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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142002/toll-like-receptor-2-has-a-prominent-but-nonessential-role-in-innate-immunity-to-staphylococcus-aureus-pneumonia
#1
Shawn J Skerrett, Marissa H Braff, H Denny Liggitt, Craig E Rubens
Staphylococcus aureus is an important cause of acute bacterial pneumonia. Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) recognizes multiple components of the bacterial cell wall and activates innate immune responses to gram-positive bacteria. We hypothesized that TLR2 would have an important role in pulmonary host defense against S. aureus TLR null (TLR2(-/-)) mice and wild type (WT) C57BL/6 controls were challenged with aerosolized S. aureus at a range of inocula for kinetic studies of cytokine and antimicrobial peptide expression, lung inflammation, bacterial killing by alveolar macrophages, and bacterial clearance...
November 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138462/the-antibacterial-and-anti-inflammatory-activity-of-chicken-cathelicidin-2-combined-with-exogenous-surfactant-for-the-treatment-of-cystic-fibrosis-associated-pathogens
#2
Brandon J H Banaschewski, Brandon Baer, Christina Arsenault, Teah Jazey, Edwin J A Veldhuizen, Johan Delport, Tracey Gooyers, James F Lewis, Henk P Haagsman, Ruud A W Veldhuizen, Cory Yamashita
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is characterized by recurrent airway infections with antibiotic-resistant bacteria and chronic inflammation. Chicken cathelicin-2 (CATH-2) has been shown to exhibit antimicrobial activity against antibiotic-resistant bacteria and to reduce inflammation. In addition, exogenous pulmonary surfactant has been suggested to enhance pulmonary drug delivery. It was hypothesized that CATH-2 when combined with an exogenous surfactant delivery vehicle, bovine lipid extract surfactant (BLES), would exhibit antimicrobial activity against CF-derived bacteria and downregulate inflammation...
November 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133814/structural-remodeling-and-oligomerization-of-human-cathelicidin-on-membranes-suggest-fibril-like-structures-as-active-species
#3
Enea Sancho-Vaello, Patrice François, Eve-Julie Bonetti, Hauke Lilie, Sebastian Finger, Fernando Gil-Ortiz, David Gil-Carton, Kornelius Zeth
Antimicrobial peptides as part of the mammalian innate immune system target and remove major bacterial pathogens, often through irreversible damage of their cellular membranes. To explore the mechanism by which the important cathelicidin peptide LL-37 of the human innate immune system interacts with membranes, we performed biochemical, biophysical and structural studies. The crystal structure of LL-37 displays dimers of anti-parallel helices and the formation of amphipathic surfaces. Peptide-detergent interactions introduce remodeling of this structure after occupation of defined hydrophobic sites at the dimer interface...
November 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112157/vitamin-d-axis-in-inflammatory-bowel-diseases-role-current-uses-and-future-perspectives
#4
REVIEW
Rita Del Pinto, Claudio Ferri, Fabio Cominelli
Increasing evidence supports the concept that the vitamin D axis possesses immunoregulatory functions, with vitamin D receptor (VDR) status representing the major determinant of vitamin D's pleiotropic effects. Vitamin D promotes the production of anti-microbial peptides, including β-defensins and cathelicidins, the shift towards Th2 immune responses, and regulates autophagy and epithelial barrier integrity. Impairment of vitamin D-mediated pathways are associated with chronic inflammatory conditions, including inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD)...
November 7, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108970/inducers-of-salmon-innate-immunity-an-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-approach
#5
Rosana A Estévez, Miriam G Contreras Mostazo, Eduardo Rodriguez, Juan Carlos Espinoza, Juan Kuznar, Zophonías O Jónsson, Guðmundur H Guðmundsson, Valerie H Maier
Maintaining fish health is one of the most important aims in aquaculture. Prevention of fish diseases therefore is crucial and can be achieved by various different strategies, including most often a combination of different methods such as optimal feed and fish density, as well as strengthening the immune system. Understanding the fish innate immune system and developing methods to activate it, in an effort to prevent infections in the first place, has been a goal in recent years. In this study we choose different inducers of the innate immune system and examined their effects in vitro on the salmon cell line CHSE-214...
