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perceptual decision making

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435173/how-attention-influences-perceptual-decision-making-single-trial-eeg-correlates-of-drift-diffusion-model-parameters
#1
Michael D Nunez, Joachim Vandekerckhove, Ramesh Srinivasan
Perceptual decision making can be accounted for by drift-diffusion models, a class of decision-making models that assume a stochastic accumulation of evidence on each trial. Fitting response time and accuracy to a drift-diffusion model produces evidence accumulation rate and non-decision time parameter estimates that reflect cognitive processes. Our goal is to elucidate the effect of attention on visual decision making. In this study, we show that measures of attention obtained from simultaneous EEG recordings can explain per-trial evidence accumulation rates and perceptual preprocessing times during a visual decision making task...
February 2017: Journal of Mathematical Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432137/dissociation-of-choice-formation-and-choice-correlated-activity-in-macaque-visual-cortex
#2
Robbe L T Goris, Corey M Ziemba, Gabriel M Stine, Eero P Simoncelli, J Anthony Movshon
Responses of individual task-relevant sensory neurons can predict monkeys' trial-by-trial choices in perceptual decision-making tasks. Choice-correlated activity has been interpreted as evidence that the responses of these neurons are causally linked to perceptual judgements. To further test this hypothesis, we studied responses of orientation-selective neurons in V1 and V2 while two macaque monkeys performed a fine orientation discrimination task. Although both animals exhibited a high level of neuronal and behavioral sensitivity, only one exhibited choice-correlated activity...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391054/breaking-the-rules-in-perceptual-information-integration
#3
Maxim A Bushmakin, Ami Eidels, Andrew Heathcote
We develop a broad theoretical framework for modelling difficult perceptual information integration tasks under different decision rules. The framework allows us to compare coactive architectures, which combine information before it enters the decision process, with parallel architectures, where logical rules combine independent decisions made about each perceptual source. For both architectures we test the novel hypothesis that participants break the decision rules on some trials, making a response based on only one stimulus even though task instructions require them to consider both...
April 6, 2017: Cognitive Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28381993/event-related-potentials-index-rapid-recalibration-to-audiovisual-temporal-asynchrony
#4
David M Simon, Jean-Paul Noel, Mark T Wallace
Asynchronous arrival of multisensory information at the periphery is a ubiquitous property of signals in the natural environment due to differences in the propagation time of light and sound. Rapid adaptation to these asynchronies is crucial for the appropriate integration of these multisensory signals, which in turn is a fundamental neurobiological process in creating a coherent perceptual representation of our dynamic world. Indeed, multisensory temporal recalibration has been shown to occur at the single trial level, yet the mechanistic basis of this rapid adaptation is unknown...
2017: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378829/relevance-of-deep-learning-to-facilitate-the-diagnosis-of-her2-status-in-breast-cancer
#5
Michel E Vandenberghe, Marietta L J Scott, Paul W Scorer, Magnus Söderberg, Denis Balcerzak, Craig Barker
Tissue biomarker scoring by pathologists is central to defining the appropriate therapy for patients with cancer. Yet, inter-pathologist variability in the interpretation of ambiguous cases can affect diagnostic accuracy. Modern artificial intelligence methods such as deep learning have the potential to supplement pathologist expertise to ensure constant diagnostic accuracy. We developed a computational approach based on deep learning that automatically scores HER2, a biomarker that defines patient eligibility for anti-HER2 targeted therapies in breast cancer...
April 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361254/vestibular-cognition-the-effect-of-prior-belief-on-vestibular-perceptual-decision-making
#6
Andrew W Ellis, Manuel P Klaus, Fred W Mast
Vestibular cognition is a growing field of interest and relatively little is known about the underlying mechanisms. We tested the effect of prior beliefs about the relative probability (50:50 vs. 80:20) of motion direction (yaw rotation) using a direction discrimination task. We analyzed choices individually with a logistic regression model and together with response times using a cognitive process model. The results show that self-motion perception is altered by prior belief, leading to a shift of the psychometric function, without a loss of sensitivity...
