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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643993/the-impact-of-vitamin-d-supplementation-on-serum-cathelicidin-levels-and-the-clinical-course-of-atopic-dermatitis-in-children
#1
Kyriaki Tsotra, Anastasia Garoufi, Lydia Kossiva, Dimitrios Gourgiotis, Theano Tsoukatou, Eleni Katsantoni, Panagiotis Stavropoulos
BACKGROUND: Cathelicidin has been correlated with the pathophysiology of atopic dermatitis (AD). An indirect correlation of vitamin D with the course of the disease has already been reported as it directly affects the levels of cathelicidin. The purpose of the present article is to investigate the impact of vitamin D supplementation on the course of AD. METHODS: We conducted a prospective observational study. The severity of AD was assessed with the clinical tool SCORAD (SCORing Atopic Dermatitis) which is developed by the European Task Force on AD...
June 22, 2017: Minerva Pediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630199/genome-wide-analysis-of-the-antimicrobial-peptides-in-python-bivittatus-and-characterization-of-cathelicidins-with-potent-antimicrobial-activity-and-low-cytotoxicity
#2
Dayeong Kim, Nagasundarapandian Soundrarajan, Juyeon Lee, Hye-Sun Cho, Minkyeung Choi, Se-Yeoun Cha, Byeongyong Ahn, Hyoim Jeon, Minh Thong Le, Hyuk Song, Jin-Hoi Kim, Chankyu Park
In this study, we sought to identify novel antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) in Python bivittatus through bioinformatic analyses of publicly available genome information and experimental validation. In our analysis of the python genome, we identified 29 AMP-related candidate sequences. Of these, we selected five cathelicidin-like sequences and subjected them to further in silico analyses. The results showed that these sequences likely have antimicrobial activity. The sequences were named Pb-CATH1-Pb-CATH5 according to their sequence similarity to previously reported snake cathelicidins...
June 19, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623379/cathelicidin-deficient-mice-exhibit-increased-survival-and-upregulation-of-key-inflammatory-response-genes-following-cecal-ligation-and-puncture
#3
Patricia Severino, Suely Kubo Ariga, Hermes Vieira Barbeiro, Thais Martins de Lima, Elisangela de Paula Silva, Denise Frediani Barbeiro, Marcel Cerqueira César Machado, Victor Nizet, Fabiano Pinheiro da Silva
Antimicrobial peptides possess a myriad of molecular properties including bacterial killing and the regulation of many aspects of innate immunity. Cathelicidins are a group of antimicrobial peptides widely investigated by the scientific community. Many studies have focused on the bactericidal and pro-inflammatory roles of cathelicidins. Because the role of endogenous cathelicidin expression remains obscure in deep-seated systemic infections, we induced sepsis in cathelicidin knockout and wild-type (WT) mice by cecal ligation and puncture, performing transcriptome screening by DNA microarray in conjunction with other immunologic assays...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Molecular Medicine: Official Organ of the "Gesellschaft Deutscher Naturforscher und Ärzte"
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622535/vitamin-d-mediates-the-relationship-between-placental-cathelicidin-and-group-b-streptococcus-colonization-during-pregnancy
#4
Christine C Akoh, Eva K Pressman, Corrie M Whisner, Carrie Thomas, Chang Cao, Tera Kent, Elizabeth Cooper, Kimberly O O'Brien
Vitamin D is thought to modulate innate immune responses, and recent studies have highlighted the autocrine and paracrine functions of vitamin D in the placenta. Our objective was to determine the relationship between maternal vitamin D status and placental antimicrobial peptide (AMP) expression in a group of racially and ethnically diverse pregnant adolescents. In this study, 158 pregnant adolescents were recruited from the Rochester Adolescent Maternity Program (RAMP) in Rochester, NY. Maternal serum concentrations of the vitamin D biomarkers, 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D), were measured at mid-gestation (∼26 weeks) and at delivery...
June 6, 2017: Journal of Reproductive Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622430/enterohaemorrhagic-escherichia-coli-produces-outer-membrane-vesicles-as-an-active-defense-system-against-antimicrobial-peptide-ll-37
#5
Akiko Urashima, Ayano Sanou, Hilo Yen, Toru Tobe
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are important components of the innate immune system. Enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC), a food-borne pathogen causing serious diarrheal diseases, must overcome attack by AMPs. Here, we show that resistance of EHEC against human cathelicidin LL-37, a primary AMP, was enhanced by butyrate, which has been shown to act as a stimulant for the expression of virulence genes. The increase of resistance depended on the activation of the ompT gene, which encodes the outer membrane protease OmpT for LL-37...
