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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076355/multiple-choice-neurodynamical-model-of-the-uncertain-option-task
#1
Andrea Insabato, Mario Pannunzi, Gustavo Deco
The uncertain option task has been recently adopted to investigate the neural systems underlying the decision confidence. Latterly single neurons activity has been recorded in lateral intraparietal cortex of monkeys performing an uncertain option task, where the subject is allowed to opt for a small but sure reward instead of making a risky perceptual decision. We propose a multiple choice model implemented in a discrete attractors network. This model is able to reproduce both behavioral and neurophysiological experimental data and therefore provides support to the numerous perspectives that interpret the uncertain option task as a sensory-motor association...
January 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056343/perceptual-decision-making-in-rodents-monkeys-and-humans
#2
REVIEW
Timothy D Hanks, Christopher Summerfield
Perceptual decision making is the process by which animals detect, discriminate, and categorize information from the senses. Over the past two decades, understanding how perceptual decisions are made has become a central theme in the neurosciences. Exceptional progress has been made by recording from single neurons in the cortex of the macaque monkey and using computational models from mathematical psychology to relate these neural data to behavior. More recently, however, the range of available techniques and paradigms has dramatically broadened, and researchers have begun to harness new approaches to explore how rodents and humans make perceptual decisions...
January 4, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029477/relating-farmer-s-perceptions-of-climate-change-risk-to-adaptation-behaviour-in-hungary
#3
Sen Li, Linda Juhász-Horváth, Paula A Harrison, László Pintér, Mark D A Rounsevell
Understanding how farmers perceive climate change risks and how this affects their willingness to adopt adaptation practices is critical for developing effective climate change response strategies for the agricultural sector. This study examines (i) the perceptual relationships between farmers' awareness of climate change phenomena, beliefs in climate change risks and actual adaptation behaviour, and (ii) how these relationships may be modified by farm-level antecedents related to human, social, financial capitals and farm characteristics...
October 28, 2016: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028197/limited-cognitive-resources-explain-a-tradeoff-between-perceptual-and-metacognitive-vigilance
#4
Brian Maniscalco, Li Yan McCurdy, Brian Odegaard, Hakwan Lau
: Why do experimenters give subjects short breaks in long behavioral experiments? Whereas earlier studies suggest it is difficult to maintain attention and vigilance over long periods of time, it is unclear precisely what mechanisms benefit from rest after short experimental blocks. Here, we evaluate decline in both perceptual performance and metacognitive sensitivity (i.e., how well confidence ratings track perceptual decision accuracy) over time, and investigate whether characteristics of prefrontal cortical areas correlate with these measures...
December 27, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005007/response-repetition-biases-in-human-perceptual-decisions-are-explained-by-activity-decay-in-competitive-attractor-models
#5
James J Bonaiuto, Archy O de Berker, Sven Bestmann
Animals and humans have a tendency to repeat recent choices, a phenomenon known as choice hysteresis. The mechanism for this choice bias remains unclear. Using an established, biophysically informed model of a competitive attractor network for decision making, we found that decaying tail activity from the previous trial caused choice hysteresis, especially during difficult trials, and accurately predicted human perceptual choices. In the model, choice variability could be directionally altered through amplification or dampening of post-trial activity decay through simulated depolarizing or hyperpolarizing network stimulation...
December 22, 2016: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986498/comparison-of-auditory-stream-segregation-in-sighted-and-early-blind-individuals
#6
Fatemeh Moghadasi Boroujeni, Fatemeh Heidari, Masoumeh Rouzbahani, Mohammad Kamali
An important characteristic of the auditory system is the capacity to analyze complex sounds and make decisions on the source of the constituent parts of these sounds. Blind individuals compensate for the lack of visual information by an increase input from other sensory modalities, including increased auditory information. The purpose of the current study was to compare the fission boundary (FB) threshold of sighted and early blind individuals through spectral aspects using a psychoacoustic auditory stream segregation (ASS) test...
December 13, 2016: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27956065/effects-of-deep-brain-stimulation-of-the-subthalamic-nucleus-on-perceptual-decision-making
#7
Tino Zaehle, Caroline Wagenbreth, Jürgen Voges, Hans-Jochen Heinze, Imke Galazky
When faced with difficult decisions, people prefer to stay with the default. This status quo bias often leads to suboptimal choice behavior. Neurophysiological evidence suggests a pivot role of the Subthalamic Nucleus (STN) for overcoming such status quo bias in difficult decisions, but causal evidence is lacking. The present study investigated whether subthalamic deep brain stimulation (DBS) in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) influences the status quo bias. Eighteen PD patients treated with STN-DBS performed a difficult perceptual decision task incorporating intrinsic status quo option...
