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perceptual decision making

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320519/the-effect-of-small-sided-games-with-different-levels-of-opposition-on-the-tactical-behaviour-of-young-footballers-with-different-levels-of-sport-expertise
#1
Alba Práxedes, Alberto Moreno, Alexander Gil-Arias, Fernando Claver, Fernando Del Villar
To optimize players' tactical abilities, coaches need to design training sessions with representative learning tasks, such as, small-sided games. Moreover, it is necessary to adapt the complexity of the tasks to the skill level of the athletes to maximally improve their perceptual, visual and attentive abilities. The objective of this study was to analyze the effect of two teaching programs, each utilizing modified games with varied levels of opposition, on decision-making and action execution in young players with different levels of sports expertise...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301289/local-choices-rationality-and-the-contextuality-of-decision-making
#2
Ivo Vlaev
Rational explanation is ubiquitous in psychology and social sciences, ranging from rational analysis, expectancy-value theories, ideal observer models, mental logic to probabilistic frameworks, rational choice theory, and informal "folk psychological" explanation. However, rational explanation appears to be challenged by apparently systematic irrationality observed in psychological experiments, especially in the field of judgement and decision-making (JDM). Here, it is proposed that the experimental results require not that rational explanation should be rejected, but that rational explanation is local, i...
January 2, 2018: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274342/the-modulatory-role-of-pre-sma-in-speed-accuracy-tradeoff-a-bi-directional-tms-study
#3
Dilara Berkay, Hale Yapıcı Eser, Alexander T Sack, Yusuf Özgür Çakmak, Fuat Balcı
Many perceptual decisions are inevitably subject to the tradeoff between speed and accuracy of choices (SAT). Sequential sampling models attribute this ubiquitous relation to random noise in the sensory evidence accumulation process, and assume that SAT is adaptively modulated by altering the decision thresholds at which the level of integrated evidence should reach for making a choice. Although, neuroimaging studies have shown a relationship between right presupplementary motor area (pre-SMA) activity and threshold setting, only a limited number of brain stimulation studies aimed at establishing the causal link, results of which were inconsistent...
December 20, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248619/a-new-approach-for-assessing-and-training-drivers-speed-management
#4
Noelle LaVoie, Yi-Ching Lee, Anna Allison, James Parker
Motor vehicle crashes are the leading cause of death and injury for teens and speeding is a major contributor, particularly driving too fast for conditions (CDC, 2015, 2013; NHTSA, 2012; Lam, 2003; McKnight & McKnight, 2003). Speed management is a type of tacit knowledge learned through experience that combines speed perception with decisions about safety. Effective training and assessment of speed management requires a safe method for accumulating practice that includes realistic perceptual cues. This study investigated whether speed can be manipulated in an online environment using special effects technology without distorting speed perception...
December 14, 2017: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229820/beta-oscillations-reflect-supramodal-information-during-perceptual-judgment
#5
Saskia Haegens, José Vergara, Román Rossi-Pool, Luis Lemus, Ranulfo Romo
Previous work on perceptual decision making in the sensorimotor system has shown population dynamics in the beta band, corresponding to the encoding of stimulus properties and the final decision outcome. Here, we asked how oscillatory dynamics in the medial premotor cortex (MPC) contribute to supramodal perceptual decision making. We recorded local field potentials (LFPs) and spikes in two monkeys trained to perform a tactile-acoustic frequency discrimination task, including both unimodal and crossmodal conditions...
December 11, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217721/insights-from-australians-with-respiratory-disease-living-in-the-community-with-experience-of-self-managing-through-an-emergency-department-near-miss-for-breathlessness-a-strengths-based-qualitative-study
#6
Tim Luckett, Jane Phillips, Miriam Johnson, Maja Garcia, Priyanka Bhattarai, Virginia Carrieri-Kohlman, Anne Hutchinson, Rebecca T Disler, David Currow, Meera Agar, Serra Ivynian, Richard Chye, Phillip J Newton, Patricia M Davidson
OBJECTIVES: Breathlessness 'crises' in people with chronic respiratory conditions are a common precipitant for emergency department (ED) presentations, many of which might be avoided through improved self-management and support. This study sought insights from people with experience of ED 'near misses' where they considered going to the ED but successfully self-managed instead. DESIGN AND METHODS: A qualitative approach was used with a phenomenological orientation...
