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Yan Xiong, Xiangfang Tang, Qingshi Meng, Hongfu Zhang
Ammonia has been considered the contaminant primarily responsible for respiratory disease in poultry. Even though it can cause tracheal lesions, its adverse effects on the trachea have not been sufficiently studied. The present study investigated tracheal changes in Arbor Acres broilers (Gallus gallus) induced by high concentration of ammonia using isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ)-based proteome analysis. In total, 3,706 proteins within false discovery rate of 1% were identified, including 119 significantly differentially expressed proteins...
October 17, 2016: Science China. Life Sciences
Michele Miraglia Del Giudice, Annalisa Allegorico
The role of vitamin D in calcium and phosphate homeostasis is well known; however, in addition to traditional functions, vitamin D modulates a variety of processes, and evidence shows that it has an important role in different allergic diseases such as asthma, atopic dermatitis, and food allergy. Vitamin D acts by binding to the vitamin D receptor, which is present in a variety of tissues; for this reason it is considered a hormone. One of the most important functions is to modulate the immune system response, both innate and adaptive, by suppressing Th2-type response and increasing natural killer cells...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
Awa R N'Diaye, Camille Leclerc, Takfarinas Kentache, Julie Hardouin, Cecile Duclairoir Poc, Yoan Konto-Ghiorghi, Sylvie Chevalier, Olivier Lesouhaitier, Marc G J Feuilloley
Staphylococci can sense Substance P (SP) in skin, but this molecule is generally released by nerve terminals along with another neuropeptide, Calcitonin Gene Related Peptide (CGRP). In this study, we investigated the effects of αCGRP on Staphylococci. CGRP induced a strong stimulation of Staphylococcus epidermidis virulence with a low threshold (<10(-12 )M) whereas Staphylococcus aureus was insensitive to CGRP. We observed that CGRP-treated S. epidermidis induced interleukin 8 release by keratinocytes...
October 14, 2016: Scientific Reports
Mi Ok Lee, Hyun-Jun Jang, Deivendran Rengaraj, Seo-Yeong Yang, Jae Yong Han, Susan J Lamont, James E Womack
BACKGROUND: Host defence peptides are a diverse group of small, cationic peptides and are important elements of the first line of defense against pathogens in animals. Expression and functional analysis of host defense peptides has been evaluated in chicken but there are no direct, comprehensive comparisons with all gene family and individual genes. RESULTS: We examined the expression patterns of all known cathelicidins, β-defensins and NK-lysin in multiple selected tissues from chickens...
October 13, 2016: BMC Veterinary Research
E Peel, Y Cheng, J T Djordjevic, S Fox, T C Sorrell, K Belov
Tasmanian devil joeys, like other marsupials, are born at a very early stage of development, prior to the development of their adaptive immune system, yet survive in a pathogen-laden pouch and burrow. Antimicrobial peptides, called cathelicidins, which provide innate immune protection during early life, are expressed in the pouch lining, skin and milk of devil dams. These peptides are active against pathogens identified in the pouch microbiome. Of the six characterised cathelicidins, Saha-CATH5 and 6 have broad-spectrum antibacterial activity and are capable of killing problematic human pathogens including methicillin-resistant S...
October 11, 2016: Scientific Reports
J J Todd, E M McSorley, L K Pourshahidi, S M Madigan, W Crowe, E J Laird, M Healy, A McNeilly, P J Magee
Vitamin D inadequacy [total 25(OH)D <50 nmol/L] is widespread in athletes. The biologically active metabolite, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D, may be involved in regulating inflammation although in vitro findings have not been consistently replicated in human intervention trials. This study, conducted at a latitude of 55°N, aimed to assess inflammatory biomarkers in Gaelic footballers before and after a wintertime vitamin D3 intervention. Samples from a 12-week double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial, in which 42 Gaelic footballers received 3000 IU (75 μg) vitamin D3 daily or placebo via oral spray solutions, were analysed for a range of inflammatory biomarkers...
October 5, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
Li-Wei Xing, Shi-Xun Tian, Wei Gao, Na Yang, Pei Qu, Di Liu, Jian Jiao, Jue Wang, Xing-Jun Feng
Fowlicidins are a group of cathelicidin antimicrobial peptides that were initially identified in chickens. Fowlicidin-2, which is composed of 31 amino acids, is widely expressed in the majority of tissues in chickens and has an important role in innate immunity. In the present study, a recombinant expression system for fowlicidin-2 was successfully constructed using Pichia pastoris X-33 and the expression vector pPICZα-A. Under the optimized fermentation conditions, 85.6 mg fowlicidin-2 with >95% purity was obtained from 1 liter culture medium following purification by ion exchange chromatography and reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography...
