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Protoporphyrin ix

Qingwang Xue, Chunxue Liu, Xia Li, Li Dai, Huaisheng Wang
Various fluorescent sensing systems for miRNAs detection have been developed. But they mostly contain enzymatic amplification reactions and label procedures. The strict reaction conditions of tool enzymes and the high cost of labeling limit their potential applications, especially in complex biological matrix. Here we have addressed the difficult problems and report a strategy for label-free fluorescent DNA dendrimers based on enzyme-free nonlinear hybridization chain reaction (HCR)-mediated multiple G-quadruplex for simple, sensitive and selective detection of miRNAs with low-background signal...
March 16, 2018: Bioconjugate Chemistry
Michael Schwake, Andrei Nemes, Jana Dondrop, Juliane Schroeteler, Stephanie Schipmann, Volker Senner, Walter Stummer, Christian Ewelt
BACKGROUND: Light irradiation (635 nm) of cells containing protoporphyrin IX (PPIX) after 5- aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA) pretreatment causes cell death via different pathways including apoptosis and necrosis, as previously demonstrated for malignant glioma cells. OBJECTIVE: To elucidate whether various malignant pediatric brain tumors, which have been shown to accumulate PPIX, would also be susceptible to photodynamic therapy (PDT). METHODS: Medulloblastoma (DAOY, UW228), pNET (PFSK-1), and rhabdoid tumor (BT16) cell lines were incubated with 5-ALA in variable concentrations for 4 h...
March 12, 2018: Neurosurgery
Bunpei Katayama, Toshiyuki Ozawa, Kuniyuki Morimoto, Kunio Awazu, Nobuhisa Ito, Norihiro Honda, Naoki Oiso, Daisuke Tsuruta
BACKGROUND: Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) frequently develops antibiotic-resistant characteristics, which is clinically problematic. The main reason behind the rise of antibiotic-resistant PA is the extensive use of antibiotics. Therefore, a novel technique is needed to treat PA infections. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is thought to have the potential to be a non-antibiotic treatment for infections. 5-Aminolevulinic acid (ALA), which works as a photosensitizer after being metabolized into protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) in the heme synthetic pathway, is used for PDT...
March 5, 2018: Journal of Dermatological Science
Baocheng Zhang, Mingqiang Gao, Jie Shen, Daikun He
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Cerebral ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) could produce excess reactive oxygen species (ROS), which in turn induce neurological dysfunction and inflammation in cerebral tissues. This study was designed to study the effect of methane on cerebral I/R injury. METHODS: Fifty Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were used to induce an animal model of cerebral I/R injury. Methane was mixed with air to achieve a final concentration of 2.2%. Rats started to inhale methane-air mixture after ischemia and continued it during the reperfusion...
August 2017: Archives of Medical Research
Jeong-Min Hong, Sun-Mee Lee
AIMS: Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), an endogenous cytoprotective enzyme, is reported that can be localized in mitochondria under stress, contributing to preserve mitochondrial function. Mitochondrial quality control (QC) is essential to cellular health and recovery linked with redox homeostasis. Recent studies reported that phosphoglycerate mutase family member (PGAM) 5, a mitochondria-resident phosphatase, plays critical role in mitochondrial homeostasis. Therefore, we aim to investigate cytoprotective mechanisms of HO-1 in I/R-induced hepatic injury focusing on mitochondrial QC associated with PGAM5 signaling...
March 7, 2018: Life Sciences
Haojuan Jia, Jia Shi, Shu'an Dong, Yuan Zhang, Jianbo Yu
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of heme oxygenase-1/carbon monoxide (HO-1/CO) pathway on mitochondrial fusion in rat alveolar epithelial type II cells (AEC II) stimulated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). METHODS: Once the cultured in vitro rat AEC II cells line RLE-6TN reached confluency of 85%, they were subcultured and randomly divided into seven groups (n = 5 each). RLE-6TN cells were routinely cultured in control group. The cells in LPS group was stimulated with 10 mg/L LPS to reproduce the model of endotoxin challenge in AECII cells...
March 2018: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
Ling Zhang, Kasper P Kepp, Jens Ulstrup, Jingdong Zhang
Metalloporphyrins are active sites in metalloproteins and synthetic catalysts. They have also been studied extensively by electrochemistry as well as being prominent targets in electrochemical scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). Previous studies of FePPIX adsorbed on graphite and alkylthiol modified Au electrodes showed a pair of reversible Fe(III/II)PPIX peaks at about -0.41 V (vs. NHE) at high solution pH. We recently used iron protoporphyrin IX (FeP-PIX) as an intercalating probe for long-range electrochemical electron transfer through a G-quadruplex oligonucleo-tide (DNAzyme); this study disclosed two, rather than a single pair of voltammetric peaks with a new and dominating peak, shifted 200 mV positive relative to the  -0...
