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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526374/impact-of-high-dose-vitamin-d3-on-plasma-free-25-hydroxyvitamin-d-concentrations-and-antimicrobial-peptides-in-critically-ill-mechanically-ventilated-adults
#1
Jenny E Han, Jessica A Alvarez, Jennifer L Jones, Vin Tangpricha, Mona A Brown, Li Hao, Lou Ann S Brown, Greg S Martin, Thomas R Ziegler
OBJECTIVES: High-dose vitamin D3 increases plasma total 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] in critically ill, ventilated patients; however, to our knowledge, the effect on plasma levels of free (nonprotein-bound) 25(OH)D has not been investigated in critical illness. Moreover, the relationship of free 25(OH)D and the regulation of endogenous antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) remains unknown. The aims of this study were to determine in critically ill adults with respiratory failure the effect of previous high-dose regimens of vitamin D3 on free 25(OH)D concentrations, the relationship of free 25(OH)D with circulating cathelicidin (LL-37) and human beta-defensin-2 (hBD-2), and the associations between plasma levels of free 25(OH)D and these AMPs to alveolar macrophage phagocytosis function...
June 2017: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525841/ll-37-derived-short-antimicrobial-peptide-kr-12-a5-and-its-d-amino-acid-substituted-analogs-with-cell-selectivity-anti-biofilm-activity-synergistic-effect-with-conventional-antibiotics-and-anti-inflammatory-activity
#2
Eun Young Kim, Ganesan Rajasekaran, Song Yub Shin
KR-12-a5 is a 12-meric α-helical antimicrobial peptide (AMP) with dual antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activities designed from human cathelicidin LL-37. We designed and synthesized a series of d-amino acid-substituted analogs of KR-12-a5 with the aim of developing novel α-helical AMPs that possess higher cell selectivity than KR-12-a5, while maintaining the anti-inflammatory activity. d-amino acid incorporation into KR-12-a5 induced a significant improvement in the cell selectivity by 2.6- to 13.6-fold as compared to KR-12-a5, while maintaining the anti-inflammatory activity...
May 11, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522372/effective-antimicrobial-activity-of-a-peptide-mutant-cbf-14-2-against-penicillin-resistant-bacteria-based-on-its-unnatural-amino-acids
#3
Wei Kang, Hanhan Liu, Lingman Ma, Mengxiao Wang, Shanshan Wei, Pengbo Sun, Meiling Jiang, Min Guo, Changlin Zhou, Jie Dou
Broad spectrum activities, a unique mode of actions and rare resistant variants make antimicrobial peptide (AMP) a potential alternative to antibiotics. However, AMPs still have limitations in clinical development due to their physiological stability, toxicity and manufacturing costs. Cbf-14, derived from cathelicidin-BF has been proven to be effective against drug-resistant bacteria. Herein, a series of Cbf-14 mutants were designed to overcome these limitations. Design strategies included substitutions of lysine (Lys) or leucine (Leu) with similar residues such as ornithine (Orn) and norleucine (Ile), which are unnatural amino acids, to generate AMPs with enhanced therapeutic potential...
May 15, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521337/perspectives-for-clinical-use-of-engineered-human-host-defense-antimicrobial-peptides
#4
María Eugenia Pachón-Ibáñez, Younes Smani, Jerónimo Pachón, Javier Sánchez-Céspedes
Infectious diseases caused by bacteria, viruses or fungi are among the leading causes of death worldwide. The emergence of drug-resistance mechanisms, especially among bacteria, threatens the efficacy of all current antimicrobial agents, some of them already ineffective. As a result, there is an urgent need for new antimicrobial drugs. Host defense antimicrobial peptides (HDPs) are natural occurring and well-conserved peptides of innate immunity, broadly active against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, viruses and fungi...