October 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Kamlesh Bhatt, Wasiulla Rafi, Neel Shah, Sylvia Christakos, Padmini Salgame
Induction of cathelicidin-mediated antimicrobial pathway against intracellular M. tuberculosis by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3), the active form of vitamin D, has been documented in vitro. However, in in vivo studies related to inflammatory disorders, 1,25(OH)2D3 has been demonstrated to induce an anti-inflammatory response. We therefore examined whether in the murine model of tuberculosis, the anti-inflammatory effects of 1,25(OH)2D3 would affect the outcome of M. tuberculosis infection. We show here that administration of 1,25(OH)2D3 to M...
October 4, 2016: Scientific Reports
Raquel Alvarado, Joyce To, Maria E Lund, Anita Pinar, Ashley Mansell, Mark W Robinson, Bronwyn A O'Brien, John P Dalton, Sheila Donnelly
The NLRP3 inflammasome is a multimeric protein complex that controls the production of IL-1β, a cytokine that influences the development of both innate and adaptive immune responses. Helminth parasites secrete molecules that interact with innate immune cells, modulating their activity to ultimately determine the phenotype of differentiated T cells, thus creating an immune environment that is conducive to sustaining chronic infection. We show that one of these molecules, FhHDM-1, a cathelicidin-like peptide secreted by the helminth parasite, Fasciola hepatica, inhibits the activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome resulting in reduced secretion of IL-1β by macrophages...
September 28, 2016: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Monica Benincasa, Cristina Lagatolla, Lucilla Dolzani, Annalisa Milan, Sabrina Pacor, Gianfranco Liut, Alessandro Tossi, Paola Cescutti, Roberto Rizzo
Biofilm matrices of two Klebsiella pneumoniae clinical isolates, KpTs101 and KpTs113, were investigated for their polysaccharide composition and protective effects against antimicrobial peptides. Both strains were good biofilm producers, with KpTs113 forming flocs with very low adhesive properties to supports. Matrix exopolysaccharides were isolated and their monosaccharide composition and glycosidic linkage types were defined. KpTs101 polysaccharide is neutral and composed only of galactose, in both pyranose and furanose ring configurations...
August 10, 2016: Microorganisms
Alicja Krejner, Małgorzata Litwiniuk, Tomasz Grzela
Human cathelicidin, LL-37, is small antimicrobial peptide, which reveals also some immunomodulatory and proangiogenic properties and, therefore, may promote wound healing. The expression of LL-37 is controlled by various factors, including vitamin D. Thus, any disturbances in vitamin D level may influence LL-37 production and, possibly, affect wound healing. Since deficiency of vitamin D was identified as a common problem in the population, this proof of concept study aimed to verify the relationship between serum levels of LL-37, vitamin D, and healing rate of venous leg ulcers...
September 23, 2016: Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis
Yi-Jie Guo, Bo Zhang, Xue-Song Feng, Hui-Xun Ren, Ji-Ru Xu
BACKGROUND: Streptococcus mutans forms biofilms as a resistance mechanism against antimicrobial agents in the human oral cavity. We recently showed that human cathelicidin LL-37 exhibits inhibitory effects on biofilm formation of S. mutans through interaction with lipoteichoic acid (LTA), but without antibacterial or biofilm dispersal abilities. (-)-Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) is the most abundant constituent of tea catechins that has the greatest anti-infective potential to inhibit the growth of various microorganisms and biofilm formation...
2016: BMC Oral Health
Cheng Kao, Xiaoyan Lin, Guanghui Yi, Yunliang Zhang, Dean A Rowe-Magnus, Karen Bush
UNLABELLED: The world is at the precipice of a postantibiotic era in which medical procedures and minor injuries can result in bacterial infections that are no longer effectively treated by antibiotics. Cathelicidins are peptides produced by animals to combat bacterial infections and to regulate innate immune responses. However, cathelicidins are potent activators of the inflammatory response. Cathelicidins with reduced proinflammatory activity and potent bactericidal activity in the low micromolar range against Gram-negative bacteria have been identified...
2016: MBio
Janice García-Quiroz, Rocío García-Becerra, Galia Lara-Sotelo, Euclides Avila, Sofía López, Nancy Santos-Martínez, Ali Halhali, David Ordaz-Rosado, David Barrera, Andrea Olmos-Ortiz, María J Ibarra-Sánchez, José Esparza-López, Fernando Larrea, Lorenza Díaz
Factors affecting vitamin D metabolism may preclude anti-carcinogenic effects of its active metabolite calcitriol. Chronic ethanol consumption is an etiological factor for breast cancer that affects vitamin D metabolism; however, the mechanisms underlying this causal association have not been fully clarified. Using a murine model, we examined the effects of chronic moderate ethanol intake on tumoral and renal CYP27B1 and CYP24A1 gene expression, the enzymes involved in calcitriol synthesis and inactivation, respectively...
