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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428684/innate-immunity-of-adipose-tissue-in-rodent-models-of-local-and-systemic-staphylococcus-aureus-infection
#1
Andreas Schmid, Thomas Karrasch, Miriam Thomalla, Jutta Schlegel, Bernd Salzberger, Andreas Schäffler, Frank Hanses
Background. The role of adipose tissue in systemic inflammation during bacterial infection is unclear. Effects of Staphylococcus aureus infection on adipocytes in rodent models of experimental endocarditis and peritonitis, the impact of S. aureus infection on gene expression in epididymal and subcutaneous adipose tissue, and effects of S. aureus infection on the toll-like receptor-2- (TLR2-) cathelicidin pathway in vivo and in vitro were investigated. Material and methods. The rat model of catheter-induced S...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427192/dna-methylation-directly-downregulates-human-cathelicidin-antimicrobial-peptide-gene-camp-promoter-activity
#2
Xi Chen, Guangying Qi, Mingqun Qin, Yantao Zou, Kanghua Zhong, Ying Tang, Yong Guo, Xinxiang Jiang, Lihua Liang, Xianqiong Zou
LL-37, the active product of human cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide (CAMP) has a broad spectrum of antibacterial activity. LL-37 also has important physiological functions in immune regulation, angiogenesis and in modulating apoptosis. The roles of LL-37 in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) are still not clear. The correlation between DNA methylation and human CAMP expression is also unknown. Here human CAMP/LL-37 expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry in normal and OSCC tissues. The results indicated that low expression of CAMP/LL-37 correlated with histological differentiation and lymph node metastasis and also promoted tumor progression...
March 2, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421080/b-cell-functions-can-be-modulated-by-antimicrobial-peptides-in-rainbow-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss-novel-insights-into-the-innate-nature-of-b-cells-in-fish
#3
Xu-Jie Zhang, Peng Wang, Nu Zhang, Dan-Dan Chen, Pin Nie, Jia-Le Li, Yong-An Zhang
B cells in fish were recently proven to have potent innate immune activities like macrophages. This inspired us to further explore the innate nature of B cells in fish. Moreover, antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are representative molecules of innate immunity, and they can modulate the functions of macrophages. These make fish an appropriate model to study the interactions between B cells and AMPs. Interestingly, the results in this study revealed that the IgM(+) and IgT(+) B cells of rainbow trout could express multiple AMP genes, including four cathelicidin genes and one β-defensin gene...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420069/cathelicidin-ll-37-and-its-correlation-with-pro-oxidant-antioxidant-balance-and-disease-activity-in-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-a-cross-sectional-human-study
#4
M Sahebari, G Roshandel, N Saadati, M Saghafi, N Abdolahi, Z Rezaieyazdi
Background Cathelicidin (LL-37), an endogenous antimicrobial peptide, has recently been involved in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. To assess whether LL-37 reflects disease activity, we measured serum levels of it in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients with active and inactive disease compared to healthy controls. LL-37 was also compared between new and old cases. Moreover, the correlation of LL-37 and pro-oxidant, antioxidant balance (PAB) was measured. Methods The study population consisted of 50 SLE patients and 28 healthy controls...
January 1, 2017: Lupus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400226/in-vitro-effect-of-human-cathelicidin-antimicrobial-peptide-ll-37-on-dengue-virus-type-2
#5
K Alagarasu, P S Patil, P Shil, M Seervi, M B Kakade, H Tillu, A Salunke
Human Cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide LL-37 is known to have antiviral activity against many viruses. In the present study, we investigated the in-vitro effect of LL-37 on dengue virus type 2 (DENV-2) infection and replication in Vero E6 cells. To study the effect of pretreatment of virus or cells with LL-37, the virus was pretreated with different concentrations of LL-37 (2.5μM-15μM) or scrambled (Scr) LL-37(5μM-15μM) and used for infection or the cells were first treated with LL-37 and infected. To study the effect of LL-37 post infection (PI), the cells were infected first followed by addition of LL-37 to the culture medium 24h after infection...