March 6, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Huijuan Bi, Zhuang Liu, Congjiao Sun, Guangqi Li, Guiqin Wu, Fengying Shi, Aiqiao Liu, Ning Yang
The dynamic change in brown eggshell color as hens age has been observed, but much uncertainty still exists. We aimed to analyze the depth of eggshell color and quantity of protoporphyrin ΙΧ throughout the laying period to explore the reasons for color variation. In this study, 120 Rhode Island Red hens were used, and two eggs were collected from each individual at 26, 34, 42, 50, 60, and 70 wk of age. The eggshell color (L*, a*, b*), egg weight, eggshell dry weight, and protoporphyrin ΙΧ quantity in eggshell were measured for individual eggs...
March 1, 2018: Poultry Science
Xian-Wu Hua, Yan-Wen Bao, Fu-Gen Wu
Nucleolus tracking and nucleus-targeted photodynamic therapy are attracting increasing attention due to the importance of nucleolus and the sensitivity of nucleus to various therapeutic stimuli. Herein, a new class of multifunctional fluorescent carbon quantum dots (or carbon dots, CDs) synthesized via the one-pot hydrothermal reaction of m-phenylenediamine and L-cysteine, was reported to effectively target nucleolus. The as-prepared CDs possess superior properties such as low-cost and facile synthesis, good water dispersibility, various surface groups for further modifications, prominent photostability, excellent compatibility, and rapid/convenient/wash-free staining procedures...
March 6, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Prakhar Sengar, Patricia Juárez, Andrea Verdugo-Meza, Danna L Arellano, Akhil Jain, Kanchan Chauhan, Gustavo A Hirata, Pierrick G J Fournier
BACKGROUND: Photodynamic therapy is a promising cancer therapy modality but its application for deep-seated tumor is mainly hindered by the shallow penetration of visible light. X-ray-mediated photodynamic therapy (PDT) has gained a major attention owing to the limitless penetration of X-rays. However, substantial outcomes have still not been achieved due to the low luminescence efficiency of scintillating nanoparticles and weak energy transfer to the photosensitizer. The present work describes the development of Y2...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Nanobiotechnology
Mallory E Gillam, Gregory A Hunter, Gloria C Ferreira
Protoporphyrin ferrochelatase catalyzes the insertion of Fe2+ into protoporphyrin IX to form heme. To determine whether a conserved, active site π-helix contributes to the translocation of the metal ion substrate to the ferrochelatase-bound porphyrin substrate, the invariant π-helix glutamates were replaced with amino acids with non-negatively charged side chains, and the kinetic mechanisms of the generated variants were examined. Analysis of yeast wild-type ferrochelatase-, E314Q- and E318Q-catalyzed reactions, under multi- and single-turnover conditions, demonstrated that the mutations of the π-helix glutamates hindered both protoporphyrin metalation and release of the metalated porphyrin, by slowing each step by approximately 30-50%...
February 23, 2018: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
Takashi Yoneda, Naosuke Nonoguchi, Naokado Ikeda, Ryokichi Yagi, Shinji Kawabata, Motomasa Furuse, Yoshinobu Hirose, Hiroko Kuwabara, Yoji Tamura, Yoshinaga Kajimoto, Toshihiko Kuroiwa
OBJECTIVE: This study is intended to objectively clarify the relationship between the fluorescence intensity emitted by protoporphyrin IX (PpIX), which is a metabolite of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA), and histological findings during glioblastoma surgery. BACKGROUND: ALA is widely used for the intraoperative detection of tumors. There are several reports about the fluorescence of PpIX and the histological findings of tumors, but judgments about the fluorescence intensity depend largely on the subjective sense of each surgeon...
February 26, 2018: Photomedicine and Laser Surgery
L Torezan, B Grinblat, M Haedersdal, N Valente, C Festa-Neto, R M Szeimies
BACKGROUND: Topical photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an approved treatment for actinic keratosis (AK). To enhance the efficacy of PDT for AKs, physical (ablative lasers and microneedling) and chemical (pro-differentiating drugs) pretreatments have been suggested. OBJECTIVES: To compare the efficacy and safety of the combination of topical calcipotriol (CAL) before methylaminolevulinate (MAL)-PDT for AKs of the scalp versus conventional MAL-PDT in a randomized controlled-clinical trial...
February 24, 2018: British Journal of Dermatology
Toril Holien, Odrun Arna Gederaas, Sagar Ramesh Darvekar, Eidi Christensen, Qian Peng
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Extracorporeal photopheresis (ECP), an established modality for cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL) and graft-versus-host disease, involves ex vivo treatment of isolated leukocytes of a patient with the photosensitizing drug 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP) and ultraviolet-A (UV-A) exposure before reinfusion back to the patient. However, 8-MOP binds to both diseased and normal cells and thus kills both types of the cells after UV-A illumination with little selectivity...
