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Fetal lung maturation

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440792/an-extra-uterine-system-to-physiologically-support-the-extreme-premature-lamb
#1
Emily A Partridge, Marcus G Davey, Matthew A Hornick, Patrick E McGovern, Ali Y Mejaddam, Jesse D Vrecenak, Carmen Mesas-Burgos, Aliza Olive, Robert C Caskey, Theodore R Weiland, Jiancheng Han, Alexander J Schupper, James T Connelly, Kevin C Dysart, Jack Rychik, Holly L Hedrick, William H Peranteau, Alan W Flake
In the developed world, extreme prematurity is the leading cause of neonatal mortality and morbidity due to a combination of organ immaturity and iatrogenic injury. Until now, efforts to extend gestation using extracorporeal systems have achieved limited success. Here we report the development of a system that incorporates a pumpless oxygenator circuit connected to the fetus of a lamb via an umbilical cord interface that is maintained within a closed 'amniotic fluid' circuit that closely reproduces the environment of the womb...
April 25, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28388600/influence-of-antenatal-glucocorticoid-on-preterm-lamb-diaphragm
#2
Tanzila Mahzabin, J Jane Pillow, Gavin J Pinniger, Anthony J Bakker, Peter B Noble, Robert B White, Kanakeswary Karisnan, Yong Song
BACKGROUND: Pregnant women at high risk of preterm delivery receive glucocorticoids to accelerate fetal lung maturation and surfactant synthesis. However, the effect of antenatal steroids on the developing diaphragm remains unclear. We hypothesized that maternal betamethasone impairs the fetal diaphragm, and the magnitude of the detrimental effect increases with longer duration of exposure. We aimed to determine how different durations of fetal exposure to maternal betamethasone treatment influence the fetal diaphragm at the functional and molecular levels...
April 7, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358292/pulmonary-exposure-to-metallic-nanomaterials-during-pregnancy-irreversibly-impairs-lung-development-of-the-offspring
#3
Emmanuel Paul, Marie-Laure Franco-Montoya, Erwan Paineau, Bernard Angeletti, Shamila Vibhushan, Audrey Ridoux, Arnaud Tiendrebeogo, Murielle Salome, Bernhard Hesse, Delphine Vantelon, Jérôme Rose, Florence Canouï-Poitrine, Jorge Boczkowski, Sophie Lanone, Christophe Delacourt, Jean-Claude Pairon
Due to the growing commercial applications of manufactured nanoparticles (NPs), toxicological studies on NPs, especially during the critical window of development, are of major importance. The aim of the study was to assess the impact of respiratory exposure to metallic and metal oxide NPs during pregnancy on lung development of the offspring and to determine the key parameters involved in lung alterations. Pregnant mice were exposed to weekly doses of 100 μg (total dose 300 μg) of titanium dioxide (TiO2), cerium oxide (CeO2), silver (Ag) NPs or saline solution by nonsurgical intratracheal instillation...
April 17, 2017: Nanotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342715/prediction-of-neonatal-respiratory-morbidity-by-quantitative-ultrasound-lung-texture-analysis-a-multicenter-study
#4
Montse Palacio, Elisenda Bonet-Carne, Teresa Cobo, Alvaro Perez-Moreno, Joan Sabrià, Jute Richter, Marian Kacerovsky, Bo Jacobsson, Raúl A García-Posada, Fernando Bugatto, Ramon Santisteve, Àngels Vives, Mauro Parra-Cordero, Edgar Hernandez-Andrade, José Luis Bartha, Pilar Carretero-Lucena, Kai Lit Tan, Rogelio Cruz-Martínez, Minke Burke, Suseela Vavilala, Igor Iruretagoyena, Juan Luis Delgado, Mauro Schenone, Josep Vilanova, Francesc Botet, George S H Yeo, Jon Hyett, Jan Deprest, Roberto Romero, Eduard Gratacos
BACKGROUND: Prediction of neonatal respiratory morbidity may be useful to plan delivery in complicated pregnancies. The limited predictive performance of the current diagnostic tests together with the risks of an invasive procedure limits the use of fetal lung maturity assessment. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to evaluate the performance of quantitative ultrasound texture analysis (quantusFLM) to predict neonatal respiratory morbidity in preterm and early-term (<39...