April 9, 2017: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345770/effect-of-1-25-oh-2-d3-and-20-oh-d3-on-interleukin-1%C3%AE-stimulated-interleukin-6-and-8-production-by-human-gingival-fibroblasts
#6
V Nakashyan, D A Tipton, A Karydis, R Livada, S H Stein
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Vitamin D-1,25(OH)2 D3 or 1,25D3-maintains healthy osseous tissue, stimulates the production of the antimicrobial peptide cathelicidin and has anti-inflammatory effects, but it can cause hypercalcemia. Evidence links diminished serum levels of 1,25D3 with increased gingival inflammation. Periodontitis progression is associated with increased local production of inflammatory mediators by immune cells and gingival fibroblasts. These include interleukin (IL)-6, a regulator of osteoclastic bone resorption, and the neutrophil chemoattractant IL-8, both regulated by signaling pathways, including NF-κB and MAPK/AP-1...
March 27, 2017: Journal of Periodontal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344161/cross-resistance-to-human-cationic-antimicrobial-peptides-and-to-polymyxins-mediated-by-the-plasmid-encoded-mcr-1
#7
Jan Dobias, Laurent Poirel, Patrice Nordmann
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate whether acquired resistance to cationic antimicrobial peptides (CAMP) group molecules, being normal components of the human immune system, may select co-resistance to antibiotic peptides such as polymyxins, considering they share the same mechanism of action. We aimed to evaluate strains producing the recently identified plasmid-encoded polymyxin resistance determinant MCR-1, which is a phosphoethanolamine transferase that modifies the lipopolysaccharide structure of Gram-negative bacteria...
March 23, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343946/double-stranded-rna-induces-cathelicidin-expression-in-the-intestinal-epithelial-cells-through-phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase-protein-kinase-c%C3%AE-sp1-pathway-and-ameliorates-shigellosis-in-mice
#8
Atri Ta, Bhupesh Kumar Thakur, Pujarini Dutta, Ritam Sinha, Hemanta Koley, Santasabuj Das
Cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide is a key component of the host innate immune system. It is constitutively expressed by the intestinal epithelial cells, but induced at further higher levels by different host-derived and microbial stimuli, including the ligands for Toll-like receptors (TLRs). While the underlying mechanisms of cathelicidin expression remain incompletely understood, altered expression may be associated with gastro-intestinal infections and inflammatory diseases. We demonstrate here that viral double-stranded RNA and its synthetic analog poly(I:C) are potent and tissue-specific inducers of cathelicidin mRNA and protein expression in the mouse as well as human intestinal epithelial cells...
March 24, 2017: Cellular Signalling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340683/trpv4-moves-toward-center-fold-in%C3%A2-rosacea-pathogenesis
#9
Yong Chen, Carlene D Moore, Jennifer Y Zhang, Russell P Hall, Amanda S MacLeod, Wolfgang Liedtke
Mascarenhas et al. report that TRPV4 expression is upregulated in mast cells in response to the proteolytic cathelicidin fragment LL37 in a murine rosacea model and that TRPV4 loss of function attenuates mast cell degranulation. These findings render TRPV4 a translational-medical target in rosacea. However, signaling mechanisms causing increased expression of TRPV4 await elucidation. Moreover, we ask whether TRPV4-mediated Ca(++)-influx evokes mast cell degranulation.
April 2017: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339728/comparative-expression-of-host-defense-peptides-in-turkey-poults
#10
Shaimaa K Hamad, Sungwon Kim, Samer W El-Kadi, Eric A Wong, Rami A Dalloul
Host defense peptides (HDPs) are a large group of small, positively charged peptides that play an important role in innate immunity, particularly at early ages when other components of the immune system have not fully developed. There are 3 classes of avian HDPs: avian beta defensins (AvBDs), cathelicidins (Cath), and liver-expressed antimicrobial peptide 2 (LEAP-2). The objective was to compare expression of HDP mRNAs in male turkey poults at day of hatch (d 0), d 7, d 14, d 21 and d 28 from the thymus, spleen, bursa, duodenum, jejunum, and ileum...