March 30, 2017: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28360848/response-modality-specific-encoding-of-human-choices-in-upper-beta-band-oscillations-during-vibrotactile-comparisons
#7
Jan Herding, Simon Ludwig, Felix Blankenburg
Perceptual decisions based on the comparison of two vibrotactile frequencies have been extensively studied in non-human primates. Recently, we obtained corresponding findings from human oscillatory electroencephalography (EEG) activity in the form of choice-selective modulations of upper beta band amplitude in medial premotor areas. However, the research in non-human primates as well as its human counterpart was so far limited to decisions reported by button presses. Thus, here we investigated whether the observed human beta band modulation is specific to the response modality...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344759/susceptibility-to-ebbinghaus-and-m%C3%A3-ller-lyer-illusions-in-autistic-children-a-comparison-of-three-different-methods
#8
Catherine Manning, Michael J Morgan, Craig T W Allen, Elizabeth Pellicano
BACKGROUND: Studies reporting altered susceptibility to visual illusions in autistic individuals compared to that typically developing individuals have been taken to reflect differences in perception (e.g. reduced global processing), but could instead reflect differences in higher-level decision-making strategies. METHODS: We measured susceptibility to two contextual illusions (Ebbinghaus, Müller-Lyer) in autistic children aged 6-14 years and typically developing children matched in age and non-verbal ability using three methods...
2017: Molecular Autism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343760/perceptual-decision-making-picking-the-low-hanging-fruit
#9
Floris P de Lange, Matthias Fritsche
How do we decide what we perceive? Obviously, we base our decisions on sensory evidence. However, a new and surprising study by Hagura et al. shows that our perceptual decisions are also biased by the action costs that are associated with our decisions.
March 23, 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341827/neural-basis-of-negativity-bias-in-the-perception-of-ambiguous-facial-expression
#10
Takehito Ito, Keita Yokokawa, Noriaki Yahata, Ayako Isato, Tetsuya Suhara, Makiko Yamada
Negativity bias, which describes the tendency to interpret ambiguous stimuli or events as negative, is often observed in patients with depression and may prevent psychological well-being. Here, we used ambiguous facial stimuli, with negative (sad) and positive (happy) emotions simultaneously accessible, to examine neural activation during perceptual decision-making in healthy participants. The negativity bias was positively correlated with the activity of the bilateral pregenual anterior cingulate cortex (pgACC) when ambiguous faces were perceived as sad versus happy...
March 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28341163/factor-analysis-linking-functions-for-simultaneously-modeling-neural-and-behavioral-data
#11
Brandon M Turner, Ting Wang, Edgar C Merkle
A growing number of researchers have advocated for the advancement of cognitive neuroscience by blending cognitive models with neurophysiology. The recently proposed joint modeling framework is one way to bridge the gap between the abstractions assumed by cognitive models and the neurophysiology obtained by modern methods in neuroscience. Despite this advancement, the current method for linking the two domains is hindered by the dimensionality of the neural data. In this article, we present a new linking function based on factor analysis that allows joint models to grow linearly in complexity with increases in the number of neural features...
March 22, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337990/lateral-orbitofrontal-cortex-anticipates-choices-and-integrates-prior-with-current-information
#12
Ramon Nogueira, Juan M Abolafia, Jan Drugowitsch, Emili Balaguer-Ballester, Maria V Sanchez-Vives, Rubén Moreno-Bote
Adaptive behavior requires integrating prior with current information to anticipate upcoming events. Brain structures related to this computation should bring relevant signals from the recent past into the present. Here we report that rats can integrate the most recent prior information with sensory information, thereby improving behavior on a perceptual decision-making task with outcome-dependent past trial history. We find that anticipatory signals in the orbitofrontal cortex about upcoming choice increase over time and are even present before stimulus onset...
March 24, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337136/corrigendum-brain-networks-of-perceptual-decision-making-an-fmri-ale-meta-analysis
#13
Max C Keuken, Christa Müller-Axt, Robert Langner, Simon B Eickhoff, Birte U Forstmann, Jane Neumann
[This corrects the article on p. 445 in vol. 8, PMID: 24994979.].
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330878/linear-summation-of-repulsive-and-attractive-serial-dependencies-orientation-and-motion-dependencies-sum-in-motion-perception
#14
David Alais, Johahn Leung, Erik Van der Burg
Recent work from several groups has shown that perception of various visual attributes in human observers at a given moment is biased toward what was recently seen. This positive serial dependency is a kind of temporal averaging that exploits short-term correlations in visual scenes to reduce noise and stabilize perception. To date, this stabilizing "continuity field" has been demonstrated on stable visual attributes such as orientation and face identity, yet it would be counterproductive to apply it to dynamic attributes in which change sensitivity is needed...
