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M2 Macrophage

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723685/downregulation-of-macrophage-derived-t-ucr-uc-306-associates-with-poor-prognosis-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#1
Hong-Lin Luo, Jie Chen, Tao Luo, Fei-Xiang Wu, Jun-Jie Liu, Hui-Feng Wang, Miao Chen, Le-Qun Li, Hang Li
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Increasing evidence suggests that T-UCRs are involved in the development of cancer. In this study, we evaluated the role of a macrophage-derived T-UCR, uc.306, in the prognosis of hepatitis B (HBV)-related hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). METHODS: The uc.306 was obtained by screening microassay data obtained during the polarization of U937 cells from the M2 to M1 phenotype. Uc.306 and macrophage molecule markers were detected by qPCR. Immunohistochemical (IHC) assays were used to examine the M1/M2 status of 90 paired HCC tissues...
July 19, 2017: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722316/the-mincle-ligand-trehalose-dibehenate-differentially-modulates-m1-like-and-m2-like-macrophage-phenotype-and-function-via-syk-signaling
#2
Kristel Kodar, Jacquie L Harper, Melanie J McConnell, Mattie S M Timmer, Bridget L Stocker
INTRODUCTION: Macrophages play a significant role in the progression of diseases, such as cancer, making them a target for immune-modulating agents. Trehalose dibehenate (TDB) is known to activate M1-like macrophages via Mincle, however, the effect of TDB on M2-like macrophages, which are found in the tumor microenvironment, has not been studied. METHODS: qRT-PCR, flow cytometry, cytokine ELISA, and Western Blotting were used to study the effect of TDB on GM-CSF and M-CSF/IL-4 derived bone marrow macrophages (BMMs) from C57BL/6 and Mincle(-/-) mice...
July 19, 2017: Immunity, Inflammation and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720074/regeneration-of-long-distance-peripheral-nerve-defects-after-delayed-reconstruction-in-healthy-and-diabetic-rats-is-supported-by-immunomodulatory-chitosan-nerve-guides
#3
Lena Stenberg, Maria Stößel, Giulia Ronchi, Stefano Geuna, Yaobin Yin, Susanne Mommert, Lisa Mårtensson, Jennifer Metzen, Claudia Grothe, Lars B Dahlin, Kirsten Haastert-Talini
BACKGROUND: Delayed reconstruction of transection or laceration injuries of peripheral nerves is inflicted by a reduced regeneration capacity. Diabetic conditions, more frequently encountered in clinical practice, are known to further impair regeneration in peripheral nerves. Chitosan nerve guides (CNGs) have recently been introduced as a new generation of medical devices for immediate peripheral nerve reconstruction. Here, CNGs were used for 45 days delayed reconstruction of critical length 15 mm rat sciatic nerve defects in either healthy Wistar rats or diabetic Goto-Kakizaki rats; the latter resembling type 2 diabetes...
July 18, 2017: BMC Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716144/macrophage-type-2-differentiation-in-a-patient-with-laryngeal-squamous-cell-carcinoma-and-metastatic-prostate-adenocarcinoma-to-the-cervical-lymph-nodes
#4
Michael C Topf, Madalina Tuluc, Larry A Harshyne, Adam Luginbuhl
BACKGROUND: The tumor microenvironment often polarizes infiltrating macrophages towards a type 2, or M2 phenotype, that is characterized by expression of various cysteine-rich, scavenger receptors, including CD163. The primary function of M2 macrophages is to facilitate wound healing. As such, they are capable of providing metabolic support to a growing tumor, neovascularization, as well as protection from cytotoxic T cells. The tumor microenvironment contains a milieu of secreted factors and vesicles, which in certain circumstances can gain access to lymphatic vessels that drain to local lymph nodes...
July 18, 2017: Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714978/%C3%AE-ketoglutarate-orchestrates-macrophage-activation-through-metabolic-and-epigenetic-reprogramming
#5
Pu-Ste Liu, Haiping Wang, Xiaoyun Li, Tung Chao, Tony Teav, Stefan Christen, Giusy Di Conza, Wan-Chen Cheng, Chih-Hung Chou, Magdalena Vavakova, Charlotte Muret, Koen Debackere, Massimiliano Mazzone, Hsien-Da Huang, Sarah-Maria Fendt, Julijana Ivanisevic, Ping-Chih Ho
Glutamine metabolism provides synergistic support for macrophage activation and elicitation of desirable immune responses; however, the underlying mechanisms regulated by glutamine metabolism to orchestrate macrophage activation remain unclear. Here we show that the production of α-ketoglutarate (αKG) via glutaminolysis is important for alternative (M2) activation of macrophages, including engagement of fatty acid oxidation (FAO) and Jmjd3-dependent epigenetic reprogramming of M2 genes. This M2-promoting mechanism is further modulated by a high αKG/succinate ratio, whereas a low ratio strengthens the proinflammatory phenotype in classically activated (M1) macrophages...
