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perceptual decision making

Yiwen Li Hegner, Axel Lindner, Christoph Braun
The processes underlying perceptual decision making are diverse and typically engage a distributed network of brain areas. It is a particular challenge to establish a sensory-to-motor functional hierarchy in such networks. This is because single-cell recordings mainly study the nodes of decision networks in isolation but seldom simultaneously. Moreover, imaging methods, which allow simultaneously accessing information from overall networks, typically suffer from either the temporal or the spatial resolution necessary to establish a detailed functional hierarchy in terms of a sequential recruitment of areas during a decision process...
October 21, 2016: Human Brain Mapping
Ghasem-Sam Toloo, Peter Aitken, Julia Crilly, Gerry FitzGerald
BACKGROUND: Patients attending hospital emergency departments (ED) commonly cite the urgency and severity of their condition as the main reason for choosing the ED. However, the patients' perception of urgency and severity may be different to the nurses' perception of their urgency and severity, which is underpinned by their professional experience, knowledge, training and skills. This discordance may be a cause of patient dissatisfaction. The purpose of this study is to understand the extent of agreement/disagreement between the patient's perceived priority and actual triage category and associated factors...
October 18, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine
Angelo Pirrone, Abigail Dickinson, Rosanna Gomez, Tom Stafford, Elizabeth Milne
Objective: Two-alternative forced-choice tasks are widely used to gain insight into specific areas of enhancement or impairment in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Data arising from these tasks have been used to support myriad theories regarding the integrity, or otherwise, of particular brain areas or cognitive processes in ASD. The drift diffusion model (DDM) provides an account of the underlying processes which give rise to accuracy and reaction time (RT) distributions, and parameterizes these processes in terms which have direct psychological interpretation...
October 10, 2016: Neuropsychology
Maxine T Sherman, Anil K Seth, Ryota Kanai
: It is clear that prior expectations shape perceptual decision-making, yet their contribution to the construction of subjective decision confidence remains largely unexplored. We recorded fMRI data while participants made perceptual decisions and confidence judgments, manipulating perceptual prior expectations while controlling for potential confounds of attention. Results show that subjective confidence increases as expectations increasingly support the decision, and that this relationship is associated with BOLD activity in right inferior frontal gyrus (rIFG)...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Roger Ratcliff, Per Sederberg, Troy Smith, Russ Childers
Recent work in perceptual decision-making has shown that although two distinct neural components differentiate experimental conditions (e.g., did you see a face or a car), only one tracked the evidence guiding the decision process. In the memory literature, there is a distinction between a fronto-central evoked potential measured with EEG beginning at 350 ms that seems to track familiarity and a late parietal evoked potential that peaks at 600 ms that tracks recollection. Here, we applied single-trial regressor analysis (similar to multivariate pattern analysis MVPA) and diffusion decision modeling to EEG and behavioral data from two recognition memory experiments to test whether these two components contribute to the recognition decision process...
September 29, 2016: Neuropsychologia
Ceyla Erhan, Gresa Çarkaxhiu Bulut, Sebla Gökçe, Duru Ozbas, Esin Turkakin, Onur Burak Dursun, Yanki Yazgan, Fuat Balcı
BACKGROUND: Decision-making in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder has typically been investigated in the adult population. Computational approaches have recently started to get integrated into these studies. However, decision-making research in pediatric OCD populations is scarce. METHODS: We investigated latent decision processes in 21 medication-free pediatric OCD patients and 23 healthy control participants. We hypothesized that OCD patients would be more cautious and less efficient in evidence accumulation than controls in a two alternative forced choice (2AFC) task...
September 20, 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
Boris Quétard, Jean Charles Quinton, Martial Mermillod, Laura Barca, Giovanni Pezzulo, Michèle Colomb, Marie Izaute
Visual search can be seen as a decision-making process that aims to assess whether a target is present or absent from a scene. In this perspective, eye movements collect evidence related to target detection and verification to guide the decision. We investigated whether, in real-world scenes, target detection and verification are differentially recruited in the decision-making process in the presence of prior information (expectations about target location) and perceptual uncertainty (noise). We used a mouse-tracking methodology with which mouse trajectories unveil components of decision-making and eye-tracking measures reflect target detection and verification...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Vision
Tingting Wu, Alexander J Dufford, Melissa-Ann Mackie, Laura J Egan, Jin Fan
Cognitive control refers to the processes that permit selection and prioritization of information processing in different cognitive domains to reach the capacity-limited conscious mind. Although previous studies have suggested that the capacity of cognitive control itself is limited, a direct quantification of this capacity has not been attempted. In this behavioral study, we manipulated the information rate of cognitive control by parametrically varying both the uncertainty of stimul measured as information entropy and the exposure time of the stimuli...
September 23, 2016: Scientific Reports
David W Gow, Bruna B Olson
Sentential context influences the way that listeners identify phonetically ambiguous or perceptual degraded speech sounds. Unfortunately, inherent inferential limitations on the interpretation of behavioral or BOLD imaging results make it unclear whether context influences perceptual processing directly, or acts at a post-perceptual decision stage. In this paper, we use Kalman-filter enabled Granger causation analysis of MR-constrained MEG/EEG data to distinguish between these possibilities. Using a retrospective probe verification task, we found that sentential context strongly affected the interpretation of words with ambiguous initial voicing (e...
2016: Language, Cognition and Neuroscience
Rachel L Bailey
From an ecological perception perspective (Gibson, 1977), the availability of perceptual information alters what behaviors are more and less likely at different times. This study examines how perceptual information delivered in food advertisements and packaging alters the time course of information processing and decision making. Participants categorized images of food that varied in information delivered in terms of color, glossiness, and texture (e.g., food cues) before and after being exposed to a set of advertisements that also varied in this way...