November 8, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105595/host-defense-peptide-expression-in-human-cervical-cells-and-regulation-by-1-25-dihydroxyvitamin-d3-in-the-presence-of-cytokines-and-bacterial-endotoxin
#6
Evonne C Chin-Smith, Natasha L Hezelgrave, Rachel M Tribe
Host defense peptides (HDPs) in the pregnant female reproductive tract provide protection against infection. The relationship between HDPs and infection/inflammation is poorly understood. Therefore, we investigated the regulation of HDPs by 1α, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25-(OH)2) in the presence/absence of infectious/inflammatory agents. Endocervical epithelial cells (END1/E6E7, n = 6) were exposed to 1,25-(OH)2, calcipotriol, interleukin 1β (IL-1β), granulate-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-GSF), and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)...
January 1, 2017: Reproductive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104934/imaging-the-antistaphylococcal-activity-of-cath-2-mechanism-of-attack-and-regulation-of-inflammatory-response
#7
Viktoria A F Schneider, Maarten Coorens, Johanna L M Tjeerdsma-van Bokhoven, George Posthuma, Albert van Dijk, Edwin J A Veldhuizen, Henk P Haagsman
Chicken cathelicidin-2 (CATH-2) is a broad-spectrum antimicrobial host defense peptide (HDP) that may serve as a paradigm for the development of new antimicrobial agents. While previous studies have elucidated the mechanism by which CATH-2 kills Escherichia coli, its mode of action against Gram-positive bacteria remains to be determined. In this study, we explored the underlying antibacterial mechanism of CATH-2 against a methicillin-resistant strain of Staphylococcus aureus and the effect of CATH-2-mediated S...
November 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103679/testing-cathelicidin-susceptibility-of-bacterial-mastitis-isolates-technical-challenges-and-data-output-for-clinical-isolates
#8
Melissa N Langer, Stefanie Blodkamp, Martin Bayerbach, Andrea T Feßler, Nicole de Buhr, Thomas Gutsmann, Lothar Kreienbrock, Stefan Schwarz, Maren von Köckritz-Blickwede
Bovine mastitis caused by bacterial pathogens, such as Staphylococcus (S.) aureus and Escherichia (E.) coli, is a major economic problem in dairy industry. In order to limit the presence of multi-resistant bacteria in bovine mastitis, alternatives for the treatment with antibiotics are urgently needed. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have recently been discussed as a potential new strategy against bacterial infections. They are key players in the innate immune system, as they can directly act against microorganisms or modulate the immune system...
October 2017: Veterinary Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101873/cathelicidin-wa-polarizes-e-coli-k88-induced-m1-macrophage-to-m2-like-macrophage-in-raw264-7-cells
#9
Shan Chen, Zeqing Lu, Fengqin Wang, Yizhen Wang
Immune cells - macrophages induced by E. coli K88 will lead to a pro-inflammatory response, which is important in host defense. Cathelicidin-WA (CWA) is an efficient antimicrobial peptide (AMP) and can exert immunomodulatory properties. Many studies have demonstrated that AMP can modulate cellular subsets but whether CWA can regulate macrophage polarization by transferring E. coli K88-induced M1 macrophage towards M2 one that of anti-inflammation remains unclear. In this study, E. coli K88 increased the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin-6, interleukin-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α and chemokine CCL3 in RAW264...
November 1, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100778/biomarkers-of-tuberculosis-severity-and-treatment-effect-a-directed-screen-of-70-host-markers-in-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#10
G B Sigal, M R Segal, A Mathew, L Jarlsberg, M Wang, S Barbero, N Small, K Haynesworth, J L Davis, M Weiner, W C Whitworth, J Jacobs, J Schorey, D M Lewinsohn, P Nahid
More efficacious treatment regimens are needed for tuberculosis, however, drug development is impeded by a lack of reliable biomarkers of disease severity and of treatment effect. We conducted a directed screen of host biomarkers in participants enrolled in a tuberculosis clinical trial to address this need. Serum samples from 319 protocol-correct, culture-confirmed pulmonary tuberculosis patients treated under direct observation as part of an international, phase 2 trial were screened for 70 markers of infection, inflammation, and metabolism...