May 1, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513981/exposure-to-fermentation-supernatant-of-staphylococcus-aureus-accelerated-dedifferentiation-of-chondrocytes-and-production-of-antimicrobial-peptides
#5
Shuaijun Li, Yun Zhang, Yidan Sun, Weigang Cao, Lei Cui
Staphylococcus aureus is the most popular pathogen found in septic arthritis. Despite bacteria was eradicated from joint cavity during acute infection, destruction of articular cartilage often continues for years, leading to permanent joint damage. The mechanism responsible for this consistent catabolic reaction in septic arthritis remains unclear. Here, we found that fermentation supernatant (FS) of Staphylococcus aureus accelerated dedifferentiation of chondrocytes and induced expression of catabolic factors including A Disintegrin-like and Metalloproteinase with Thrombospondin-1 motifs 5, NO synthase 2, matrix metalloproteinase -3, -13...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494754/circulating-cathelicidin-levels-correlate-with-mucosal-disease-activity-in-ulcerative-colitis-risk-of-intestinal-stricture-in-crohn-s-disease-and-clinical-prognosis-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#6
Diana Hoang-Ngoc Tran, Jiani Wang, Christina Ha, Wendy Ho, S Anjani Mattai, Angelos Oikonomopoulos, Guy Weiss, Precious Lacey, Michelle Cheng, Christine Shieh, Caroline C Mussatto, Samantha Ho, Daniel Hommes, Hon Wai Koon
BACKGROUND: Cathelicidin (LL-37) is an antimicrobial peptide known to be associated with various autoimmune diseases. We attempt to determine if cathelicidin can accurately reflect IBD disease activity. We hypothesize that serum cathelicidin correlates with mucosal disease activity, stricture, and clinical prognosis of IBD patients. METHODS: Serum samples were collected from two separate cohorts of patients at the University of California, Los Angeles. Cohort 1 consisted of 50 control, 23 UC, and 28 CD patients...
May 12, 2017: BMC Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484129/expression-of-ayu-antimicrobial-peptide-genes-after-lps-stimulation
#7
Rehab Marray Nsrelden, Hiroyuki Horiuchi, Shuichi Furusawa
Plecoglossus altivelis (ayu) is one of the most important fish species in the Japanese islands and in internal fish hatcheries. Living in open aquatic environments exposes fish to many pathogens. Therefore, they require rapid and strong immune defenses. We investigated in vivo the direct association between the ayu innate immune response, represented by the relative transcription of genes encoding the cathelicidin and hepcidin antimicrobial peptides, and lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a conventional pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) of Gram-negative bacteria...
May 7, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482118/autoantigens-adamtsl5-and-ll37-are-significantly-upregulated-in-active-psoriasis-and-localized-with-keratinocytes-dendritic-cells-and-other-leukocytes
#8
Judilyn Fuentes-Duculan, Kathleen M Bonifacio, Jason E Hawkes, Norma Kunjravia, Inna Cueto, Xuan Li, Juana Gonzalez, Sandra Garcet, James G Krueger
Psoriasis is a common immune-mediated disease that affects 2-4% of individuals in North America and Europe. In the past decade, advances in research have led to an improved understanding of immune pathways involved in the pathogenesis of psoriasis and has spurred the development of targeted therapeutics. Recently, three psoriasis autoantigens have been described: cathelicidin (LL37), a disintegrin and metalloprotease domain containing thrombospondin type 1 motif-like 5 (ADAMTSL5), and lipid antigens generated by phospholipase A2 (PLA2) group IVD (PLA2G4D)...
May 8, 2017: Experimental Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460048/role-of-pattern-recognition-receptors-in-the-modulation-of-antimicrobial-peptide-expression-in-the-corneal-epithelial-innate-response-to-f-solani
#9
Satya Sree Kolar, Hasna Baidouri, Alison M McDermott
Purpose: Fusarium solani (F. solani) keratitis is a potentially sight-threatening fungal infection of the cornea. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), such as human β-defensins (hBDs) and cathelicidins, essential components of the immune system, likely have a protective role against F. solani keratitis. We examined the role of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), Dectin-1, and TLR2 in F. solani-induced modulation of AMP expression in vitro. Methods: Human corneal epithelial cells (HCECs) were exposed to heat-inactivated F...
May 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454736/a-new-cryptic-host-defense-peptide-identified-in-human-11-hydroxysteroid-dehydrogenase-1-%C3%AE-like-from-in-silico-identification-to-experimental-evidence
#10
A Bosso, L Pirone, R Gaglione, K Pane, A Del Gatto, L Zaccaro, S Di Gaetano, D Diana, R Fattorusso, E Pedone, V Cafaro, H P Haagsman, A van Dijk, M R Scheenstra, A Zanfardino, O Crescenzi, A Arciello, M Varcamonti, E J A Veldhuizen, A Di Donato, E Notomista, E Pizzo
BACKGROUND: Host defence peptides (HDPs) are evolutionarily conserved components of innate immunity. Human HDPs, produced by a variety of immune cells of hematopoietic and epithelial origin, are generally grouped into two families: beta structured defensins and variably-structured cathelicidins. We report the characterization of a very promising cryptic human HDP, here called GVF27, identified in 11-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-1 β-like protein. METHODS: Conformational analysis of GVF27 and its propensity to bind endotoxins were performed by NMR, Circular Dichroism, Fluorescence and Dynamic Light Scattering experiments...
