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perceptual decision making

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127416/author-correction-visuotactile-integration-modulates-motor-performance-in-a-perceptual-decision-making-task
#1
Klaudia Grechuta, Jelena Guga, Giovanni Maffei, Belén Rubio Ballester, Paul F M J Verschure
A correction to this article has been published and is linked from the HTML version of this paper. The error has been fixed in the paper.a.
November 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124352/brain-waves-from-an-isolated-cortex-contribution-of-the-anterior-insula-to-cognitive-functions
#2
Rinaldo Livio Perri, Marika Berchicci, Valentina Bianco, Donatella Spinelli, Francesco Di Russo
Using two independent electrical neuroimaging techniques (BESA and sLORETA), we tested a fMRI-seeded source modeling indicating that in visual discriminative tasks the anterior insula (aIns) participates in the generation of three prefrontal ERP components: the pN1 (at 115 ms), the pP1 (at 170 ms), and the pP2 (at 300 ms). This latter component represented the focus of the present study. Results showed that the pP2 had different activation profiles across hemispheres. The left aIns activity peaked at 420 ms (30 ms before the response) for both Go and No-go trials, that is independently from the ultimate choice (response or inhibition)...
November 9, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118108/network-configurations-in-the-human-brain-reflect-choice-bias-during-rapid-face-processing
#3
Tao Tu, Noam Schneck, Jordan Muraskin, Paul Sajda
Network interactions are likely to be instrumental in processes underlying rapid perception and cognition. Specifically, high-level and perceptual regions must interact to balance pre-existing models of the environment with new incoming stimuli. Simultaneous EEG/fMRI allows for the temporal characterization of brain-network interactions combined with improved anatomical localization of regional activity. In this paper we use simultaneous EEG/fMRI and multivariate dynamical systems (MDS) analysis to characterize network relationships between constitute brain areas that reflect a subject's choice for a face versus non-face categorization task...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116132/serial-dependence-is-absent-at-the-time-of-perception-but-increases-in-visual-working-memory
#4
Daniel P Bliss, Jerome J Sun, Mark D'Esposito
Recent experiments have shown that visual cognition blends current input with that from the recent past to guide ongoing decision making. This serial dependence appears to exploit the temporal autocorrelation normally present in visual scenes to promote perceptual stability. While this benefit has been assumed, evidence that serial dependence directly alters stimulus perception has been limited. In the present study, we parametrically vary the delay between stimulus and response in a spatial delayed response task to explore the trajectory of serial dependence from the moment of perception into post-perceptual visual working memory...
November 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108463/td-the-case-of-diogenes-syndrome-deficit-or-denial
#5
Fiona Ashworth, Anita Rose, Barbara A Wilson
Diogenes Syndrome (DS) is characterised by extreme self-neglect, domestic squalor, hoarding, social withdrawal, and lack of concern and shame for the individual's residential situation. This paper describes TD who was unable to identify emotional expressions of disgust and was borderline-impaired for facial recognition associated with perceptual difficulties. Problems interpreting expressions of disgust were interesting as TD was living in squalor, neglecting himself, and lacked concern for his circumstances...
November 6, 2017: Neuropsychological Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094372/a-model-based-approach-to-the-wisdom-of-the-crowd-in-category-learning
#6
Irina Danileiko, Michael D Lee
We apply the "wisdom of the crowd" idea to human category learning, using a simple approach that combines people's categorization decisions by taking the majority decision. We first show that the aggregated crowd category learning behavior found by this method performs well, learning categories more quickly than most or all individuals for 28 previously collected datasets. We then extend the approach so that it does not require people to categorize every stimulus. We do this using a model-based method that predicts the categorization behavior people would produce for new stimuli, based on their behavior with observed stimuli, and uses the majority of these predicted decisions...
