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Protoporphyrin ix

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152410/ultrasound-triggered-local-anaesthesia
#1
Alina Y Rwei, Juan L Paris, Bruce Wang, Weiping Wang, Christopher D Axon, María Vallet-Regí, Robert Langer, Daniel S Kohane
On-demand relief of local pain would allow patients to control the timing, intensity and duration of nerve block in a safe and non-invasive manner. Ultrasound would be a suitable trigger for such a system, as it is in common clinical use and can penetrate deeply into the body. Here, we demonstrate that ultrasound-triggered delivery of an anaesthetic from liposomes allows the timing, intensity and duration of nerve block to be controlled by ultrasound parameters. On insonation, the encapsulated sonosensitizer protoporphyrin IX produces reactive oxygen species that react with the liposomal membrane, leading to the release of the potent local anaesthetic tetrodotoxin...
2017: Nature biomedical engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148732/photocontrolled-release-of-doxorubicin-conjugated-through-a-thioacetal-photocage-in-folate-targeted-nanodelivery-systems
#2
Pamela T Wong, Shengzhuang Tang, Jayme Cannon, Dexin Chen, Rachel Sun, Jennifer Lee, James Phan, Ke Tao, Kang Sun, Biqiong Chen, James R Baker, Seok Ki Choi
Despite their proven ability for precise and targeted release, nanoplatform systems for photocontrolled delivery often face formidable synthetic challenges, in part, due to the paucity of advanced linker strategies. Here we report on a novel linker strategy using a thioacetal ortho-nitrobenzaldehyde (TNB) cage, demonstrating its application for delivery of doxorubicin (Dox) in two nanoscale systems. This photocleavable linker, TNB(OH), which presents two identical arms, each terminated with a hydroxyl functionality, was prepared in a single step from 6-nitroverataldehyde...
November 17, 2017: Bioconjugate Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143802/the-inhibitory-effects-of-cobalt-protoporphyrin-ix-and-cannabinoid-2-receptor-agonists-in-type-2-diabetic-mice
#3
Christina McDonnell, Sergi Leánez, Olga Pol
The activation of the transcription factor Nrf2 inhibits neuropathy and modulates the activity of delta-opioid receptors (DOR) in type 2 diabetic mice but the impact of Nrf2/HO-1 pathway on the antinociceptive actions of cannabinoid 2 receptors (CB2R) has not been assessed. Using male mice BKS.Cg-m+/+Leprdb/J (db/db) we investigated if treatment with cobalt protoporphyrin IX (CoPP), an HO-1 inductor, inhibited mechanical allodynia, hyperglycemia and obesity associated to type 2 diabetes. The antinociceptive effects of JWH-015 and JWH-133 (CB2R agonists) administered with and without CoPP or sulforaphane (SFN), a Nrf2 transcription factor activator, have been also evaluated...
October 28, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141585/transcriptome-analysis-in-petals-and-leaves-of-chrysanthemums-with-different-chlorophyll-levels
#4
Akemi Ohmiya, Katsutomo Sasaki, Kenji Nashima, Chihiro Oda-Yamamizo, Masumi Hirashima, Katsuhiko Sumitomo
BACKGROUND: Chlorophylls (Chls) are magnesium-containing tetrapyrrole macromolecules responsible for the green color in plants. The Chl metabolic pathway has been intensively studied and nearly all the enzymes involved in the pathway have been identified and characterized. Synthesis and activity of these enzymes are tightly regulated in tissue- and developmental stage-specific manners. Leaves contain substantial amounts of Chls because Chls are indispensable for photosynthesis. In contrast, petals generally contain only trace amounts of Chls, which if present would mask the bright petal color...
November 15, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139546/up-regulation-of-pyk2-pkc%C3%AE-dependent-ho-1-by-co-releasing-molecule-corm-2-attenuates-tnf-%C3%AE-induced-lung-inflammation
#5
Chih-Chung Lin, Yu-Ching Chiang, Rou-Ling Cho, Wei-Ning Lin, Chien-Chung Yang, Li-Der Hsiao, Chuen-Mao Yang
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) could provide cytoprotection against various inflammatory diseases. However, the mechanisms underlying carbon monoxide-releasing molecule-2 (CORM-2)-induced HO-1 expression protecting against TNF-α-induced inflammatory responses in human pulmonary alveolar epithelial cells (HPAEpiCs) remain unknown. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: CORM-2-induced HO-1 protein and mRNA expression, and signaling pathways were determined by Western blot and real-time PCR, coupled using respective pharmacological inhibitors or transfection with siRNAs...
