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M2 Macrophage

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813676/pharmacologic-or-genetic-targeting-of-glutamine-synthetase-skews-macrophages-toward-an-m1-like-phenotype-and-inhibits-tumor-metastasis
#1
Erika M Palmieri, Alessio Menga, Rosa Martín-Pérez, Annamaria Quinto, Carla Riera-Domingo, Giacoma De Tullio, Douglas C Hooper, Wouter H Lamers, Bart Ghesquière, Daniel W McVicar, Attilio Guarini, Massimiliano Mazzone, Alessandra Castegna
Glutamine-synthetase (GS), the glutamine-synthesizing enzyme from glutamate, controls important events, including the release of inflammatory mediators, mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) activation, and autophagy. However, its role in macrophages remains elusive. We report that pharmacologic inhibition of GS skews M2-polarized macrophages toward the M1-like phenotype, characterized by reduced intracellular glutamine and increased succinate with enhanced glucose flux through glycolysis, which could be partly related to HIF1α activation...
August 15, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813657/interferon-%C3%AE-represses-m2-gene-expression-in-human-macrophages-by-disassembling-enhancers-bound-by-the-transcription-factor-maf
#2
Kyuho Kang, Sung Ho Park, Janice Chen, Yu Qiao, Eugenia Giannopoulou, Karen Berg, Adedayo Hanidu, Jun Li, Gerald Nabozny, Keunsoo Kang, Kyung-Hyun Park-Min, Lionel B Ivashkiv
Mechanisms by which interferon (IFN)-γ activates genes to promote macrophage activation are well studied, but little is known about mechanisms and functions of IFN-γ-mediated gene repression. We used an integrated transcriptomic and epigenomic approach to analyze chromatin accessibility, histone modifications, transcription-factor binding, and gene expression in IFN-γ-primed human macrophages. IFN-γ suppressed basal expression of genes corresponding to an "M2"-like homeostatic and reparative phenotype. IFN-γ repressed genes by suppressing the function of enhancers enriched for binding by transcription factor MAF...
August 15, 2017: Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813499/staphylococcus-aureus-biofilm-elicits-the-expansion-activation-and-polarization-of-myeloid-derived-suppressor-cells-in-vivo-and-in-vitro
#3
Kuo-Ti Peng, Ching-Chuan Hsieh, Tsung-Yu Huang, Pei-Chun Chen, Hsin-Nung Shih, Mel S Lee, Pey-Jium Chang
Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is one of the most common causes of biofilm infections in periprosthetic joint infections (PJIs). Accumulating evidence has shown that the immunosuppressive environment established by S. aureus biofilm infection in PJIs involves the presence of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) and M2-macrophages. Due to the diversity of MDSCs, little is known about whether S. aureus biofilm preferentially expands specific MDSC subsets or whether MDSCs can further differentiate into M2-macrophages during S...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812211/the-immune-system-in-obesity-developing-paradigms-amidst-inconvenient-truths
#4
REVIEW
Madhur Agrawal, Philip A Kern, Barbara S Nikolajczyk
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Adipose tissue (AT) houses both innate and adaptive immune systems that are crucial for preserving AT function and metabolic homeostasis. In this review, we summarize recent information regarding progression of obesity-associated AT inflammation and insulin resistance. We additionally consider alterations in AT distribution and the immune system in males vs. females and among different racial populations. RECENT FINDINGS: Innate and adaptive immune cell-derived inflammation drives insulin resistance both locally and systemically...
August 15, 2017: Current Diabetes Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811825/ethanol-extract-of-mylabris-phalerata-inhibits-m2-polarization-induced-by-recombinant-il-4-and-il-13-in-murine-macrophages
#5
Hwan-Suck Chung, Bong-Seon Lee, Jin Yeul Ma
Mylabris phalerata (MP) is an insect used in oriental herbal treatments for tumor, tinea infections, and stroke. Recent studies have shown that tumor-associated macrophages (TAM) have detrimental roles such as tumor progression, angiogenesis, and metastasis. Although TAM has phenotypes and characteristics in common with M2-polarized macrophages, M1 macrophages have tumor suppression and immune stimulation effects. Medicines polarizing macrophages to M1 have been suggested to have anticancer effects via the modulation of the tumor microenvironment...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811075/regulatory-t-cell-deficient-scurfy-mice-exhibit-a-th2-m2-like-inflammatory-response-in-the-skin
#6
Stefanie Haeberle, Verena Raker, Jessica Haub, Yong O Kim, Shih-Yen Weng, Osman K Yilmaz, Alexander Enk, Kerstin Steinbrink, Detlef Schuppan, Eva N Hadaschik
BACKGROUND: Scurfy mice have a functional defect in regulatory T cells (Treg), which leads to lethal multi-organ inflammation. The missing Treg function results in uncontrolled autoimmune cellular and humoral inflammatory responses. We and others have previously shown that during the course of disease scurfy mice develop severe skin inflammation and autoantibodies including anti-nuclear autoantibodies (ANA). OBJECTIVE: Autoimmune skin inflammation and ANA are hallmarks for the diagnosis of autoimmune connective tissue diseases; therefore we analyzed scurfy mice for typical signs of these diseases...
