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perceptual decision making

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785928/post-decision-biases-reveal-a-self-consistency-principle-in-perceptual-inference
#1
Long Luu, Alan A Stocker
Making a categorical judgment can systematically bias our subsequent perception of the world. We show that these biases are well explained by a self-consistent Bayesian observer whose perceptual inference process is causally conditioned on the preceding choice. We quantitatively validated the model and its key assumptions with a targeted set of three psychophysical experiments, focusing on a task sequence where subjects first had to make a categorical orientation judgment before estimating the actual orientation of a visual stimulus...
May 15, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773755/expectations-do-not-alter-early-sensory-processing-during-perceptual-decision-making
#2
Nuttida Rungratsameetaweemana, Sirawaj Itthipuripat, Annalisa Salazar, John T Serences
Two factors play an important role in shaping perception: the allocation of selective attention to behaviorally relevant sensory features, and prior expectations about regularities in the environment. Signal detection theory proposes distinct roles of attention and expectation on decision-making such that attention modulates early sensory processing whereas expectation influences the selection and execution of motor responses. Challenging this classic framework, recent studies suggest that expectations about sensory regularities enhance the encoding and accumulation of sensory evidence during decision-making...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771359/neural-bases-of-social-communicative-intentions-in-speech
#3
Nele Hellbernd, Daniela Sammler
Our ability to understand others' communicative intentions in speech is key to successful social interaction. Indeed, misunderstanding an "excuse me" as apology, while meant as criticism, may have important consequences. Recent behavioural studies have provided evidence that prosody, i.e., vocal tone, is an important indicator for speakers' intentions. Using a novel audio-morphing paradigm, the present fMRI study examined the neurocognitive mechanisms that allow listeners to 'read' speakers' intents from vocal-prosodic patterns...
May 16, 2018: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29758431/a-framework-to-investigate-drivers-of-adaptation-decisions-in-marine-fishing-evidence-from-urban-semi-urban-and-rural-communities
#4
Krishna Malakar, Trupti Mishra, Anand Patwardhan
Traditional fishing livelihoods need to adapt to changing fish catch/populations, led by numerous anthropogenic, environmental and climatic stressors. The decision to adapt can be influenced by a variety of socio-economic and perceptual factors. However, adaptation decision-making in fishing communities has rarely been studied. Based on previous literature and focus group discussions with community, this study identifies few prominent adaptation responses in marine fishing and proposes credible factors driving decisions to adopt them...
May 11, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29754443/group-benefits-in-joint-perceptual-tasks-a-review
#5
REVIEW
Basil Wahn, Alan Kingstone, Peter König
In daily life, humans often perform perceptual tasks together to reach a shared goal. In these situations, individuals may collaborate (e.g., by distributing task demands) to perform the task better than when the task is performed alone (i.e., attain a group benefit). In this review, we identify the factors influencing if, and to what extent, a group benefit is attained and provide a framework of measures to assess group benefits in perceptual tasks. In particular, we integrate findings from two frequently investigated joint perceptual tasks: visuospatial tasks and decision-making tasks...
May 12, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29750987/the-opportunity-cost-of-time-modulates-cognitive-effort
#6
A Ross Otto, Nathaniel D Daw
A spate of recent work demonstrates that humans seek to avoid the expenditure of cognitive effort, much like physical effort or economic resources. Less is clear, however, about the circumstances dictating how and when people decide to expend cognitive effort. Here we adopt a popular theory of opportunity costs and response vigor and to elucidate this question. This account, grounded in Reinforcement Learning, formalizes a trade-off between two costs: the harder work assumed necessary to emit faster actions and the opportunity cost inherent in acting more slowly (i...
May 8, 2018: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747856/paradoxical-decision-making-a-framework-for-understanding-cognition-in-parkinson-s-disease
#7
REVIEW
Alessandra Perugini, Jochen Ditterich, Aasef G Shaikh, Barbara J Knowlton, Michele A Basso
People with Parkinson's disease (PD) show impaired decision-making when sensory and memory information must be combined. This recently identified impairment results from an inability to accumulate the proper amount of information needed to make a decision and appears to be independent of dopamine tone and reinforcement learning mechanisms. Although considerable work focuses on PD and decisions involving risk and reward, in this Opinion article we propose that the emerging findings in perceptual decision-making highlight the multisystem nature of PD, and that unraveling the neuronal circuits underlying perceptual decision-making impairment may help in understanding other cognitive impairments in people with PD...