April 25, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450045/arginine-lysine-positional-swap-of-the-ll-37-peptides-reveals-evolutional-advantages-of-the-native-sequence-and-leads-to-bacterial-probes
#11
Xiuqing Wang, José Carlos Bozelli Junior, Biswajit Mishra, Tamara Lushnikova, Richard M Epand, Guangshun Wang
Antimicrobial peptides are essential components of the innate immune system of multicellular organisms. Although cationic and hydrophobic amino acids are known determinants of these amphipathic molecules for bacterial killing, it is not clear how lysine-arginine (K-R) positional swaps influence peptide structure and activity. This study addresses this question by investigating two groups of peptides (GF-17 and 17BIPHE2) derived from human cathelicidin LL-37. K-R positional swap showed little effect on minimal inhibitory concentrations of the peptides...
April 24, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436180/control-mechanisms-for-producing-antimicrobial-factors-in-ruminant-mammary-gland
#12
REVIEW
Naoki Isobe
Mastitis, a symptom of inflammation in mammary tissue by infection with various kinds of bacteria, causes huge economic losses in the milk industry. One of the popular methods for treatment of mastitis is antibiotics, although this prohibits milk shipping and sometimes causes resistant microbes. Therefore, a new strategy to treat mastitis without antibiotics is eagerly required around the world. Antimicrobial factors belong to innate immunity and can start their function extremely early after bacterial stimulation...
April 24, 2017: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428684/innate-immunity-of-adipose-tissue-in-rodent-models-of-local-and-systemic-staphylococcus-aureus-infection
#13
Andreas Schmid, Thomas Karrasch, Miriam Thomalla, Jutta Schlegel, Bernd Salzberger, Andreas Schäffler, Frank Hanses
Background. The role of adipose tissue in systemic inflammation during bacterial infection is unclear. Effects of Staphylococcus aureus infection on adipocytes in rodent models of experimental endocarditis and peritonitis, the impact of S. aureus infection on gene expression in epididymal and subcutaneous adipose tissue, and effects of S. aureus infection on the toll-like receptor-2- (TLR2-) cathelicidin pathway in vivo and in vitro were investigated. Material and methods. The rat model of catheter-induced S...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427192/dna-methylation-directly-downregulates-human-cathelicidin-antimicrobial-peptide-gene-camp-promoter-activity
#14
Xi Chen, Guangying Qi, Mingqun Qin, Yantao Zou, Kanghua Zhong, Ying Tang, Yong Guo, Xinxiang Jiang, Lihua Liang, Xianqiong Zou
LL-37, the active product of human cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide (CAMP) has a broad spectrum of antibacterial activity. LL-37 also has important physiological functions in immune regulation, angiogenesis and in modulating apoptosis. The roles of LL-37 in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) are still not clear. The correlation between DNA methylation and human CAMP expression is also unknown. Here human CAMP/LL-37 expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry in normal and OSCC tissues. The results indicated that low expression of CAMP/LL-37 correlated with histological differentiation and lymph node metastasis and also promoted tumor progression...