October 24, 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091929/the-cathelicidin-protein-cramp-is-a-potential-atherosclerosis-self-antigen-in-apoe-mice
#11
Peter M Mihailovic, Wai Man Lio, Juliana Yano, Xiaoning Zhao, Jianchang Zhou, Kuang-Yuh Chyu, Prediman K Shah, Bojan Cercek, Paul C Dimayuga
Auto-immunity is believed to contribute to inflammation in atherosclerosis. The antimicrobial peptide LL-37, a fragment of the cathelicidin protein precursor hCAP18, was previously identified as an autoantigen in psoriasis. Given the reported link between psoriasis and coronary artery disease, the biological relevance of the autoantigen to atherosclerosis was tested in vitro using a truncated (t) form of the mouse homolog of hCAP18, CRAMP, on splenocytes from athero-prone ApoE(-/-) mice. Stimulation with tCRAMP resulted in increased CD8+ T cells with Central Memory and Effector Memory phenotypes in ApoE(-/-) mice, differentially activated by feeding with normal chow or high fat diet...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29091380/real-world-efficacy-of-azelaic-acid-15-gel-for-the-reduction-of-inflammatory-lesions-of-rosacea
#12
P J Wirth, M H Henderson Berg, N Sadick
Approximately 16 million Americans have rosacea, an inflammatory cutaneous disorder with central facial erythema, papules, pustules, telangiectasia, flushing, and swelling being among the more commonly recognized features. Overexpression of cathelicidin peptide LL-37 has been implicated in the pathophysiology of rosacea. Azelaic acid has been found to inhibit the pathologic expression of cathelicidin, as well as the hyperactive protease activity that cleaves cathelicidin into LL-37. Given these findings, a small prospective, open-label, interventional trial was undertaken to assess the effects of azelaic acid 15% gel on inflammatory lesions of papulopustular rosacea in a real-world setting...
November 2017: Skin Therapy Letter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077044/inhibition-of-human-kallikrein-5-protease-by-triterpenoids-from-natural-sources
#13
Yosuke Matsubara, Takashi Matsumoto, Junichi Koseki, Atsushi Kaneko, Setsuya Aiba, Kenshi Yamasaki
Stratum corneum tryptic enzyme kallikrein 5 (KLK5) is a serine protease that is involved in the cell renewal and maintenance of the skin barrier function. The excessive activation of KLK5 causes an exacerbation of dermatoses, such as rosacea and atopic dermatitis. Some triterpenoids are reported to suppress the serine proteases. We aimed to investigate whether bioactive triterpenoids modulate the KLK5 protease. Nineteen triterpenoids occurring in medicinal crude drugs were evaluated using an enzymatic assay to measure the anti-KLK5 activity...
October 27, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065709/direct-effects-of-fermented-cow-s-milk-product-with-lactobacillus-paracasei-cba-l74-on-human-enterocytes
#14
L Paparo, R Aitoro, R Nocerino, C Fierro, C Bruno, R Berni Canani
Cow's milk fermented with Lactobacillus paracasei CBA L74 (FM-CBAL74) exerts a preventive effect against infectious diseases in children. We evaluated if this effect is at least in part related to a direct modulation of non-immune and immune defence mechanisms in human enterocytes. Human enterocytes (Caco-2) were stimulated for 48 h with FM-CBAL74 at different concentrations. Cell growth was assessed by colorimetric assay; cell differentiation (assessed by lactase expression), tight junction proteins (zonula occludens1 and occludin), mucin 2, and toll-like receptor (TRL) pathways were analysed by real-time PCR; innate immunity peptide synthesis, beta-defensin-2 (HBD-2) and cathelicidin (LL-37) were evaluated by ELISA...
October 25, 2017: Beneficial Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053870/effects-of-hydroxychloride-and-sulfate-form-of-zinc-and-manganese-supplementation-on-superoxide-dismutase-activity-and-immune-responses-post-lipopolysaccharide-challenge-in-poultry-fed-marginally-lower-doses-of-zinc-and-manganese
#15
V Perez, R Shanmugasundaram, M Sifri, T M Parr, R K Selvaraj
Effects of hydroxychloride (OHCl) and sulfate form of zinc and manganese supplementation on immune responses of birds fed marginally lower levels of zinc and manganese during an experimental lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injection were studied. In experiment I, 30-week-old layer birds were fed 50 mg/kg Zn+45 mg/kg Mn or 100 mg/kg Zn+90 mg/kg Mn in sulfate or OHCl form and injected with 0 or 500 μg/kg LPS in a 2 (50 mg Zn+45 mg Mn and 100 mg Zn+90 mg Mn) X 2 (sulfate and OHCl) X 2 (0 and 500 μg LPS) factorial setup of treatments for 10 weeks...