July 17, 2017: Nature Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714933/macrophage-phenotypes-regulate-scar-formation-and-chronic-wound-healing
#6
REVIEW
Mark Hesketh, Katherine B Sahin, Zoe E West, Rachael Z Murray
Macrophages and inflammation play a beneficial role during wound repair with macrophages regulating a wide range of processes, such as removal of dead cells, debris and pathogens, through to extracellular matrix deposition re-vascularisation and wound re-epithelialisation. To perform this range of functions, these cells develop distinct phenotypes over the course of wound healing. They can present with a pro-inflammatory M1 phenotype, more often found in the early stages of repair, through to anti-inflammatory M2 phenotypes that are pro-repair in the latter stages of wound healing...
July 17, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714032/atf3-promotes-migration-and-m1-m2-polarization-of-macrophages-by-activating-tenascin%C3%A2-c-via-wnt-%C3%AE-%C3%A2-catenin-pathway
#7
Hao Sha, Dianzhong Zhang, Yunfei Zhang, Yanhua Wen, Yucai Wang
There are different polarization states of macrophages, including the classically activated M1 phenotype and the alternatively activated M2 phenotype. These have different functions in the inflammation process. Activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) is a key transcriptional regulator that inhibits the inflammatory response. However, the effects of ATF3 on migration and anti‑inflammatory control mechanisms of macrophages have not been thoroughly investigated. The present study investigated the effect of ATF3 on macrophage migration and M1/M2 polarization...
July 14, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714029/involvement-of-gut-microbiota-in-the-association-between-gastrointestinal-motility-and-5%C3%A2-ht-expression-m2-macrophage-abundance-in-the-gastrointestinal-tract
#8
Mo Yang, Hirokazu Fukui, Hirotsugu Eda, Yoshitaka Kitayama, Ken Hara, Mio Kodani, Toshihiko Tomita, Tadayuki Oshima, Jiro Watari, Hiroto Miwa
Serotonin (5‑hydroxytryptamine; 5‑HT) may be a key player in gastrointestinal (GI) motility and the GI immune system. In the present study, the effect of gut microbiota on the association between GI motility, and 5‑HT expression and macrophage abundance in the GI tract was examined. Germ‑free (GF) mice (6 weeks old) were orally administered a fecal bacterial suspension prepared from specific pathogen‑free mice and their GI tissues were evaluated 4 weeks later. The expression of 5‑HT and mannose receptor (MR) was examined by immunohistochemistry, and GI transit time (GITT) was measured by administration of carmine red solution...
July 12, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713369/sestrin2-suppresses-classically-activated-macrophages-mediated-inflammatory-response-in-myocardial-infarction-through-inhibition-of-mtorc1-signaling
#9
Keping Yang, Chenhong Xu, Yunfeng Zhang, Shaolin He, Dazhu Li
Myocardial infarction (MI) triggers an intense inflammatory response that is essential for dead tissue clearance but also detrimental to cardiac repair. Macrophages are active and critical players in the inflammatory response after MI. Understanding the molecular mechanisms by which macrophage-mediated inflammatory response is regulated is important for designing new therapeutic interventions for MI. In the current study, we examined the role of Sestrin2, which is a stress-inducible protein that regulate metabolic homeostasis, in the regulation of inflammatory response of cardiac macrophages after MI...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713019/glioma-sensitive-or-chemoresistant-to-temozolomide-differentially-modulate-macrophage-protumor-activities
#10
Juliana H Azambuja, Elita F da Silveira, Taíse R de Carvalho, Pathise S Oliveira, Simone Pacheco, Carlus T do Couto, Fátima T Beira, Francieli M Stefanello, Rosélia M Spanevello, Elizandra Braganhol
BACKGROUND: Glioblastomas are the most devastating brain tumor characterized by chemoresistance development and poor prognosis. Macrophages are a component of tumor microenvironment related to glioma malignancy. The relation among inflammation, innate immunity and cancer is accepted; however, molecular and cellular mechanisms mediating this relation and chemoresistance remain unresolved. OBJECTIVE: Here we evaluated whether glioma sensitive or resistant to temozolomide (TMZ) modulate macrophage polarization and inflammatory pathways associated...