March 23, 2017: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342395/longitudinal-progression-of-fetal-short-term-variation-and-average-acceleration-and-deceleration-capacity-after-antenatal-maternal-betamethasone-application
#5
Joy Weyrich, Anna Setter, Alexander Müller, Georg Schmidt, Christine E Brambs, Javier U Ortiz, Silvia M Lobmaier
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the effect of maternal betamethasone given for fetal lung maturation on fetal short-term variation (STV) and average acceleration and deceleration capacity (AAC/ADC). Both of these factors are calculated by phase-rectified signal averaging (PRSA) and represent new parameters to assess the fetal autonomic nervous system. STUDY DESIGN: A longitudinal prospective study including 26 pregnant women at risk for preterm delivery was performed. Two injections of 12mg betamethasone were administered intramuscularly at a 24h interval for lung maturation...
May 2017: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326570/reproductive-disorders-in-female-rats-after-prenatal-exposure-to-betamethasone
#6
Cibele S Borges, Tainá L Pacheco, Marina T Guerra, Aline L Barros, Patricia V Silva, Gabriela Missassi, Katiussia Pinho da Silva, Janete A Anselmo-Franci, André S Pupo, Wilma De G Kempinas
Betamethasone is the drug of choice for antenatal treatment, promoting fetal lung maturation and decreasing mortality. Previous studies in rats reported male programming and alteration in sperm parameters and sexual behavior following intrauterine betamethasone exposure. The impact on the female reproductive development is not known. In this study, rat female offspring was assessed for sexual development, morphophysiology of the reproductive tract and fertility after maternal exposure to 0.1 mg kg(-1) of betamethasone or vehicle on gestational days 12, 13, 18 and 19...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321847/antenatal-corticosteroids-for-accelerating-fetal-lung-maturation-for-women-at-risk-of-preterm-birth
#7
REVIEW
Devender Roberts, Julie Brown, Nancy Medley, Stuart R Dalziel
BACKGROUND: Respiratory morbidity including respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) is a serious complication of preterm birth and the primary cause of early neonatal mortality and disability. While researching the effects of the steroid dexamethasone on premature parturition in fetal sheep in 1969, Liggins found that there was some inflation of the lungs of lambs born at gestations at which the lungs would be expected to be airless. Liggins and Howie published the first randomised controlled trial in humans in 1972 and many others followed...
March 21, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318025/maternal-chronic-hypoxia-increases-expression-of-genes-regulating-lung-liquid-movement-and-surfactant-maturation-in-male-fetuses-in-late-gestation
#8
Erin V McGillick, Sandra Orgeig, Beth J Allison, Kirsty L Brain, Youguo Niu, Nozomi Itani, Katie L Skeffington, Andrew D Kane, Emilio A Herrera, Dino A Giussani, Janna L Morrison
Chronic fetal hypoxaemia is a common pregnancy complication that may arise from maternal, placental and/or fetal factors. Respiratory outcome of the infant at birth likely depends on the duration, timing and severity of the hypoxaemic insult. We have isolated the effect of maternal chronic hypoxia (MCH) for a month in late gestation on fetal lung development. Pregnant ewes were exposed to normoxia (21% O2 ) or hypoxia (10% O2 ) from 105-138 d gestation (term ∼145 d). At 138 d, gene expression in fetal lung tissue was determined by qRT-PCR...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289707/eomesodermin-and-t-bet-mark-developmentally-distinct-human-natural-killer-cells
#9
Amélie Collins, Nyanza Rothman, Kang Liu, Steven L Reiner
Immaturity of the immune system of human fetuses and neonates is often invoked to explain their increased susceptibility to infection; however, the development of the fetal innate immune system in early life remains incompletely explored. We now show that the most mature NK cells found in adult (or postnatal) human circulation (CD94(-)CD16(+)) are absent during ontogeny. Human fetal NK cells were found to express the 2 signature T-box transcription factors essential for the development of all murine NK and NK-like cells, eomesodermin (Eomes) and T-bet...
