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perceptual decision making

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231459/multisensory-conflict-resolution-should-i-stay-or-should-i-go
#1
Daniel B Polley
Swift action is often required in the face of indeterminate sensory evidence. In this issue of Neuron, Song et al. (2017) describe an inhibitory circuit in the posterior parietal cortex that evaluates conflicting auditory and visual cues and supports resolute perceptual decision making.
February 22, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223519/robust-sampling-of-decision-information-during-perceptual-choice
#2
Hildward Vandormael, Santiago Herce Castañón, Jan Balaguer, Vickie Li, Christopher Summerfield
Humans move their eyes to gather information about the visual world. However, saccadic sampling has largely been explored in paradigms that involve searching for a lone target in a cluttered array or natural scene. Here, we investigated the policy that humans use to overtly sample information in a perceptual decision task that required information from across multiple spatial locations to be combined. Participants viewed a spatial array of numbers and judged whether the average was greater or smaller than a reference value...
February 21, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209980/the-contribution-of-the-human-posterior-parietal-cortex-to-episodic-memory
#3
REVIEW
Carlo Sestieri, Gordon L Shulman, Maurizio Corbetta
The posterior parietal cortex (PPC) is traditionally associated with attention, perceptual decision making and sensorimotor transformations, but more recent human neuroimaging studies support an additional role in episodic memory retrieval. In this Opinion article, we present a functional-anatomical model of the involvement of the PPC in memory retrieval. Parietal regions involved in perceptual attention and episodic memory are largely segregated and often show a push-pull relationship, potentially mediated by prefrontal regions...
February 17, 2017: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203355/who-is-the-usual-suspect-evidence-of-a-selection-bias-toward-faces-that-make-direct-eye-contact-in-a-lineup-task
#4
Jessica Taubert, Celine van Golde, Frans A J Verstraten
The speed and ease with which we recognize the faces of our friends and family members belies the difficulty we have recognizing less familiar individuals. Nonetheless, overconfidence in our ability to recognize faces has carried over into various aspects of our legal system; for instance, eyewitness identification serves a critical role in criminal proceedings. For this reason, understanding the perceptual and psychological processes that underlie false identification is of the utmost importance. Gaze direction is a salient social signal and direct eye contact, in particular, is thought to capture attention...
January 2017: I-Perception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185587/local-self-governance-in-health-a-study-of-it-s-functioning-in-odisha-india
#5
Bhuputra Panda, Sanjay P Zodpey, Harshad P Thakur
BACKGROUND: Local decision making is linked to several service quality improvement parameters. Rogi Kalyan Samitis (RKS) at peripheral decision making health units (DMHU) are composite bodies that are mandated to ensure accountability and transparency in governance, improve quality of services, and facilitate local responsiveness. There is scant literature on the nature of functioning of these institutions in Odisha. This study aimed to assess the perception of RKS members about their roles, involvement and practices with respect to local decision making and management of DMHUs; it further examined perceptual and functional differences between priority and non-priority district set-ups; and identified predictors of involvement of RKS members in local governance of health units...
October 31, 2016: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179477/perceptual-precision-of-passive-body-tilt-is-consistent-with-statistically-optimal-cue-integration
#6
Koeun Lim, Faisal Karmali, Keyvan Nicoucar, Daniel M Merfeld
When making perceptual decisions, humans have been shown to optimally integrate independent noisy multisensory information - matching maximum likelihood (ML) limits. Such ML estimators provide a theoretic limit to perceptual precision (i.e., minimal thresholds). However, how the brain combines two interacting (i.e., not independent) sensory cues remains an open question. To study the precision achieved when combining interacting sensory signals, we measured perceptual roll tilt and roll rotation thresholds between 0 and 5Hz in 6 normal human subjects...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179164/metacognitive-ability-correlates-with-hippocampal-and-prefrontal-microstructure
#7
Micah Allen, James C Glen, Daniel Müllensiefen, Dietrich Samuel Schwarzkopf, Francesca Fardo, Darya Frank, Martina F Callaghan, Geraint Rees
The ability to introspectively evaluate our experiences to form accurate metacognitive beliefs, or insight, is an essential component of decision-making. Previous research suggests individuals vary substantially in their level of insight, and that this variation is related to brain volume and function, particularly in the anterior prefrontal cortex (aPFC). However, the neurobiological mechanisms underlying these effects are unclear, as qualitative, macroscopic measures such as brain volume can be related to a variety of microstructural features...