November 2, 2017: Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077746/value-based-decision-making-via-sequential-sampling-with-hierarchical-competition-and-attentional-modulation
#7
Jaron T Colas
In principle, formal dynamical models of decision making hold the potential to represent fundamental computations underpinning value-based (i.e., preferential) decisions in addition to perceptual decisions. Sequential-sampling models such as the race model and the drift-diffusion model that are grounded in simplicity, analytical tractability, and optimality remain popular, but some of their more recent counterparts have instead been designed with an aim for more feasibility as architectures to be implemented by actual neural systems...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073154/cortical-functional-topography-of-high-frequency-gamma-activity-relates-to-perceptual-decision-an-intracranial-study
#8
João Castelhano, Isabel C Duarte, Sulaiman I Abuhaiba, Manuel Rito, Francisco Sales, Miguel Castelo-Branco
High-frequency activity (HFA) is believed to subserve a functional role in cognition, but these patterns are often not accessible to scalp EEG recordings. Intracranial studies provide a unique opportunity to link the all-encompassing range of high-frequency patterns with holistic perception. We tested whether the functional topography of HFAs (up to 250Hz) is related to perceptual decision-making. Human intracortical data were recorded (6 subjects; >250channels) during an ambiguous object-recognition task...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069371/ventromedial-frontal-lobe-damage-alters-how-specific-attributes-are-weighed-in-subjective-valuation
#9
Avinash R Vaidya, Marcus Sefranek, Lesley K Fellows
The concept of subjective value is central to current neurobiological views of economic decision-making. Much of this work has focused on signals in the ventromedial frontal lobe (VMF) that correlate with the subjective value of a variety of stimuli (e.g., food, monetary gambles), and are thought to support decision-making. However, the neural processes involved in assessing and integrating value information from the attributes of such complex options remain to be defined. Here, we tested the necessary role of VMF in weighting attributes of naturalistic stimuli during value judgments...
October 23, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044872/transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-of-right-inferior-parietal-cortex-causally-influences-prefrontal-activation-for-visual-detection
#10
Joana Leitão, Axel Thielscher, Hwee Ling Lee, Johannes Tuennerhoff, Uta Noppeney
For effective interactions with the environment the brain needs to form perceptual decisions based on noisy sensory evidence. Accumulating evidence suggests that perceptual decisions are formed by widespread interactions amongst sensory areas representing the noisy sensory evidence and fronto-parietal areas integrating the evidence into a decision variable that is compared to a decisional threshold. This concurrent transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)-fMRI study applied 10 Hz bursts of four TMS (or Sham) pulses to the intraparietal sulcus (IPS) to investigate the causal influence of IPS on the neural systems involved in perceptual decision making...
October 17, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035076/internal-and-external-sources-of-variability-in-perceptual-decision-making
#11
Roger Ratcliff, Chelsea Voskuilen, Gail McKoon
It is important to identify sources of variability in processing to understand decision-making in perception and cognition. There is a distinction between internal and external variability in processing, and double-pass experiments have been used to estimate their relative contributions. In these and our experiments, exact perceptual stimuli are repeated later in testing, and agreement on the 2 trials is examined to see if it is greater than chance. In recent research in modeling decision processes, some models implement only (internal) variability in the decision process whereas others explicitly represent multiple sources of variability...
October 16, 2017: Psychological Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031471/gunslingers-poker-players-and-chickens-3-decision-making-under-mental-performance-pressure-in-junior-elite-athletes
#12
Beth L Parkin, Vincent Walsh
BACKGROUND: Having investigated the decision making of world class elite and subelite athletes (see Parkin and Walsh, 2017; Parkin et al., 2017), here the abilities of those at the earliest stage of entry to elite sport are examined. Junior elite athletes have undergone initial national selection and are younger than athletes examined previously (mean age 13 years). Decision making under mental pressure is explored in this sample. During performance an athlete encounters a wide array of mental pressures; these include the psychological impact of errors, negative feedback, and requirements for sustained attention in a dynamic environment (Anshel and Wells, 2000; Mellalieu et al...
2017: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031469/gunslingers-poker-players-and-chickens-2-decision-making-under-physical-performance-pressure-in-subelite-athletes
#13
Beth L Parkin, Vincent Walsh
BACKGROUND: Having investigated the influence of acute physical exhaustion on decision-making in world-class elite athletes in Parkin et al. (2017), here a similar method is applied to subelite athletes. These subelite athletes were enrolled on a Team GB talent development program and were undergoing training for possible Olympic competition in 4-8 years. They differ from elite athletes examined previously according to expertise and age. While considered elite (Swann et al., 2015), the subelite athletes had approximately 8 years fewer sporting experience and were yet to obtain sustained success on the international stage...
2017: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28989953/individual-differences-in-perceptual-abilities-in-medical-imaging-the-vanderbilt-chest-radiograph-test
#14
Mackenzie A Sunday, Edwin Donnelly, Isabel Gauthier
Radiologists make many important decisions when detecting nodules on chest radiographs. While training can result in high levels of performance of this task, there could be individual differences in relevant perceptual abilities that are present pre-training. A pre-requisite to address this question is a valid and reliable measure of such abilities. The present work introduces a new measure, the Vanderbilt Chest Radiograph Test (VCRT), which aims to quantify individual differences in perceptual abilities for radiograph-related decision-making in novices...