July 13, 2017: Journal of Dermatological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810589/phenotypic-switch-in-lung-interstitial-macrophage-polarization-in-an-ovalbumin-induced-mouse-model-of-asthma
#7
Hanxiang Nie, Ailing Wang, Qing He, Qiaoyu Yang, Linlin Liu, Guqin Zhang, Yi Huang, Xuhong Ding, Hongying Yu, Suping Hu
Macrophage phenotype and function varies according to their polarized state, which in turn is dependent on microenvironmental stimuli. Under normal physiological conditions, lung interstitial macrophages that express interleukin (IL)-10 are considered to serve regulatory roles in the prevention of allergic reactions in the airways. However, the phenotypic profile of lung interstitial macrophages during the pathophysiology of asthma remains unknown. In the current study, the phenotypic characteristics of lung interstitial macrophages were investigated in an ovalbumin (OVA)-induced mouse model of asthma...
August 2017: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810264/mesenchymal-stem-cells-promote-diabetic-corneal-epithelial-wound-healing-through-tsg-6-dependent-stem-cell-activation-and-macrophage-switch
#8
Guohu Di, Xianli Du, Xia Qi, Xiaowen Zhao, Haoyun Duan, Suxia Li, Lixin Xie, Qingjun Zhou
Purpose: To explore the role and mechanism of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) in corneal epithelial wound healing in type 1 diabetic mice. Methods: Diabetic mice were treated with subconjunctival injections of BM-MSCs or recombinant tumor necrosis factor-α-stimulated gene/protein-6 (TSG-6). The corneal epithelial wound healing rate was examined by fluorescein staining. The mRNA and protein expression levels of TSG-6 were measured by quantitative RT-PCR and Western blot...
August 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808113/lncrna-gas5-inhibits-microglial-m2-polarization-and-exacerbates-demyelination
#9
Dingya Sun, Zhongwang Yu, Xue Fang, Mingdong Liu, Yingyan Pu, Qi Shao, Dan Wang, Xiaolin Zhao, Aijun Huang, Zhenghua Xiang, Chao Zhao, Robin Jm Franklin, Li Cao, Cheng He
The regulation of inflammation is pivotal for preventing the development or reoccurrence of multiple sclerosis (MS). A biased ratio of high-M1 versus low-M2 polarized microglia is a major pathological feature of MS Here, using microarray screening, we identify the long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) GAS5 as an epigenetic regulator of microglial polarization. Gain- and loss-of-function studies reveal that GAS5 suppresses microglial M2 polarization. Interference with GAS5 in transplanted microglia attenuates the progression of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) and promotes remyelination in a lysolecithin-induced demyelination model...
August 14, 2017: EMBO Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804688/pivotal-regulators-of-tissue-homeostasis-and-cancer-macrophages
#10
REVIEW
Yulei Chen, Xiaobo Zhang
Macrophages are an essential component of innate immunity and play a vital role in inflammation and host defense. Based on immunological responses, the macrophages are classified into "activated" macrophage (M1 macrophages) participating in the responses of type I helper T (Th1) cells to pathogens and "alternatively activated" macrophages (M2 macrophages) in response to interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-13. In this review, we discuss the origin, classification and function of macrophages. We also discuss the mechanisms underlying polarization of different macrophage subtypes, including transcriptional, epigenetic and post-transcriptional regulation...