December 6, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216478/reach-and-grasp-deficits-following-damage-to-the-dorsal-pulvinar
#7
Melanie Wilke, Lukas Schneider, Adan-Ulises Dominguez-Vargas, Carsten Schmidt-Samoa, Kristina Miloserdov, Ahmad Nazzal, Peter Dechent, Yuranny Cabral-Calderin, Hansjörg Scherberger, Igor Kagan, Mathias Bähr
Expansion of the dorsal pulvinar in humans and its anatomical connectivity suggests its involvement in higher-order cognitive and visuomotor functions. We investigated visuomotor performance in a 31 year old patient (M.B.) with a lesion centered on the medial portion of the dorsal pulvinar (left > right) due to an atypical Sarcoidosis manifestation. Unlike lesions with a vascular etiology, the lesion of M.B. did not include primary sensory or motor thalamic nuclei. Thus, this patient gave us the exceedingly rare opportunity to study the contribution of the dorsal pulvinar to visuomotor behavior in a human without confounding losses in primary sensory or motor domains...
November 8, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213117/stimulus-expectation-alters-decision-criterion-but-not-sensory-signal-in-perceptual-decision-making
#8
Ji Won Bang, Dobromir Rahnev
Humans are more likely to report perceiving an expected than an unexpected stimulus. Influential theories have proposed that this bias arises from expectation altering the sensory signal. However, the effects of expectation can also be due to decisional criterion shifts independent of any sensory changes. In order to adjudicate between these two possibilities, we compared the behavioral effects of pre-stimulus cues (pre cues; can influence both sensory signal and decision processes) and post-stimulus cues (post cues; can only influence decision processes)...
December 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193776/bayesian-statistical-approaches-to-evaluating-cognitive-models
#9
REVIEW
Jeffrey Annis, Thomas J Palmeri
Cognitive models aim to explain complex human behavior in terms of hypothesized mechanisms of the mind. These mechanisms can be formalized in terms of mathematical structures containing parameters that are theoretically meaningful. For example, in the case of perceptual decision making, model parameters might correspond to theoretical constructs like response bias, evidence quality, response caution, and the like. Formal cognitive models go beyond verbal models in that cognitive mechanisms are instantiated in terms of mathematics and they go beyond statistical models in that cognitive model parameters are psychologically interpretable...
November 28, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Cognitive Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187818/executive-functions-and-performance-variability-measured-by-event-related-potentials-to-understand-the-neural-bases-of-perceptual-decision-making
#10
Rinaldo L Perri, Francesco Di Russo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180789/the-computations-that-support-simple-decision-making-a-comparison-between-the-diffusion-and-urgency-gating-models
#11
Nathan J Evans, Guy E Hawkins, Udo Boehm, Eric-Jan Wagenmakers, Scott D Brown
We investigate a question relevant to the psychology and neuroscience of perceptual decision-making: whether decisions are based on steadily accumulating evidence, or only on the most recent evidence. We report an empirical comparison between two of the most prominent examples of these theoretical positions, the diffusion model and the urgency-gating model, via model-based qualitative and quantitative comparisons. Our findings support the predictions of the diffusion model over the urgency-gating model, and therefore, the notion that evidence accumulates without much decay...
November 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29177189/a-neural-signature-encoding-decisions-under-perceptual-ambiguity
#12
Sai Sun, Rongjun Yu, Shuo Wang
People often make perceptual decisions with ambiguous information, but it remains unclear whether the brain has a common neural substrate that encodes various forms of perceptual ambiguity. Here, we used three types of perceptually ambiguous stimuli as well as task instructions to examine the neural basis for both stimulus-driven and task-driven perceptual ambiguity. We identified a neural signature, the late positive potential (LPP), that encoded a general form of stimulus-driven perceptual ambiguity. In addition to stimulus-driven ambiguity, the LPP was also modulated by ambiguity in task instructions...