February 22, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326169/circulating-ll37-targets-plasma-extracellular-vesicles-to-immune-cells-and-intensifies-beh%C3%A3-et-s-disease-severity
#11
Tamer Kahraman, Gozde Gucluler, Ismail Simsek, Fuat Cem Yagci, Muzaffer Yildirim, Can Ozen, Ayhan Dinc, Mayda Gursel, Lolai Ikromzoda, Tolga Sutlu, Stephen Gay, Ihsan Gursel
Behçet's disease (BD) activity is characterised by sustained, over-exuberant immune activation, yet the underlying mechanisms leading to active BD state are poorly defined. Herein, we show that the human cathelicidin derived antimicrobial peptide LL37 associates with and directs plasma extracellular vesicles (EV) to immune cells, thereby leading to enhanced immune activation aggravating BD pathology. Notably, disease activity was correlated with elevated levels of circulating LL37 and EV plasma concentration...
2017: Journal of Extracellular Vesicles
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326070/antimicrobial-protection-of-marsupial-pouch-young
#12
REVIEW
Yuanyuan Cheng, Katherine Belov
Marsupials diverged from eutherian mammals about 148 million years ago and represent a unique lineage of mammals with distinctive morphological and reproductive characteristics. Marsupials have significantly shorter gestation periods than eutherians. Pregnancy typically ranges from 15 to 35 days, with young being born at a very early developmental stage and lacking differentiated lymphoid tissues and mature effector cells. Recent microbiome studies of the marsupial pouch revealed that marsupial young can face intense microbial challenges after birth, as the pouch contains a broad range of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322271/mechanistic-and-structural-basis-of-bioengineered-bovine-cathelicidin-5-with-optimized-therapeutic-activity
#13
Bikash R Sahoo, Kenta Maruyama, Jyotheeswara R Edula, Takahiro Tougan, Yuxi Lin, Young-Ho Lee, Toshihiro Horii, Toshimichi Fujiwara
Peptide-drug discovery using host-defense peptides becomes promising against antibiotic-resistant pathogens and cancer cells. Here, we customized the therapeutic activity of bovine cathelicidin-5 targeting to bacteria, protozoa, and tumor cells. The membrane dependent conformational adaptability and plasticity of cathelicidin-5 is revealed by biophysical analysis and atomistic simulations over 200 μs in thymocytes, leukemia, and E. coli cell-membranes. Our understanding of energy-dependent cathelicidin-5 intrusion in heterogeneous membranes aided in designing novel loss/gain-of-function analogues...
March 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298400/antimicrobial-peptide-levels-are-linked-to-airway-inflammation-bacterial-colonisation-and-exacerbations-in-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease
#14
Louise J P Persson, Marianne Aanerud, Jon A Hardie, Roy Miodini Nilsen, Per S Bakke, Tomas M Eagan, Pieter S Hiemstra
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are effectors of host defence against infection, inflammation and wound repair. We aimed to study AMP levels in stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and during acute exacerbations of COPD (AECOPD), and to examine their relation to clinical parameters and inflammatory markers.The 3-year Bergen COPD Cohort Study included 433 COPD patients and 325 controls. Induced sputum was obtained and analysed for levels of the AMPs human cathelicidin (hCAP18/LL-37) and secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI), and for the inflammatory markers interleukin (IL)-8, IL-6 and tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) using immunoassays...
March 2017: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294428/probiotics-and-antimicrobial-protein-and-peptide-levels-in-preterm-infants
#15
Tobias Strunk, Julie Hibbert, Dorota Doherty, Caitlyn Granland, Stephanie Trend, Karen Simmer, David Burgner, Sanjay Patole, Andrew Currie
AIM: To characterise the secreted and inducible antimicrobial protein and peptide (APP) levels in a prospective cohort of preterm infants (<30 weeks gestational age) with or without Bifidobacterium breve M16V supplementation during the first month of life. METHODS: We analysed serial biosamples of infants who did (n = 13) or did not receive (n = 62) B. breve (3 × 10(9) cfu/day). Peripheral blood was obtained on days 1, 14 and 28, and infant stool prior to commencement of probiotic supplementation and on day 21...