2017: Experimental Hematology & Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804459/metabolic-variability-of-a-multispecies-probiotic-preparation-impacts-on-the-anti-inflammatory-activity
#11
Michele Biagioli, Luca Laghi, Adriana Carino, Sabrina Cipriani, Eleonora Distrutti, Silvia Marchianò, Carola Parolin, Paolo Scarpelli, Beatrice Vitali, Stefano Fiorucci
Background: In addition to strain taxonomy, the ability of probiotics to confer beneficial effects on the host rely on a number of additional factors including epigenetic modulation of bacterial genes leading to metabolic variability and might impact on probiotic functionality. Aims: To investigate metabolism and functionality of two different batches of a probiotic blend commercialized under the same name in Europe in models of intestinal inflammation. Methods: Boxes of VSL#3, a probiotic mixture used in the treatment of pouchitis, were obtained from pharmacies in UK subjected to metabolomic analysis and their functionality tested in mice rendered colitis by treatment with DSS or TNBS...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804220/antitumor-macrophage-response-to-bacillus-pumilus-ribonuclease-binase
#12
Anna Makeeva, Julian Rodriguez-Montesinos, Pavel Zelenikhin, Alexander Nesmelov, Klaus T Preissner, Hector A Cabrera-Fuentes, Olga N Ilinskaya
Extracellular bacterial ribonucleases such as binase from Bacillus pumilus possess cytotoxic activity against tumor cells with a potential for clinical application. Moreover, they may induce activation of tumor-derived macrophages either into the M1-phenotype with well-documented functions in the regulation of the antitumor immune response or into M2-macrophages that may stimulate tumor growth, metastasis, and angiogenesis. In this study, binase or endogenous RNase1 (but not RNA or short oligonucleotides) stimulated the expression of activated NF-κB p65 subunit in macrophages...
2017: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801931/immunomodulatory-effects-of-adipose-stromal-vascular-fraction-cells-promote-alternative-activation-macrophages-to-repair-tissue-damage
#13
Annie C Bowles, Rachel M Wise, Brittany Y Gerstein, Robert C Thomas, Roberto Ogelman, Isabella Febbo, Bruce A Bunnell
The pathogenesis of many diseases is driven by the interactions between helper T (TH ) cells and macrophages. The phenotypes of these cells are a functional dichotomy that are persuaded according to the surrounding milieu. In both multiple sclerosis (MS) and the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) model, TH 1 and TH 17 cells propagate autoimmune signaling and inflammation in the peripheral lymphoid tissues. In turn, this pro-inflammatory repertoire promotes the classical activation, formerly the M1-type, macrophages...
August 12, 2017: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801853/tumor-associated-macrophage-infiltration-is-highly-associated-with-pd-l1-expression-in-gastric-adenocarcinoma
#14
Kazuto Harada, Xiaochuan Dong, Jeannelyn S Estrella, Arlene M Correa, Yan Xu, Wayne L Hofstetter, Kazuki Sudo, Hisashi Onodera, Koyu Suzuki, Akihiro Suzuki, Randy L Johnson, Zhenning Wang, Shumei Song, Jaffer A Ajani
BACKGROUND: Programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) is a key protein upregulated by tumor cells to suppress immune responses. Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) play a major role in this immunosuppression, but the relationship between PD-L1 expression and TAMs remains unclear in gastric adenocarcinoma (GAC). We simultaneously examined expression of PD-L1 and TAMs in GAC. METHODS: We performed immunohistochemical staining for PD-L1, CD68 (pan-macrophage), and CD163 (M2-like macrophage) in 217 GAC samples using a tissue microarray...
August 11, 2017: Gastric Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801784/prior-repeated-stress-attenuates-cold-induced-immunomodulation-associated-with-browning-in-mesenteric-fat-of-rats
#15
P Vargovic, M Laukova, J Ukropec, G Manz, R Kvetnansky
Continuous exposure to cold leads to activation of adaptive thermogenesis in brown adipose tissue but also to induction of brown/beige cell phenotype in white adipose tissue. The aim of this work was to investigate whether prior exposure to immobilization (IMO) stress may affect immune response associated with adipocyte "browning" in mesenteric adipose tissue (mWAT). In the first experiment, Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to acute (3 h) or prolonged (7 days) cold exposure (4 ± 1 °C). 7-day cold stimulated gene expression of uncoupling protein 1 and other "browning"-associated factors...