September 14, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29053067/the-proteome-of-pus-from-human-brain-abscesses-host-derived-neurotoxic-proteins-and-the-cell-type-diversity-of-cns-pus
#16
Bjørnar Hassel, Gustavo Antonio De Souza, Maria Ekman Stensland, Jugoslav Ivanovic, Øyvind Voie, Daniel Dahlberg
OBJECTIVE What determines the extent of tissue destruction during brain abscess formation is not known. Pyogenic brain infections cause destruction of brain tissue that greatly exceeds the area occupied by microbes, as seen in experimental studies, pointing to cytotoxic factors other than microbes in pus. This study examined whether brain abscess pus contains cytotoxic proteins that might explain the extent of tissue destruction. METHODS Pus proteins from 20 human brain abscesses and, for comparison, 7 subdural empyemas were analyzed by proteomics mass spectrometry...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049008/exogenous-murine-antimicrobial-peptide-cramp-significantly-exacerbates-ovalbumin-induced-airway-inflammation-but-ameliorates-oxazolone-induced-intestinal-colitis-in-balb-c-mice
#17
Yang Li, Xiaojie Chu, Cunbao Liu, Weiwei Huang, Yufeng Yao, Ye Xia, Pengyan Sun, Qiong Long, Xuejun Feng, Kui Li, Xu Yang, Hongmei Bai, Wenjia Sun, Yanbing Ma
Cathelicidin has been reported to be multifunctional. The current study aimed to investigate the influences of exogenous cathelicidin-related antimicrobial peptide (CRAMP) on inflammatory responses in different disease models. In OVA-induced allergic airway inflammation, CRAMP significantly enhanced the infiltration of inflammatory cells and accumulation of proinflammatory Th2 cytokine IL-13 and IL-33 in bronchial alveolar lavage fluid (BALF), exacerbated lung tissue inflammation and airway goblet cell hyperplasia, and elevated OVA-specific IgE level in serum...
October 19, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042014/effects-of-cathelicidin-derived-peptide-from-reptiles-on-lipopolysaccharide-induced-intestinal-inflammation-in-weaned-piglets
#18
Haiwen Zhang, Bingxi Zhang, Xiaomeng Zhang, Xuemei Wang, Kebang Wu, Qingfeng Guan
Cathelicidins are the largest family of antimicrobial peptides. C-BF, which is short for Cathelicidin-Bungarus Fasciatus, was isolated from snake venom. C-BF was found to be the most potential substitutes for antibiotics. In this study, we analyzed the effects of cathelicidin-derived peptide C-BF, on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced intestinal damage in weaned piglets, to evaluate the therapeutic effect of C-BF on infectious disease of piglets. Twenty-four piglets were randomly assigned into four groups: control, C-BF, LPS, and C-BF+LPS...
October 2017: Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034266/bladder-pain-in-an-ll-37-interstitial-cystitis-and-painful-bladder-syndrome-model
#19
Wanjian Jia, Austin J Schults, Mark Martin Jensen, Xiangyang Ye, Jeremiah A Alt, Glenn D Prestwich, Siam Oottamasathien
Our goal was to evaluate the pain response in an LL-37 induced murine model for interstitial cystitis/painful bladder syndrome (IC/PBS). In particular, we sought to characterize the dose dependence, time-course, and relationship of LL-37 induced bladder inflammation and pain. The IC/PBS model was induced in C57Bl/6 mice by instilling 50 μL of LL-37, an immunomodulatory human cathelicidin (anti-microbial peptide), in the bladder for 1 hr. Pain responses were measured using von Frey filaments (0.04 gm to 4.0 gm) before and after LL-37 instillation...
2017: American Journal of Clinical and Experimental Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017942/as-cath4-and-5-two-vertebrate-derived-natural-host-defense-peptides-enhance-the-immuno-resistance-efficiency-against-bacterial-infections-in-chinese-mitten-crab-eriocheir-sinensis
#20
Zhilai Guo, Xue Qiao, Ruomei Cheng, Nannan Shi, Aili Wang, Tingting Feng, Yan Chen, Fen Zhang, Haining Yu, Yipeng Wang
Host defense peptides (HDPs), a class of conserved components of animal innate immune system, possess direct antimicrobial activities against invading pathogens and broadly participate in boosting and modulating host immune responses. Cathelicidins is an important family of HDPs that has been identified exclusively in vertebrates. Considering the relatively conserved innate immune system between invertebrates and vertebrates, it is speculated that HDPs from vertebrates may also possess modulating functions on invertebrate innate immune system...
October 7, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
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