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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919949/1%C3%AE-dihydroxyvitamin-d3-and-retinoic-acid-increase-nuclear-vitamin-d-receptor-expression-in-monocytic-thp-1-cells
#1
Hikaru Uchida, Yuichiro Hasegawa, Hiromichi Takahashi, Makoto Makishima
BACKGROUND: 1α,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3] and retinoic acid, such as all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and 9-cis retinoic acid (9cRA), are known to induce differentiation of myeloid leukemia cells. Combined treatment effectively enhances the differentiation effect, particularly in monocytic leukemia cells. The underlying mechanism of this combined effect remains unknown. MATERIALS AND METHODS: THP-1 monocytic leukemia cells were treated with 1,25(OH)2D3 in combination with 9cRA, ATRA or selective synthetic ligand for retinoic acid receptor (RAR) or retinoid X receptor (RXR), and the nuclear expression and function of vitamin D receptor (VDR) were examined...
December 2016: Anticancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915299/cathelicidin-ll-37-level-in-the-scalp-hair-of-patients-with-tinea-capitis
#2
Nagwa H Abdelaal, Laila A Rashed, Sahar Y Ibrahim, Mona H Abd El Halim, Noha Ghoneim, Noha A Saleh, Marwah A Saleh
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are considered an important first line of defense against pathogens. Cathelicidin LL-37 was upregulated in response to fungal infection. In this work we aimed to evaluate cathelicidin LL-37 in the hair of tinea capitis and compare it to normal controls. Hair samples were collected from 30 children and 30 controls aged from 2 to10 years old, and the level of cathelicidin LL-37 in the hair was detected by quantitative real-time PCR. The 30 patients were further subdivided into three subgroups according to their clinical type...
December 2, 2016: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908695/trpv4-mediates-mast-cell-activation-in-cathelicidin-induced-rosacea-inflammation
#3
Nicholas L Mascarenhas, Zhenping Wang, Yu-Ling Chang, Anna Di Nardo
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 28, 2016: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901075/membrane-core-specific-antimicrobial-action-of-cathelicidin-ll-37-peptide-switches-between-pore-and-nanofibre-formation
#4
Mahdi Shahmiri, Marta Enciso, Christopher G Adda, Brian J Smith, Matthew A Perugini, Adam Mechler
Membrane-disrupting antimicrobial peptides provide broad-spectrum defence against localized bacterial invasion in a range of hosts including humans. The most generally held consensus is that targeting to pathogens is based on interactions with the head groups of membrane lipids. Here we show that the action of LL-37, a human antimicrobial peptide switches the mode of action based on the structure of the alkyl chains, and not the head groups of the membrane forming lipids. We demonstrate that LL-37 exhibits two distinct interaction pathways: pore formation in bilayers of unsaturated phospholipids and membrane modulation with saturated phospholipids...
November 30, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892584/a-short-history-of-phototherapy-vitamin-d-and-skin-disease
#5
Paul Jarrett, Robert Scragg
The earliest record between sun exposure and skin disease goes back five millennia to the ancient Egyptians. The modern scientific era of medical light therapy and skin diseases started in 1877 when Downs and Blunt reported that exposure to light inhibited fungal growth in test tubes. Continuing research generated a growing medical interest in the potential the effects of light to treat and cure skin diseases considered as parasitic. This culminated in the awarding of the 1903 Nobel Prize in Medicine to Niels Finsen for his pioneering work showing that light could successfully treat cutaneous mycobacterium tuberculosis (lupus vulgaris), a disfiguring disorder common at the time...
November 28, 2016: Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889723/vitamin-d-supplementation-for-treatment-and-prevention-of-pneumonia-in-under-five-children-a-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-trial
#6
Piyush Gupta, Pooja Dewan, Dheeraj Shah, Nisha Sharma, Nidhi Bedi, Iqbal R Kaur, Ajay Kumar Bansal, S V Madhu
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of single oral mega-dose of Vitamin D3 for treatment and prevention of pneumonia in under-five children. DESIGN: Randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled trial. SETTING: Tertiary-care hospital. PARTICIPANTS: 324 children (of 980 assessed) between 6 mo-5 y age (median (IQR): 12 (7,19.8) mo) with WHO-defined severe pneumonia. Of these, 126 (39%) were vitamin D deficient (serum 25(OH)D <12 ng/mL)...
