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bone fractures

Stephen L Kopecky, Douglas C Bauer, Martha Gulati, Jeri W Nieves, Andrea J Singer, Peter P Toth, James A Underberg, Taylor C Wallace, Connie M Weaver
Description: Calcium is the dominant mineral present in bone and a shortfall nutrient in the American diet. Supplements have been recommended for persons who do not consume adequate calcium from their diet as a standard strategy for the prevention of osteoporosis and related fractures. Whether calcium with or without vitamin D supplementation is beneficial or detrimental to vascular health is not known. Methods: The National Osteoporosis Foundation and American Society for Preventive Cardiology convened an expert panel to evaluate the effects of dietary and supplemental calcium on cardiovascular disease based on the existing peer-reviewed scientific literature...
October 25, 2016: Annals of Internal Medicine
B C C Khoo, J K Brown, R L Prince
OBJECTIVES: In recent years quantitative computed tomography (QCT) has allowed precise non-invasive, three dimensional, in vivo measurement of hip structure in large numbers of individuals. The effects of ageing on proximal femur structure are reported and implications for the prevention of hip prosthesis loosening and hip fracture considered. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: An observational cross-sectional study of proximal femur QCT in 719 unselected female European descent aged 20 to 89 years recruited from US and Australian populations...
2016: PloS One
M C Gouveia, J P Vella, F R Cafeo, F L Affonso Fonseca, M R Bacci
OBJECTIVE: Irisin is a muscle-secreted protein released into the circulation by cleavage of fibronectin type III domain containing protein 5(FNDC5). Since its discovery in 2012, it has been the subject of many researches due to its physiological role. It is believed that understanding irisin's function may be the key to comprehend many diseases and their development. The aim of this study is to perform a systematic review in order to establish whether there is an association of irisin's levels with obesity, diabetes mellitus, non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, chronic kidney disease and cancer in terms of prognosis...
October 2016: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Christian Trummer, Marlene Pandis, Nicolas Verheyen, Martin R Grübler, Martin Gaksch, Barbara Obermayer-Pietsch, Andreas Tomaschitz, Thomas R Pieber, Stefan Pilz, Verena Schwetz
Aside from its well-known effects on bone and mineral metabolism, vitamin D may also play an important role in extra-skeletal processes like immunologic diseases, cancer, or cardiovascular diseases. Even though meta-analyses showed that vitamin D supplementation reduces fractures, falls, and overall mortality, its potential benefits did not find universal acclaim. Several health care authorities published Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) for vitamin D, most of them ranging from 600 to 800 international units (IU) per day, corresponding to a serum level of 25-hydroxyvitamin D of at least 20 ng/mL (50 nmol/L)...
October 19, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Mohammed El Hassouni, Abdessamad Tafraouti, Hechmi Toumi, Eric Lespessailles, Rachid Jennane
Osteoporosis diagnosis has attracted particular attention in recent decades. Textured images from the microarchitecture of osteoporotic and healthy subjects show a high degree of similarity, increasing the difficulty of classifying such textures. Thus, the evaluation of osteoporosis from bone X-ray images presents a major challenge for pattern recognition and medical applications. The purpose of this paper is to use the fractional Brownian motion (fBm) model and the Probability Density Function (PDF) of its increments to compute a similarity measure with the Rao geodesic distance to classify trabecular bone X-ray images...
October 19, 2016: IEEE Journal of Biomedical and Health Informatics
J Ma, H J McMillan, G Karagüzel, C Goodin, J Wasson, M A Matzinger, P DesClouds, D Cram, M Page, V N Konji, B Lentle, L M Ward
: Boys with vertebral fractures (VF) identified through routine spine radiographs had milder, less symptomatic, and fewer VF compared to those diagnosed with VF following consultation for back pain. Spontaneous (i.e., medication-unassisted) reshaping of fractured vertebral bodies was absent. Long bone fractures were present even before Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) diagnosis in some boys. INTRODUCTION: The objective of the study was to determine the time to and characteristics of first fractures in Duchenne muscular dystrophy...