November 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176941/perceptual-decisions-in-the-presence-of-relevant-and-irrelevant-sensory-evidence
#13
Ursula M Anders, Charlotte S McLean, Bowen Ouyang, Jochen Ditterich
Perceptual decisions in the presence of decision-irrelevant sensory information require a selection of decision-relevant sensory evidence. To characterize the mechanism that is responsible for separating decision-relevant from irrelevant sensory information we asked human subjects to make judgments about one of two simultaneously present motion components in a random dot stimulus. Subjects were able to ignore the decision-irrelevant component to a large degree, but their decisions were still influenced by the irrelevant sensory information...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29176612/biased-and-unbiased-perceptual-decision-making-on-vocal-emotions
#14
Mihai Dricu, Leonardo Ceravolo, Didier Grandjean, Sascha Frühholz
Perceptual decision-making on emotions involves gathering sensory information about the affective state of another person and forming a decision on the likelihood of a particular state. These perceptual decisions can be of varying complexity as determined by different contexts. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging and a region of interest approach to investigate the brain activation and functional connectivity behind two forms of perceptual decision-making. More complex unbiased decisions on affective voices recruited an extended bilateral network consisting of the posterior inferior frontal cortex, the orbitofrontal cortex, the amygdala, and voice-sensitive areas in the auditory cortex...
November 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175495/dynamics-of-perceptual-decisions-about-symmetry-in-visual-cortex
#15
Peter J Kohler, Benoit R Cottereau, Anthony M Norcia
Neuroimaging studies have identified multiple extra-striate visual areas that are sensitive to symmetry in planar images (Kohler et al., 2016; Sasaki et al., 2005). Here, we investigated which of these areas are directly involved in perceptual decisions about symmetry, by recording high-density EEG in participants (n = 25) who made rapid judgments about whether an exemplar image contained rotation symmetry or not. Stimulus-locked sensor-level analysis revealed symmetry-specific activity that increased with increasing order of rotation symmetry...
November 23, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167328/perceptual-decisions-based-on-previously-learned-information-are-independent-of-dopaminergic-tone
#16
Alessandra Perugini, Michele A Basso
Both cognitive and motor symptoms in people with Parkinson's disease (PD) arise from either too little or too much dopamine (DA). Akinesia stems from DA neuronal cell loss and dyskinesia often stems from an overdose of DA medication. Cognitive behaviors typically associated with frontal cortical function such as working memory and task switching are also affected by too little or too much DA in PD. Whether motor and cognitive circuits overlap in PD is unknown. Here, we show that whereas motor performance improves in people with PD when on dopaminergic medication compared to off medication, memory-based decision-making performance remains impaired whether on or off medications...
November 22, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162008/a-perceptual-like-population-coding-mechanism-of-approximate-numerical-averaging
#17
Noam Brezis, Zohar Z Bronfman, Marius Usher
Humans possess a remarkable ability to rapidly form coarse estimations of numerical averages. This ability is important for making decisions that are based on streams of numerical or value-based information, as well as for preference formation. Nonetheless, the mechanism underlying rapid approximate numerical averaging remains unknown, and several competing mechanism may account for it. Here, we tested the hypothesis that approximate numerical averaging relies on perceptual-like processes, based on population coding...
November 21, 2017: Neural Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152591/the-idiosyncratic-nature-of-confidence
#18
Joaquin Navajas, Chandni Hindocha, Hebah Foda, Mehdi Keramati, Peter E Latham, Bahador Bahrami
Confidence is the 'feeling of knowing' that accompanies decision making. Bayesian theory proposes that confidence is a function solely of the perceived probability of being correct. Empirical research has suggested, however, that different individuals may perform different computations to estimate confidence from uncertain evidence. To test this hypothesis, we collected confidence reports in a task where subjects made categorical decisions about the mean of a sequence. We found that for most individuals, confidence did indeed reflect the perceived probability of being correct...
November 2017: Nature Human Behaviour
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142279/modifying-response-times-in-the-simon-task-with-transcranial-random-noise-stimulation
#19
James Robert McIntosh, Carsten Mehring
Perceptual decisions pervade our every-day lives, and can align or conflict with inbuilt biases. We investigated these conflicting biases by applying transcranial random noise stimulation (tRNS) while subjects took part in a visual Simon task - a paradigm where irrelevant spatial cues influence the response times of subjects to relevant colour cues. We found that tRNS reduces the response time of subjects independent of the congruence between spatial and colour cues, but dependent on the baseline response time, both between subjects and across conditions within subjects...
November 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127416/author-correction-visuotactile-integration-modulates-motor-performance-in-a-perceptual-decision-making-task
#20
Klaudia Grechuta, Jelena Guga, Giovanni Maffei, Belén Rubio Ballester, Paul F M J Verschure
A correction to this article has been published and is linked from the HTML version of this paper. The error has been fixed in the paper.a.
November 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
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