February 20, 2018: Lasers in Surgery and Medicine
Xiaoqi Jing, Jiaqi Zhang, Zhenlin Huang, Yuchen Sheng, Lili Ji
Hepatic sinusoidal obstruction syndrome (HSOS) is a rare and life-threatening liver disease. (+)-catechin is a natural dietary flavonol with high antioxidant capacity. This study aims to investigate the involvement of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) antioxidant signaling pathway in the protection of (+)-catechin hydrate (CAT) against monocrotaline (MCT)-induced HSOS. Results of serum alanine/aspartate aminotransferases (ALT/AST) activities, total bilirubin (TBil) and bile acids (TBA) amounts, liver histological observation, scanning electron microscope evaluation and hepatic metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) expression all demonstrated the protection of CAT against MCT-induced HSOS in rats...
February 20, 2018: Free Radical Research
Ana B Walter-Nuno, Mabel L Taracena, Rafael D Mesquita, Pedro L Oliveira, Gabriela O Paiva-Silva
Iron is an essential element for most organisms However, free iron and heme, its complex with protoporphyrin IX, can be extremely cytotoxic, due to the production of reactive oxygen species, eventually leading to oxidative stress. Thus, eukaryotic cells control iron availability by regulating its transport, storage and excretion as well as the biosynthesis and degradation of heme. In the genome of Rhodnius prolixus , the vector of Chagas disease, we identified 36 genes related to iron and heme metabolism We performed a comprehensive analysis of these genes, including identification of homologous genes described in other insect genomes...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
E R Reis, L P Ferreira, E M D Nicola, I Borissevitch
Protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) is a precursor of heme synthesis and is known to be an active photosensitizer and precursor of photosensitizers applied in photodynamic therapy (PDT) and photodynamic diagnostics (PDD). On irradiation with visible light, PpIX undergoes phototransformation, producing photoproducts which may also be phototoxic and increase its efficacy. The mechanism of PpIX phototransformation depends on environmental characteristics and can be different in vitro and in vivo. In this paper, we present a comparative study of the photoactivity of synthetic PpIX and PpIX extracted from the Harderian gland of ssp Rattus novergicus albinus rats, along with their photoproducts toward murine B16F-10 melanoma cells...
February 16, 2018: European Biophysics Journal: EBJ
Benjamin Brokinkel, Sabrina Kröger, Volker Senner, Astrid Jeibmann, Uwe Karst, Walter Stummer
BACKGROUND: The advantages of 5-aminolevulinacid (5-ALA)-induced fluorescence-guided surgery in meningiomas are increasingly discussed. In this context, despite detectable tumor tissue in histopathologial analyses, no fluorescence was shown at the dura tail using the standard operating microscope. Thus, 5-ALA metabolism in this surgically important site remains unknown but needs to be elucidated when further evaluating indications of fluorescence-guided surgery in meningiomas. METHOD: We here present the spatially resolved identification of protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) in sphenoid ridge meningioma cryosections from a patient who underwent fluorescence-guided microsurgery using molecular imaging analysis by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization tandem mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS/MS)...
February 15, 2018: Acta Neurochirurgica
Guanghui Wang, Yu Xiao, Xiaojiang Deng, Heting Zhang, Tingge Li, Huiping Chen
Hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) is a reactive oxygen species (ROS) that plays a dual role in plant cells. Here, we discovered that drought (20% polyethylene glycol-6000, PEG)-triggered decreases of HO-1 transcript expression and HO activity. However, exogenous H 2 O 2 contributed toward the increase in HO-1 gene expression and activity of the enzyme under drought stress. Meanwhile, the HO-1 inducer hematin could mimic the effects of the H 2 O 2 scavengers ascorbic acid (AsA) and dimethylthiourea (DMTU) and the H 2 O 2 synthesis inhibitor diphenyleneiodonium (DPI) for scavenging or diminishing drought-induced endogenous H 2 O 2 ...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Ismael Galván, María Del Mar Delgado, Pablo R Camarero, Rafael Mateo, Rui Lourenço, Vincenzo Penteriani
Porphyrins are pigments produced in most animal cells during the synthesis of heme, but their importance for external coloration is unclear. Owls (Order Strigiformes) are among the few animals that accumulate porphyrins in the integument, where it could serve as a means of signaling. Here we hypothesized that the porphyrin content of feathers may depend on body condition and breeding site quality in Eurasian eagle owl (Bubo bubo) fledglings and thus constitute amplifiers of the quality of the area where they are born...
February 13, 2018: Integrative Zoology
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