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Parp1 nhej

Jiawei Guan, Qian Zhao, Weifeng Mao
PTEN is a tumor suppressor gene characterized as a phosphatase that antagonizes the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling pathway in the cytoplasm. Nuclear PTEN plays roles in chromosomal stability, in which the double-strand breaks (DSB) repair mediated by homologous recombination (HR) and non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) is critical. Herein, the role of nuclear PTEN in DSB repair and the underlying molecular mechanism was investigated in this study. Using human breast cancer BT549 and MDA-MB-231 cell lines, we reveal a specific feature of PTEN that controls poly(ADP-ribosyl)ation of Ku70 and interferes with binding of Ku70 at DSB...
October 11, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Arlene L Oei, Lianne E M Vriend, Caspar M van Leeuwen, Hans M Rodermond, Rosemarie Ten Cate, Anneke M Westermann, Lukas J A Stalpers, Johannes Crezee, Roland Kanaar, H Petra Kok, Przemek M Krawczyk, Nicolaas A P Franken
Cis-diamminedichloroplatinum(II) (cisplatin, cDDP) is an effective chemotherapeutic agent that induces DNA double strand breaks (DSBs), primarily in replicating cells. Generally, such DSBs can be repaired by the classical or backup non-homologous end joining (c-NHEJ/b-NHEJ) or homologous recombination (HR). Therefore, inhibiting these pathways in cancer cells should enhance the efficiency of cDDP treatments. Indeed, inhibition of HR by hyperthermia (HT) sensitizes cancer cells to cDDP and in the Netherlands this combination is a standard treatment option for recurrent cervical cancer after previous radiotherapy...
August 19, 2016: Oncotarget
Rajib Ghosh, Sanchita Roy, Johan Kamyab, Francoise Dantzer, Sonia Franco
In mammalian cells, chromatin poly(ADP-ribos)ylation (PARylation) at sites of DNA Double-Strand Breaks (DSBs) is mediated by two highly related enzymes, PARP1 and PARP2. However, enzyme-specific genetic interactions with other DSB repair factors remain largely undefined. In this context, it was previously shown that mice lacking PARP1 and H2AX, a histone variant that promotes DSB repair throughout the cell cycle, or the core nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) factor Ku80 are not viable, while mice lacking PARP1 and the noncore NHEJ factor DNA-PKcs are severely growth retarded and markedly lymphoma-prone...
September 2016: DNA Repair
Nimrat Chatterjee, Yunfu Lin, Patricia Yotnda, John H Wilson
Multiple pathways modulate the dynamic mutability of trinucleotide repeats (TNRs), which are implicated in neurodegenerative disease and evolution. Recently, we reported that environmental stresses induce TNR mutagenesis via stress responses and rereplication, with more than 50% of mutants carrying deletions or insertions-molecular signatures of DNA double-strand break repair. We now show that knockdown of alt-nonhomologous end joining (alt-NHEJ) components-XRCC1, LIG3, and PARP1-suppresses stress-induced TNR mutagenesis, in contrast to the components of homologous recombination and NHEJ, which have no effect...
July 31, 2016: Journal of Molecular Biology
Agnes Schipler, Veronika Mladenova, Aashish Soni, Vladimir Nikolov, Janapriya Saha, Emil Mladenov, George Iliakis
Chromosome translocations are hallmark of cancer and of radiation-induced cell killing, reflecting joining of incongruent DNA-ends that alter the genome. Translocation-formation requires DNA end-joining mechanisms and incompletely characterized, permissive chromatin conditions. We show that chromatin destabilization by clusters of DNA double-strand-breaks (DSBs) generated by the I-SceI meganuclease at multiple, appropriately engineered genomic sites, compromises c-NHEJ and markedly increases cell killing and translocation-formation compared to single-DSBs...
September 19, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
Berta N Vazquez, Joshua K Thackray, Nicolas G Simonet, Noriko Kane-Goldsmith, Paloma Martinez-Redondo, Trang Nguyen, Samuel Bunting, Alejandro Vaquero, Jay A Tischfield, Lourdes Serrano
Sirtuins, a family of protein deacetylases, promote cellular homeostasis by mediating communication between cells and environment. The enzymatic activity of the mammalian sirtuin SIRT7 targets acetylated lysine in the N-terminal tail of histone H3 (H3K18Ac), thus modulating chromatin structure and transcriptional competency. SIRT7 deletion is associated with reduced lifespan in mice through unknown mechanisms. Here, we show that SirT7-knockout mice suffer from partial embryonic lethality and a progeroid-like phenotype...
