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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024194/disrupted-cortico-limbic-connectivity-during-reward-processing-in-remitted-bipolar-i-disorder
#1
Sunny J Dutra, Vincent Man, Hedy Kober, William A Cunningham, June Gruber
OBJECTIVES: Bipolar disorder (BD) is associated with elevated reward sensitivity and persistent positive affect, yet the neural mechanisms underlying these patterns are not well understood. In the present study, we examined putative disruptions in communication within a well-known cortico-limbic reward circuit during reward processing as a potential contributing mechanism to these symptoms. METHODS: The present investigation employed a within- and between-subjects design utilizing a monetary and social incentive delay task among adults with bipolar disorder type I (BD; N = 24) and a healthy non-psychiatric control group (HC; N = 25) during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)...
October 11, 2017: Bipolar Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021388/in-vivo-beta-and-gamma-subthreshold-oscillations-in-rat-mitral-cells-origin-and-gating-by-respiratory-dynamics
#2
Nicolas Fourcaud-Trocmé, Virginie Briffaud, Marc Thévenet, Nathalie Buonviso, Corine Amat
In mammals, olfactory bulb (OB) dynamics are paced by slow and fast oscillatory rhythms at multiple levels: local field potential, spike discharge, and/or membrane potential oscillations. Interactions between these levels have been well studied for the slow rhythm linked to animal respiration. However, less is known regarding rhythms in the fast beta (10-35Hz) and gamma (35-100Hz) frequency ranges, particularly at the membrane potential level. Using a combination of intracellular and extracellular recordings in the OB of freely breathing rats, we show that beta and gamma subthreshold oscillations (STO) coexist intracellularly and are related to extracellular LFP oscillations in the same frequency range...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28989740/spreading-of-components-of-mood-in-adolescent-social-networks
#3
Robert W Eyre, Thomas House, Edward M Hill, Frances E Griffiths
Recent research has provided evidence that mood can spread over social networks via social contagion, but that, in seeming contradiction to this, depression does not. Here, we investigate whether there is evidence for the individual components of mood (such as appetite, tiredness and sleep) spreading through US adolescent friendship networks while adjusting for confounding by modelling the transition probabilities of changing mood state over time. We find that having more friends with worse mood is associated with a higher probability of an adolescent worsening in mood and a lower probability of improving, and vice versa for friends with better mood, for the overwhelming majority of mood components...
September 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984486/exergames-vs-traditional-exercise-investigating-the-influencing-mechanism-of-platform-effect-on-subthreshold-depression-among-older-adults
#4
Jinhui Li, Yin-Leng Theng, Schubert Foo, Xuexin Xu
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to examine the influencing mechanism of exercise platform effect on subthreshold depression among older adults by comparing exergames and traditional exercise. METHOD: One hundred and two Singaporean older adults were assigned to either playing Wii exergames or performing traditional exercise programs once a week, for six weeks. RESULTS: Results confirmed a direct negative platform effect on subthreshold depression and further supported the mediation role of positive emotions in the platform effect...
October 6, 2017: Aging & Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982814/emotion-regulation-group-therapy-for-deliberate-self-harm-a-multi-site-evaluation-in-routine-care-using-an-uncontrolled-open-trial-design
#5
Hanna Sahlin, Johan Bjureberg, Kim L Gratz, Matthew T Tull, Erik Hedman, Jonas Bjärehed, Jussi Jokinen, Lars-Gunnar Lundh, Brjánn Ljótsson, Clara Hellner
OBJECTIVE: Emotion regulation group therapy (ERGT) has shown promising results in several efficacy trials. However, it has not been evaluated outside a research setting. In order to increase the availability of empirically supported treatments for individuals with borderline personality disorder and deliberate self-harm, an evaluation of ERGT in routine clinical care was conducted with therapists of different professional backgrounds who had received brief intensive training in ERGT prior to trial onset...
October 5, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978531/effects-of-serelaxin-on-renal-microcirculation-in-rats-under-control-and-high-angiotensin-environments
#6
Weijian Shao, Carla B Rosales, Camila Gonzalez, Minolfa C Prieto, L Gabriel Navar
Serelaxin is a novel recombinant human relaxin-2 that has been investigated for the treatment of acute heart failure. However, its effects on renal function, especially on the renal microcirculation remain incompletely characterized. Our immunoexpression studies localized RXFP1 receptors on vascular smooth muscle cells and endothelial cells of afferent arterioles and on principal cells of collecting ducts. Clearance experiments were performed in male and female normotensive rats and Ang II infused male rats...