March 12, 2017: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288817/animal-venoms-as-antimicrobial-agents
#16
REVIEW
Ramar Perumal Samy, Bradley G Stiles, Octavio L Franco, Gautam Sethi, Lina H K Lim
Hospitals are breeding grounds for many life-threatening bacteria worldwide. Clinically associated gram-positive bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus/methicillin-resistant S. aureus and many others increase the risk of severe mortality and morbidity. The failure of antibiotics to kill various pathogens due to bacterial resistance highlights the urgent need to develop novel, potent, and less toxic agents from natural sources against various infectious agents. Currently, several promising classes of natural molecules from snake (terrestrial and sea), scorpion, spider, honey bee and wasp venoms hold promise as rich sources of chemotherapeutics against infectious pathogens...
March 10, 2017: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28282452/sp-ll-37-human-antimicrobial-peptide-enhances-disease-resistance-in-transgenic-rice
#17
In Hye Lee, Yu-Jin Jung, Yong Gu Cho, Ill Sup Nou, Md Amdadul Huq, Franz Marielle Nogoy, Kwon-Kyoo Kang
Human LL-37 is a multifunctional antimicrobial peptide of cathelicidin family. It has been shown in recent studies that it can serve as a host's defense against influenza A virus. We now demonstrate in this study how signal peptide LL-37 (SP-LL-37) can be used in rice resistance against bacterial leaf blight and blast. We synthesized LL-37 peptide and subcloned in a recombinant pPZP vector with pGD1 as promoter. SP-LL-37 was introduced into rice plants by Agrobacterium mediated transformation. Stable expression of SP-LL-37 in transgenic rice plants was confirmed by RT-PCR and ELISA analyses...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273482/orai1-mediated-antimicrobial-secretion-from-pancreatic-acini-shapes-the-gut-microbiome-and-regulates-gut-innate-immunity
#18
Malini Ahuja, Daniella M Schwartz, Mayank Tandon, Aran Son, Mei Zeng, William Swaim, Michael Eckhaus, Victoria Hoffman, Yiyuan Cui, Bo Xiao, Paul F Worley, Shmuel Muallem
The gut microbiome participates in numerous physiologic functions and communicates intimately with the host immune system. Antimicrobial peptides are critical components of intestinal innate immunity. We report a prominent role for antimicrobials secreted by pancreatic acini in shaping the gut microbiome that is essential for intestinal innate immunity, barrier function, and survival. Deletion of the Ca(2+) channel Orai1 in pancreatic acini of adult mice resulted in 60%-70% mortality within 3 weeks. Despite robust activation of the intestinal innate immune response, mice lacking acinar Orai1 exhibited intestinal bacterial outgrowth and dysbiosis, ultimately causing systemic translocation, inflammation, and death...
March 7, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272976/cathelicidin-peptide-rescues-g-mellonella-infected-with-b-anthracis
#19
Ryan J Blower, Serguei G Popov, Monique L van Hoek
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 16, 2017: Virulence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28246023/evaluation-of-the-antichagasic-activity-of-batroxicidin-a-cathelicidin-related-antimicrobial-peptide-found-in-bothrops-atrox-venom-gland
#20
Clarissa Perdigão Mello, Danya Bandeira Lima, Ramon Róseo Paula Pessoa Bezerra de Menezes, Izabel Cristina Justino Bandeira, Louise Donadello Tessarolo, Tiago Lima Sampaio, Claudio Borges Falcão, Gandhi Rádis-Baptista, Alice Maria Costa Martins
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are potential alternatives to conventional antibiotics, as they have a fast mode of action, a low likelihood of resistance development and can act in conjunction with existing drug regimens. We report in this study the effects of batroxicidin (BatxC), a cathelicidin-related AMP from Bothrops atrox venom gland, over Trypanosoma cruzi, a protozoan that causes Chagas' disease. BatxC inhibited all T. cruzi (Y strain: benznidazole-resistant) developmental forms, with selectivity index of 315...
February 27, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
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