July 15, 2016: EMBO Journal
Julio Castaño, Ana B Herrero, Aldeheid Bursen, Federico González, Rolf Marschalek, Norma C Gutiérrez, Pablo Menendez
The most frequent rearrangement of the human MLL gene fuses MLL to AF4 resulting in high-risk infant B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL). MLL fusions are also hallmark oncogenic events in secondary acute myeloid leukemia. They are a direct consequence of mis-repaired DNA double strand breaks (DNA-DSBs) due to defects in the DNA damage response associated with exposure to topoisomerase-II poisons such as etoposide. It has been suggested that MLL fusions render cells susceptible to additional chromosomal damage upon exposure to etoposide...
May 24, 2016: Oncotarget
Carine Robert, Pratik K Nagaria, Nisha Pawar, Adeoluwa Adewuyi, Ivana Gojo, David J Meyers, Philip A Cole, Feyruz V Rassool
Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) induce acetylation of histone and non-histone proteins, and modulate the acetylation of proteins involved in DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair. Non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) is one of the main pathways for repairing DSBs. Decreased NHEJ activity has been reported with HDACi treatment. However, mechanisms through which these effects are regulated in the context of chromatin are unclear. We show that pan-HDACi, trichostatin A (TSA), causes differential acetylation of DNA repair factors Ku70/Ku80 and poly ADP-ribose polymerase-1 (PARP1), and impairs NHEJ...
June 2016: Leukemia Research
Rekha Rai, Yong Chen, Ming Lei, Sandy Chang
Repressor/activator protein 1 (RAP1) is a highly conserved telomere-interacting protein. Yeast Rap1 protects telomeres from non-homologous end joining (NHEJ), plays important roles in telomere length control and is involved in transcriptional gene regulation. However, a role for mammalian RAP1 in telomere end protection remains controversial. Here we present evidence that mammalian RAP1 is essential to protect telomere from homology directed repair (HDR) of telomeres. RAP1 cooperates with the basic domain of TRF2 (TRF2(B)) to repress PARP1 and SLX4 localization to telomeres...
2016: Nature Communications
Mihoko Kai
Living cells experience DNA damage as a result of replication errors and oxidative metabolism, exposure to environmental agents (e.g., ultraviolet light, ionizing radiation (IR)), and radiation therapies and chemotherapies for cancer treatments. Accumulation of DNA damage can lead to multiple diseases such as neurodegenerative disorders, cancers, immune deficiencies, infertility, and also aging. Cells have evolved elaborate mechanisms to deal with DNA damage. Networks of DNA damage response (DDR) pathways are coordinated to detect and repair DNA damage, regulate cell cycle and transcription, and determine the cell fate...
2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Wei Du, Surya Amarachintha, Andrew F Wilson, Qishen Pang
The prominent role of Fanconi anemia (FA) proteins involves homologous recombination (HR) repair. Poly[ADP-ribose] polymerase1 (PARP1) functions in multiple cellular processes including DNA repair and PARP inhibition is an emerging targeted therapy for cancer patients deficient in HR. Here we show that PARP1 activation in hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) in response to genotoxic or oxidative stress attenuates HSPC exhaustion. Mechanistically, PARP1 controls the balance between HR and non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) in double strand break (DSB) repair by preventing excessive NHEJ...
2016: Scientific Reports
Martijn S Luijsterburg, Inge de Krijger, Wouter W Wiegant, Rashmi G Shah, Godelieve Smeenk, Anton J L de Groot, Alex Pines, Alfred C O Vertegaal, Jacqueline J L Jacobs, Girish M Shah, Haico van Attikum
The response to DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) requires alterations in chromatin structure to promote the assembly of repair complexes on broken chromosomes. Non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) is the dominant DSB repair pathway in human cells, but our understanding of how it operates in chromatin is limited. Here, we define a mechanism that plays a crucial role in regulating NHEJ in chromatin. This mechanism is initiated by DNA damage-associated poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1), which recruits the chromatin remodeler CHD2 through a poly(ADP-ribose)-binding domain...
February 18, 2016: Molecular Cell
Satish Kumar Tadi, Robin Sebastian, Sumedha Dahal, Ravi K Babu, Bibha Choudhary, Sathees C Raghavan
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) deletions are associated with various mitochondrial disorders. The deletions identified in humans are flanked by short, directly repeated mitochondrial DNA sequences; however, the mechanism of such DNA rearrangements has yet to be elucidated. In contrast to nuclear DNA (nDNA), mtDNA is more exposed to oxidative damage, which may result in double-strand breaks (DSBs). Although DSB repair in nDNA is well studied, repair mechanisms in mitochondria are not characterized. In the present study, we investigate the mechanisms of DSB repair in mitochondria using in vitro and ex vivo assays...