September 2, 2016: Health Communication
Takashi Nakao, Noriaki Kanayama, Kentaro Katahira, Misaki Odani, Yosuke Ito, Yuki Hirata, Reika Nasuno, Hanako Ozaki, Ryosuke Hiramoto, Makoto Miyatani, Georg Northoff
Choosing an option increases a person's preference for that option. This phenomenon, called choice-based learning (CBL), has been investigated separately in the contexts of internally guided decision-making (IDM, e.g., preference judgment), for which no objectively correct answer exists, and externally guided decision making (EDM, e.g., perceptual decision making), for which one objectively correct answer exists. For the present study, we compared decision making of these two types to examine differences of underlying neural processes of CBL...
2016: Scientific Reports
Ilmari Kurki, Aapo Hyvärinen, Jussi Saarinen
We studied how learning changes the processing of a low-level Gabor stimulus, using a classification-image method (psychophysical reverse correlation) and a task where observers discriminated between slight differences in the phase (relative alignment) of a target Gabor in visual noise. The method estimates the internal "template" that describes how the visual system weights the input information for decisions. One popular idea has been that learning makes the template more like an ideal Bayesian weighting; however, the evidence has been indirect...
August 1, 2016: Journal of Vision
Guillermo Solovey, Diego Shalom, Verónica Pérez-Schuster, Mariano Sigman
Practice can enhance of perceptual sensitivity, a well-known phenomenon called perceptual learning. However, the effect of practice on subjective perception has received little attention. We approach this problem from a visual psychophysics and computational modeling perspective. In a sequence of visual search experiments, subjects significantly increased the ability to detect a "trained target". Before and after training, subjects performed two psychophysical protocols that parametrically vary the visibility of the "trained target": an attentional blink and a visual masking task...
October 2016: Consciousness and Cognition
Funda Yildirim, Frans W Cornelissen
An unresolved question in vision research is whether perceptual decision making and action are based on the same or on different neural representations. Here, we address this question for a straightforward task, the judgment of location. In our experiment, observers decided on the closer of two peripheral objects-situated on the horizontal meridian in opposite hemifields-and made a saccade to indicate their choice. Correct saccades landed close to the actual (physical) location of the target. However, in case of errors, saccades went in the direction of the more distant object, yet landed on a position approximating that of the closer one...
December 2015: I-Perception
Christine Scholtyssek, Daniel C Osorio, Roland J Baddeley
Color conveys important information for birds in tasks such as foraging and mate choice, but in the natural world color signals can vary substantially, so birds may benefit from generalizing responses to perceptually discriminable colors. Studying color generalization is therefore a way to understand how birds take account of suprathreshold stimulus variations in decision making. Former studies on color generalization have focused on hue variation, but natural colors often vary in saturation, which could be an additional, independent source of information...
August 1, 2016: Journal of Vision
Maggie Stedman-Smith, Diana M Kingsbury, Cathy L Z Dubois, Scott F Grey
The annual costs of influenza are in the billions of dollars, with employers bearing substantial burdens. Yet, influenza vaccine uptake is sub-optimal. A random survey was administered to employees at a Midwestern public university using mixed quantitative and qualitative methods to identify the rate, characteristics, and barriers of self-reported flu vaccine uptake during March-April of 2012. The lowest uptake was among adults, ages 18 to 49 (29.8%), even though they are included in universal recommendations...
August 18, 2016: Workplace Health & Safety
Satohiro Tajima, Jan Drugowitsch, Alexandre Pouget
For decades now, normative theories of perceptual decisions, and their implementation as drift diffusion models, have driven and significantly improved our understanding of human and animal behaviour and the underlying neural processes. While similar processes seem to govern value-based decisions, we still lack the theoretical understanding of why this ought to be the case. Here, we show that, similar to perceptual decisions, drift diffusion models implement the optimal strategy for value-based decisions. Such optimal decisions require the models' decision boundaries to collapse over time, and to depend on the a priori knowledge about reward contingencies...
2016: Nature Communications
Rinaldo Livio Perri, Marika Berchicci, Giuliana Lucci, Donatella Spinelli, Francesco Di Russo
In cognitive tasks, error commission is usually followed by a performance characterized by post-error slowing (PES) and post-error improvement of accuracy (PIA). Three theoretical accounts were hypothesized to support these post-error adjustments: the cognitive, the inhibitory, and the orienting account. The aim of the present ERP study was to investigate the neural processes associated with the second error prevention. To this aim, we focused on the preparatory brain activities in a large sample of subjects performing a Go/No-go task...
2016: Scientific Reports
Aviad A Hadar, Paula Rowe, Steven Di Costa, Alexander Jones, Kielan Yarrow
Many everyday activities require time-pressured sensorimotor decision making. Traditionally, perception, decision, and action processes were considered to occur in series, but this idea has been successfully challenged, particularly by neurophysiological work in animals. However, the generality of parallel processing requires further elucidation. Here, we investigate whether the accumulation of a decision can be observed intrahemispherically within human motor cortex. Participants categorized faces as male or female, with task difficulty manipulated using morphed stimuli...
November 2016: Psychophysiology
Igor Bascandziev, Paul L Harris
Recent findings imply that children rationally appraise potential informants; they weigh an informant's past accuracy more heavily than other informant-based cues such as accent, age, and familiarity. Yet this conclusion contrasts with the more general conclusion that deliberate decision-making processes are heavily influenced by perceptual biases. We investigated 4- and 5-year-olds' (N=132) decisions about whether to trust a more versus less attractive informant when (a) both had a similar history of past accuracy or (b) the more attractive informant had been less accurate...
December 2016: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
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