October 24, 2016: Osteoporosis International
Miguel Flores, Anthony Caram, Edward Derrick, John D Reith, Laura Bancroft, Kurt Scherer
Ewing sarcoma (ES) is a primary malignant bone tumor which most commonly arises in children and young adults. The common clinical presentation with ES includes nighttime pain or pain related to activity, though patients may also present with a combination of localized swelling, a palpable mass, pathologic fracture, and constitutional symptoms. Clinical diagnosis may be delayed when a patient presents with clinical or imaging findings that overlap with non-malignant etiologies, such as fibrous dysplasia (FD) or osteomyelitis...
September 18, 2016: Curēus
Christopher Bliemel, Ludwig Oberkircher, Benjamin Bockmann, Eric Petzold, Rene Aigner, Thomas Jan Heyse, Steffen Ruchholtz, Benjamin Buecking
INTRODUCTION: Compromised bone quality and the need for early mobilization continue to lead to implant failure in elderly patients with distal femoral fractures. The cement augmentation of screws might facilitate improving implant anchorage. The aim of this study was to analyse the impact of cement augmentation of the condylar screws on implant fixation in a human cadaveric bone model. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Ten pairs of osteoporotic femora (mean age: 90 years, range: 84-99 years) were used...
October 18, 2016: Injury
Maenia Scarpino, Giovanni Lanzo, Francesco Cappelli, Marco Moretti, Gianni Misuri, Luca Voltolini, Massimo Pistolesi, Aldo Amantini, Antonello Grippo
Cerebral fat embolism (CFE) is an uncommon disease occurring mainly after traumatic lower limb long bone fractures. A 64-year-old woman with pneumonia and bilateral pleural effusion underwent video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS). After 3 days, the patient had an acute decrease in consciousness level followed by the onset of seizures and right hemiparesis. Brain computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging showed findings suggestive of CFE. CFE occurring after an uncommon nontraumatic cause of fat embolism, such as VATS, is a rare clinical event whose diagnosis could be challenging...
November 2016: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
Stepan Kutilek, Ivana Plasilova, Jan Langer
We administered oral ibandronate (once a month) to 7 children (6 boys) with low bone mineral density and prevalent low energy fractures. We observed a significant increase (17%) in bone density after one year and additional 3% increase after second year. No further fractures occurred.
October 8, 2016: Indian Pediatrics
Erdal Uzun, Ali Eray Günay, Turan Bilge Kızkapan, Mahmut Mutlu
INTRODUCTION: Simultaneous bilateral femoral neck fracture is an uncommon condition. There are very few cases reported in the literature and most of these cases have underlying bone pathologies such as renal osteodystrophy and osteomalacia. In some cases bilateral femoral neck fractures occur due to generalized seizures or high-energy trauma. PRESENTATION OF CASE: In this case report "atraumatic bilateral femoral neck fracture in a 26year old woman in postpartum period with hypophosphatemic rickets disease" is presented...
October 17, 2016: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
Aimy Sebastian, Gabriela G Loots
Sclerostin is an osteocyte derived negative regulator of bone formation. A highly specific expression pattern and the exclusive bone phenotype have made Sclerostin an attractive target for therapeutic intervention in treating metabolic bone diseases such as osteoporosis and in facilitating fracture repair. Understanding the molecular mechanisms that regulate Sclerostin transcription is of great interest as it may unveil new avenues for therapeutic approaches. Such studies may also elucidate how various signaling pathways intersect to modulate bone metabolism...
October 19, 2016: Bone
Howa Begam, Samit Kumar Nandi, Biswanath Kundu, Abhijit Chanda
Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are the most significant growth factors that belong to the Transforming Growth Factor Beta (TGF-β) super-family. Though more than twenty members of this family have been identified so far in humans, Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved two growth factors: BMP-2 and BMP-7 for treatments of spinal fusion and long-bone fractures with collagen carriers. Currently BMPs are clinically used in spinal fusion, oral and maxillofacial surgery and also in the repair of long bone defects...
January 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
Emad M M Ewais, Amira M M Amin, Yasser M Z Ahmed, Eman A Ashor, Ulrike Hess, Kurosch Rezwan
This paper describes the effect of magnesia in the presence of zirconia on the bioactivity, microstructure and physico-mechanical properties of calcium silicate composition adjusted at calcia/silica ratio(C/S) of 0.5. A mixture from calcium carbonate and silica was conducted at C/S of 0.5. 20wt.% of magnesia and 5-25wt.% of ZrO2 were added. Each mixture was mixed with ethanol in a planetary ball mill, dried, formed and fired at a temperature of 1325±5°C. Phase composition, FE-SEM, and physico-mechanical properties of the fired specimens were determined and explained...