January 15, 2016: Molecular Biology of the Cell
Paul Jacquet, Paul van Buul, Annemarie van Duijn-Goedhart, Karine Reynaud, Jasmine Buset, Mieke Neefs, Arlette Michaux, Pieter Monsieurs, Peter de Boer, Sarah Baatout
At the gastrula phase of development, just after the onset of implantation, the embryo proper is characterized by extremely rapid cell proliferation. The importance of DNA repair is illustrated by embryonic lethality at this stage after ablation of the genes involved. Insight into mutation induction is called for by the fact that women often do not realize they are pregnant, shortly after implantation, a circumstance which may have important consequences when women are subjected to medical imaging using ionizing radiation...
October 2015: Mutation Research. Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis
C-F Chang, P-C Chu, P-Y Wu, M-Y Yu, J-Y Lee, M-D Tsai, M-S Chang
Methylated histone readers are critical for chromatin dynamics, transcription, and DNA repair. Human PHRF1 contains a plant homeodomain (PHD) that recognizes methylated histones and a RING domain, which ubiquitinates substrates. A recent study reveals that PHRF1 is a tumor suppressor that promotes TGF-β cytostatic signaling through TGIF ubiquitination. Also, PHRF1 is a putative phosphorylation substrate of ataxia telangiectasia-mutated/ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3-related kinases; however, the role of PHRF1 in DNA damage response is unclear...
2015: Cell Death & Disease
Nidal Muvarak, Shannon Kelley, Carine Robert, Maria R Baer, Danilo Perrotti, Carlo Gambacorti-Passerini, Curt Civin, Kara Scheibner, Feyruz V Rassool
UNLABELLED: Leukemias expressing the constitutively activated tyrosine kinases (TK) BCR-ABL1 and FLT3/ITD activate signaling pathways that increase genomic instability through generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), DNA double-strand breaks (DSB), and error-prone repair. The nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) pathway is a major pathway for DSB repair and is highly aberrant in TK-activated leukemias; an alternative form of NHEJ (ALT-NHEJ) predominates, evidenced by increased expression of DNA ligase IIIα (LIG3) and PARP1, increased frequency of large genomic deletions, and repair using DNA sequence microhomologies...
April 2015: Molecular Cancer Research: MCR
S Sharma, S M Javadekar, M Pandey, M Srivastava, R Kumari, S C Raghavan
Nonhomologous DNA end joining (NHEJ) is one of the major double-strand break (DSB) repair pathways in higher eukaryotes. Recently, it has been shown that alternative NHEJ (A-NHEJ) occurs in the absence of classical NHEJ and is implicated in chromosomal translocations leading to cancer. In the present study, we have developed a novel biochemical assay system utilizing DSBs flanked by varying lengths of microhomology to study microhomology-mediated alternative end joining (MMEJ). We show that MMEJ can operate in normal cells, when microhomology is present, irrespective of occurrence of robust classical NHEJ...
2015: Cell Death & Disease
Sophie Badie, Ana Rita Carlos, Cecilia Folio, Keiji Okamoto, Peter Bouwman, Jos Jonkers, Madalena Tarsounas
Loss of telomere protection occurs during physiological cell senescence and ageing, due to attrition of telomeric repeats and insufficient retention of the telomere-binding factor TRF2. Subsequently formed telomere fusions trigger rampant genomic instability leading to cell death or tumorigenesis. Mechanistically, telomere fusions require either the classical non-homologous end-joining (C-NHEJ) pathway dependent on Ku70/80 and LIG4, or the alternative non-homologous end-joining (A-NHEJ), which relies on PARP1 and LIG3...
February 3, 2015: EMBO Journal
Erika A Newman, Fujia Lu, Daniela Bashllari, Li Wang, Anthony W Opipari, Valerie P Castle
UNLABELLED: In neuroblastoma, MYCN genomic amplification and segmental chromosomal alterations including 1p or 11q loss of heterozygocity and/or 17q gain are associated with progression and poor clinical outcome. Segmental alterations are the strongest predictor of relapse and result from unbalanced translocations attributable to erroneous repair of chromosomal breaks. Although sequence analysis of affected genomic regions suggests that these errors arise by nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) of DNA double-strand breaks (DSB), abnormalities in NHEJ have not been implicated in neuroblastoma pathogenesis...
March 2015: Molecular Cancer Research: MCR
Kumar Somyajit, Anup Mishra, Aida Jameei, Ganesh Nagaraju
Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1) inhibitors are actively under clinical trials for the treatment of breast and ovarian cancers that arise due to mutations in BRCA1 and BRCA2. The RAD51 paralog RAD51C has been identified as a breast and ovarian cancer susceptibility gene. The pathological RAD51C mutants that were identified in cancer patients are hypomorphic with partial repair function. However, targeting cancer cells that express hypomorphic mutants of RAD51C is highly challenging. Here, we report that RAD51C-deficient cells can be targeted by a 'synthetic lethal' approach using PARP inhibitor and this sensitivity was attributed to accumulation of cells in the G2/M and chromosomal aberrations...
January 2015: Carcinogenesis
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