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perceptual decision making

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723947/the-effect-of-order-of-dwells-on-the-first-dwell-gaze-bias-for-eventually-chosen-items
#1
Takuya Onuma, Yuwadee Penwannakul, Jun Fuchimoto, Nobuyuki Sakai
The relationship between choice and eye movement has gained marked interest. The gaze bias effect, i.e., the tendency to look longer at items that are eventually chosen, has been shown to occur in the first dwell (initial cohesion of fixations for an item). In the two-alternative forced-choice (2AFC) paradigm, participants would look at one of the items first (defined as first look; FL), and they would then move and look at another item (second look; SL). This study investigated how the order in which the chosen items were looked at modulates the first dwell gaze bias effect...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699831/motivated-malleability-frontal-cortical-asymmetry-predicts-the-susceptibility-to-social-influence
#2
Robert Schnuerch, Stefan Pfattheicher
Humans, just as many other animals, regulate their behavior in terms of approaching stimuli associated with pleasure and avoiding stimuli linked to harm. A person's current and chronic motivational direction-that is, approach versus avoidance orientation-is reliably reflected in the asymmetry of frontal cortical low-frequency oscillations. Using resting electroencephalography (EEG), we show that frontal asymmetry is predictive of the tendency to yield to social influence: Stronger right- than left-side frontolateral activation during a resting-state session prior to the experiment was robustly associated with a stronger inclination to adopt a peer group's judgments during perceptual decision-making (Study 1)...
July 12, 2017: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692700/noise-multisensory-integration-and-previous-response-in-perceptual-disambiguation
#3
Cesare V Parise, Marc O Ernst
Sensory information about the state of the world is generally ambiguous. Understanding how the nervous system resolves such ambiguities to infer the actual state of the world is a central quest for sensory neuroscience. However, the computational principles of perceptual disambiguation are still poorly understood: What drives perceptual decision-making between multiple equally valid solutions? Here we investigate how humans gather and combine sensory information-within and across modalities-to disambiguate motion perception in an ambiguous audiovisual display, where two moving stimuli could appear as either streaming through, or bouncing off each other...
July 10, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688073/the-integration-of-occlusion-and-disparity-information-for-judging-depth-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#4
Danielle Smith, Danielle Ropar, Harriet A Allen
In autism spectrum disorder (ASD), atypical integration of visual depth cues may be due to flattened perceptual priors or selective fusion. The current study attempts to disentangle these explanations by psychophysically assessing within-modality integration of ordinal (occlusion) and metric (disparity) depth cues while accounting for sensitivity to stereoscopic information. Participants included 22 individuals with ASD and 23 typically developing matched controls. Although adults with ASD were found to have significantly poorer stereoacuity, they were still able to automatically integrate conflicting depth cues, lending support to the idea that priors are intact in ASD...
July 7, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681758/basal-ganglia-their-role-in-complex-cognitive-procedures-in-experimental-models-and-in-clinical-practice
#5
Rita Moretti, Paola Caruso, Elena Crisman, Silvia Gazzin
Apart from the well known role of the basal ganglia (BG) in motor control, their important role in regulating the cognitive functions is emerging. This article traces the scientific work that explores this role of BG in reinforcement learning, perceptual decision making, and other nonmotor pathways (speech fluency, cognition, attention and behaviour). It also highlights the important role played by the BG networks in determining the development of a child's brain. It retraces the various pathways and connections of the BG with the cerebral cortex, cerebellum and other regions that may be utilized in the establishment of complex cognitive procedures...
July 2017: Neurology India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28673881/a-multimodal-encoding-model-applied-to-imaging-decision-related-neural-cascades-in-the-human-brain
#6
REVIEW
Jordan Muraskin, Truman R Brown, Jennifer M Walz, Tao Tu, Bryan Conroy, Robin I Goldman, Paul Sajda
Perception and cognition in the brain are naturally characterized as spatiotemporal processes. Decision-making, for example depends on coordinated patterns of neural activity cascading across the brain, running in time from stimulus to response and in space from primary sensory regions to the frontal lobe. Measuring this cascade is key to developing an understanding of brain function. Here we report on a novel methodology that employs multi-modal imaging for inferring this cascade in humans at unprecedented spatiotemporal resolution...