December 9, 2016: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928763/rationality-perception-and-the-all-seeing-eye
#8
Teppo Felin, Jan Koenderink, Joachim I Krueger
Seeing-perception and vision-is implicitly the fundamental building block of the literature on rationality and cognition. Herbert Simon and Daniel Kahneman's arguments against the omniscience of economic agents-and the concept of bounded rationality-depend critically on a particular view of the nature of perception and vision. We propose that this framework of rationality merely replaces economic omniscience with perceptual omniscience. We show how the cognitive and social sciences feature a pervasive but problematic meta-assumption that is characterized by an "all-seeing eye...
December 7, 2016: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916665/task-modulations-and-clinical-manifestations-in-the-brain-functional-connectome-in-1615-fmri-datasets
#9
Tobias Kaufmann, Dag Alnæs, Christine Lycke Brandt, Nhat Trung Doan, Karolina Kauppi, Francesco Bettella, Trine V Lagerberg, Akiah O Berg, Srdjan Djurovic, Ingrid Agartz, Ingrid S Melle, Torill Ueland, Ole A Andreassen, Lars T Westlye
OBJECTIVE: An abundance of experimental studies have motivated a range of models concerning the cognitive underpinnings of severe mental disorders, yet the conception that cognitive and brain dysfunction is confined to specific cognitive domains and contexts has limited ecological validity. Schizophrenia and bipolar spectrum disorders have been conceptualized as disorders of brain connectivity; yet little is known about the pervasiveness across cognitive tasks. METHODS: To address this outstanding issue of context specificity, we estimated functional network connectivity from fMRI data obtained during five cognitive tasks (0-back, 2-back, go/no-go, recognition of positive faces, negative faces) in 90 patients with schizophrenia spectrum, 97 patients with bipolar spectrum disorder, and 136 healthy controls, including 1615 fMRI datasets in total...
December 1, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882927/global-gain-modulation-generates-time-dependent-urgency-during-perceptual-choice-in-humans
#10
Peter R Murphy, Evert Boonstra, Sander Nieuwenhuis
Decision-makers must often balance the desire to accumulate information with the costs of protracted deliberation. Optimal, reward-maximizing decision-making can require dynamic adjustment of this speed/accuracy trade-off over the course of a single decision. However, it is unclear whether humans are capable of such time-dependent adjustments. Here, we identify several signatures of time-dependency in human perceptual decision-making and highlight their possible neural source. Behavioural and model-based analyses reveal that subjects respond to deadline-induced speed pressure by lowering their criterion on accumulated perceptual evidence as the deadline approaches...
November 24, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872293/emergence-of-an-abstract-categorical-code-enabling-the-discrimination-of-temporally-structured-tactile-stimuli
#11
Román Rossi-Pool, Emilio Salinas, Antonio Zainos, Manuel Alvarez, José Vergara, Néstor Parga, Ranulfo Romo
The problem of neural coding in perceptual decision making revolves around two fundamental questions: (i) How are the neural representations of sensory stimuli related to perception, and (ii) what attributes of these neural responses are relevant for downstream networks, and how do they influence decision making? We studied these two questions by recording neurons in primary somatosensory (S1) and dorsal premotor (DPC) cortex while trained monkeys reported whether the temporal pattern structure of two sequential vibrotactile stimuli (of equal mean frequency) was the same or different...
December 6, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870892/body-weight-can-change-how-your-emotions-are-perceived
#12
Yujung Oh, Norah C Hass, Seung-Lark Lim
Accurately interpreting other's emotions through facial expressions has important adaptive values for social interactions. However, due to the stereotypical social perception of overweight individuals as carefree, humorous, and light-hearted, the body weight of those with whom we interact may have a systematic influence on our emotion judgment even though it has no relevance to the expressed emotion itself. In this experimental study, we examined the role of body weight in faces on the affective perception of facial expressions...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866891/confidence-is-the-bridge-between-multi-stage-decisions
#13
Ronald van den Berg, Ariel Zylberberg, Roozbeh Kiani, Michael N Shadlen, Daniel M Wolpert
Demanding tasks often require a series of decisions to reach a goal. Recent progress in perceptual decision-making has served to unite decision accuracy, speed, and confidence in a common framework of bounded evidence accumulation, furnishing a platform for the study of such multi-stage decisions. In many instances, the strategy applied to each decision, such as the speed-accuracy trade-off, ought to depend on the accuracy of the previous decisions. However, as the accuracy of each decision is often unknown to the decision maker, we hypothesized that subjects may carry forward a level of confidence in previous decisions to affect subsequent decisions...