March 9, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225423/committee-opinion-no-688-management-of-suboptimally-dated-pregnancies
#10
(no author information available yet)
The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists considers first-trimester ultrasonography to be the most accurate method to establish or confirm gestational age. Pregnancies without an ultrasonographic examination confirming or revising the estimated due date before 22 0/7 weeks of gestation should be considered suboptimally dated. This document provides guidance for managing pregnancies in which the best clinical estimate of gestational age is suboptimal. There is no role for elective delivery in a woman with a suboptimally dated pregnancy...
March 2017: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225418/committee-opinion-no-688-summary-management-of-suboptimally-dated-pregnancies
#11
(no author information available yet)
The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists considers first-trimester ultrasonography to be the most accurate method to establish or confirm gestational age. Pregnancies without an ultrasonographic examination confirming or revising the estimated due date before 22 0/7 weeks of gestation should be considered suboptimally dated. This document provides guidance for managing pregnancies in which the best clinical estimate of gestational age is suboptimal. There is no role for elective delivery in a woman with a suboptimally dated pregnancy...
March 2017: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188034/follistatin-like-1-expression-is-decreased-in-the-alveolar-epithelium-of-hypoplastic-rat-lungs-with-nitrofen-induced-congenital-diaphragmatic-hernia
#12
Toshiaki Takahashi, Julia Zimmer, Florian Friedmacher, Prem Puri
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Pulmonary hypoplasia (PH), characterized by incomplete alveolar development, remains a major therapeutic challenge associated with congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH). Follistatin-like 1 (Fstl1) is a crucial regulator of alveolar formation and maturation, which is strongly expressed in distal airway epithelium. Fstl1-deficient mice exhibit reduced airspaces, impaired alveolar epithelial cell differentiation, and insufficient production of surfactant proteins similar to PH in human CDH...
January 28, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178756/the-effect-of-freezing-amniotic-fluid-on-lamellar-body-count-fetal-lung-maturity-testing
#13
Sarah Carroll, Craig V Towers, Lynlee Wolfe, Lisa Duncan, Beth Weitz, Stephanie Porter
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 8, 2017: International Journal of Gynaecology and Obstetrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28170341/the-effects-of-antenatal-glucocorticoid-exposure-on-fetal-and-neonatal-skin-maturation
#14
Deanne August, Yogavijayan Kandasamy
AIMS: The use of antenatal glucocorticoids in women with preterm labor has dramatically improved outcomes for premature infants. The most commonly used antenatal glucocorticoids are betamethasone and dexamethasone. Glucocorticoids accelerate fetal lung growth by several mechanisms, including the maturation of type II pneumocytes enabling surfactant production. Furthermore, the lipids in the lung share similarity with those in the skin. Therefore, antenatal administration of glucocorticoids may have effects on the structure and function of the developing epidermal barrier in fetuses and neonates...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Perinatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152282/human-fetal-lung-morphometry-at-autopsy-with-new-modeling-to-quantitate-structural-maturity
#15
Jill Lipsett
OBJECTIVES: To demonstrate a simplified morphometric procedure, including a new model for acinar structural maturity, applicable to autopsy fetal lung and present reference values for these parameters. STUDY DESIGN: Cases with autopsy consent for research were studied. To simplify analysis only critical morphometric parameters were measured to allow calculation of gas-exchange surface area. SUBJECT SELECTION: A total of 58 fetuses, 16-40 weeks were included...