February 4, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163007/vestibular-contributions-to-high-level-sensorimotor-functions
#8
W Pieter Medendorp, Luc J P Selen
The vestibular system, which detects motion and orientation of the head in space, is known to be important in controlling gaze to stabilize vision, to ensure postural stability and to provide our sense of self-motion. While the brain's computations underlying these functions are extensively studied, the role of the vestibular system in higher level sensorimotor functions is less clear. This review covers new research on the vestibular influence on perceptual judgments, motor decisions, and the ability to learn multiple motor actions...
February 2, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162897/opposite-effects-of-recent-history-on-perception-and-decision
#9
Matthias Fritsche, Pim Mostert, Floris P de Lange
Recent studies claim that visual perception of stimulus features, such as orientation, numerosity, and faces, is systematically biased toward visual input from the immediate past [1-3]. However, the extent to which these positive biases truly reflect changes in perception rather than changes in post-perceptual processes is unclear [4, 5]. In the current study we sought to disentangle perceptual and decisional biases in visual perception. We found that post-perceptual decisions about orientation were indeed systematically biased toward previous stimuli and this positive bias did not strongly depend on the spatial location of previous stimuli (replicating previous work [1])...
February 20, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28151976/transient-emotional-events-and-individual-affective-traits-affect-emotion-recognition-in-a-perceptual-decision-making-task
#10
Emilie Qiao-Tasserit, Maria Garcia Quesada, Lia Antico, Daphne Bavelier, Patrik Vuilleumier, Swann Pichon
Both affective states and personality traits shape how we perceive the social world and interpret emotions. The literature on affective priming has mostly focused on brief influences of emotional stimuli and emotional states on perceptual and cognitive processes. Yet this approach does not fully capture more dynamic processes at the root of emotional states, with such states lingering beyond the duration of the inducing external stimuli. Our goal was to put in perspective three different types of affective states (induced affective states, more sustained mood states and affective traits such as depression and anxiety) and investigate how they may interact and influence emotion perception...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150431/should-learners-reason-one-step-at-a-time-a-randomised-trial-of-two-diagnostic-scheme-designs
#11
Sarah Blissett, Deric Morrison, David McCarty, Matthew Sibbald
CONTEXT: Making a diagnosis can be difficult for learners as they must integrate multiple clinical variables. Diagnostic schemes can help learners with this complex task. A diagnostic scheme is an algorithm that organises possible diagnoses by assigning signs or symptoms (e.g. systolic murmur) to groups of similar diagnoses (e.g. aortic stenosis and aortic sclerosis) and provides distinguishing features to help discriminate between similar diagnoses (e.g. carotid pulse). The current literature does not identify whether scheme layouts should guide learners to reason one step at a time in a terminally branching scheme or weigh multiple variables simultaneously in a hybrid scheme...
February 2, 2017: Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28146180/perceptional-gaps-among-women-husbands-and-family-members-about-intentions-for-birthplace-a-cross-sectional-study
#12
Yoko Shimpuku, Frida Elikana Madeni, Shigeko Horiuchi, Sebalda Charles Leshabari
Objective: women are more likely to give birth at a health facility when their families agree with the birthplace. However, in rural areas of Tanzania, women are often marginalized from decision-making. This study predicted birthplace intention and identified factors to reduce perceptional gaps among pregnant women, husbands and family members. Method: explanatory cross-sectional survey was conducted in three villages in North Eastern Tanzania. Participants were 138 pregnant women and their families who answered the Birth Intention Questionnaire (BIQ), measuring knowledge, attitude, perceived behavioral control, subjective norms and intention for birthplace...
January 30, 2017: Revista Latino-americana de Enfermagem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137358/distinct-mechanisms-mediate-speed-accuracy-adjustments-in-cortico-subthalamic-networks
#13
Damian M Herz, Huiling Tan, John-Stuart Brittain, Petra Fischer, Binith Cheeran, Alexander L Green, James FitzGerald, Tipu Z Aziz, Keyoumars Ashkan, Simon Little, Thomas Foltynie, Patricia Limousin, Ludvic Zrinzo, Rafal Bogacz, Peter Brown
Optimal decision-making requires balancing fast but error-prone and more accurate but slower decisions through adjustments of decision thresholds. Here, we demonstrate two distinct correlates of such speed-accuracy adjustments by recording subthalamic nucleus (STN) activity and electroencephalography in 11 Parkinson's disease patients during a perceptual decision-making task; STN low-frequency oscillatory (LFO) activity (2-8 Hz), coupled to activity at prefrontal electrode Fz, and STN beta activity (13-30 Hz) coupled to electrodes C3/C4 close to motor cortex...