November 15, 2016: Indian Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877060/anti-inflammatory-and-immunomodulatory-effects-of-aquaphilus-dolomiae-extract-on-in-vitro-models
#7
Marie-Françoise Aries, Hélène Hernandez-Pigeon, Clémence Vaissière, Hélène Delga, Antony Caruana, Marguerite Lévêque, Muriel Bourrain, Katia Ravard Helffer, Bertrand Chol, Thien Nguyen, Sandrine Bessou-Touya, Nathalie Castex-Rizzi
BACKGROUND: Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common skin disease characterized by recurrent pruritic inflammatory skin lesions resulting from structural and immune defects of the skin barrier. Previous studies have shown the clinical efficacy of Avène thermal spring water in AD, and a new microorganism, Aquaphilus dolomiae was suspected to contribute to these unique properties. The present study evaluated the anti-inflammatory, antipruritic, and immunomodulatory properties of ES0, an original biological extract of A...
2016: Clinical, Cosmetic and Investigational Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876749/anti-fungal-activity-of-ctn-15-34-the-c-terminal-peptide-fragment-of-crotalicidin-a-rattlesnake-venom-gland-cathelicidin
#8
Carolina Sidrim P Cavalcante, Cláudio B Falcão, Raquel Os Fontenelle, David Andreu, Gandhi Rádis-Baptista
Crotalicidin (Ctn), a 34-residue cathelicidin from a South American rattlesnake, and its fragment (Ctn[15-34]) have shown anti-infective and cytotoxic activities against Gram-negative bacteria and certain tumor lines, respectively. The extent of such effects has been related to physicochemical characteristics such as helicity and hydrophobicity. We now report the anti-fungal activity of Ctn and its fragments (Ctn[1-14]) and (Ctn[15-34]). MIC determination and luminescent cell viability assays were used to evaluate the anti-infective activity of Ctn and its fragments (Ctn[1-14]) and (Ctn[15-34]) as anti-fungal agents against opportunistic yeast and dermatophytes...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Antibiotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872080/classical-%C3%AE-lactamase-inhibitors-potentiate-the-activity-of-daptomycin-against-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-and-colistin-against-acinetobacter-baumannii
#9
George Sakoulas, Warren Rose, Andrew Berti, Joshua Olson, Jason Mungia, Poochit Nonejuie, Eleanna Sakoulas, Michael J Rybak, Joseph Pogliano, Victor Nizet
We asked whether beta-lactamase inhibitors (BLIs) increased the activity of daptomycin (DAP) against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), peptide antibiotic colistin (COL) against emerging Gram-negative nosocomial pathogen Acinetobacter baumannii, and human host defense peptide cathelicidin LL37 against either pathogen. DAP and LL37 kill curves were performed with or without BLIs against MRSA, vancomycin-intermediate S. aureus (VISA) and heterogeneous-VISA (hVISA). COL and LL37 kill curves were performed against A...
November 21, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865272/proline-arginine-rich-pr-39-cathelicidin-structure-expression-and-functional-implication-in-intestinal-health
#10
REVIEW
Ravi Holani, Chaitanya Shah, Qahir Haji, G Douglas Inglis, Richard R E Uwiera, Eduardo R Cobo
Proline-Arginine-39 (PR-39) is a small cationic, proline and arginine rich, cathelicidin that plays an important role in the porcine innate immune system. Although PR-39 was first discovered in intestinal cell lysates of pigs, subsequent research has indicated that it is primarily expressed in bone marrow and other lymphoid tissues including the thymus and spleen, as well as in leukocytes. Mature PR-39 cathelicidin has anti-microbial activity against many gram-negative and some gram-positive bacteria. PR-39 is also a bridge between the innate and adaptive immune system with recognized immunomodulatory, wound healing, anti-apoptotic, and pro-angiogenic functions...