June 30, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669719/changing-similarity-stable-and-flexible-modulations-of-psychological-dimensions
#7
Michael Dieciuc, Nelson A Roque, Jonathan R Folstein
Successfully categorizing objects requires discriminating between relevant and irrelevant dimensions (e.g., shape, color). Categorization can lead to changes in the visual system that stretch psychological space, making relevant dimensions more distinct and irrelevant dimensions more similar. These changes are known as dimensional modulation (DM) and they can be both stable and flexible in nature. The current study examined the interaction between stable DM and flexible DM, as well as the time course of relative changes in similarity...
June 29, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668981/implicit-valuation-of-the-near-miss-is-dependent-on-outcome-context
#8
Parker J Banks, Matthew S Tata, Patrick J Bennett, Allison B Sekuler, Aaron J Gruber
Gambling studies have described a "near-miss effect" wherein the experience of almost winning increases gambling persistence. The near-miss has been proposed to inflate the value of preceding actions through its perceptual similarity to wins. We demonstrate here, however, that it acts as a conditioned stimulus to positively or negatively influence valuation, dependent on reward expectation and cognitive engagement. When subjects are asked to choose between two simulated slot machines, near-misses increase valuation of machines with a low payout rate, whereas they decrease valuation of high payout machines...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Gambling Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648171/breaking-down-hierarchies-of-decision-making-in-primates
#9
Alexandre Hyafil, Rubén Moreno-Bote
Possible options in a decision often organize as a hierarchy of subdecisions. A recent study concluded that perceptual processes in primates mimic this hierarchical structure and perform subdecisions in parallel. We argue that a flat model that directly selects between final choices accounts more parsimoniously for the reported behavioral and neural data. Critically, a flat model is characterized by decision signals integrating evidence at different hierarchical levels, in agreement with neural recordings showing this integration in localized neural populations...
June 26, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635378/people-with-autism-spectrum-conditions-make-more-consistent-decisions
#10
George D Farmer, Simon Baron-Cohen, William J Skylark
People with autism spectrum conditions (ASC) show reduced sensitivity to contextual stimuli in many perceptual and cognitive tasks. We investigated whether this also applies to decision making by examining adult participants' choices between pairs of consumer products that were presented with a third, less desirable "decoy" option. Participants' preferences between the items in a given pair frequently switched when the third item in the set was changed, but this tendency was reduced among individuals with ASC, which indicated that their choices were more consistent and conventionally rational than those of control participants...
June 1, 2017: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614849/perceptual-learning-is-specific-beyond-vision-and-decision-making
#11
Lukasz Grzeczkowski, Aline Cretenoud, Michael H Herzog, Fred W Mast
Perceptual learning is usually assumed to occur within sensory areas or when sensory evidence is mapped onto decisions. Subsequent procedural and motor processes, involved in most perceptual learning experiments, are thought to play no role in the learning process. Here, we show that this is not the case. Observers trained with a standard three-line bisection task and indicated the offset direction of the central line by pressing either a left or right push button. Before and after training, observers adjusted the central line of the same bisection stimulus using a computer mouse...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611387/visuotactile-integration-modulates-motor-performance-in-a-perceptual-decision-making-task
#12
Klaudia Grechuta, Jelena Guga, Giovanni Maffei, Belen Ballester Rubio, Paul F M J Verschure
Body ownership is critically dependent on multimodal integration as for instance revealed in the Rubber Hand Illusion (RHI) and a number of studies which have addressed the neural correlates of the processes underlying this phenomenon. Both experimental and clinical research have shown that the structures underlying body ownership seem to significantly overlap with those of motor control including the parietal and ventral premotor cortices, Temporal Parietal Junction (TPJ) and the insula. This raises the question of whether this structural overlap between body ownership and motor control structures is of any functional significance...
June 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28606805/decision-ambiguity-is-mediated-by-a-late-positive-potential-originating-from-cingulate-cortex
#13
Sai Sun, Shanshan Zhen, Zhongzheng Fu, Daw-An Wu, Shinsuke Shimojo, Ralph Adolphs, Rongjun Yu, Shuo Wang
People often make decisions in the face of ambiguous information, but it remains unclear how ambiguity is represented in the brain. We used three types of ambiguous stimuli and combined EEG and fMRI to examine the neural representation of perceptual decisions under ambiguity. We identified a late positive potential, the LPP, which differentiated levels of ambiguity, and which was specifically associated with behavioral judgments about choices that were ambiguous, rather than passive perception of ambiguous stimuli...
