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Protoporphyrin ix

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908781/heme-oxygenase-1-metabolite-biliverdin-not-iron-inhibits-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus-replication
#1
Angke Zhang, Hong Duan, Na Li, Lijuan Zhao, Fengxing Pu, Baicheng Huang, Chunyan Wu, Yuchen Nan, Taofeng Du, Yang Mu, Qin Zhao, Yani Sun, Gaiping Zhang, Julian A Hiscox, En-Min Zhou, Shuqi Xiao
Porcinereproductiveandrespiratorysyndromevirus (PRRSV) causes significant economic losses to the pork industry worldwide. Previously, we demonstrated that heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) interferes with PRRSV replication. To elucidate the mechanisms involved, here we assess whether the HO-1 downstream metabolites biliverdin (BV) and/or iron mediate the HO-1 antiviral effect. We demonstrate a BV concentration-dependent suppression of PRRSV replication and show that virions are not directly inactivated by BV. Additionally, BV or N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) significantly reduced reactive oxygen species (ROS) in PRRSV-infected MARC-145 cells; however, because NAC did not reduce viral load, the BV antiviral effect is independent of decreased ROS levels...
November 28, 2016: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905575/protoporphyrin-ix-modified-chitosan-g-oligo-nipaam-polymeric-micelles-from-physical-stabilization-to-permeability-characterization-in-vitro
#2
Inbar Schlachet, Alejandro Sosnik
Two main hurdles persist towards the more extensive bench-to-bed side translation of non-parenteral polymeric micelles. The first pertains to their thermodynamically-driven disassembly under uncontrolled dilution conditions in the biological milieu and upon interaction with biomacromolecules (e.g., proteins). The second is related to the relatively poor understanding of the pathways by which polymeric micelles improve the bioavailability of the payload by mucosal routes (e.g., intestinal). In this work, a chitosan-g-oligo(N-isopropylacrylamide) (CS-g-oligo(NiPAAm)) copolymer was modified with non-cytotoxic amounts of protoporphyrin IX (PP), a planar molecule of amphiphilic character that undergoes self-aggregation in water by forming π-π stacked supramolecular structures, to induce micellization under disfavored conditions and to serve as a fluorescent tracer for the measurement of the micelle permeability across a model of the intestinal epithelium in vitro...
December 1, 2016: Biomaterials Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903435/lack-of-effect-of-selected-sunscreens-applied-on-ex-vivo-human-skin-for-5-methyl-aminolevulinic-acid-penetration-and-protoporphyrin-ix-photoactivation
#3
Hanan Osman-Ponchet, Karine Sevin, Alexandre Gaborit, Magali Kouidhi, Johanna Hanaizi, Pierre Comby, Bernard Ruty, Guy Bouvier
BACKGROUND: Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a successful treatment for non-melanoma skin cancers. Methyl-aminolevulinate (MAL) is metabolized to protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) which accumulates in the skin lesion and which generates a painful photochemical toxic reaction upon red light exposure. PDT using daylight (DL) exposure is now used to reduce pain and subjects are advised to protect the areas with sunscreen. This work investigated the effect of sunscreen on MAL penetration and PpIX photoactivation in ex vivo human skin...
November 26, 2016: Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895421/carbon-monoxide-contributes-to-the-constipating-effects-of-granisetron-in-rat-colon
#4
Carmela Nacci, Margherita Fanelli, Maria Assunta Potenza, Valentina Leo, Monica Montagnani, Maria Antonietta De Salvia
AIM: To investigate the mechanisms underlying the potential contribution of the heme oxygenase/carbon monoxide (HO/CO) pathway in the constipating effects of granisetron. METHODS: For in vivo studies, gastrointestinal motility was evaluated in male rats acutely treated with granisetron [25, 50, 75 μg/kg/subcutaneous (sc)], zinc protoporphyrin IX [ZnPPIX, 50 μg/kg/intraperitoneal (ip)] and hemin (50 μmol/L/kg/ip), alone or in combination. For in vitro studies, the contractile neurogenic response to electrical field stimulation (EFS, 3, 5, 10 Hz, 14 V, 1 ms, pulse trains lasting 10 s), as well as the contractile myogenic response to acetylcholine (ACh, 0...