December 2016: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27845236/serum-cathelicidin-nasopharyngeal-microbiota-and-disease-severity-among-infants-hospitalized-with-bronchiolitis
#11
Kohei Hasegawa, Jonathan M Mansbach, Nadim J Ajami, Joseph F Petrosino, Robert J Freishtat, Stephen J Teach, Pedro A Piedra, Carlos A Camargo
Among infants hospitalized with bronchiolitis, and who had low serum LL-37 levels, the Haemophilus-dominant nasopharyngeal microbiota profile was associated with higher disease severity. By contrast, in those with high LL-37 levels, we observed no association.
November 11, 2016: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832772/calcitriol-stimulates-gene-expression-of-cathelicidin-antimicrobial-peptide-in-breast-cancer-cells-with-different-phenotype
#12
Janice García-Quiroz, Rocío García-Becerra, Nancy Santos-Martínez, Euclides Avila, Fernando Larrea, Lorenza Díaz
BACKGROUND: In normal and neoplastic cells, growth-promoting, proangiogenic, cytotoxic and pro-apoptotic effects have all been attributed to cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide (CAMP). Nevertheless, little is known about the factors regulating this peptide expression in breast cancer. Herein we asked if the well-known antineoplastic hormone calcitriol could differentially modulate CAMP gene expression in human breast cancer cells depending on the cell phenotype in terms of efficacy and potency...
November 10, 2016: Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27827962/cholecalciferol-additively-reduces-serum-parathyroid-hormone-and-increases-vitamin-d-and-cathelicidin-levels-in-paricalcitol-treated-secondary-hyperparathyroid-hemodialysis-patients
#13
Jing-Quan Zheng, Yi-Chou Hou, Cai-Mei Zheng, Chien-Lin Lu, Wen-Chih Liu, Chia-Chao Wu, Ming-Te Huang, Yuh-Feng Lin, Kuo-Cheng Lu
BACKGROUND: Active Vitamin D analogues are used clinically for prevention and treatment of secondary hyperparathyroidism (SHPT) in hemodialysis (HD) patients. Nutritional vitamin D supplementation is used for additional local parathyroid (PTH) suppression, with lower incidence of hypercalcemia and hyperphosphatemia. This study evaluates the possible beneficial effects of combined vitamin D treatment (paricalcitol and cholecalciferol). METHODS: Sixty HD patients with serum parathyroid hormone (iPTH) >300 pg/mL were enrolled...
November 5, 2016: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818338/antimicrobial-and-host-cell-directed-activities-of-gly-ser-rich-peptides-from-salmonid-cathelicidins
#14
Francesca D'Este, Monica Benincasa, Giuseppe Cannone, Michela Furlan, Michele Scarsini, Donatella Volpatti, Renato Gennaro, Alessandro Tossi, Barbara Skerlavaj, Marco Scocchi
Cathelicidins, a major family of vertebrate antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), have a recognized role in the first line of defense against infections. They have been identified in several salmonid species, where the putative mature peptides are unusually long and rich in serine and glycine residues, often arranged in short multiple repeats (RLGGGS/RPGGGS) intercalated by hydrophobic motifs. Fragments of 24-40 residues, spanning specific motifs and conserved sequences in grayling or brown, rainbow and brook trout, were chemically synthesized and examined for antimicrobial activity against relevant Gram-positive and Gram-negative salmonid pathogens, as well as laboratory reference strains...
December 2016: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812211/cathelicidin-insufficiency-in-patients-with-fatal-leptospirosis
#15
Janet C Lindow, Elsio A Wunder, Stephen J Popper, Jin-Na Min, Praveen Mannam, Anup Srivastava, Yi Yao, Kathryn P Hacker, Khadir Raddassi, Patty J Lee, Ruth R Montgomery, Albert C Shaw, Jose E Hagan, Guilherme C Araújo, Nivison Nery, David A Relman, Charles C Kim, Mitermayer G Reis, Albert I Ko
Leptospirosis causes significant morbidity and mortality worldwide; however, the role of the host immune response in disease progression and high case fatality (>10-50%) is poorly understood. We conducted a multi-parameter investigation of patients with acute leptospirosis to identify mechanisms associated with case fatality. Whole blood transcriptional profiling of 16 hospitalized Brazilian patients with acute leptospirosis (13 survivors, 3 deceased) revealed fatal cases had lower expression of the antimicrobial peptide, cathelicidin, and chemokines, but more abundant pro-inflammatory cytokine receptors...