April 25, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421080/b-cell-functions-can-be-modulated-by-antimicrobial-peptides-in-rainbow-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss-novel-insights-into-the-innate-nature-of-b-cells-in-fish
#15
Xu-Jie Zhang, Peng Wang, Nu Zhang, Dan-Dan Chen, Pin Nie, Jia-Le Li, Yong-An Zhang
B cells in fish were recently proven to have potent innate immune activities like macrophages. This inspired us to further explore the innate nature of B cells in fish. Moreover, antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are representative molecules of innate immunity, and they can modulate the functions of macrophages. These make fish an appropriate model to study the interactions between B cells and AMPs. Interestingly, the results in this study revealed that the IgM(+) and IgT(+) B cells of rainbow trout could express multiple AMP genes, including four cathelicidin genes and one β-defensin gene...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420069/cathelicidin-ll-37-and-its-correlation-with-pro-oxidant-antioxidant-balance-and-disease-activity-in-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-a-cross-sectional-human-study
#16
M Sahebari, G Roshandel, N Saadati, M Saghafi, N Abdolahi, Z Rezaieyazdi
Background Cathelicidin (LL-37), an endogenous antimicrobial peptide, has recently been involved in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. To assess whether LL-37 reflects disease activity, we measured serum levels of it in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients with active and inactive disease compared to healthy controls. LL-37 was also compared between new and old cases. Moreover, the correlation of LL-37 and pro-oxidant, antioxidant balance (PAB) was measured. Methods The study population consisted of 50 SLE patients and 28 healthy controls...
January 1, 2017: Lupus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400226/in-vitro-effect-of-human-cathelicidin-antimicrobial-peptide-ll-37-on-dengue-virus-type-2
#17
K Alagarasu, P S Patil, P Shil, M Seervi, M B Kakade, H Tillu, A Salunke
Human Cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide LL-37 is known to have antiviral activity against many viruses. In the present study, we investigated the in-vitro effect of LL-37 on dengue virus type 2 (DENV-2) infection and replication in Vero E6 cells. To study the effect of pretreatment of virus or cells with LL-37, the virus was pretreated with different concentrations of LL-37 (2.5μM-15μM) or scrambled (Scr) LL-37(5μM-15μM) and used for infection or the cells were first treated with LL-37 and infected. To study the effect of LL-37 post infection (PI), the cells were infected first followed by addition of LL-37 to the culture medium 24h after infection...
April 9, 2017: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345770/effect-of-1-25-oh-2-d3-and-20-oh-d3-on-interleukin-1%C3%AE-stimulated-interleukin-6-and-8-production-by-human-gingival-fibroblasts
#18
V Nakashyan, D A Tipton, A Karydis, R Livada, S H Stein
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Vitamin D-1,25(OH)2 D3 or 1,25D3-maintains healthy osseous tissue, stimulates the production of the antimicrobial peptide cathelicidin and has anti-inflammatory effects, but it can cause hypercalcemia. Evidence links diminished serum levels of 1,25D3 with increased gingival inflammation. Periodontitis progression is associated with increased local production of inflammatory mediators by immune cells and gingival fibroblasts. These include interleukin (IL)-6, a regulator of osteoclastic bone resorption, and the neutrophil chemoattractant IL-8, both regulated by signaling pathways, including NF-κB and MAPK/AP-1...
March 27, 2017: Journal of Periodontal Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344161/cross-resistance-to-human-cationic-antimicrobial-peptides-and-to-polymyxins-mediated-by-the-plasmid-encoded-mcr-1
#19
J Dobias, L Poirel, P Nordmann
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate whether acquired resistance to cationic antimicrobial peptide (CAMP) group molecules, being normal components of the human immune system, may select co-resistance to antibiotic peptides such as polymyxins, considering they share the same mechanism of action. We aimed to evaluate strains producing the recently identified plasmid-encoded polymyxin resistance determinant MCR-1, which is a phosphoethanolamine transferase that modifies the lipopolysaccharide structure of Gram-negative bacteria...
March 23, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343946/double-stranded-rna-induces-cathelicidin-expression-in-the-intestinal-epithelial-cells-through-phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase-protein-kinase-c%C3%AE-sp1-pathway-and-ameliorates-shigellosis-in-mice
#20
Atri Ta, Bhupesh Kumar Thakur, Pujarini Dutta, Ritam Sinha, Hemanta Koley, Santasabuj Das
Cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide is a key component of the host innate immune system. It is constitutively expressed by the intestinal epithelial cells, but induced at further higher levels by different host-derived and microbial stimuli, including the ligands for Toll-like receptors (TLRs). While the underlying mechanisms of cathelicidin expression remain incompletely understood, altered expression may be associated with gastro-intestinal infections and inflammatory diseases. We demonstrate here that viral double-stranded RNA and its synthetic analog poly(I:C) are potent and tissue-specific inducers of cathelicidin mRNA and protein expression in the mouse as well as human intestinal epithelial cells...
March 24, 2017: Cellular Signalling
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