November 14, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884704/enhanced-aggressiveness-of-bystander-cells-in-an-anti-tumor-photodynamic-therapy-model-role-of-nitric-oxide-produced-by-targeted-cells
#5
Jerzy Bazak, Jonathan M Fahey, Katarzyna Wawak, Witold Korytowski, Albert W Girotti
The bystander effects of anti-cancer ionizing radiation have been widely studied, but far less is known about such effects in the case of non-ionizing photodynamic therapy (PDT). In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that photodynamically-stressed prostate cancer PC3 cells can elicit nitric oxide (NO)-mediated pro-growth/migration responses in non-stressed bystander cells. A novel approach was used whereby both cell populations existed on a culture dish, but made no physical contact with one other...
November 22, 2016: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869697/characteristics-of-the-protoporphyrin-ix-binding-sites-on-human-serum-albumin-using-molecular-docking
#6
Leszek Sułkowski, Bartosz Pawełczak, Mariola Chudzik, Małgorzata Maciążek-Jurczyk
Human serum albumin (HSA) is the main plasma protein responsible for a distribution of drugs in the human circulatory system. The binding to HSA is one of the factors that determines both the pharmacological actions and the side effects of drugs. The derivative of heme, protoporphyrin IX (PpIX), is a hydrophobic photosensitizer widely used in photodynamic diagnosis and therapy of various malignant disorders. Using absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy, it has been demonstrated that PpIX forms complexes with HSA...
November 17, 2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857072/dormant-cancer-cells-accumulate-high-protoporphyrin-ix-levels-and-are-sensitive-to-5-aminolevulinic-acid-based-photodynamic-therapy
#7
Taku Nakayama, Shimpei Otsuka, Tatsuya Kobayashi, Hodaka Okajima, Kentaro Matsumoto, Yuichiro Hagiya, Keiji Inoue, Taro Shuin, Motowo Nakajima, Tohru Tanaka, Shun-Ichiro Ogura
Photodynamic therapy (PDT) and diagnosis (PDD) using 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) to drive the production of an intracellular photosensitizer, protoporphyrin IX (PpIX), are in common clinical use. However, the tendency to accumulate PpIX is not well understood. Patients with cancer can develop recurrent metastatic disease with latency periods. This pause can be explained by cancer dormancy. Here we created uniformly sized PC-3 prostate cancer spheroids using a 3D culture plate (EZSPHERE). We demonstrated that cancer cells exhibited dormancy in a cell density-dependent manner not only in spheroids but also in 2D culture...
November 18, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854107/assessing-the-efficacy-of-coherent-anti-stokes-raman-scattering-microscopy-for-the-detection-of-infiltrating-glioblastoma-in-fresh-brain-samples
#8
Roberta Galli, Ortrud Uckermann, Achim Temme, Elke Leipnitz, Matthias Meinhardt, Edmund Koch, Gabriele Schackert, Gerald Steiner, Matthias Kirsch
Coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy is an emerging technique for identification of brain tumors. However, tumor identification by CARS microscopy on bulk samples and in vivo has been so far verified retrospectively on histological sections, which only provide a gross reference for the interpretation of CARS images without matching at cellular level. Therefore, fluorescent labels were exploited for direct assessment of the interpretation of CARS images of solid and infiltrative tumors. Glioblastoma cells expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) were used for induction of tumors in mice (n = 7)...
March 11, 2016: Journal of Biophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836478/phenanthrene-triggered-chlorosis-is-caused-by-elevated-chlorophyll-degradation-and-leaf-moisture
#9
Yu Shen, Jinfeng Li, Ruochen Gu, Le Yue, Xinhua Zhan, Baoshan Xing
Leaf is an important organ in responding to environmental stresses. To date, chlorophyll metabolism under polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) stress is still unclear. Here we reveal, for the first time, the chlorophyll metabolism of wheat seedling leaves in response to phenanthrene (a model PAH) exposure. In this study, the hydroponic experiment was employed, and the wheat seedlings were exposed to phenanthrene to observe the response at day 1, 3, 5, 7 and 9. Over the exposure time, wheat leaf color turns light...
November 8, 2016: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830857/5-aminolevulinic-acid-loaded-ethosomal-vesicles-with-high-entrapment-efficiency-for-in-vitro-topical-transdermal-delivery-and-photodynamic-therapy-of-hypertrophic-scars
#10
Zheng Zhang, Yunsheng Chen, Heng Xu, Yan Wo, Zhen Zhang, Ying Liu, Weijie Su, Daxiang Cui, Yixin Zhang
Photodynamic therapy (PDT) with 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) is an alternative therapy for hypertrophic scars (HS), which destroys human hypertrophic scar fibroblasts (HSF). However, the poor permeability of ALA both in HS tissue and HSF significantly restricts the PDT of HS. To overcome these barriers, ALA-loaded ethosomal vesicles (ALA-ES) were developed by a pH gradient active loading method and characterized by morphology, entrapment efficiency (EE) and stability. Results show that prepared ALA-ES are homogenous spherical lamellar vesicles, 53 ± 7 nm in size, 50...