November 2016: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799768/core-shell-magnetic-nanoparticles-display-synergistic-antibacterial-effects-against-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-and-staphylococcus-aureus-when-combined-with-cathelicidin-ll-37-or-selected-ceragenins
#16
Katarzyna Niemirowicz, Ewelina Piktel, Agnieszka Z Wilczewska, Karolina H Markiewicz, Bonita Durnaś, Marzena Wątek, Irena Puszkarz, Marta Wróblewska, Wiesława Niklińska, Paul B Savage, Robert Bucki
Core-shell magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) are promising candidates in the development of new treatment methods against infections, including those caused by antibiotic-resistant pathogens. In this study, the bactericidal activity of human antibacterial peptide cathelicidin LL-37, synthetic ceragenins CSA-13 and CSA-131, and classical antibiotics vancomycin and colistin, against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Xen 30 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa Xen 5, was assessed alone and in combination with core-shell MNPs...
2016: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795854/minibactenecins-chbac7-n%C3%AE-and-chbac7-n%C3%AE-antimicrobial-peptides-from-leukocytes-of-the-goat-capra-hircus
#17
O V Shamova, D S Orlov, M S Zharkova, S V Balandin, E V Yamschikova, D Knappe, R Hoffmann, V N Kokryakov, T V Ovchinnikova
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) of neutrophils play an important role in the animal and human host defenses. We have isolated two AMPs (average molecular masses of 2895.5 and 2739.3 Da), with potent antimicrobial activity from neutrophils of the domestic goat (Capra hircus). A structural analysis of the obtained peptides revealed that they encompass N-terminal fragments (1-21 and 1-22) of the proline-rich peptide bactenecin 7.5. The primary structure of caprine bactenecin 7.5 had been previously deduced from the nucleotide sequence, but the corresponding protein had not been isolated from leukocytes until now...
July 2016: Acta Naturae
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795667/chronic-ethanol-exposure-effects-on-vitamin-d-levels-among-subjects-with-alcohol-use-disorder
#18
Olalekan Ogunsakin, Tete Hottor, Ashish Mehta, Maureen Lichtveld, Michael McCaskill
Vitamin D has been previously recognized to play important roles in human immune system and function. In the pulmonary system, vitamin D regulates the function of antimicrobial peptides, especially cathelicidin/LL-37. Human cathelicidin/LL-37 is a bactericidal, bacteriostatic, and antiviral endogenous peptide with protective immune functions. Chronic exposure to excessive alcohol has the potential to reduce levels of vitamin D (inactive vitamin D [25(OH)D3] and active vitamin D [1, 25(OH)2D3]) and leads to downregulation of cathelicidin/LL-37...
2016: Environmental Health Insights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790779/the-role-of-human-%C3%AE-defensins-in-allergic-diseases
#19
REVIEW
F Niyonsaba, C Kiatsurayanon, H Ogawa
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), also referred to as host defence peptides (HDPs), comprise a large family of small molecules broadly distributed throughout the animal and plant kingdom, historically serving as natural antibiotics. In mammals, there are two major families of AMPs/HDPs, the defensins and the cathelicidins. These peptides have evolved to protect against a wide range of infections from bacteria, viruses, fungi and some parasites. However, in addition to their broad-spectrum killing activities, AMPs/HDPs also possess various biological functions...
December 2016: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27779898/reflections-about-inflammatory-bowel-disease-and-vitamins-a-and-d
#20
Sandra Maria Barbalho, Marcelo Dib Bechara, Ricardo de Alvares Goulart, Karina Quesada, Rodrigo Galhardi Gasparini, Antonely de Cássio Alves de Carvalho, Adriana Maria Ragassi Fiorini
Ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease are two major forms of the inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs). Vitamin A (VA) and vitamin D (VD) may be associated with reduction in inflammation in these disorders. The aim of this review was to show the current evidence that may associate VA and VD with IBDs. Data linking VA, VD, and IBDs were studied. Both VA and VD may be related to the immune system in different manners. The active form of VA, retinoic acid, may be related to the growth factor-β and release of interleukin-10 (IL-10), thus involved with the resolution of the inflammation...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Medicinal Food
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