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perceptual decision making

Claire O'Callaghan, Julie M Hall, Alessandro Tomassini, Alana J Muller, Ishan C Walpola, Ahmed A Moustafa, James M Shine, Simon J G Lewis
BACKGROUND: Models of hallucinations emphasize imbalance between sensory input and top-down influences over perception, as false perceptual inference can arise when top-down predictions are afforded too much precision (certainty) relative to sensory evidence. Visual hallucinations in Parkinson's disease (PD) are associated with lower-level visual and attentional impairments, accompanied by overactivity in higher-order association brain networks. PD therefore provides an attractive framework to explore contributions of bottom-up versus top-down disturbances in hallucinations...
November 2017: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
Beatrice Heim, Marie-Theres Pertl, Ambra Stefani, Anna Heidbreder, Laura Zamarian, Elisabeth Brandauer, Bruno Averbeck, Margarete Delazer, Klaus Seppi, Birgit Högl, Werner Poewe, Atbin Djamshidian
Objectives: The objective of this study was to investigate perceptual decision-making and reflection impulsivity in drug naïve patients with restless legs syndrome (RLS) and patients with dopaminergic therapy. Methods: A total of 35 RLS patients (20 who were drug naïve regarding dopaminergic medication and 15 patients treated with dopaminergic therapy without augmentation or impulse control disorders) were included in this study. We used the Beads task and the Pixel task which assess reflection impulsivity and perceptual decision-making, respectively...
March 2018: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
Lucas Pinto, Sue A Koay, Ben Engelhard, Alice M Yoon, Ben Deverett, Stephan Y Thiberge, Ilana B Witten, David W Tank, Carlos D Brody
The gradual accumulation of sensory evidence is a crucial component of perceptual decision making, but its neural mechanisms are still poorly understood. Given the wide availability of genetic and optical tools for mice, they can be useful model organisms for the study of these phenomena; however, behavioral tools are largely lacking. Here, we describe a new evidence-accumulation task for head-fixed mice navigating in a virtual reality (VR) environment. As they navigate down the stem of a virtual T-maze, they see brief pulses of visual evidence on either side, and retrieve a reward on the arm with the highest number of pulses...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Manuel Oliva, Andrey Anikin
The processing of emotional signals usually causes an increase in pupil size, and this effect has been largely attributed to autonomic arousal prompted by the stimuli. Additionally, changes in pupil size were associated with decision making during non-emotional perceptual tasks. Therefore, in this study we investigated the relationship between pupil size fluctuations and the process of emotion recognition. Participants heard human nonverbal vocalizations (e.g., laughing, crying) and indicated the emotional state of the speakers as soon as they had identified it...
March 20, 2018: Scientific Reports
Alexandra Vlassova, Joel Pearson
The idea that unconscious input can result in long-term learning or task improvement has been debated for decades, yet there is still little evidence to suggest that learning outside of awareness can produce meaningful changes to decision-making. Here we trained participants using noisy motion stimuli, which require the gradual accumulation of information until a decision can be reached. These stimuli were suppressed from conscious awareness by simultaneously presenting a dynamic dichoptic mask. We show that a short period of training on either a partially or fully suppressed motion stimulus resulted in improved accuracy when tested on a partially suppressed motion stimulus traveling in the orthogonal direction...
March 16, 2018: Cognition
Elisabeth Stöttinger, Markus Aichhorn, Britt Anderson, James Danckert
In a constantly changing environment we must adapt to both abrupt and gradual changes to incoming information. Previously, we demonstrated that a distributed network (including the anterior insula and anterior cingulate cortex) was active when participants updated their initial representations (e.g., it's a cat) in a gradually morphing picture task (e.g., now it's a rabbit; Stöttinger et al., 2015). To shed light on whether these activations reflect the proactive decisions to update or perceptual uncertainty, we introduced two additional conditions...