November 10, 2016: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27825899/influence-of-culture-conditions-on-porphyrin-production-in-aggregatibacter-actinomycetemcomitans-and-porphyromonas-gingivalis
#11
Jonas Fyrestam, Nadja Bjurshammar, Elin Paulsson, Nesrine Mansouri, Annsofi Johannsen, Conny Östman
BACKGROUND: Increasing antibiotic resistance among pathogens has raised the demands for new treatment methods such as antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) and phototherapy (PT). Experiments for investigating the effects of these methods are often performed in vitro, but the procedures for cultivation of microbes vary between different studies. The aim of this study has been to elucidate how the profile of endogenously produced porphyrins differs by changing the variables of bacteria culturing conditions...
November 4, 2016: Photodiagnosis and Photodynamic Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818378/transgenic-tobacco-lines-expressing-sense-or-antisense-ferrochelatase-1-rna-show-modified-ferrochelatase-activity-in-roots-and-provide-experimental-evidence-for-dual-localization-of-ferrochelatase-1
#12
Daniel Hey, Patricia Ortega-Rodes, Tingting Fan, Florian Schnurrer, Lea Brings, Boris Hedtke, Bernhard Grimm
In plants, two genes encode ferrochelatase (FC), which catalyzes iron chelation into protoporphyrin IX at the final step of heme biosynthesis. FERROCHELATASE1 (FC1) is continuously, but weakly expressed in roots and leaves, while FC2 is dominantly active in leaves. As a continuation of previous studies on the physiological consequences of FC2 inactivation in tobacco, we aimed to assign FC1 function in plant organs. While reduced FC2 expression leads to protoporphyrin IX accumulation in leaves, FC1 down-regulation and overproduction caused reduced and elevated FC activity in root tissue, respectively, but were not associated with changes in macroscopic phenotype, plant development or leaf pigmentation...
October 22, 2016: Plant & Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27815112/induction-of-heme-oxygenase-1-with-hemin-alleviates-cisplatin-induced-reproductive-toxicity-in-male-rats-and-enhances-its-cytotoxicity-in-prostate-cancer-cell-line
#13
Gehan Hussein Heeba, Alaaeldin Ahmed Hamza, Soha Osama Hassanin
Cisplatin-induced testicular damage is a major obstacle in the application of cisplatin as chemotherapeutic agent. However, it remains as one of the most widely employed anticancer agents in treating various solid tumors including prostate cancer. Since heme-oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is a cytoprotective enzyme with anti-oxidative stress, anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities, we investigated the effects of up-regulation of HO-1 by hemin and its inhibition by zinc protoporphyrin-IX (ZnPP) on cisplatin-induced testicular toxicity in adult rats...
November 1, 2016: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803706/mg-protoporphyrin-ix-signals-enhance-plant-s-tolerance-to-cold-stress
#14
Zhong-Wei Zhang, Zi-Li Wu, Ling-Yang Feng, Li-Hua Dong, An-Jun Song, Ming Yuan, Yang-Er Chen, Jian Zeng, Guang-Deng Chen, Shu Yuan
The relationship between Mg-protoporphyrin IX (Mg-Proto IX) signals and plant's tolerance to cold stress is investigated. Arabidopsis seedlings grown for 3 weeks were pretreated with 2 mM glutamate (Glu) and 2 mM MgCl2 for 48 h at room temperature to induce Mg-Proto IX accumulation. Then cold stress was performed at 4°C for additional 72 h. Glu + MgCl2 pre-treatments alleviated the subsequent cold stress significantly by rising the leaf temperature through inducing Mg-Proto IX signals. The protective role of Glu + MgCl2 treatment was greatly compromised in the mutants of Mg-Proto IX synthesis, Mg-Proto IX signaling, and cyanide-resistant respiration...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27801584/human-ferrochelatase-insights-for-the-mechanism-of-ferrous-iron-approaching-into-protoporphyrin-ix-by-qm-mm-and-qtcp-free-energy-studies
#15
Jingheng Wu, Sixiang Wen, Yiwei Zhou, Hui Chao, Yong Shen
Ferrochelatase catalyzes the insertion of ferrous iron into protoporphyrin IX, the terminal step in heme biosynthesis. Some disputes in its mechanism remain unsolved, especially for human ferrochelatase. In this paper, the high-level quantum mechanical/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) and free-energy studies have performed to address these controversial issues including the iron-binding site, the optimal reaction path, the substrate porphyrin distortion and the presence of sitting-atop (SAT) complex. Our results reveal that the ferrous ion is probably at the binding site coordinating with Met76, while His263 plays the role of proton acceptor...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795400/pharmacological-inhibition-of-host-heme-oxygenase-1-suppresses-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-infection-in-vivo-by-a-mechanism-dependent-on-t-lymphocytes
#16
Diego L Costa, Sivaranjani Namasivayam, Eduardo P Amaral, Kriti Arora, Alex Chao, Lara R Mittereder, Mamoudou Maiga, Helena I Boshoff, Clifton E Barry, Celia W Goulding, Bruno B Andrade, Alan Sher
: Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is a stress response antioxidant enzyme which catalyzes the degradation of heme released during inflammation. HO-1 expression is upregulated in both experimental and human Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection, and in patients it is a biomarker of active disease. Whether the enzyme plays a protective versus pathogenic role in tuberculosis has been the subject of debate. To address this controversy, we administered tin protoporphyrin IX (SnPPIX), a well-characterized HO-1 enzymatic inhibitor, to mice during acute M...