January 31, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131862/evidence-accumulation-detected-in-bold-signal-using-slow-perceptual-decision-making
#14
Paul M Krueger, Marieke K van Vugt, Patrick Simen, Leigh Nystrom, Philip Holmes, Jonathan D Cohen
BACKGROUND: We assessed whether evidence accumulation could be observed in the BOLD signal during perceptual decision making. This presents a challenge since the hemodynamic response is slow, while perceptual decisions are typically fast. NEW METHOD: Guided by theoretical predictions of the drift diffusion model, we slowed down decisions by penalizing participants for incorrect responses. Second, we distinguished BOLD activity related to stimulus detection (modeled using a boxcar) from activity related to integration (modeled using a ramp) by minimizing the collinearity of GLM regressors...
January 25, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129323/target-uncertainty-mediates-sensorimotor-error-correction
#15
Luigi Acerbi, Sethu Vijayakumar, Daniel M Wolpert
Human movements are prone to errors that arise from inaccuracies in both our perceptual processing and execution of motor commands. We can reduce such errors by both improving our estimates of the state of the world and through online error correction of the ongoing action. Two prominent frameworks that explain how humans solve these problems are Bayesian estimation and stochastic optimal feedback control. Here we examine the interaction between estimation and control by asking if uncertainty in estimates affects how subjects correct for errors that may arise during the movement...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114502/what-is-new-in-perceptual-learning
#16
Michael H Herzog, Aline F Cretenoud, Lukasz Grzeczkowski
What is new in perceptual learning? In the early days of research, specificity was the hallmark of perceptual learning; that is, improvements following training were limited to the trained stimulus features. For example, training with a stimulus improves performance for this stimulus but not for the same stimulus when rotated by 90° (Ball & Sekuler, 1987; Spang, Grimsen, Herzog, & Fahle, 2010). Because of this specificity, learning was thought to be mediated by neural changes at the early stages of vision...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28113727/biomimetic-active-touch-with-tactile-fingertips-and-whiskers
#17
Nathan F Lepora
This study provides a synthetic viewpoint that compares, contrasts and draws commonalities for biomimetic perception over a range of tactile sensors and tactile stimuli. Biomimetic active perception is formulated from three principles: (i) evidence accumulation based on leading models of perceptual decision making; (ii) action selection with an evidence-based policy, here based on overt focal attention; and (iii) sensory encoding of evidence based on neural coding. Two experiments with each of three biomimetic tactile sensors are considered: the iCub (capacitive) fingertip, the TacTip (optical) tactile sensor and BIOTACT whiskers...
May 6, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Haptics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100734/does-the-superior-colliculus-control-perceptual-sensitivity-or-choice-bias-during-attention-evidence-from-a-multialternative-decision-framework
#18
Devarajan Sridharan, Nicholas A Steinmetz, Tirin Moore, Eric I Knudsen
: Distinct networks in the forebrain and the midbrain coordinate to control spatial attention. The critical involvement of the superior colliculus (SC)-the central structure in the midbrain network-in visuospatial attention has been shown by four seminal, published studies in monkeys (Macaca mulatta) performing multialternative tasks. However, due to the lack of a mechanistic framework for interpreting behavioral data in such tasks, the nature of the SC's contribution to attention remains unclear...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076355/multiple-choice-neurodynamical-model-of-the-uncertain-option-task
#19
Andrea Insabato, Mario Pannunzi, Gustavo Deco
The uncertain option task has been recently adopted to investigate the neural systems underlying the decision confidence. Latterly single neurons activity has been recorded in lateral intraparietal cortex of monkeys performing an uncertain option task, where the subject is allowed to opt for a small but sure reward instead of making a risky perceptual decision. We propose a multiple choice model implemented in a discrete attractors network. This model is able to reproduce both behavioral and neurophysiological experimental data and therefore provides support to the numerous perspectives that interpret the uncertain option task as a sensory-motor association...
January 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056343/perceptual-decision-making-in-rodents-monkeys-and-humans
#20
REVIEW
Timothy D Hanks, Christopher Summerfield
Perceptual decision making is the process by which animals detect, discriminate, and categorize information from the senses. Over the past two decades, understanding how perceptual decisions are made has become a central theme in the neurosciences. Exceptional progress has been made by recording from single neurons in the cortex of the macaque monkey and using computational models from mathematical psychology to relate these neural data to behavior. More recently, however, the range of available techniques and paradigms has dramatically broadened, and researchers have begun to harness new approaches to explore how rodents and humans make perceptual decisions...
January 4, 2017: Neuron
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