March 14, 2018: Neuropsychologia
Caio M Moreira, Max Rollwage, Kristin Kaduk, Melanie Wilke, Igor Kagan
Humans and other animals constantly evaluate their decisions in order to learn and behave adaptively. Experimentally, such evaluation processes are accessed using metacognitive reports made after decisions, typically using verbally formulated confidence scales. When subjects report high confidence, it reflects a high certainty of being correct, but a low confidence might signify either low certainty about the outcome, or a high certainty of being incorrect. Hence, metacognitive reports might reflect not only different levels of decision certainty, but also two certainty directions (certainty of being correct and certainty of being incorrect)...
March 12, 2018: Cognition
Alexia Roux-Sibilon, Solène Kalénine, Cédric Pichat, Carole Peyrin
Visual extinction, a parietal syndrome in which patients exhibit perceptual impairments when two objects are simultaneously presented in the visual field, is reduced when objects are correctly positioned for action, indicating that action helps patients' visual attention. Similarly, healthy individuals make faster action decisions on object pairs that appear in left/right standard co-location for actions in comparison to object pairs that appear in a mirror location, a phenomenon called the paired-object affordance effect...
March 6, 2018: Neuropsychologia
Tanveer Talukdar, Francisco J Román, Joachim T Operskalski, Christopher E Zwilling, Aron K Barbey
While an extensive literature in decision neuroscience has elucidated the neurobiological foundations of decision making, prior research has focused primarily on group-level effects in a sample population. Due to the presence of inherent differences between individuals' cognitive abilities, it is also important to examine the neural correlates of decision making that explain interindividual variability in cognitive performance. This study therefore investigated how individual differences in decision making competence, as measured by the Adult Decision Making Competence (A-DMC) battery, are related to functional brain connectivity patterns derived from resting-state fMRI data in a sample of 304 healthy participants...
March 8, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
Lupeng Wang, Krsna V Rangarajan, Charles R Gerfen, Richard J Krauzlis
The basal ganglia are implicated in perceptual decision-making, although their specific contributions remain unclear. Here, we tested the causal role of the basal ganglia by manipulating neuronal activity in the dorsal striatum of mice performing a visual orientation-change detection (yes/no) task. Brief unilateral optogenetic stimulation caused large changes in task performance, shifting psychometric curves upward by increasing the probability of "yes" responses with only minor changes in sensitivity...
February 14, 2018: Neuron
Geoff Davies, Charlotte L Rae, Sarah N Garfinkel, Anil K Seth, Nick Medford, Hugo D Critchley, Kathryn Greenwood
INTRODUCTION: Metacognition, or "thinking about thinking", is a higher-order thought process that allows for the evaluation of perceptual processes for accuracy. Metacognitive accuracy is associated with the grey matter volume (GMV) in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), an area also impacted in schizophrenia. The present study set out to investigate whether deficits in metacognitive accuracy are present in the early stages of psychosis. METHODS: Metacognitive accuracy in first-episode psychosis (FEP) was assessed on a perceptual decision-making task and their performance compared to matched healthy control participants (N = 18)...
February 27, 2018: Cognitive Neuropsychiatry
Dobromir Rahnev, Rachel N Denison
Human perceptual decisions are often described as optimal. Critics of this view have argued that claims of optimality are overly flexible and lack explanatory power. Meanwhile, advocates for optimality have countered that such criticisms single out a few selected papers. To elucidate the issue of optimality in perceptual decision making, we review the extensive literature on suboptimal performance in perceptual tasks. We discuss eight different classes of suboptimal perceptual decisions, including improper placement, maintenance, and adjustment of perceptual criteria, inadequate tradeoff between speed and accuracy, inappropriate confidence ratings, misweightings in cue combination, and findings related to various perceptual illusions and biases...
February 27, 2018: Behavioral and Brain Sciences
Ernest Usang Ekpo, Maram Alakhras, Patrick Brennan
Mammography has been the frontline screening tool for breast cancer for decades. However, high error rates in the form of false negatives (FNs) and false positives (FPs) have persisted despite technological improvements. Radiologists still miss between 10% and 30% of cancers while 80% of woman recalled for additional views have normal outcomes, with 40% of biopsied lesions being benign. Research show that the majority of cancers missed is actually visible and looked at, but either go unnoticed or are deemed to be benign...