June 16, 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620394/vitamin-d-counteracts-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-induced-cathelicidin-downregulation-in-dendritic-cells-and-allows-th1-differentiation-and-ifn%C3%AE-secretion
#6
Anna K O Rode, Martin Kongsbak, Marie M Hansen, Daniel Villalba Lopez, Trine B Levring, Anders Woetmann, Niels Ødum, Charlotte M Bonefeld, Carsten Geisler
Tuberculosis (TB) presents a serious health problem with approximately one-third of the world's population infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis in a latent state. Experience from the pre-antibiotic era and more recent clinical studies have established a beneficial role of sunlight and vitamin D in patients with TB. At the same time, experimental data have shown that Th1 cells through production of IFNγ are crucial for cathelicidin release by macrophages, bacterial killing, and containment of M. tuberculosis in granulomas...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593346/the-first-identified-cathelicidin-from-tree-frogs-possesses-anti-inflammatory-and-partial-lps-neutralization-activities
#7
Lixian Mu, Lei Zhou, Juanjuan Yang, Li Zhuang, Jing Tang, Tong Liu, Jing Wu, Hailong Yang
As of February 2017, approximately 7639 amphibian species have been described in the AmphibiaWeb database. However, only 20 cathelicidin-like antimicrobial peptides have been identified to date from 10 amphibian species. Half of these peptides were identified from genome sequences and have not yet been functionally characterized. In this study, a novel cathelicidin-like peptide designated cathelicidin-PP was purified from the skin of tree frog Polypedates puerensis. Cathelicidin-PP is a 32 residue peptide of sequence ASENGKCNLLCLVKKKLRAVGNVIKTVVGKIA...
June 7, 2017: Amino Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28572668/cathelicidin-trypsin-inhibitor-loop-conjugate-represents-a-promising-antibiotic-candidate-with-protease-stability
#8
Haining Yu, Chen Wang, Lan Feng, Shasha Cai, Xuelian Liu, Xue Qiao, Nannan Shi, Hui Wang, Yipeng Wang
Cathelicidins are regarded as promising antibiotics due to their capability against antibiotic-resistant bacteria without cytotoxicity. However, some concerns about the balance of cytotoxicity and antimicrobial activity, weak stability and enzymatic susceptibility sually restrict their therapeutic use. Here, we designed a series of shortened variants, Hc1~15, based on our previously characterized Hc-CATH. Hc3, the one with the best activity, after point mutation was engineered with a trypsin inhibitor loop, ORB-C, to obtain four hybrid peptides: H3TI, TIH3, H3TIF and TIH3F...
June 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550757/serum-levels-of-peptide-cathelicidin-ll-37-in-elderly-patients-with-depression
#9
Elżbieta Kozłowska, Adam Wysokiński, Ewa Brzezińska-Błaszczyk
Cathelicidin LL-37 is a small cationic that plays an important role in antimicrobial defense, as it kills a broad spectrum of infectious agents by disrupting their membranes, including gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, some viruses and fungi; and it neutralizes activity of bacterial endotoxins. Moreover, cathelicidin LL-37 exerts proinflammatory effect, while numerous reports indicate the role of inflammation in the development of depression. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the circulating levels of cathelicidin LL-37 in elderly depressed patients...
May 22, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549300/evaluation-of-the-in-vitro-effect-of-boldo-and-meadowsweet-plant-extracts-on-the-expression-of-antimicrobial-peptides-and-inflammatory-markers-in-canine-keratinocytes
#10
Domenico Santoro, Kim Ahrens, Ryan Vesny, Christelle Navarro, Hugues Gatto, Rosanna Marsella
Dogs with allergies are prone to skin infections and treatments/preventatives to boost innate immune-defenses are beneficial. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of Boldo and Meadowsweet extracts on the expression of β-defensins (cBD), cathelicidin (cCath), and pro-inflammatory cytokines in canine keratinocyte. This study had two phases. Phase I evaluated mRNA expression of cBD103 and cCath, and secretion of cCath, IL-8 and TNF-α by keratinocytes harvested from healthy (n=5) and atopic (n=5) age-matched beagles exposed to Boldo (2% to 0...