June 9, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597236/bayesian-analysis-of-the-piecewise-diffusion-decision-model
#14
William R Holmes, Jennifer S Trueblood
Most past research on sequential sampling models of decision-making have assumed a time homogeneous process (i.e., parameters such as drift rates and boundaries are constant and do not change during the deliberation process). This has largely been due to the theoretical difficulty in testing and fitting more complex models. In recent years, the development of simulation-based modeling approaches matched with Bayesian fitting methodologies has opened the possibility of developing more complex models such as those with time-varying properties...
June 8, 2017: Behavior Research Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593461/self-prioritization-and-perceptual-matching-the-effects-of-temporal-construal
#15
Marius Golubickis, Johanna K Falben, Arash Sahraie, Aleksandar Visokomogilski, William A Cunningham, Jie Sui, C Neil Macrae
Recent research has revealed that self-referential processing enhances perceptual judgments - the so-called self-prioritization effect. The extent and origin of this effect remains unknown, however. Noting the multifaceted nature of the self, here we hypothesized that temporal influences on self-construal (i.e., past/future-self continuity) may serve as an important determinant of stimulus prioritization. Specifically, as representations of the self increase in abstraction as a function of temporal distance (i...
June 7, 2017: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585159/need-for-closure-is-associated-with-urgency-in-perceptual-decision-making
#16
Nathan J Evans, Babette Rae, Maxim Bushmakin, Mark Rubin, Scott D Brown
Constant decision-making underpins much of daily life, from simple perceptual decisions about navigation through to more complex decisions about important life events. At many scales, a fundamental task of the decision-maker is to balance competing needs for caution and urgency: fast decisions can be more efficient, but also more often wrong. We show how a single mathematical framework for decision-making explains the urgency/caution balance across decision-making at two very different scales. This explanation has been applied at the level of neuronal circuits (on a time scale of hundreds of milliseconds) through to the level of stable personality traits (time scale of years)...
June 5, 2017: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573716/painful-decisions-how-classifying-sensations-can-change-the-experience-of-pain
#17
M A van der Meulen, F Anton, S Petersen
BACKGROUND: Categorizing perceptual stimuli is a mechanism for facilitating the processing of sensory input from our environment. This facilitation of perception is achieved through generalization (assimilation) of stimulus characteristics within categories and accentuation between categories. These categorization processes have been demonstrated in visual, auditory, tactile and social perception, but never in pain perception. METHOD: We presented participants with six thermal noxious stimuli, increasing in steps of 0...
June 2, 2017: European Journal of Pain: EJP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28566360/social-information-is-integrated-into-value-and-confidence-judgments-according-to-its-reliability
#18
Benedetto De Martino, Sebastian Bobadilla-Suarez, Takao Nouguchi, Tali Sharot, Bradley C Love
How much we like something, whether it be a bottle of wine or a new film, is affected by the opinions of others. However, the social information that we receive can be contradictory and vary in its reliability. Here, we tested whether the brain incorporates these statistics when judging value and confidence. Participants provided value judgments about consumer goods in the presence of online reviews. We found that participants updated their initial value and confidence judgments in a Bayesian fashion, taking into account both the uncertainty of their initial beliefs and the reliability of the social information...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28560245/assistive-lesion-emphasis-system-an-assistive-system-for-fundus-image-readers
#19
Samrudhdhi B Rangrej, Jayanthi Sivaswamy
Computer-assisted diagnostic (CAD) tools are of interest as they enable efficient decision-making in clinics and the screening of diseases. The traditional approach to CAD algorithm design focuses on the automated detection of abnormalities independent of the end-user, who can be an image reader or an expert. We propose a reader-centric system design wherein a reader's attention is drawn to abnormal regions in a least-obtrusive yet effective manner, using saliency-based emphasis of abnormalities and without altering the appearance of the background tissues...
April 2017: Journal of Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28559801/parsing-heterogeneous-striatal-activity
#20
REVIEW
Kae Nakamura, Long Ding
The striatum is an input channel of the basal ganglia and is well known to be involved in reward-based decision making and learning. At the macroscopic level, the striatum has been postulated to contain parallel functional modules, each of which includes neurons that perform similar computations to support selection of appropriate actions for different task contexts. At the single-neuron level, however, recent studies in monkeys and rodents have revealed heterogeneity in neuronal activity even within restricted modules of the striatum...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
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