October 25, 2016: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790410/spyb-a-small-heme-binding-protein-affects-the-composition-of-the-cell-wall-in-streptococcus-pyogenes
#17
Rebecca J Edgar, Jing Chen, Sashi Kant, Elena Rechkina, Jeffrey S Rush, Lennart S Forsberg, Bernhard Jaehrig, Parastoo Azadi, Veronika Tchesnokova, Evgeni V Sokurenko, Haining Zhu, Konstantin V Korotkov, Vijay Pancholi, Natalia Korotkova
Streptococcus pyogenes (Group A Streptococcus or GAS) is a hemolytic human pathogen associated with a wide variety of infections ranging from minor skin and throat infections to life-threatening invasive diseases. The cell wall of GAS consists of peptidoglycan sacculus decorated with a carbohydrate comprising a polyrhamnose backbone with immunodominant N-acetylglucosamine side-chains. All GAS genomes contain the spyBA operon, which encodes a 35-amino-acid membrane protein SpyB, and a membrane-bound C3-like ADP-ribosyltransferase SpyA...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27788605/a-consensus-on-the-use-of-daylight-photodynamic-therapy-in-the-uk
#18
Sally Ibbotson, Robin Stones, Jonathan Bowling, Sandra Campbell, Stephen Kownacki, Muthu Sivaramakrishnan, Ronan Valentine, Colin A Morton
BACKGROUND: Actinic keratoses (AKs) are a consequence of chronic exposure to ultraviolet radiation. Treatment of chronically photo-damaged skin and AKs is driven by risk of progression to squamous cell carcinoma, as well as for symptomatic relief. Conventional photodynamic therapy (c-PDT) is indicated when AKs are multiple or confluent and if patients respond poorly or are unable to tolerate other therapies. c-PDT is limited by the field size that can be treated in single sessions and can cause significant discomfort...
October 27, 2016: Journal of Dermatological Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27782094/photodynamic-therapy-and-non-melanoma-skin-cancer
#19
REVIEW
Liezel L Griffin, John T Lear
Non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is the most common malignancy among the Caucasian population. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is gaining popularity for the treatment of basal cell carcinoma (BCC), Bowen's disease (BD) and actinic keratosis (AK). A topical or systemic exogenous photosensitiser, results in selective uptake by malignant cells. Protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) is produced then activated by the introduction of a light source. Daylight-mediated MAL (methyl aminolaevulinate) PDT for AKs has the advantage of decreased pain and better patient tolerance...
October 22, 2016: Cancers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27776475/multiple-means-by-which-nitric-oxide-can-antagonize-photodynamic-therapy
#20
Albert W Girotti, Jonathan M Fahey, Witold Korytowski
Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a unique site-specific treatment for eradicating a variety of solid tumors, including prostate, lung, bladder, and brain tumors. PDT is a three-component modality involving (i) administration of a photosensitizing agent (PS), (ii) PS photoexcitation by visible or near-infrared light, and (iii) molecular oxygen. Upon photoexcitation, PS gives rise to tumor-damaging reactive oxygen species, most prominently singlet oxygen (1O2). Previous studies revealed that endogenous nitric oxide (NO) in various mouse tumor models significantly reduced PDT effectiveness...
2016: Current Medicinal Chemistry
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