May 17, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526374/impact-of-high-dose-vitamin-d3-on-plasma-free-25-hydroxyvitamin-d-concentrations-and-antimicrobial-peptides-in-critically-ill-mechanically-ventilated-adults
#11
Jenny E Han, Jessica A Alvarez, Jennifer L Jones, Vin Tangpricha, Mona A Brown, Li Hao, Lou Ann S Brown, Greg S Martin, Thomas R Ziegler
OBJECTIVES: High-dose vitamin D3 increases plasma total 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] in critically ill, ventilated patients; however, to our knowledge, the effect on plasma levels of free (nonprotein-bound) 25(OH)D has not been investigated in critical illness. Moreover, the relationship of free 25(OH)D and the regulation of endogenous antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) remains unknown. The aims of this study were to determine in critically ill adults with respiratory failure the effect of previous high-dose regimens of vitamin D3 on free 25(OH)D concentrations, the relationship of free 25(OH)D with circulating cathelicidin (LL-37) and human beta-defensin-2 (hBD-2), and the associations between plasma levels of free 25(OH)D and these AMPs to alveolar macrophage phagocytosis function...
June 2017: Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525841/ll-37-derived-short-antimicrobial-peptide-kr-12-a5-and-its-d-amino-acid-substituted-analogs-with-cell-selectivity-anti-biofilm-activity-synergistic-effect-with-conventional-antibiotics-and-anti-inflammatory-activity
#12
Eun Young Kim, Ganesan Rajasekaran, Song Yub Shin
KR-12-a5 is a 12-meric α-helical antimicrobial peptide (AMP) with dual antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activities designed from human cathelicidin LL-37. We designed and synthesized a series of d-amino acid-substituted analogs of KR-12-a5 with the aim of developing novel α-helical AMPs that possess higher cell selectivity than KR-12-a5, while maintaining the anti-inflammatory activity. d-amino acid incorporation into KR-12-a5 induced a significant improvement in the cell selectivity by 2.6- to 13.6-fold as compared to KR-12-a5, while maintaining the anti-inflammatory activity...
May 11, 2017: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522372/effective-antimicrobial-activity-of-a-peptide-mutant-cbf-14-2-against-penicillin-resistant-bacteria-based-on-its-unnatural-amino-acids
#13
Wei Kang, Hanhan Liu, Lingman Ma, Mengxiao Wang, Shanshan Wei, Pengbo Sun, Meiling Jiang, Min Guo, Changlin Zhou, Jie Dou
Broad spectrum activities, a unique mode of actions and rare resistant variants make antimicrobial peptide (AMP) a potential alternative to antibiotics. However, AMPs still have limitations in clinical development due to their physiological stability, toxicity and manufacturing costs. Cbf-14, derived from cathelicidin-BF has been proven to be effective against drug-resistant bacteria. Herein, a series of Cbf-14 mutants were designed to overcome these limitations. Design strategies included substitutions of lysine (Lys) or leucine (Leu) with similar residues such as ornithine (Orn) and norleucine (Ile), which are unnatural amino acids, to generate AMPs with enhanced therapeutic potential...
May 15, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521337/perspectives-for-clinical-use-of-engineered-human-host-defense-antimicrobial-peptides
#14
María Eugenia Pachón-Ibáñez, Younes Smani, Jerónimo Pachón, Javier Sánchez-Céspedes
Infectious diseases caused by bacteria, viruses or fungi are among the leading causes of death worldwide. The emergence of drug-resistance mechanisms, especially among bacteria, threatens the efficacy of all current antimicrobial agents, some of them already ineffective. As a result, there is an urgent need for new antimicrobial drugs. Host defense antimicrobial peptides (HDPs) are natural occurring and well-conserved peptides of innate immunity, broadly active against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, viruses and fungi...