September 14, 2016: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Erica Miraglia, Frank Nylén, Katarina Johansson, Elias Arnér, Marcus Cebula, Susan Farmand, Håkan Ottosson, Roger Strömberg, Gudmundur H Gudmundsson, Birgitta Agerberth, Peter Bergman
Bacterial resistance against classical antibiotics is a growing problem and the development of new antibiotics is limited. Thus, novel alternatives to antibiotics are warranted. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are effector molecules of innate immunity that can be induced by several compounds, including vitamin D and phenyl-butyrate (PBA). Utilizing a luciferase based assay, we recently discovered that the histone deacetylase inhibitor Entinostat is a potent inducer of the CAMP gene encoding the human cathelicidin LL-37...
2016: Scientific Reports
Dhruv Parekh, Jaimin M Patel, Aaron Scott, Sian Lax, Rachel C A Dancer, Vijay D'Souza, Hannah Greenwood, William D Fraser, Fang Gao, Elizabeth Sapey, Gavin D Perkins, David R Thickett
OBJECTIVES: Vitamin D deficiency has been implicated as a pathogenic factor in sepsis and ICU mortality but causality of these associations has not been demonstrated. To determine whether sepsis and severe sepsis are associated with vitamin D deficiency and to determine whether vitamin D deficiency influences the severity of sepsis. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PATIENTS: Sixty-one patients with sepsis and severe sepsis from two large U.K. hospitals and 20 healthy controls were recruited...
September 14, 2016: Critical Care Medicine
Viktoria A F Schneider, Maarten Coorens, Soledad R Ordonez, Johanna L M Tjeerdsma-van Bokhoven, George Posthuma, Albert van Dijk, Henk P Haagsman, Edwin J A Veldhuizen
Host defence peptides (HDPs) have the potential to become alternatives to conventional antibiotics in human and veterinary medicine. The HDP chicken cathelicidin-2 (CATH-2) has immunomodulatory and direct killing activities at micromolar concentrations. In this study the mechanism of action of CATH-2 against Escherichia coli (E. coli) was investigated in great detail using a unique combination of imaging and biophysical techniques. Live-imaging with confocal fluorescence microscopy demonstrated that FITC-labelled CATH-2 mainly localized at the membrane of E...
2016: Scientific Reports
Julio E Castañeda-Delgado, Isabel Frausto-Lujan, Irma González-Curiel, Alejandra Montoya-Rosales, Carmen J Serrano, Flor Torres-Juarez, Jose A Enciso-Moreno, Bruno Rivas-Santiago
Aging is a major health issue due to the increased susceptibility of elderly people to infectious, autoimmune, and cardiovascular diseases. Innate immunity is an important mechanism to avoid primary infections; therefore, decreasing of its activity may lead to development of infections. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are effector molecules of innate immunity that can eliminate microbial invaders. The role that cytokines play in the regulation of these innate immune mechanisms needs to be explored. Serum determinations of Th1, Th2, and Th17 cytokines were performed in order to evaluate their association with AMPs human beta-defensin (HBD)-2 and LL-37 in young adults, elder adults, and elder adults with recurrent infections...
September 12, 2016: Immunological Investigations
Eddy-Tim Verjans, Sven Zels, Walter Luyten, Bart Landuyt, Liliane Schoofs
The human cathelicidin peptide LL-37 plays a crucial role in the immune system on many levels, from the first line of defense in epithelial cells to restoring the tissue after infection. On host cells, the majority of the LL-37-induced effects are mediated via the direct or indirect activation of several structurally unrelated cell surface receptors or intracellular targets. How LL-37 is able to affect multiple receptors is currently not well understood. So far, the mechanistic details underlying receptor activation are poorly investigated and evidence for a conventional ligand/receptor interaction is scarce...
September 5, 2016: Peptides
I-Ni Hsieh, Kevan L Hartshorn
Influenza A virus (IAV) remains a major threat that can cause severe morbidity and mortality due to rapid genomic variation. Resistance of IAVs to current anti-IAV drugs has been emerging, and antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) have been considered to be potential candidates for novel treatment against IAV infection. AMPs are endogenous proteins playing important roles in host defense through direct antimicrobial and antiviral activities and through immunomodulatory effects. In this review, we will discuss the anti-IAV and immunomodulatory effects of classical AMPs (defensins and cathelicidins), and proteins more recently discovered to have AMP-like activity (histones and Alzheimer's associated β-amyloid)...
September 6, 2016: Pharmaceuticals
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