May 7, 2018: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742133/visual-perceptual-training-reconfigures-post-task-resting-state-functional-connectivity-with-a-feature-representation-region
#8
Mitra Taghizadeh Sarabi, Ryuta Aoki, Kaho Tsumura, Ruedeerat Keerativittayayut, Koji Jimura, Kiyoshi Nakahara
The neural mechanisms underlying visual perceptual learning (VPL) have typically been studied by examining changes in task-related brain activation after training. However, the relationship between post-task "offline" processes and VPL remains unclear. The present study examined this question by obtaining resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scans of human brains before and after a task-fMRI session involving visual perceptual training. During the task-fMRI session, participants performed a motion coherence discrimination task in which they judged the direction of moving dots with a coherence level that varied between trials (20, 40, and 80%)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738354/sex-differences-in-a-chronometric-mental-rotation-test-with-cube-figures-a-behavioral-electroencephalography-and-eye-tracking-pilot-study
#9
Clara Scheer, Felipe Mattioni Maturana, Petra Jansen
In chronometric mental rotation tasks, sex differences are widely discussed. Most studies find men to be more skilled in mental rotation than women, which can be explained by the holistic strategy that they use to rotate stimuli. Women are believed to apply a piecemeal strategy. So far, there have been no studies investigating this phenomenon using eye-tacking methods in combination with electroencephalography (EEG) analysis: the present study compared behavioral responses, EEG activity, and eye movements of 15 men and 15 women while solving a three-dimensional chronometric mental rotation test...
May 7, 2018: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735014/value-generalization-in-human-avoidance-learning
#10
Agnes Norbury, Trevor W Robbins, Ben Seymour
Generalization during aversive decision-making allows us to avoid a broad range of potential threats following experience with a limited set of exemplars. However, over-generalization, resulting in excessive and inappropriate avoidance, has been implicated in a variety of psychological disorders. Here, we use reinforcement learning modelling to dissect out different contributions to the generalization of instrumental avoidance in two groups of human volunteers ( N =26, N =482). We found that generalization of avoidance could be parsed into perceptual and value-based processes, and further, that value-based generalization could be subdivided into that relating to aversive and neutral feedback - with corresponding circuits including primary sensory cortex, anterior insula, amygdala and ventromedial prefrontal cortex...
May 8, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720553/distinguishing-the-roles-of-dorsolateral-and-anterior-pfc-in-visual-metacognition
#11
Medha Shekhar, Dobromir Rahnev
Visual metacognition depends on regions within the prefrontal cortex. Two areas in particular have been repeatedly implicated: the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and the anterior prefrontal cortex (aPFC). However, it is still unclear what the function of each of these areas is and how they differ from each other. To establish the specific roles of DLPFC and aPFC in metacognition, we employed online transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to causally interfere with their functioning during confidence generation...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29717524/oscillatory-eeg-signatures-of-postponed-somatosensory-decisions
#12
Simon Ludwig, Jan Herding, Felix Blankenburg
In recent electroencephalography (EEG) studies, the vibrotactile frequency comparison task has been used to study oscillatory signatures of perceptual decision making in humans, revealing a choice-selective modulation of premotor upper beta band power shortly before decisions were reported. Importantly, these studies focused on decisions that were (1) indicated immediately after stimulus presentation, and (2) for which a direct motor mapping was provided. Here, we investigated whether the putative beta band choice signal also extends to postponed decisions, and how such a decision signal might be influenced by a response mapping that is dissociated from a specific motor command...
May 2, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29706545/dendritic-integration-of-sensory-evidence-in-perceptual-decision-making
#13
Lukas N Groschner, Laura Chan Wah Hak, Rafal Bogacz, Shamik DasGupta, Gero Miesenböck
Perceptual decisions require the accumulation of sensory information to a response criterion. Most accounts of how the brain performs this process of temporal integration have focused on evolving patterns of spiking activity. We report that subthreshold changes in membrane voltage can represent accumulating evidence before a choice. αβ core Kenyon cells (αβc KCs) in the mushroom bodies of fruit flies integrate odor-evoked synaptic inputs to action potential threshold at timescales matching the speed of olfactory discrimination...