July 13, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712928/bone-marrow-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-propagate-immunosuppressive-anti-inflammatory-macrophages-in-cell-to-cell-contact-independent-and-dependent-manners-under-hypoxic-culture
#11
Naoki Takizawa, Naoto Okubo, Masaharu Kamo, Naoyuki Chosa, Toshinari Mikami, Keita Suzuki, Seiji Yokota, Miho Ibi, Masato Ohtsuka, Masayuki Taira, Takashi Yaegashi, Akira Ishisaki, Seiko Kyakumoto
Immunosuppressive/anti-inflammatory macrophage (Mφ), M2-Mφ that expressed the typical M2-Mφs marker, CD206, and anti-inflammatory cytokine, interleukin (IL)-10, is beneficial and expected tool for the cytotherapy against inflammatory diseases. Here, we demonstrated that bone marrow-derived lineage-positive (Lin+) blood cells proliferated and differentiated into M2-Mφs by cooperation with the bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) under hypoxic condition: MSCs not only promoted proliferation of undifferentiated M2-Mφs, pre-M2-Mφs, in the Lin+ fraction via a proliferative effect of the MSCs-secreted macrophage colony-stimulating factor, but also promoted M2-Mφ polarization of the pre-M2-Mφs through cell-to-cell contact with the pre-M2-Mφs...
July 13, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712870/tissue-factor-pathway-inhibitor-attenuates-er-stress-induced-inflammation-in-human-m2-polarized-macrophages
#12
Sandra Espada, Benedicte Stavik, Sverre Holm, Ellen Lund Sagen, Vigdis Bjerkeli, Mona Skjelland, Tuva B Dahl, Terje Espevik, Sandip Kanse, Per Morten Sandset, Grethe Skretting, Bente Halvorsen
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has been shown to play a key role during the initiation and clinical progression of the cardiovascular diseases, such as atherosclerosis. We have recently shown that expression of tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI) in human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) was induced by cholesterol crystals (CC). In the present study we aimed to determine the role of TFPI under ER stress conditions using human MDMs. qRT-PCR and immunohistochemistry analysis were performed to determine the presence of the ER stress marker CCAAT/enhancer binding protein homologous protein (CHOP) and TFPI in a human carotid plaque material and also in human MDMs polarized into pro-inflammatory M1 or anti-inflammatory M2 populations...
July 13, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711495/evidence-for-constitutive-bone-morphogenetic-protein-2-secretion-by-m1-macrophages-constitutive-auto-paracrine-osteogenic-signaling-by-bmp-2-in-m1-macrophages
#13
Prabhatchandra R Dube, Lutz Birnbaumer, Guillermo Vazquez
Mechanisms mediating vascular calcification recapitulate osteogenic processes encompassing bone formation and imply participation of bone related proteins such as bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2). Macrophages are amongst the cells that contribute to vascular ossification by releasing cytokines that induce an osteogenic program in vascular smooth muscle cells, and also by becoming themselves osteoclast-like cells. In inflammatory vascular disease, the macrophage population in the vascular wall is diverse, with the M1 or inflammatory, and the M2 or anti-inflammatory macrophage types being dominant...
July 12, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710904/m1-macrophage-induced-endothelial-to-mesenchymal-transition-promotes-infantile-hemangioma-regression
#14
Keith Q Wu, Christopher S Muratore, Eui Y So, Changqi Sun, Patrycja M Dubielecka, Anthony M Reginato, Olin D Liang
Infantile hemangiomas are benign tumors of vascular endothelial cells (ECs), characterized by three distinct stages: proliferating phase, involuting phase, and involuted phase. The mechanisms that trigger involution of hemangioma into fibro-fatty tissue remain unknown. We report a novel mechanism by which M1-polarized macrophages induce endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EndMT) and promote hemangioma regression. M1- but not M2-polarized macrophages induced EndMT in ECs. Tumor necrosis factor-α and, to a lesser extent, IL-1β and interferon-γ were the most potent cytokines produced by the M1 macrophages that induce in vitro EndMT...
July 12, 2017: American Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707248/macrophage-m1-plays-a-positive-role-in-aseptic-inflammation-related-graft-loosening-after-anterior-cruciate-ligament-reconstruction-surgery
#15
Bing Song, Chuan Jiang, Huan Luo, Zhong Chen, Jingyi Hou, Yunfeng Zhou, Rui Yang, Huiyong Shen, Weiping Li
Macrophage-related inflammatory response is one of the main biological factors resulting in failure of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction, although the specific pathomechanism remains to be clarified. Our aim was to investigate the association between graft loosening and macrophage-related inflammation in cases of loosening of reconstructed ACL autografts. Tissue samples were obtained from 21 patients who underwent a second-look arthroscopy within the first year after arthroscopic ACL reconstruction using single-bundle hamstring tendon autografts...