December 5, 2016: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865552/relationship-between-voice-complaints-and-subjective-and-objective-measures-of-vocal-function-in-iranian-female-teachers
#14
Maryam Faham, Nahid Jalilevand, Farhad Torabinezhad, Erin Pearson Silverman, Akram Ahmadi, Zahra Ghayoumi Anaraki, Narges Jafari
OBJECTIVES: Teachers are at high risk of developing voice problems because of the excessive vocal demands necessitated by their profession. Teachers' self-assessment of vocal complaints, combined with subjective and objective measures of voice, may enable better therapeutic decision-making. This investigation compared audio-perceptual assessment and acoustic variables in teachers with and without voice complaints. METHODS: Ninety-nine teachers completed this cross-sectional study and were assigned to one of two groups: those "with voice complaint (VC)" and those "without voice complaint (W-VC)...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852024/-parietal-association-area-and-motion-information-processing
#15
Takanori Uka
Motion perception plays an important role in everyday life. The investigation of the neural mechanisms underlying the distinguishing of the direction of motion has broadly expanded our understanding of the neural mechanisms of not only visual motion processing but also how integration of visual information is linked with intentional behavior. The lateral intraparietal (LIP) cortex is a crucial area involved in perceptual decision making and oculomotor planning. Here, I have reviewed the neural mechanisms underlying visual motion processing and describe how intentional behavior results from motion information...
November 2016: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27831722/contributions-of-perceptual-and-motor-experience-of-an-observed-action-to-anticipating-its-result
#16
Yin-Hua Chen, Pei-Hong Lee, Yu-Wen Lu, Shih-Kuei Huang, Nai-Shing Yen
To gain deeper insight into respective contributions of perceptual and motor experience of an observed action to anticipating its result, we examined the perceptual anticipation of players with different action roles in striking sports. Baseball pitchers and batters at both advanced and intermediate levels were asked to make a decision about whether to swing the bat when viewing a series of videos showing incomplete sequences of a model pitcher throwing a strike or a ball. The results revealed that first 100 ms of ball flight could discriminate advanced batters from intermediate pitchers and batters (with no difference between intermediate pitchers and batters)...
November 10, 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829041/cognitive-bias-in-ambiguity-judgements-using-computational-models-to-dissect-the-effects-of-mild-mood-manipulation-in-humans
#17
Kiyohito Iigaya, Aurelie Jolivald, Wittawat Jitkrittum, Iain D Gilchrist, Peter Dayan, Elizabeth Paul, Michael Mendl
Positive and negative moods can be treated as prior expectations over future delivery of rewards and punishments. This provides an inferential foundation for the cognitive (judgement) bias task, now widely-used for assessing affective states in non-human animals. In the task, information about affect is extracted from the optimistic or pessimistic manner in which participants resolve ambiguities in sensory input. Here, we report a novel variant of the task aimed at dissecting the effects of affect manipulations on perceptual and value computations for decision-making under ambiguity in humans...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826262/editorial-modeling-individual-differences-in-perceptual-decision-making
#18
EDITORIAL
Joseph W Houpt, Cheng-Ta Yang, James T Townsend
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819455/information-foraging-for-perceptual-decisions
#19
Casimir J H Ludwig, David R Evens
We tested an information foraging framework to characterize the mechanisms that drive active (visual) sampling behavior in decision problems that involve multiple sources of information. Experiments 1 through 3 involved participants making an absolute judgment about the direction of motion of a single random dot motion pattern. In Experiment 4, participants made a relative comparison between 2 motion patterns that could only be sampled sequentially. Our results show that: (a) Information (about noisy motion information) grows to an asymptotic level that depends on the quality of the information source; (b) The limited growth is attributable to unequal weighting of the incoming sensory evidence, with early samples being weighted more heavily; (c) Little information is lost once a new source of information is being sampled; and (d) The point at which the observer switches from 1 source to another is governed by online monitoring of his or her degree of (un)certainty about the sampled source...
November 7, 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27816779/performance-monitoring-for-brain-computer-interface-actions
#20
Aaron Schurger, Steven Gale, Olivia Gozel, Olaf Blanke
When presented with a difficult perceptual decision, human observers are able to make metacognitive judgements of subjective certainty. Such judgements can be made independently of and prior to any overt response to a sensory stimulus, presumably via internal monitoring. Retrospective judgements about one's own task performance, on the other hand, require first that the subject perform a task and thus could potentially be made based on motor processes, proprioceptive, and other sensory feedback rather than internal monitoring...
February 2017: Brain and Cognition
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