November 15, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139243/wide-field-spectrally-resolved-quantitative-fluorescence-imaging-system-toward-neurosurgical-guidance-in-glioma-resection
#6
Yijing Xie, Maria Thom, Michael Ebner, Victoria Wykes, Adrien Desjardins, Anna Miserocchi, Sebastien Ourselin, Andrew W McEvoy, Tom Vercauteren
In high-grade glioma surgery, tumor resection is often guided by intraoperative fluorescence imaging. 5-aminolevulinic acid-induced protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) provides fluorescent contrast between normal brain tissue and glioma tissue, thus achieving improved tumor delineation and prolonged patient survival compared with conventional white-light-guided resection. However, commercially available fluorescence imaging systems rely solely on visual assessment of fluorescence patterns by the surgeon, which makes the resection more subjective than necessary...
November 2017: Journal of Biomedical Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138269/irreversible-activation-and-stabilization-of-soluble-guanylate-cyclase-by-the-protoporphyrin-ix-mimetic-cinaciguat
#7
Alexander Kollau, Marissa Opelt, Gerald Wölkart, Antonius C F Gorren, Michael Russwurm, Doris Koesling, Bernd Mayer, Astrid Schrammel
Belonging to the class of so-called sGC activators, cinaciguat and BAY 60-2770 are interesting therapeutic tools for the treatment of various cardiovascular pathologies. The drugs are supposed to preferentially stimulate oxidized or heme-depleted but not native sGC. Since this concept has been challenged by studies demonstrating complete relaxation of non-diseased vessels, this study was designed to re-investigate the mode of action in greater detail. To this purpose, the effect of cinaciguat was studied on vessel tone of porcine coronary arteries and rat thoracic aortas...
November 14, 2017: Molecular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134401/duloxetine-protects-human-neuroblastoma-cells-from-oxidative-stress-induced-cell-death-through-akt-nrf-2-ho-1-pathway
#8
Daiane Fátima Engel, Jade de Oliveira, Vicente Lieberknecht, Ana Lucia Severo Rodrigues, Andreza Fabro de Bem, Nelson Horácio Gabilan
The contribution of oxidative stress to the pathophysiology of depression has been described in numerous studies. Particularly, an increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) caused by mitochondrial dysfunction can lead to neuronal cell death. Human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells were used to investigate the neuroprotective effect of the antidepressant duloxetine against rotenone-induced oxidative stress. SH-SY5Y cells were pretreated with duloxetine (1-5 µM) for 24 h followed by a 24-h rotenone exposure (10 µM)...
November 13, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131564/light-emitting-photon-upconversion-nanoparticles-in-the-generation-of-transdermal-reactive-oxygen-species
#9
Martin Prieto, Alina Rwei, Teresa Alejo, Wei Tuo, Maria Teresa Lopez-Franco, Gracia Mendoza, Victor Sebastian, Daniel S Kohane, Manuel Arruebo
Common photosensitizers used in photodynamic therapy do not penetrate the skin effectively. In addition, the visible blue and red lights used to excite such photosensitizers have shallow penetration depths through tissue. To overcome these limitations, we have synthesized ultraviolet and visible light emitting, energy-transfer based upconversion nanoparticles, and co-encapsulated them inside PLGA-PEG nanoparticles with photosensitizer protoporphyrin IX. Nd3+ has been introduced as sensitizer in the upconversion nanostructures to allow their excitation at 808 nm...
November 13, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121804/melaleuca-alternifolia-induces-heme-oxygenase-1-expression-in-murine-raw264-7-cells-through-activation-of-the-nrf2-are-pathway
#10
Shih-Yu Lee, Po-Yu Chen, Jung-Chun Lin, Nicholas S Kirkby, Ching-Huei Ou, Tsu-Chung Chang
Melaleuca alternifolia concentrate (MAC) is the refined essential oil of the Australian native plant Melaleuca alternifolia. MAC has been reported to suppress the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in both murine RAW264.7 macrophages and human monocytes stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). However, the mechanisms involved in this effect remain unclear. This study aims to delineate the molecular mechanisms that drive the anti-inflammatory activity of MAC and its active component, terpinen-4-ol, in macrophages...