August 11, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801723/a-review-of-the-role-of-immune-cells-in-acute-kidney-injury
#16
REVIEW
Anthony Bonavia, Kai Singbartl
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a systemic disease occurring commonly in patients who are critically ill. Etiologies of AKI can be septic or aseptic (nephrotoxic, or ischemia-reperfusion injury). Recent evidence reveals that innate and adaptive immune responses are involved in mediating damage to renal tubular cells and in recovery from AKI. Dendritic cells, monocytes/macrophages, neutrophils, T lymphocytes, and B lymphocytes all contribute to kidney injury. Conversely, M2 macrophages and regulatory T cells are essential in suppressing inflammation, tissue remodeling and repair following kidney injury...
August 11, 2017: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800775/lack-of-high-bmi-related-features-in-adipocytes-and-inflammatory-cells-in-the-infrapatellar-fat-pad-ifp
#17
Anja J de Jong, Inge R Klein-Wieringa, Stefan N Andersen, Joanneke C Kwekkeboom, Linda Herb-van Toorn, Badelog J E de Lange-Brokaar, Danny van Delft, John Garcia, Wu Wei, Huub J L van der Heide, Yvonne M Bastiaansen-Jenniskens, Gerjo J V M van Osch, Annemarie M Zuurmond, Vedrana Stojanovic-Susulic, Rob G H H Nelissen, René E M Toes, Margreet Kloppenburg, Andreea Ioan-Facsinay
BACKGROUND: Obesity is associated with the development and progression of osteoarthritis (OA). Although the infrapatellar fat pad (IFP) could be involved in this association, due to its intracapsular localization in the knee joint, there is currently little known about the effect of obesity on the IFP. Therefore, we investigated cellular and molecular body mass index (BMI)-related features in the IFP of OA patients. METHODS: Patients with knee OA (N = 155, 68% women, mean age 65 years, mean (SD) BMI 29...
August 11, 2017: Arthritis Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798256/metabolic-characterization-and-rna-profiling-reveal-glycolytic-dependence-of-pro-fibrotic-phenotype-of-alveolar-macrophages-in-lung-fibrosis
#18
Na Xie, Huachun Cui, Jing Ge, Sami Banerjee, Sijia Guo, Shubham Dubey, Edward Abraham, Rui-Ming Liu, Gang Liu
Metabolic reprogramming has been intrinsically linked to macrophage activation. Alveolar macrophages are known to play an important role in the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis. However, systematic characterization of expression profile in these cells is still lacking. Furthermore, main metabolic programs and their regulation of cellular phenotype are completely unknown. In this study, we comprehensively analyzed the expression profile and main metabolic programs in alveolar macrophages from mice with or without experimental pulmonary fibrosis...
August 10, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798029/ppar%C3%AE-in-dendritic-cells-and-t-cells-drives-pathogenic-type-2-effector-responses-in-lung-inflammation
#19
Samuel Philip Nobs, Sara Natali, Lea Pohlmeier, Katarzyna Okreglicka, Christoph Schneider, Michael Kurrer, Federica Sallusto, Manfred Kopf
Type-2 immune responses are well-established drivers of chronic inflammatory diseases, such as asthma, and represent a large burden on public health systems. The transcription factor PPARγ is known to promote M2-macrophage and alveolar macrophage development. Here, we report that PPARγ plays a key role in both T cells and dendritic cells (DCs) for development of type-2 immune responses. It is predominantly expressed in mouse Th2 cells in vitro and in vivo as well as human Th2 cells from allergic patients...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797473/biomarker-research-to-improve-clinical-outcomes-of-peritoneal-dialysis-consensus-of-the-european-training-and-research-in-peritoneal-dialysis-eutripd-network
#20
REVIEW
Christoph Aufricht, Robert Beelen, Matthias Eberl, Michel Fischbach, Donald Fraser, Achim Jörres, Klaus Kratochwill, Manuel LópezCabrera, Peter Rutherford, Claus-Peter Schmitt, Nicholas Topley, Janusz Witowski
Peritoneal dialysis (PD) therapy substantially requires biomarkers as tools to identify patients who are at the highest risk for PD-related complications and to guide personalized interventions that may improve clinical outcome in the individual patient. In this consensus article, members of the European Training and Research in Peritoneal Dialysis Network (EuTRiPD) review the current status of biomarker research in PD and suggest a selection of biomarkers that can be relevant to the care of PD patients and that are directly accessible in PD effluents...
August 8, 2017: Kidney International
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