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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228074/a-review-of-the-current-therapies-challenges-and-future-directions-of-transcranial-focused-ultrasound-technology-advances-in-diagnosis-and-treatment
#1
Vibhor Krishna, Francesco Sammartino, Ali Rezai
Importance: Magnetic resonance imaging-guided focused ultrasound ablation has been approved for the treatment of refractory essential tremor and is being studied for other neurological indications, including dyskinesias and tremor in Parkinson disease, dystonia, neuropathic pain, obsessive-compulsive disorder, epilepsy, and brain tumors. Objective: To review the scientific foundations of FUS technology, existing neurological applications, and future advances. Evidence Review: PubMed was searched for the past 10 years using the terms "transcranial ultrasound," "focused ultrasound," and "neurological applications...
December 11, 2017: JAMA Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215839/-interaction-of-epinephrine-and-adp-in-regulation-of-platelet-function-in-chronic-cerebral-ischemia
#2
E F Barinov, S A Mamedaliyeva, T A Tverdokhleb, A O , Balykina
The purpose is devoted to test of hypothesis that patients with chronic cerebral ischemia (CCI) have decreased secretion of platelet ADP as the reason of platelet aggregation restriction in response to stimulation of adrenaline. Methods. We used platelet-rich plasma which was separated by centrifugation from peripheral blood of 55 patients with a diagnosis of CCI of stage 1-2. Platelets aggregation was studied on aggregometer Chrono - Log (USA). ADP and Epinephrine were used for platelet stimulation at effective concentration (EC50)...
April 2017: Patologicheskaia Fiziologiia i èksperimental'naia Terapiia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214635/kv4-2-channel-activity-controls-intrinsic-firing-dynamics-of-arcuate-kisspeptin-neurons
#3
Philipe R F Mendonça, Victoria Kyle, Shel-Hwa Yeo, William H Colledge, Hugh P C Robinson
Kisspeptin neurons in the hypothalamus are critically involved in reproductive function, via their effect on GnRH neuron activity and consequent gonadotropin release. Kisspeptin neurons show an intrinsic irregularity of firing, but the mechanism of this remains unclear. To address this, we carried out targeted whole-cell patch-clamp recordings of kisspeptin neurons in the arcuate nucleus (Kiss1Arc ), in brain slices isolated from adult male Kiss-Cre:tdTomato mice. Cells fired irregularly in response to constant current stimuli, with a wide range of spike time variability, and prominent subthreshold voltage fluctuations...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213280/subthreshold-psychiatric-psychopathology-in-functional-gastrointestinal-disorders-can-it-be-the-bridge-between-gastroenterology-and-psychiatry
#4
Cristina Stasi, Cristiana Nisita, Sonia Cortopassi, Giorgio Corretti, Dario Gambaccini, Nicola De Bortoli, Bernardo Fani, Natalia Simonetti, Angelo Ricchiuti, Liliana Dell'Osso, Santino Marchi, Massimo Bellini
Background and Aims: Functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGDs) are multifactorial disorders of the gut-brain interaction. This study investigated the prevalence of Axis I and spectrum disorders in patients with FGD and established the link between FGDs and psychopathological dimensions. Methods: A total of 135 consecutive patients with FGD were enrolled. The symptoms' severity was evaluated using questionnaires, while the psychiatric evaluation by clinical interviews established the presence/absence of mental (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual-4th edition, Axis I Diagnosis) or spectrum disorders...
2017: Gastroenterology Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209548/use-of-interpersonal-counseling-for-modern-type-depression
#5
Hisae Ono, Ami Yamamoto, Reiko Taketani, Emi Tsujimoto
A novel form of depression, called "modern type depression" (MTD), has been increasing in prevalence in Japan. Patients with MTD present with an overt appeal of depressive mood and a desire to be excused from their work duties; as such, this can cause considerable trouble in the workplace. Psychosocial interventions should be primarily considered for the treatment of MTD. Interpersonal counseling (IPC), which has proven effective for treating subthreshold depression, may be effective for MTD. However, IPC is rarely done in Japan...
2017: Case Reports in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209189/spike-triggered-regression-for-synaptic-connectivity-reconstruction-in-neuronal-networks
#6
Yaoyu Zhang, Yanyang Xiao, Douglas Zhou, David Cai
How neurons are connected in the brain to perform computation is a key issue in neuroscience. Recently, the development of calcium imaging and multi-electrode array techniques have greatly enhanced our ability to measure the firing activities of neuronal populations at single cell level. Meanwhile, the intracellular recording technique is able to measure subthreshold voltage dynamics of a neuron. Our work addresses the issue of how to combine these measurements to reveal the underlying network structure. We propose the spike-triggered regression (STR) method, which employs both the voltage trace and firing activity of the neuronal population to reconstruct the underlying synaptic connectivity...
