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Vito Di Maio, Silvia Santillo, Francesco Ventriglia
The activity of thousands of excitatory synapse in the dendritic tree produces variations of membrane potential which, while can produce the spike generation at soma (hillock), can also influence the output of a single glutamatergic synapse. We used a model of synaptic diffusion and EPSP generation to simulate the effect of different number of active synapses on the output of a single one. Our results show that, also in subthreshold conditions, the excitatory dendritic activity can influence several parameters of the single synaptic output such as its amplitude, its time course, the NMDA-component activation and consequently phenomena like STP and LTP...
June 15, 2018: Brain Research
Katherine Schaumberg, Andreas Jangmo, Laura M Thornton, Andreas Birgegård, Catarina Almqvist, Claes Norring, Henrik Larsson, Cynthia M Bulik
BACKGROUND: Transition across eating disorder diagnoses is common, reflecting instability of specific eating disorder presentations. Previous studies have examined temporal stability of diagnoses in adult treatment-seeking samples but have not uniformly captured initial presentation for treatment. The current study examines transitions across eating disorder diagnostic categories in a large, treatment-seeking sample of individuals born in Sweden and compares these transitions across two birth cohorts and from initial diagnosis...
June 18, 2018: Psychological Medicine
Sean B Dolan, Ritu A Shetty, Michael J Forster, Michael B Gatch
BACKGROUND: Substituted piperazines comprise a substantial proportion of the novel psychoactive substance market. Among the most widely abused piperazine compounds are meta-chlorophenylpiperazine (mCPP), tri-fluoromethylphenylpiperazine (TFMPP), and, especially, benzylpiperazine (BZP), which are commonly incorporated, either alone or in combination, in illicit "party pills" or "ecstasy" formulations. Illicit synthesis of BZP often results in production of an impure by-product dibenzylpiperazine (DBZP), which frequently appears alongside BZP in these formulations; however, despite its ubiquity, little information exists regarding the abuse liability of DBZP...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Psychopharmacology
Alejandro De la Torre-Luque, Maria Balle, Aina Fiol-Veny, Jordi Llabrés, Xavier Bornas
The risk of suffering anxiety disorders is associated with sustained subthreshold symptoms of anxiety. This study evaluated the stability of anxiety scores (high, moderate or low) across a six-month period in early adolescents (N = 95). The associations between sustained anxiety, vagally-mediated heart rate variability (vmHRV), sympathetic activity, and heart rate fractal dynamics in everyday life conditions were analyzed. The anxiety scores from 71.50% of participants remained at the same level. The linear correlations between anxiety and cardiac measures were weak but a group-based approach revealed that the fractal dimension (FD) from stable-low anxiety participants was higher than the FD from participants with stable-moderate anxiety scores but not higher than the FD from the stable-high anxiety group...
July 2018: Nonlinear Dynamics, Psychology, and Life Sciences
Feng-Yin Gao, Yan-Mei Kang, Xi Chen, Guanrong Chen
This paper reveals the effect of fractional Gaussian noise with Hurst exponent H∈(1/2,1) on the information capacity of a general nonlinear neuron model with binary signal input. The fGn and its corresponding fractional Brownian motion exhibit long-range, strong-dependent increments. It extends standard Brownian motion to many types of fractional processes found in nature, such as the synaptic noise. In the paper, for the subthreshold binary signal, sufficient conditions are given based on the "forbidden interval" theorem to guarantee the occurrence of stochastic resonance, while for the suprathreshold binary signal, the simulated results show that additive fGn with Hurst exponent H∈(1/2,1) could increase the mutual information or bits count...
May 2018: Physical Review. E
Chenguang Qiu, Fei Liu, Lin Xu, Bing Deng, Mengmeng Xiao, Jia Si, Li Lin, Zhiyong Zhang, Jian Wang, Hong Guo, Hailin Peng, Lian-Mao Peng
An efficient way to reduce the power is to lower the supply voltage VDD , but this voltage is restricted by the 60 millivolts per decade thermionic limit of subthreshold swing (SS) in field-effect transistors (FETs). We show that a graphene Dirac source (DS) with a much narrower electron density distribution around the Fermi level than that of conventional FETs can lower SS. A DS-FET with a carbon nanotube channel provided an average SS of 40 millivolt per decade over four decades of current at room temperature and high device current I60 of up to 40 microampere per micrometer at 60 millivolts per decade...