November 9, 2017: American Journal of Chinese Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29090409/resveratrol-attenuates-the-cytotoxicity-induced-by-amyloid-%C3%AE-1-42-in-pc12-cells-by-upregulating-heme-oxygenase-1-via-the-pi3k-akt-nrf2-pathway
#11
Yang Hui, Tang Chengyong, Luo Cheng, He Haixia, Zhou Yuanda, Yu Weihua
Oxidative stress and cytotoxic damage induced by amyloid beta (Aβ) have been considered pivotal in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and may represent a target for treatment. The phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway elicits a survival signal to protect against multiple injuries, and the transcription factor nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), a downstream target of the PI3K/Akt pathway, can bind to HO-1. Resveratrol, a natural polyphenol derived from grapes, has been widely reported to have diverse antioxidative effects against AD, but the mechanisms have not been fully elucidated...
October 31, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079353/photodynamic-therapy-using-a-cytotoxic-photosensitizer-porphyrus-envelope-that-targets-the-cell-membrane
#12
Mizuho Inai, Norihiro Honda, Hisanao Hazama, Sharmin Akter, Shinichiro Fuse, Hiroyuki Nakamura, Tomoyuki Nishikawa, Yasufumi Kaneda, Kunio Awazu
BACKGROUND: Subcellular localization of a photosensitizer is known to determine the therapeutic efficacy of photodynamic therapy (PDT). Cell membrane is an optimal target that promises an effective treatment outcome. OBJECTIVES: We previously developed a novel photosensitizer named porphyrus envelope (PE) by combining hemagglutinating virus of Japan envelope (HVJ-E) with lipidated protoporphyrin IX (PpIX lipid). In the current study, the cellular localization of PE and its ability to induce multiple anti-tumor effect were characterized...
October 24, 2017: Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075709/light-harvesting-in-silicon-111-surfaces-using-covalently-attached-protoporphyrin-ix-dyes
#13
Nicholas Alderman, Lefteris Danos, Liping Fang, Martin C Grossel, Tom Markvart
We report the photosensitization of crystalline silicon via energy transfer using covalently attached protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) derivative molecules at different distances via changing the diol linker to the surface. The diol linker molecule chain length was varied from 2 carbon to 10 carbon lengths in order to change the distance of PpIX to the Si(111) surface between 6 Å and 18 Å. Fluorescence quenching as a function of the PpIX-Si surface distance showed a decrease in the fluorescence lifetime by almost two orders of magnitude at the closest separation...
November 7, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29068550/5-aminolevulinic-acid-exerts-renoprotective-effect-via-nrf2-activation-in-murine-rhabdomyolysis-induced-acute-kidney-injury
#14
Atsushi Uchida, Kengo Kidokoro, Yuji Sogawa, Seiji Itano, Hajime Nagasu, Minoru Satoh, Tamaki Sasaki, Naoki Kashihara
AIM: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD), as well as high mortality, but effective treatments for AKI are still lacking. A recent study reported the prevention of renal injury, such as ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI), by 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA), which induces an antioxidant effect. The current study aimed to investigate the effect of ALA in a rhabdomyolysis-induced mouse model of AKI created by intramuscular injection of 50% glycerol. METHODS: Rhabdomyolysis-induced AKI was induced by an intramuscular injection of glycerol (5 ml/kg body weight) into mice...
October 25, 2017: Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067390/successive-energy-transfer-within-multiple-photosensitizers-assembled-in-a-hexameric-hemoprotein-scaffold
#15
Tsuyoshi Mashima, Koji Oohora, Takashi Hayashi
An assembly of multiple photosensitizers is demonstrated by development of a hexameric hemoprotein (HTHP) scaffold as a light harvesting model to replicate the successive energy transfer occuring within photosensitizer assemblies of natural systems. In our model, six zinc protoporphyrin IX (ZnPP) molecules are arrayed at the heme binding site of HTHP by supramolecular interactions and five fluorescein (Flu) molecules and one Texas Red (Tex) molecule as donor and acceptor photosensitizers, respectively, are attached to the HTHP protein surface with covalent linkages...