February 2, 2017: Pediatric Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152192/effects-of-tracheal-occlusion-with-retinoic-acid-administration-on-normal-lung-development
#16
Amélie Delabaere, Geoffroy Marceau, Karen Coste, Loïc Blanchon, Pierre-Jean Déchelotte, Pierre Blanc, Vincent Sapin, Denis Gallot
INTRODUCTION: Tracheal occlusion (TO) is an investigational therapy for severe congenital diaphragmatic hernia that decreases pulmonary hypoplasia, but sustained TO also induces deficient surfactant synthesis. Intramuscular maternal administration of retinoic acid (RA) in a surgical rabbit model of congenital diaphragmatic hernia showed a beneficial effect on lung maturation. We evaluated the potential of RA delivery into the trachea and studied the combined effects of TO and RA on normal lung development...
February 2, 2017: Prenatal Diagnosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042822/enduring-sexually-dimorphic-impact-of-in-utero-exposure-to-elevated-levels-of-glucocorticoids-on-midbrain-dopaminergic-populations
#17
REVIEW
Glenda E Gillies, Kanwar Virdee, Ilse Pienaar, Felwah Al-Zaid, Jeffrey W Dalley
Glucocorticoid hormones (GCs) released from the fetal/maternal glands during late gestation are required for normal development of mammalian organs and tissues. Accordingly, synthetic glucocorticoids have proven to be invaluable in perinatal medicine where they are widely used to accelerate fetal lung maturation when there is risk of pre-term birth and to promote infant survival. However, clinical and pre-clinical studies have demonstrated that inappropriate exposure of the developing brain to elevated levels of GCs, either as a result of clinical over-use or after stress-induced activation of the fetal/maternal adrenal cortex, is linked with significant effects on brain structure, neurological function and behaviour in later life...
December 30, 2016: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27978593/fetal-neurosonogaphy-ultrasound-and-magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-competition
#18
S Tercanli, F Prüfer
Both in routine diagnostics and detailed, highly specialized workups, major advances have been observed in many areas of ultrasound due to an increase in expertise and improved technology in recent years. This is particularly true in the case of fetal neurosonography 1 2 3 4. Malformations of the CNS together with fetal heart defects are among the most common congenital anomalies. From the embryonic phase to the late third trimester, the CNS undergoes extensive development and maturation processes. The diagnosis of CNS anomalies is therefore primarily dependent on the time at which the examination is performed and the experience of the examiner...
December 2016: Ultraschall in der Medizin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918476/antenatal-dexamethasone-exposure-in-preterm-infants-is-associated-with-allergic-diseases-and-the-mental-development-index-in-children
#19
Wan-Ning Tseng, Chih-Cheng Chen, Hong-Ren Yu, Li-Tung Huang, Ho-Chang Kuo
Background: Antenatal steroid administration may benefit fetal lung maturity in preterm infants. Although some studies have shown that this treatment may increase asthma in childhood, the correlation between antenatal dexamethasone exposure and allergic diseases remains unclear. The purpose of this study is to investigate the association between antenatal dexamethasone and T cell expression in childhood allergic diseases. Methods: We recruited a cohort of preterm infants born at Kaohsiung Chang Gung Memorial Hospital between 2007 and 2010 with a gestational age of less than 35 weeks and body weight at birth of less than 1500 g...
December 3, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861467/antenatal-dexamethasone-vs-betamethasone-dosing-for-lung-maturation-in-fetal-sheep
#20
Augusto F Schmidt, Matthew W Kemp, Paranthaman S Kannan, Boris W Kramer, John P Newnham, Suhas G Kallapur, Alan H Jobe
BACKGROUND: Dexamethasone-phosphate (Dex-PO4) and the combination betamethasone-phosphate (Beta-PO4) + betamethasone-acetate (Beta-Ac) are the most used antenatal corticosteroids to promote fetal lung maturation. We compared fetal lung maturation induced by Beta-Ac+Beta-PO4, Dex-PO4, or Beta-PO4 alone. METHODS: Pregnant ewes received two intramuscular doses 24 h apart of 0.25 mg/kg/dose of Beta-Ac+Beta-PO4, Dex-PO4 or Beta-PO4; or 2 doses of 0.125 mg/kg/dose of Beta-PO4 at 6, 12, or 24 h intervals...
March 2017: Pediatric Research
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