April 25, 2018: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29698028/information-and-processes-underlying-semantic-and-episodic-memory-across-tasks-items-and-individuals
#14
Gregory E Cox, Pernille Hemmer, William R Aue, Amy H Criss
The development of memory theory has been constrained by a focus on isolated tasks rather than the processes and information that are common to situations in which memory is engaged. We present results from a study in which 453 participants took part in five different memory tasks: single-item recognition, associative recognition, cued recall, free recall, and lexical decision. Using hierarchical Bayesian techniques, we jointly analyzed the correlations between tasks within individuals-reflecting the degree to which tasks rely on shared cognitive processes-and within items-reflecting the degree to which tasks rely on the same information conveyed by the item...
April 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684004/the-neural-system-of-metacognition-accompanying-decision-making-in-the-prefrontal-cortex
#15
Lirong Qiu, Jie Su, Yinmei Ni, Yang Bai, Xuesong Zhang, Xiaoli Li, Xiaohong Wan
Decision-making is usually accompanied by metacognition, through which a decision maker monitors uncertainty regarding a decision and may then consequently revise the decision. These metacognitive processes can occur prior to or in the absence of feedback. However, the neural mechanisms of metacognition remain controversial. One theory proposes an independent neural system for metacognition in the prefrontal cortex (PFC); the other, that metacognitive processes coincide and overlap with the systems used for the decision-making process per se...
April 2018: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682592/evidence-for-the-speed-value-trade-off-human-and-monkey-decision-making-is-magnitude-sensitive
#16
Angelo Pirrone, Habiba Azab, Benjamin Y Hayden, Tom Stafford, James A R Marshall
Complex natural systems from brains to bee swarms have evolved to make adaptive multifactorial decisions. Recent theoretical and empirical work suggests that many evolved systems may take advantage of common motifs across multiple domains. We are particularly interested in value sensitivity (i.e., sensitivity to the magnitude or intensity of the stimuli or reward under consideration) as a mechanism to resolve deadlocks adaptively. This mechanism favours long-term reward maximization over accuracy in a simple manner, because it avoids costly delays associated with ambivalence between similar options; speed-value trade-offs have been proposed to be evolutionarily advantageous for many kinds of decision...
April 2018: Decision (Washington)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651383/influence-of-encoding-instructions-and-response-bias-on-cross-cultural-differences-in-specific-recognition
#17
Laura E Paige, Selen Amado, Angela H Gutchess
Prior cross-cultural research has reported cultural variations in memory. One study revealed that Americans remembered images with more perceptual detail than East Asians (Millar et al. in Cult Brain 1(2-4):138-157, 2013). However, in a later study, this expected pattern was not replicated, possibly due to differences in encoding instructions (Paige et al. in Cortex 91:250-261, 2017). The present study sought to examine when cultural variation in memory-related decisions occur and the role of instructions. American and East Asian participants viewed images of objects while making a Purchase decision or an Approach decision and later completed a surprise recognition test...
October 2017: Culture and Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643456/publisher-correction-metacognitive-impairments-extend-perceptual-decision-making-weaknesses-in-compulsivity
#18
Tobias U Hauser, Micah Allen, Geraint Rees, Raymond J Dolan
A correction to this article has been published and is linked from the HTML and PDF versions of this paper. The error has been fixed in the paper.
April 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29627663/a-cluster-phase-analysis-for-collective-behavior-in-team-sports
#19
Maurici A López-Felip, Tehran J Davis, Till D Frank, James A Dixon
Collective behavior can be defined as the ability of humans to coordinate with others through a complex environment. Sports offer exquisite examples of this dynamic interplay, requiring decision making and other perceptual-cognitive skills to adjust individual decisions to the team self-organization and vice versa. Considering players of a team as periodic phase oscillators, synchrony analyses can be used to model the coordination of a team. Nonetheless, a main limitation of current models is that collective behavior is context independent...
April 5, 2018: Human Movement Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623057/passing-decisions-in-football-introducing-an-empirical-approach-to-estimating-the-effects-of-perceptual-information-and-associative-knowledge
#20
Silvan Steiner
The importance of various information sources in decision-making in interactive team sports is debated. While some highlight the role of the perceptual information provided by the current game context, others point to the role of knowledge-based information that athletes have regarding their team environment. Recently, an integrative perspective considering the simultaneous involvement of both of these information sources in decision-making in interactive team sports has been presented. In a theoretical example concerning passing decisions, the simultaneous involvement of perceptual and knowledge-based information has been illustrated...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
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