October 25, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29062571/heme-oxygenase-induction-suppresses-hepatic-hepcidin-and-rescues-ferroportin-and-ferritin-expression-in-obese-mice
#16
Nitin Puri, Yevgeniy Arefiev, Robert Chao, David Sacerdoti, Hibba Chaudry, Alexandra Nichols, Krithika Srikanthan, Athar Nawab, Dana Sharma, Vishal Hari Lakhani, Rebecca Klug, Komal Sodhi, Stephen J Peterson
Hepcidin, a phase II reactant secreted by hepatocytes, regulates cellular iron levels by increasing internalization of ferroportin-a transmembrane protein facilitating egress of cellular iron. Chronic low-grade inflammatory states, such as obesity, have been shown to increase oxidative stress and enhance hepcidin secretion from hepatocytes and macrophages. Heme-heme oxygenase (HO) is a stress response system which reduces oxidative stress. We investigated the effects of HO-1 induction on hepatic hepcidin levels and on iron homeostasis in hepatic tissues from lean and obese mice...
2017: Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056554/development-of-a-novel-schiff-base-derivative-for-enhancing-the-anticancer-potential-of-5-aminolevulinic-acid-based-photodynamic-therapy
#17
Yusei Shinohara, Yoshio Endo, Chiaki Abe, Ikkyu Shiba, Masahiro Ishizuka, Tohru Tanaka, Yutaka Yonemura, Shun-Ichiro Ogura, Masahide Tominaga, Hisatsugu Yamada, Yoshihiro Uto
5-Aminolevulinic acid (ALA), a precursor of protoporphyrin IX (PpIX), is now widely used for photodynamic diagnosis (ALA-PDD) and photodynamic therapy (ALA-PDT) of various cancers. Recently, we found that treatment of cancer cells with the Schiff base derivative TX-816 along with ALA could significantly increase the efficacy of ALA-PDT. This enhancing effect of TX-816 on ALA-PDT is attributed to 3,5-dichlorosalicylaldehyde (DCSA), a molecule produced by the degradation of TX-816. Similar to TX-816, DCSA significantly enhances the effect of ALA-PDT...
October 19, 2017: Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048484/adiponectin-suppression-of-late-inflammatory-mediator-hmgb1-induced-cytokine-expression-in-raw-264-macrophage-cells
#18
Mohamed Elfeky, Takeshi Yoneshiro, Yuko Okamatsu-Ogura, Kazuhiro Kimura
High mobility group protein B1 (HMGB1) is a late inflammatory mediator released from inflammatory cells when stimulated, resulting in exaggerating septic symptoms. We recently demonstrated that full-length adiponectin, a potent anti-inflammatory adipokine, inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced HMGB1 release. However, the effects of adiponectin on HMGB1-induced exaggerating signals currently remain unknown. This study aimed to investigate the effects of adiponectin on the pro-inflammatory function of HMGB1 in RAW264 macrophage cells...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29043383/determination-of-heme-in-microorganisms-using-hplc-ms-ms-and-cobalt-iii-protoporphyrin-ix-inhibition-of-heme-acquisition-in-escherichia-coli
#19
Jonas Fyrestam, Conny Östman
One of the main threats to the achievements in modern medicine is antimicrobial resistance. Molecular targeting of bacterial acquisition mechanisms of heme has been suggested to be an alternative to antibiotics. In the present study, HPLC-MS/MS combined with a simple clean-up based on liquid-liquid extraction has been developed and evaluated for simultaneous determination of heme and porphyrin heme precursors in microorganisms. Experimental design was used to optimize the extraction parameters, to obtain a method with high recovery, low matrix effects, and high precision...
October 17, 2017: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033966/impaired-magnesium-protoporphyrin-ix-methyltransferase-chlm-impedes-chlorophyll-synthesis-and-plant-growth-in-rice
#20
Zhaohai Wang, Xiao Hong, Keke Hu, Ya Wang, Xiaoxin Wang, Shiyun Du, Yang Li, Dandan Hu, Kexin Cheng, Baoguang An, Yangsheng Li
Magnesium protoporphyrin IX methyltransferase (ChlM) catalyzes the formation of magnesium protoporphyrin IX monomethylester (MgPME) from magnesium protoporphyrin IX (MgP) in the chlorophyll synthesis pathway. However, no ChlM gene has yet been identified and studied in monocotyledonous plants. In this study, a spontaneous mutant, yellow-green leaf 18 (ygl18), was isolated from rice (Oryza sativa). This mutant showed yellow-green leaves, decreased chlorophyll level, and climate-dependent growth differences. Map-based cloning of this mutant identified the YGL18 gene LOC_Os06g04150...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
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