June 14, 2018: Science
Sharonda Alston Taylor, Sarah Ditch, Shana Hansen
Adolescents with obesity are not immune to developing disordered eating and eating disorders. They most commonly present with atypical or subthreshold criterion due to excess body weight or questions regarding the presence of a distorted body image. Patients with premorbid overweight/obesity and subsequent achievement of weight loss may lead to delays in the recognition and treatment of disordered eating and eating disorders. In fact, disordered eating and eating disorders tend to be higher in those undergoing weight management...
June 1, 2018: Pediatric Annals
Jan Krausmann, Shawn Sanctis, Jörg Engstler, Martina Luysberg, Michael Bruns, Jörg J Schneider
The influence of the composition within multilayered heterostructure oxide semiconductors has a critical impact on the performance of thin-film transistor (TFT) devices. The heterostructures, comprising alternating polycrystalline indium oxide and zinc oxide layers, are fabricated by a facile atomic layer deposition (ALD) process, enabling the tuning of its electrical properties by precisely controlling the thickness of the individual layers. This subsequently results in enhanced TFT performance for the optimized stacked architecture after mild thermal annealing at temperatures as low as 200 °C...
June 11, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Xiaoling Xiang, Amanda Leggett, Joseph A Himle, Helen C Kales
OBJECTIVE: This study aims to estimate the prevalence and correlates of major and subthreshold depression and the extent of treatment utilization in older adults receiving home care. METHODS: The study sample included 811 community-dwelling adults aged 60 and over who received paid home care during the 2008-2014 waves of the Health and Retirement Study. Depression was assessed using short forms of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale...
May 8, 2018: American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
Peng Xiao, Junhua Huang, Ting Dong, Jianing Xie, Jian Yuan, Dongxiang Luo, Baiquan Liu
For the first time, compounds with lanthanum from the main family element Boron (LaBx ) were investigated as an active layer for thin-film transistors (TFTs). Detailed studies showed that the room-temperature fabricated LaBx thin film was in the crystalline state with a relatively narrow optical band gap of 2.28 eV. The atom ration of La/B was related to the working pressure during the sputtering process and the atom ration of La/B increased with the increase of the working pressure, which will result in the freer electrons in the LaBx thin film...
June 6, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Tim Carter, Anastasios Bastounis, Boliang Guo, C Jane Morrell
Postpartum depression can have detrimental effects on both a mother's physical and mental health and on her child's growth and emotional development. The aim of this study is to assess the effectiveness of exercise/physical activity-based interventions in preventing and treating postpartum depressive symptoms in primiparous and multiparous women to the end of the postnatal period at 52 weeks postpartum. Electronic databases were searched for published and unpublished randomised controlled trials of exercise/physical activity-based interventions in preventing and treating depressive symptoms and increasing health-related quality of life in women from 4 to 52 weeks postpartum...
June 7, 2018: Archives of Women's Mental Health
Charlotte J Stagg, Andrea Antal, Michael A Nitsche
Direct current stimulation is a neuromodulatory noninvasive brain stimulation tool, which was first introduced in animal and human experiments in the 1950s, and added to the standard arsenal of methods to alter brain physiology as well as psychological, motor, and behavioral processes and clinical symptoms in neurological and psychiatric diseases about 20 years ago. In contrast to other noninvasive brain stimulation tools, such as transcranial magnetic stimulation, it does not directly induce cerebral activity, but rather alters spontaneous brain activity and excitability by subthreshold modulation of neuronal membranes...
June 5, 2018: Journal of ECT
Torbjørn V Ness, Michiel W H Remme, Gaute T Einevoll
In cortex the local field potential (LFP) is thought to mainly stem from correlated synaptic input to populations of geometrically aligned neurons. Computer models of single cortical pyramidal neurons showed that subthreshold voltage-dependent membrane conductances can also shape the LFP signal, in particular the h-type current, Ih This ion-channel is prominent in various types of pyramidal neurons, typically showing an increasing density gradient along the apical dendrites. Here, we investigate how Ih affects the LFP generated by a model of a population of cortical pyramidal neurons...