January 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
Muhammad Shoaib Butt, Jing Bai, Xiaofeng Wan, Chenglin Chu, Feng Xue, Hongyan Ding, Guanghong Zhou
Full biodegradable magnesium alloy (AZ31) strengthened poly-lactic acid (PLA) composite rods for potential application for bone fracture fixation were prepared by plastic injection process in this work. Their surface/interfacial morphologies, mechanical properties and vitro degradation were studied. In comparison with untreated Mg rod, porous MgO ceramic coating on Mg surface formed by Anodizing (AO) and micro-arc-oxidation (MAO)treatment can significantly improve the interfacial binding between outer PLA cladding and inner Mg rod due to the micro-anchoring action, leading to better mechanical properties and degradation performance of the composite rods...
January 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
Dewei Zhao, Frank Witte, Faqiang Lu, Jiali Wang, Junlei Li, Ling Qin
As a new generation of medical metallic material, magnesium (Mg) and its alloys with or without surface coating have attracted a great deal of attention due to its biodegradability and potential for avoiding a removal operation after the implant has fulfilled its function for surgical fixation of injured musculoskeletal tissues. Although a few clinical cases on Mg-based orthopaedic implants were reported more than a century ago, it was not until recently that clinical trials using these implants with improved physicochemical properties were carried out in Germany, China and Korea for bone fracture fixation...
October 11, 2016: Biomaterials
Jie Gao, John L Williams, Esra Roan
Growth plate chondrocytes are responsible for bone growth through proliferation and differentiation. However, the way they experience physiological loads and regulate bone formation, especially during the later developmental phase in the mature growth plate, is still under active investigation. In this study, a previously developed multiscale finite element model of the growth plate is utilized to study the stress and strain distributions within the cartilage at the cellular level when rapidly compressed to 20 %...
October 21, 2016: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
K-J Maier, B Bücking, K Horst, H Andruszkow, F Hildebrand, M Knobe
BACKGROUND: In unstable trochanteric fractures, the extramedullary rotationally stable screw-anchor (RoSA) combines the benefits of the load and rotational stability of the blade with the advantages of the screw (pull-out resistance, compression capability) in a single load carrier, and was designed to prevent femoral neck shortening by using an additional locked trochanteric stabilizing plate (TSP). OBJECTIVES: The aim of the current prospective cohort study was the clinical evaluation of the RoSA/TSP system regarding the mechanical re-operation rate and the amount of postoperative femoral neck shortening...
October 21, 2016: Der Unfallchirurg
D E Beaton, M Vidmar, K B Pitzul, R Sujic, N K Rotondi, E R Bogoch, J E M Sale, R Jain, J Weldon
: We evaluated the impact of a more intensive version of an existing post-fracture coordinator-based fracture prevention program and found that the addition of a full-risk assessment improved treatment rates. These findings provide additional support for more intensive programs aimed at reducing the risk of re-fractures. INTRODUCTION: Evidence-based guidelines support coordinator-based programs to improve post-fracture osteoporosis guideline uptake, with more intensive programs including bone mineral density (BMD) testing and/or treatment being associated with better patient outcomes...
October 21, 2016: Osteoporosis International
Juan A Sanchis-Gimeno, Susanna Llido, David Guede, Francisco Martinez-Soriano, Jose R Caeiro, Esther Blanco-Perez
BACKGROUND CONTEXT: To date, no information about the cortical bone microstructural properties in atlas vertebrae with posterior arch defects has been reported. PURPOSE: To test if there is an increased cortical bone thickening in atlases with Type A posterior atlas arch defects in an experimental model. STUDY DESIGN: Micro-computed tomography study on cadaveric atlas vertebrae. METHODS: We analyzed the cortical bone thickness, the cortical volume, and the medullary volume (SkyScan 1172 Bruker micro-CT NV, Kontich, Belgium) in cadaveric dry vertebrae with a Type A atlas arch defect and normal control vertebrae...
October 18, 2016: Spine Journal: Official Journal of the North American Spine Society
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