July 13, 2017: Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707226/the-role-of-macrophage-polarization-on-fibroblast-behavior-an-in-vitro-investigation-on-titanium-surfaces
#16
Xuzhu Wang, Yulan Wang, Dieter D Bosshardt, Richard J Miron, Yufeng Zhang
OBJECTIVES: This study investigated the effect of smooth and rough titanium surface topographies on macrophage polarization and their influence on gingival fibroblast behavior cultured on titanium surfaces. MATERIALS AND METHODS: RAW 264.7 macrophages were seeded on smooth (pickled titanium (PT)) and rough Sand-blasted with Large grit particles followed by Acid-etching (SLA) titanium surfaces and first investigated for macrophage polarization towards tissue-inflammatory M1 macrophages or wound-healing M2 macrophages...
July 14, 2017: Clinical Oral Investigations
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705613/aging-related-effects-of-bed-rest-followed-by-eccentric-exercise-rehabilitation-on-skeletal-muscle-macrophages-and-insulin-sensitivity
#17
Paul T Reidy, Catherine C Lindsay, Alec I McKenzie, Christopher S Fry, Mark A Supiano, Robin L Marcus, Paul C LaStayo, Micah J Drummond
The pro- and anti-inflammatory macrophages are associated with insulin sensitivity and skeletal muscle regeneration. Infiltrating macrophages in skeletal muscle during a period of physical inactivity and subsequent reloading/rehabilitation in older adults is unknown, but may provide insight into mechanisms related to the development of metabolic disease and changes in muscle cell size. The purpose of this study was to determine if skeletal muscle macrophage infiltration is modulated differently between young and older adults after bed rest and exercise rehabilitation and if these responses are related to muscle and insulin sensitivity changes...
July 10, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701721/tsg-6-secreted-by-human-adipose-tissue-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-ameliorates-dss-induced-colitis-by-inducing-m2-macrophage-polarization-in-mice
#18
Woo-Jin Song, Qiang Li, Min-Ok Ryu, Jin-Ok Ahn, Dong Ha Bhang, Yun Chan Jung, Hwa-Young Youn
Previous studies have revealed that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) alleviate inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) by modulating inflammatory cytokines in the inflamed intestine. However, the mechanisms underlying these effects are not completely understood. We sought to investigate the therapeutic effects of human adipose tissue-derived (hAT)-MSCs in an IBD mouse model and to explore the mechanisms of the regulation of inflammation. Dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis mice were infused with hAT-MSCs intraperitoneally and colon tissues were collected on day 10...
July 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701512/imatinib-and-nilotinib-off-target-effects-on-human-nk-cells-monocytes-and-m2-macrophages
#19
Francesca Bellora, Alessandra Dondero, Maria Valeria Corrias, Beatrice Casu, Stefano Regis, Fabio Caliendo, Alessandro Moretta, Mario Cazzola, Chiara Elena, Luciana Vinti, Franco Locatelli, Cristina Bottino, Roberta Castriconi
Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are used in the clinical management of hematological neoplasms. Moreover, in solid tumors such as stage 4 neuroblastomas (NB), imatinib showed benefits that might depend on both on-target and immunological off-target effects. We investigated the effects of imatinib and nilotinib on human NK cells, monocytes, and macrophages. High numbers of monocytes died upon exposure to TKI concentrations similar to those achieved in patients. Conversely, NK cells were highly resistant to the TKI cytotoxic effect, were properly activated by immunostimulatory cytokines, and degranulated in the presence of NB cells...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700346/restoring-microenvironmental-redox-and-ph-homeostasis-inhibits-neoplastic-cell-growth-and-migration-therapeutic-efficacy-of-esomeprazole-plus-sulfasalazine-on-3-mca-induced-sarcoma
#20
Enrica Balza, Patrizia Castellani, Paola Sanchez Moreno, Patrizia Piccioli, Iria Medraño-Fernandez, Claudia Semino, Anna Rubartelli
Neoplastic cells live in a stressful context and survive thanks to their ability to overcome stress. Thus, tumor cell responses to stress are potential therapeutic targets. We selected two such responses in melanoma and sarcoma cells: the xc- antioxidant system, that opposes oxidative stress, and surface v-ATPases that counteract the low pHi by extruding protons, and targeted them with the xc- blocker sulfasalazine and the proton pump inhibitor esomeprazole. Sulfasalazine inhibited the cystine/cysteine redox cycle and esomeprazole decreased pHi while increasing pHe in tumor cell lines...
June 27, 2017: Oncotarget
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