October 4, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974384/the-heterospecific-calling-song-can-improve-conspecific-signal-detection-in-a-bushcricket-species
#7
Zainab A S Abdelatti, Manfred Hartbauer
In forest clearings of the Malaysian rainforest, chirping and trilling Mecopoda species often live in sympatry. We investigated whether a phenomenon known as stochastic resonance (SR) improved the ability of individuals to detect a low-frequent signal component typical of chirps when members of the heterospecific trilling species were simultaneously active. This phenomenon may explain the fact that the chirping species upholds entrainment to the conspecific song in the presence of the trill. Therefore, we evaluated the response probability of an ascending auditory neuron (TN-1) in individuals of the chirping Mecopoda species to triple-pulsed 2, 8 and 20 kHz signals that were broadcast 1 dB below the hearing threshold while increasing the intensity of either white noise or a typical triller song...
September 21, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974217/low-power-transcutaneous-current-stimulator-for-wearable-applications
#8
David Karpul, Gregory K Cohen, Gaetano D Gargiulo, André van Schaik, Sarah McIntyre, Paul P Breen
BACKGROUND: Peripheral neuropathic desensitization associated with aging, diabetes, alcoholism and HIV/AIDS, affects tens of millions of people worldwide, and there is little or no treatment available to improve sensory function. Recent studies that apply imperceptible continuous vibration or electrical stimulation have shown promise in improving sensitivity in both diseased and healthy participants. This class of interventions only has an effect during application, necessitating the design of a wearable device for everyday use...
October 3, 2017: Biomedical Engineering Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28963456/memory-characteristics-of-silicon-nanowire-transistors-generated-by-weak-impact-ionization
#9
Doohyeok Lim, Minsuk Kim, Yoonjoong Kim, Sangsig Kim
In this study, we demonstrate the static random access memory (SRAM) characteristics generated by weak impact ionization in bendable field-effect transistors (FETs) with n(+)-p-n(+) silicon nanowire (SiNW) channels. Our bendable SiNW FETs show not only superior switching characteristics such as an on/off current ratio of ~10(5) and steep subthreshold swing (~5 mV/dec) but also reliable SRAM characteristics. The SRAM characteristics originate from the positive feedback loops in the SiNW FETs generated by weak impact ionization...
September 29, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961596/longitudinal-changes-in-combat-related-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-among-operation-enduring-freedom-operation-iraqi-freedom-operation-new-dawn-veterans-with-hazardous-alcohol-use-the-role-of-avoidance-coping
#10
Joohyun Lee, Kyle Possemato, Paige C Ouimette
Military personnel who have experienced combat trauma are at risk for developing posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). A greater recognition of the complex array of vulnerability factors that contribute to PTSD severity has led researchers to examine other non-combat-related factors. This longitudinal study examined a number of pre-, peri-, and postdeployment factors hypothesized to contribute to PTSD symptomatology among returning Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation New Dawn veterans presenting with at least subthreshold PTSD symptoms and hazardous alcohol use in a primary care setting...
October 2017: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28956534/internal-current-amplification-induced-by-dielectric-hole-trapping-in-monolayer-mos-sub-2-sub-transistor
#11
Pang-Shiuan Liu, Ching-Ting Lin, Boris Hudec, Tuo-Hung Hou
Carrier transport in layered transition-metal dichalcogenides is highly sensitive to surrounding charges because of the atomically thin thickness. By exploiting this property, we report a new internal current amplification mechanism through positive feedback induced by dielectric hole trapping in a MoS<sub>2</sub> back-gate transistor on a tantalum oxide substrate. The device exhibits an extremely steep subthreshold slope of 17 mV/decade, which is strongly dependent on the substrate material and drain bias...
September 28, 2017: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28955271/predictive-roles-of-three-dimensional-psychological-pain-psychache-and-depression-in-suicidal-ideation-among-chinese-college-students
#12
Huanhuan Li, Rong Fu, Yingmin Zou, Yanyan Cui
How to develop an effective screening instrument for predicting suicide risk is an important issue in suicidal research. The aim of the present research was to explore the predictive roles of three screening measures in the evaluation of preexisting suicide risk factors in a sample of undergraduate students. We assessed 1,061 students using the Beck depression and suicidal ideation scales (BDI-I) (BSI), the Psychache Scale (PAS), and the three-dimensional Psychological Pain Scale (TDPPS). Simultaneous multivariate regression analysis showed that the predictive values of pain avoidance scores and BDI scores for suicidal ideation were more significant than that of the PAS scores...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28950755/pilot-study-comparing-telephone-to-in-person-delivery-of-cognitive-behavioural-therapy-for-trauma-related-insomnia-for-rural-veterans
#13
C Laurel Franklin, Jessica L Walton, Amanda M Raines, Jessica L Chambliss, Sheila A Corrigan, Lisa-Ann J Cuccurullo, Nancy J Petersen, Karin E Thompson
Introduction It is estimated that 70% of patients with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) have chronic insomnia. A recent meta-analysis examined cognitive-behavioural therapy for insomnia (CBT-I) in veterans with and without PTSD, and suggested that most studies had questionable methodology, but generally supported its effectiveness in this population. Further, while CBT-I via telehealth (i.e. using telecommunication and information technology to deliver health services) has shown effectiveness for primary insomnia, it has not been applied to PTSD-related insomnia...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Telemedicine and Telecare
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28947082/facilitation-and-refractoriness-of-the-electrically-evoked-compound-action-potential
#14
Matthias Hey, Joachim Müller-Deile, Horst Hessel, Matthijs Killian
In this study we aim to resolve the contributions of facilitation and refractoriness at very short pulse intervals. Measurements of the refractory properties of the electrically evoked compound action potential (ECAP) of the auditory nerve in cochlear implant (CI) users at inter pulse intervals below 300 μs are influenced by facilitation and recovery effects. ECAPs were recorded using masker pulses with a wide range of current levels relative to the probe pulse levels, for three suprathreshold probe levels and pulse intervals from 13 to 200 μs...