May 1, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28513981/exposure-to-fermentation-supernatant-of-staphylococcus-aureus-accelerated-dedifferentiation-of-chondrocytes-and-production-of-antimicrobial-peptides
#15
Shuaijun Li, Yun Zhang, Yidan Sun, Weigang Cao, Lei Cui
Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is the most popular pathogen found in septic arthritis. Despite bacteria was eradicated from joint cavity during acute infection, destruction of articular cartilage often continues for years, leading to permanent joint damage. The mechanism responsible for this consistent catabolic reaction in septic arthritis remains unclear. Here, we found that fermentation supernatant (FS) of S. aureus accelerated dedifferentiation of chondrocytes and induced expression of catabolic factors including A Disintegrin-like and Metalloproteinase with Thrombospondin-1 motifs 5, NO synthase 2, matrix metalloproteinase-3, -13...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494754/circulating-cathelicidin-levels-correlate-with-mucosal-disease-activity-in-ulcerative-colitis-risk-of-intestinal-stricture-in-crohn-s-disease-and-clinical-prognosis-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#16
Diana Hoang-Ngoc Tran, Jiani Wang, Christina Ha, Wendy Ho, S Anjani Mattai, Angelos Oikonomopoulos, Guy Weiss, Precious Lacey, Michelle Cheng, Christine Shieh, Caroline C Mussatto, Samantha Ho, Daniel Hommes, Hon Wai Koon
BACKGROUND: Cathelicidin (LL-37) is an antimicrobial peptide known to be associated with various autoimmune diseases. We attempt to determine if cathelicidin can accurately reflect IBD disease activity. We hypothesize that serum cathelicidin correlates with mucosal disease activity, stricture, and clinical prognosis of IBD patients. METHODS: Serum samples were collected from two separate cohorts of patients at the University of California, Los Angeles. Cohort 1 consisted of 50 control, 23 UC, and 28 CD patients...
May 12, 2017: BMC Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484129/expression-of-ayu-antimicrobial-peptide-genes-after-lps-stimulation
#17
Rehab Marray Nsrelden, Hiroyuki Horiuchi, Shuichi Furusawa
Plecoglossus altivelis (ayu) is one of the most important fish species in the Japanese islands and in internal fish hatcheries. Living in open aquatic environments exposes fish to many pathogens. Therefore, they require rapid and strong immune defenses. We investigated in vivo the direct association between the ayu innate immune response, represented by the relative transcription of genes encoding the cathelicidin and hepcidin antimicrobial peptides, and lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a conventional pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) of Gram-negative bacteria...
May 7, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482118/autoantigens-adamtsl5-and-ll37-are-significantly-upregulated-in-active-psoriasis-and-localized-with-keratinocytes-dendritic-cells-and-other-leukocytes
#18
Judilyn Fuentes-Duculan, Kathleen M Bonifacio, Jason E Hawkes, Norma Kunjravia, Inna Cueto, Xuan Li, Juana Gonzalez, Sandra Garcet, James G Krueger
Psoriasis is a common immune-mediated disease that affects 2-4% of individuals in North America and Europe. In the past decade, advances in research have led to an improved understanding of immune pathways involved in the pathogenesis of psoriasis and has spurred the development of targeted therapeutics. Recently, three psoriasis autoantigens have been described: cathelicidin (LL37), a disintegrin and metalloprotease domain containing thrombospondin type 1 motif-like 5 (ADAMTSL5), and lipid antigens generated by phospholipase A2 (PLA2) group IVD (PLA2G4D)...
May 8, 2017: Experimental Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460048/role-of-pattern-recognition-receptors-in-the-modulation-of-antimicrobial-peptide-expression-in-the-corneal-epithelial-innate-response-to-f-solani
#19
Satya Sree Kolar, Hasna Baidouri, Alison M McDermott
Purpose: Fusarium solani (F. solani) keratitis is a potentially sight-threatening fungal infection of the cornea. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), such as human β-defensins (hBDs) and cathelicidins, essential components of the immune system, likely have a protective role against F. solani keratitis. We examined the role of pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), Dectin-1, and TLR2 in F. solani-induced modulation of AMP expression in vitro. Methods: Human corneal epithelial cells (HCECs) were exposed to heat-inactivated F...
May 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28454736/a-new-cryptic-host-defense-peptide-identified-in-human-11-hydroxysteroid-dehydrogenase-1-%C3%AE-like-from-in-silico-identification-to-experimental-evidence
#20
A Bosso, L Pirone, R Gaglione, K Pane, A Del Gatto, L Zaccaro, S Di Gaetano, D Diana, R Fattorusso, E Pedone, V Cafaro, H P Haagsman, A van Dijk, M R Scheenstra, A Zanfardino, O Crescenzi, A Arciello, M Varcamonti, E J A Veldhuizen, A Di Donato, E Notomista, E Pizzo
BACKGROUND: Host defence peptides (HDPs) are evolutionarily conserved components of innate immunity. Human HDPs, produced by a variety of immune cells of hematopoietic and epithelial origin, are generally grouped into two families: beta structured defensins and variably-structured cathelicidins. We report the characterization of a very promising cryptic human HDP, here called GVF27, identified in 11-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-1 β-like protein. METHODS: Conformational analysis of GVF27 and its propensity to bind endotoxins were performed by NMR, Circular Dichroism, Fluorescence and Dynamic Light Scattering experiments...
April 25, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
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