February 26, 2018: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
Lisbeth Van Ruijssevelt, Yining Chen, Kaya von Eugen, Julie Hamaide, Geert De Groof, Marleen Verhoye, Onur Güntürkün, Sarah C Woolley, Annemie Van der Linden
Selection of sexual partners is among the most critical decisions that individuals make and is therefore strongly shaped by evolution. In social species, where communication signals can convey substantial information about the identity, state, or quality of the signaler, accurate interpretation of communication signals for mate choice is crucial. Despite the importance of social information processing, to date, relatively little is known about the neurobiological mechanisms that contribute to sexual decision making and preferences...
February 21, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Marion Rouault, Tricia Seow, Claire M Gillan, Stephen M Fleming
BACKGROUND: Distortions in metacognition-the ability to reflect on and control other cognitive processes-are thought to be characteristic of poor mental health. However, it remains unknown whether such shifts in self-evaluation are due to specific alterations in metacognition and/or a downstream consequence of changes in decision-making processes. METHODS: Using perceptual decision making as a model system, we employed a computational psychiatry approach to relate parameters governing both decision formation and metacognitive evaluation to self-reported transdiagnostic symptom dimensions in a large general population sample (N = 995)...
January 11, 2018: Biological Psychiatry
Kivilcim Afacan-Seref, Natalie A Steinemann, Annabelle Blangero, Simon P Kelly
In dynamic environments, split-second sensorimotor decisions must be prioritized according to potential payoffs to maximize overall rewards. The impact of relative value on deliberative perceptual judgments has been examined extensively [1-6], but relatively little is known about value-biasing mechanisms in the common situation where physical evidence is strong but the time to act is severely limited. In prominent decision models, a noisy but statistically stationary representation of sensory evidence is integrated over time to an action-triggering bound, and value-biases are affected by starting the integrator closer to the more valuable bound...
February 12, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Jessica Dully, David P McGovern, Redmond G O'Connell
It is well established that natural aging negatively impacts on a wide variety of cognitive functions and research has sought to identify core neural mechanisms that may account for these disparate changes. A central feature of any cognitive task is the requirement to translate sensory information into an appropriate action - a process commonly known as perceptual decision making. While computational, psychophysical, and neurophysiological research has made substantial progress in establishing the key computations and neural mechanisms underpinning decision making, it is only relatively recently that this knowledge has begun to be applied to research on aging...
February 9, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Tarryn Balsdon, Colin W G Clifford
Unconscious perception, or perception without awareness, describes a situation where an observer's behaviour is influenced by a stimulus of which they have no phenomenal awareness. Perception without awareness is often claimed on the basis of a difference in thresholds for tasks that do and do not require awareness, for example, detecting the stimulus (requiring awareness) and making accurate judgements about the stimulus (based on unconscious processing). Although a difference in thresholds would be expected if perceptual evidence were processed without awareness, such a difference does not necessitate that this is actually occurring: a difference in thresholds can also arise from response bias, or through task differences...
January 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Stefan Bode, Daniel Bennett, David K Sewell, Bryan Paton, Gary F Egan, Philip L Smith, Carsten Murawski
According to sequential sampling models, perceptual decision-making is based on accumulation of noisy evidence towards a decision threshold. The speed with which a decision is reached is determined by both the quality of incoming sensory information and random trial-by-trial variability in the encoded stimulus representations. To investigate those decision dynamics at the neural level, participants made perceptual decisions while functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was conducted. On each trial, participants judged whether an image presented under conditions of high, medium, or low visual noise showed a piano or a chair...
February 1, 2018: Neuropsychologia
Brian Odegaard, Piercesare Grimaldi, Seong Hah Cho, Megan A K Peters, Hakwan Lau, Michele A Basso
Recent studies suggest that neurons in sensorimotor circuits involved in perceptual decision-making also play a role in decision confidence. In these studies, confidence is often considered to be an optimal readout of the probability that a decision is correct. However, the information leading to decision accuracy and the report of confidence often covaried, leaving open the possibility that there are actually two dissociable signal types in the brain: signals that correlate with decision accuracy (optimal confidence) and signals that correlate with subjects' behavioral reports of confidence (subjective confidence)...
January 30, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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