June 6, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Anna Szücs, Katalin Szanto, Jean-Michel Aubry, Alexandre Y Dombrovski
Background: Suicide rates generally peak in the second half of life and are particularly high in older men; however, little is known about the contribution of dispositional factors to late-life suicide. Maladaptive personality traits have been strongly implicated in suicide among younger adults, but the extent to which they continue to play a role in late-life suicidal behavior is unclear. We also do not know whether specific personality profiles interact with the stressors of aging to cause suicidal behavior...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Fang Xu, Dong-Qing Shi, Pak-Ming Lau, Michael Z Lin, Guo-Qiang Bi
Recent interest in high-throughput recording of neuronal activity has motivated rapid improvements in genetically encoded calcium or voltage indicators (GECIs or GEVIs) for all-optical electrophysiology. Among these probes, the ASAPs, a series of voltage indicators based on a variant of circularly permuted green fluorescent protein (cpGFP) and a conjugated voltage sensitive domain (VSD), are capable of detecting both action potentials and subthreshold neuronal activities. Here we show that the ASAPs, when excited by blue light, undergo reversible photobleaching...
June 4, 2018: Molecular Brain
Megan L Oser, Marie-Christine Nizzi, Jennifer L Zinser, Marvee Turk, Russell Epstein, Ericka Bueno, David Gitlin, Bohdan Pomahac
BACKGROUND: Face transplantation is a novel option for patients with severe facial disfigurement. Quality of life (QoL) outcomes of face transplantation remain poorly understood. OBJECTIVES: We sought to evaluate psychosocial functioning among 6 patients undergoing facial transplantation. METHODS: We prospectively assessed depressive symptoms, health status, mental and physical QoL, and self-esteem at 3-month intervals for 2 years. Social desirability was assessed pretransplant...
April 20, 2018: Psychosomatics
L Djouhri, T Smith, M Alotaibi, X Weng
NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of this study? Is spontaneous activity (SA) in L4-DRG neurons induced by L5 spinal nerve axotomy is associated with membrane potentials oscillations in theses neurons, and are these membrane oscillations mediated by HCN channels? What is the main finding and its importance? Unlike injured L5 DRG neurons which have been shown to be incapable of firing spontaneously without membrane potentials oscillations, such membrane oscillations are not essential for SA generation in conducting "uninjured'' L4 neurons, and they are not mediated by HCN channels...
June 3, 2018: Experimental Physiology
Yuri Okamoto, Yoshie Miyake, Ichie Nagasawa, Masaharu Yoshihara
Background: The aim of this study was to examine the necessity of early intervention for students with potential bulimia by investigating how the eating attitudes of college students change and examining the relation between bulimic symptoms and depressive symptoms or the ability to cope with stress. Methods: The study participants were students who entered Hiroshima University in 2014. This study was conducted at two time points: Time-1 in 2014 and Time-2 in 2017...
2018: BioPsychoSocial Medicine
Carolina Christina Burgos-Vega, Lilyana D Quigley, Gabriela Trevisan Dos Santos, Flora Yan, Marina Asiedu, Blaine Jacobs, Marina Motina, Nida Safdar, Hayyan Yousuf, Amanda Avona, Theodore John Price, Greg Dussor
Background Migraine is characterized by a collection of neurological symptoms in the absence of injury or damage. However, several common preclinical migraine models require significant damage to the skull to stimulate the dura mater, the likely source of afferent signaling leading to head pain. The goal of this study was to determine whether dural stimulation can be performed in mice using an injection that does not cause injury or damage. Methods Using mice, injections of stimuli were administered to the dura mater through the soft tissue at the intersection between the lambdoidal and sagittal sutures...
January 1, 2018: Cephalalgia: An International Journal of Headache
J C Huston, K M Iverson, K S Mitchell
OBJECTIVE: Individuals with eating disorders (EDs) have considerable medical and psychiatric comorbidity as well as increased healthcare use and associated costs. However, EDs remain largely undetected and understudied among veteran populations, and EDs are not routinely screened for or treated in Veterans Affairs (VA) medical settings. Research elucidating the links between disordered eating and VA and non-VA healthcare use is needed to inform policy and practice for ED screening and treatment...
May 30, 2018: International Journal of Eating Disorders
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