April 19, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323541/3d-technology-of-sony-bloggie-has-no-advantage-in-decision-making-of-tennis-serve-direction-a-randomized-placebo-controlled-study
#15
Sicong Liu, Jason Ritchie, Camilo Sáenz-Moncaleano, Savanna K Ward, Cody Paulsen, Tyler Klein, Oscar Gutierrez, Gershon Tenenbaum
This study aimed at exploring whether 3D technology enhances tennis decision-making under the conceptual framework of human performance model. A 3 (skill-level: varsity, club, recreational) × 3 (experimental condition: placebo, weak 3D [W3D], strong 3D [S3D]) between-participant design was used. Allocated to experimental conditions by a skill-level stratified randomization, 105 tennis players judged tennis serve direction from video scenarios and rated their perceptions of enjoyment, flow, and presence during task performance...
March 21, 2017: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318286/asking-better-questions-how-presentation-formats-influence-information-search
#16
Charley M Wu, Björn Meder, Flavia Filimon, Jonathan D Nelson
While the influence of presentation formats have been widely studied in Bayesian reasoning tasks, we present the first systematic investigation of how presentation formats influence information search decisions. Four experiments were conducted across different probabilistic environments, where subjects (N = 2,858) chose between 2 possible search queries, each with binary probabilistic outcomes, with the goal of maximizing classification accuracy. We studied 14 different numerical and visual formats for presenting information about the search environment, constructed across 6 design features that have been prominently related to improvements in Bayesian reasoning accuracy (natural frequencies, posteriors, complement, spatial extent, countability, and part-to-whole information)...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284798/interactions-between-the-anterior-cingulate-insula-network-and-the-fronto-parietal-network-during-perceptual-decision-making
#17
Ganesh B Chand, Mukesh Dhamala
Information processing in the human brain during cognitively demanding goal-directed tasks is thought to involve several large-scale brain networks, including the anterior cingulate-insula network (aCIN) and the fronto-parietal network (FPN). Recent functional MRI (fMRI) studies have provided clues that the aCIN initiates activity changes in the FPN. However, when and how often these networks interact remains largely unknown to date. Here, we systematically examined the oscillatory interactions between the aCIN and the FPN by using the spectral Granger causality analysis of reconstructed brain source signals from the scalp electroencephalography (EEG) recorded from human participants performing a face-house perceptual categorization task...
March 8, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282740/video-based-training-to-improve-perceptual-cognitive-decision-making-performance-of-australian-football-umpires
#18
Paul Larkin, Christopher Mesagno, Jason Berry, Michael Spittle, Jack Harvey
Decision-making is a central component of the in-game performance of Australian football umpires; however, current umpire training focuses largely on physiological development with decision-making skills development conducted via explicit lecture-style meetings with limited practice devoted to making actual decisions. Therefore, this study investigated the efficacy of a video-based training programme, aimed to provide a greater amount of contextualised visual experiences without explicit instruction, to improve decision-making skills of umpires...
March 4, 2017: Journal of Sports Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28256514/pupil-linked-arousal-is-driven-by-decision-uncertainty-and-alters-serial-choice-bias
#19
Anne E Urai, Anke Braun, Tobias H Donner
While judging their sensory environments, decision-makers seem to use the uncertainty about their choices to guide adjustments of their subsequent behaviour. One possible source of these behavioural adjustments is arousal: decision uncertainty might drive the brain's arousal systems, which control global brain state and might thereby shape subsequent decision-making. Here, we measure pupil diameter, a proxy for central arousal state, in human observers performing a perceptual choice task of varying difficulty...
March 3, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28250149/perceptual-and-categorical-decision-making-goal-relevant-representation-of-two-domains-at-different-levels-of-abstraction
#20
Swetha Shankar, Andrew S Kayser
To date it has been unclear whether perceptual decision making and rule-based categorization reflect activation of similar cognitive processes and brain regions. On the one hand, both map potentially ambiguous stimuli to a smaller set of motor responses. On the other, decisions about perceptual salience typically concern concrete sensory representations derived from a noisy stimulus, while categorization is typically conceptualized as an abstract decision about membership in a potentially arbitrary set. Previous work has primarily examined these types of decisions in isolation...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
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