounts of the categorization data...
October 23, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046634/cognitive-training-enhances-auditory-attention-efficiency-in-older-adults
#13
Jennifer L O'Brien, Jennifer J Lister, Bernadette A Fausto, Gregory K Clifton, Jerri D Edwards
Auditory cognitive training (ACT) improves attention in older adults; however, the underlying neurophysiological mechanisms are still unknown. The present study examined the effects of ACT on the P3b event-related potential reflecting attention allocation (amplitude) and speed of processing (latency) during stimulus categorization and the P1-N1-P2 complex reflecting perceptual processing (amplitude and latency). Participants completed an auditory oddball task before and after 10 weeks of ACT (n = 9) or a no contact control period (n = 15)...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044872/transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-of-right-inferior-parietal-cortex-causally-influences-prefrontal-activation-for-visual-detection
#14
Joana Leitão, Axel Thielscher, Hwee Ling Lee, Johannes Tuennerhoff, Uta Noppeney
For effective interactions with the environment the brain needs to form perceptual decisions based on noisy sensory evidence. Accumulating evidence suggests that perceptual decisions are formed by widespread interactions amongst sensory areas representing the noisy sensory evidence and fronto-parietal areas integrating the evidence into a decision variable that is compared to a decisional threshold. This concurrent transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)-fMRI study applied 10 Hz bursts of four TMS (or Sham) pulses to the intraparietal sulcus (IPS) to investigate the causal influence of IPS on the neural systems involved in perceptual decision making...
October 17, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993265/the-concept-of-contexts-in-pain-generalization-of-contextual-pain-related-fear-within-a-de-novo-category-of-unique-contexts
#15
Ann Meulders, Marc Patrick Bennett
The experience of unpredictable pain fluctuations can trigger anticipatory pain-related fear. When discrete predictors for pain are lacking, fear typically accrues to the broader environmental context: a phenomenon referred to as contextual pain-related fear. We examined whether conceptual similarity between discrete contexts facilitates pain-related fear generalization; this mechanism is known as category-level fear generalization. Using a voluntary joystick movement paradigm, pain-free participants performed movements in two contexts (within-subjects design); context was manipulated by varying background color screens...
October 6, 2017: Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28985419/subthalamic-nucleus-stimulation-impairs-emotional-conflict-adaptation-in-parkinson-s-disease
#16
Friederike Irmen, Julius Huebl, Henning Schroll, Christof Brücke, Gerd-Helge Schneider, Fred H Hamker, Andrea A Kühn
The subthalamic nucleus (STN) occupies a strategic position in the motor network, slowing down responses in situations with conflicting perceptual input. Recent evidence suggests a role of the STN in emotion processing through strong connections with emotion recognition structures. As deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the STN in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) inhibits monitoring of perceptual and value-based conflict, STN DBS may also interfere with emotional conflict processing. To assess a possible interference of STN DBS with emotional conflict processing, we used an emotional Stroop paradigm...
October 1, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28970809/the-role-of-spatial-frequency-information-in-face-classification-by-race
#17
Guoping Zhang, Zeyao Wang, Jie Wu, Lun Zhao
It was found that face classification by race is more quickly for other-race than own-race faces (other-race classification advantage, ORCA). Controlling the spatial frequencies of face images, the current study investigated the perceptual processing differences based on spatial frequencies between own-race and other-race faces that might account for the ORCA. Regardless of the races of the observers, the own-race faces were classified faster and more accurately for broad-band faces than for both lower and higher spatial frequency (SF) faces, whereas, although other-race faces were classified less accurately for higher SF than for either broad-band or lower SF faces, there was no difference between broad-band and lower SF conditions of other-race faces...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968658/task-general-and-acoustic-invariant-neural-representation-of-speech-categories-in-the-human-brain
#18
Gangyi Feng, Zhenzhong Gan, Suiping Wang, Patrick C M Wong, Bharath Chandrasekaran
A significant neural challenge in speech perception includes extracting discrete phonetic categories from continuous and multidimensional signals despite varying task demands and surface-acoustic variability. While neural representations of speech categories have been previously identified in frontal and posterior temporal-parietal regions, the task dependency and dimensional specificity of these neural representations are still unclear. Here, we asked native Mandarin participants to listen to speech syllables carrying 4 distinct lexical tone categories across passive listening, repetition, and categorization tasks while they underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)...
August 28, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28967587/the-influence-of-occupation-on-self-perceived-vocal-problems-in-patients-with-voice-complaints
#19
Barbara Ebersole, Resha S Soni, Kathleen Moran, Miriam Lango, Karthik Devarajan, Nausheen Jamal
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to examine the relationships among patient occupation, laryngeal diagnosis, perceptual dysphonia severity, and patient-perceived voice impairment. METHODS: Adult patients presenting with a chief complaint of dysphonia over a 20-month period at a tertiary care, interdisciplinary voice center were included in this retrospective cohort study. Patients were categorized by profession: vocal performers, high occupational voice demand, low or no occupational voice demand, and retired...
September 26, 2017: Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961431/auditory-induced-bouncing-is-a-perceptual-rather-than-a-cognitive-phenomenon-evidence-from-illusory-crescents
#20
Hauke S Meyerhoff, Brian J Scholl
A central task for vision is to identify objects as the same persisting individuals over time and motion. The need for such processing is made especially clear in ambiguous situations such as the bouncing/streaming display: two discs move toward each other, superimpose, and then continue along their trajectories. Did the discs stream past each other, or bounce off each other? When people are likely to perceive streaming, playing a brief tone at the moment of overlap can readily cause them to see bouncing instead...
September 26, 2017: Cognition
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