September 11, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939859/cortical-up-states-induce-the-selective-weakening-of-subthreshold-synaptic-inputs
#15
Julian Bartram, Martin C Kahn, Simon Tuohy, Ole Paulsen, Tony Wilson, Edward O Mann
Slow-wave sleep is thought to be important for retuning cortical synapses, but the cellular mechanisms remain unresolved. During slow-wave activity, cortical neurons display synchronized transitions between depolarized Up states and hyperpolarized Down states. Here, using recordings from LIII pyramidal neurons from acute slices of mouse medial entorhinal cortex, we find that subthreshold inputs arriving during the Up state undergo synaptic weakening. This does not reflect a process of global synaptic downscaling, as it is dependent on presynaptic spiking, with network state encoded in the synaptically evoked spine Ca(2+) responses...
September 22, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936543/us-li-rads-ultrasound-liver-imaging-reporting-and-data-system-for-screening-and-surveillance-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#16
Tara A Morgan, Katherine E Maturen, Nirvikar Dahiya, Maryellen R M Sun, Aya Kamaya
Ultrasound is the most widely used imaging tool for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) screening and surveillance. Until now, this method has lacked standardized guidelines for interpretation, reporting, and management recommendations [1-5]. To address this need, the American College of Radiology (ACR) has developed the Ultrasound Liver Imaging Reporting and Data System (US LI-RADS) algorithm. The proposed algorithm has two components: detection scores and visualization scores. The detection score guides management and has three categories: US-1 Negative, US-2 Subthreshold, and US-3 Positive...
September 21, 2017: Abdominal Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922737/economic-evaluations-of-internet-and-mobile-based-interventions-for-the-treatment-and-prevention-of-depression-a-systematic-review
#17
REVIEW
Sarah Paganini, Wiebke Teigelkötter, Claudia Buntrock, Harald Baumeister
BACKGROUND: Internet- and mobile-based interventions (IMIs) targeting depression have been shown to be clinically effective and are considered a cost-effective complement to established interventions. The aim of this review was to provide an overview of the evidence for the cost-effectiveness of IMIs for the treatment and prevention of depression. METHODS: A systematic database search was conducted (Medline, PsychInfo, CENTRAL, PSYNDEX, OHE HEED). Relevant articles were selected according to defined eligibility criteria...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921695/frequency-dependent-regulation-of-intrinsic-excitability-by-voltage-activated-membrane-conductances-computational-modeling-and-dynamic-clamp
#18
Attila Szűcs, Anikó Rátkai, Katalin Schlett, Ramon Huerta
As one of the most unique properties of nerve cells, their intrinsic excitability allows them to transform synaptic inputs into action potentials. This process reflects a complex interplay between the synaptic inputs and the voltage-dependent membrane currents of the postsynaptic neuron. While neurons in natural conditions mostly fire under the action of intense synaptic bombardment and receive fluctuating patterns of excitation and inhibition, conventional techniques to characterize intrinsic excitability mainly utilize static means of stimulation...
September 16, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28918597/effect-of-vibration-on-postural-control-and-gait-of-elderly-subjects-a-systematic-review
#19
REVIEW
Atefeh Aboutorabi, Mokhtar Arazpour, Mahmood Bahramizadeh, Farzam Farahmand, Reza Fadayevatan
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Gait and balance disorders are common in the elderly populations, and their prevalence increases with age. This systematic review was performed to summarize the current evidence for subthreshold vibration interventions on postural control and gait in elderly. METHOD: A review of intervention studies including the following words in the title/abstract: insole, foot and ankle appliances, vibration, noise and elderly related to balance and gait...
September 16, 2017: Aging Clinical and Experimental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904093/sodium-dynamics-in-pyramidal-neuron-dendritic-spines-synaptically-evoked-entry-predominantly-through-ampa-receptors-and-removal-by-diffusion
#20
Kenichi Miyazaki, William N Ross
Dendritic spines are key elements underlying synaptic integration and cellular plasticity, but many features of these important structures are not known or are controversial. We examined these properties with newly developed simultaneous sodium and calcium imaging that had single spine resolution in pyramidal neurons in rat hippocampal slices from either sex. Indicators for both ions were loaded through the somatic patch pipette, which also recorded electrical responses. Fluorescence changes were detected with a high speed, low noise CCD camera...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
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