2017: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983797/clinical-factors-associated-with-decision-to-recommend-methylphenidate-treatment-for-children-with-adhd-in-france
#15
Elodie Courtabessis, Florence Pupier, Laurie Surig, Marie-Christine Picot, Erika Nogué, Valérie Macioce, Elizabeth Stein, Diane Purper-Ouakil
European guidelines advise on best practices for the diagnosis and non-pharmacological and pharmacological treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This study aimed to (1) assess whether clinician's decisions to initiate methylphenidate treatment in children diagnosed with ADHD are in accordance with European guidelines and (2) identify clinical factors associated with the decision to recommend methylphenidate prescription. 5 to 13-year-old patients with an ADHD diagnosis were consecutively evaluated in an outpatient child and adolescent psychiatry clinic in France...
October 5, 2017: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28981834/disrupting-sleep-the-effects-of-sleep-loss-on-psychotic-experiences-tested-in-an-experimental-study-with-mediation-analysis
#16
Sarah Reeve, Richard Emsley, Bryony Sheaves, Daniel Freeman
Our view is that insomnia may be a causal factor in the occurrence of psychotic experiences such as paranoia and hallucinations. However, the causal relationship is not established. The aim of the study was to investigate the causal role of insomnia in psychotic experiences via a sleep restriction manipulation. The study was a within-subjects crossover design that included a planned mediation analysis. Sixty-eight nonclinical volunteers underwent a sleep loss condition (restricted to 4 h sleep for 3 nights) and a control condition (standard sleep) in randomized order in 2 consecutive weeks, with a weekend washout period...
August 4, 2017: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977775/the-psychology-of-superorganisms-collective-decision-making-by-insect-societies
#17
Takao Sasaki, Stephen C Pratt
Under the superorganism concept, insect societies are so tightly integrated that they possess features analogous to those of single organisms, including collective cognition. If so, colony function might fruitfully be studied using methods developed to understand individual animals. Here, we review research that uses psychological approaches to understand decision making by colonies. The application of neural models to collective choice shows fundamental similarities between how brains and colonies balance speed/accuracy trade-offs in decision making...
October 4, 2017: Annual Review of Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28967763/effects-of-learning-on-somatosensory-decision-making-and-experiences
#18
Akib Ul Huque, Ellen Poliakoff, Richard J Brown
Operant conditioning has been shown to influence perceptual decision making in the auditory and visual modalities but the effects of conditioning on touch perception are unknown. If conditioning can be used to reduce the tendency to misinterpret somatic noise as signal (tactile false alarms), there may be the potential to use similar procedures in the treatment of excessive physical symptom reporting in clinical settings. We explored this possibility in 4 experiments investigating whether the false alarm (FA) rate in a somatic signal detection task (SSDT) could be altered with operant conditioning, and whether the resultant learning would transfer to other sensory decisions...
October 2, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28947572/the-timing-of-reward-seeking-action-tracks-visually-cued-theta-oscillations-in-primary-visual-cortex
#19
Joshua M Levy, Camila L Zold, Vijay Mohan K Namboodiri, Marshall G Hussain Shuler
An emerging body of work challenges the view that primary visual cortex (V1) represents the visual world faithfully. Theta oscillations in the local field potential (LFP) of V1 have been found to convey temporal expectations and, specifically, to express the delay between a visual stimulus and the reward that it portends. We extend this work by showing how these oscillatory states in male, wild-type rats can even relate to the timing of a visually cued reward-seeking behavior. In particular, we show that, with training, high precision and accuracy in behavioral timing tracks the power of these oscillations and the time of action execution covaries with their duration...
October 25, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901676/neural-mechanisms-of-motion-perceptual-learning-in-noise
#20
Nihong Chen, Junshi Lu, Hanyu Shao, Xuchu Weng, Fang Fang
Practice improves our perceptual ability. However, the neural mechanisms underlying this experience-dependent plasticity in adult brain remain unclear. Here, we studied the long-term neural correlates of motion perceptual learning. Subjects' behavioral performance and BOLD signals were tracked before, immediately after, and 2 weeks after practicing a motion direction discrimination task in noise over six daily sessions. Parallel to the specificity and persistency of the behavioral learning effect, we found that training sharpened the cortical tuning in MT, and enhanced the connectivity strength from MT to the intraparietal sulcus (IPS, a motion decision-making area)...
September 12, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
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