2017: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29200833/positive-airway-pressure-adherence-and-subthreshold-adherence-in-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-patients-with-comorbid-sleep-apnea
#7
Barry J Krakow, Jessica J Obando, Victor A Ulibarri, Natalia D McIver
Study objectives: Patients with comorbid posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) manifest low adherence to continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) due to fixed, pressure-induced expiratory pressure intolerance (EPI), a subjective symptom and objective sign aggravated by anxiety sensitivity and somatosensory amplification. As advanced PAP therapy modes (ie, auto-bilevel PAP [ABPAP] or adaptive servo-ventilation [ASV]) may address these side effects, we hypothesized such treatment would be associated with decreased expiratory intolerance and increased adherence in posttraumatic stress patients with co-occurring OSA...
2017: Patient Preference and Adherence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29198199/secular-trends-in-the-prevalence-of-major-and-subthreshold-depression-among-55-64-year-olds-over-20-years
#8
Hans W Jeuring, Hannie C Comijs, Dorly J H Deeg, Max L Stek, Martijn Huisman, Aartjan T F Beekman
BACKGROUND: Studying secular trends in the exposure to risk and protective factors of depression and whether these trends are associated with secular trends in the prevalence of depression is important to estimate future healthcare demands and to identify targets for prevention. METHODS: Three birth cohorts of 55-64-year olds from the population-based Longitudinal Aging Study Amsterdam were examined using identical methods in 1992 (n = 944), 2002 (n = 964) and 2012 (n = 957)...
December 4, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195160/modulation-of-the-anticonvulsant-effect-of-swim-stress-by-agmatine
#9
Taraneh Bahremand, Pooya Payandemehr, Kiarash Riazi, Ali Reza Noorian, Borna Payandemehr, Mohammad Sharifzadeh, Ahmad Reza Dehpour
Agmatine is an endogenous l-arginine metabolite with neuroprotective effects in the stress-response system. It exerts anticonvulsant effects against several seizure paradigms. Swim stress induces an anticonvulsant effect by activation of endogenous antiseizure mechanisms. In this study, we investigated the interaction of agmatine with the anticonvulsant effect of swim stress in mice on pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizure threshold. Then we studied the involvement of nitric oxide (NO) pathway and endogenous opioid system in that interaction...
November 28, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29191914/resolvins-suppress-tumor-growth-and-enhance-cancer-therapy
#10
Megan L Sulciner, Charles N Serhan, Molly M Gilligan, Dayna K Mudge, Jaimie Chang, Allison Gartung, Kristen A Lehner, Diane R Bielenberg, Birgitta Schmidt, Jesmond Dalli, Emily R Greene, Yael Gus-Brautbar, Julia Piwowarski, Tadanori Mammoto, David Zurakowski, Mauro Perretti, Vikas P Sukhatme, Arja Kaipainen, Mark W Kieran, Sui Huang, Dipak Panigrahy
Cancer therapy reduces tumor burden by killing tumor cells, yet it simultaneously creates tumor cell debris that may stimulate inflammation and tumor growth. Thus, conventional cancer therapy is inherently a double-edged sword. In this study, we show that tumor cells killed by chemotherapy or targeted therapy ("tumor cell debris") stimulate primary tumor growth when coinjected with a subthreshold (nontumorigenic) inoculum of tumor cells by triggering macrophage proinflammatory cytokine release after phosphatidylserine exposure...
November 30, 2017: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187553/ih-interacts-with-somato-dendritic-structure-to-determine-frequency-response-to-weak-alternating-electric-field-stimulation
#11
Enrique H S Toloza, Ehsan Negahbani, Flavio Frohlich
Transcranial current stimulation (tCS) modulates brain dynamics using weak electric fields. Given the pathological changes in brain network oscillations in neurological and psychiatric illnesses, using alternating electric field waveforms that engage rhythmic activity has been proposed as a targeted, network-level treatment approach. Previous studies have investigated the effects of electric fields at the neuronal level. However, the biophysical basis of the cellular response to electric fields has remained limited...
November 29, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184215/social-stress-induces-neurovascular-pathology-promoting-depression
#12
Caroline Menard, Madeline L Pfau, Georgia E Hodes, Veronika Kana, Victoria X Wang, Sylvain Bouchard, Aki Takahashi, Meghan E Flanigan, Hossein Aleyasin, Katherine B LeClair, William G Janssen, Benoit Labonté, Eric M Parise, Zachary S Lorsch, Sam A Golden, Mitra Heshmati, Carol Tamminga, Gustavo Turecki, Matthew Campbell, Zahi A Fayad, Cheuk Ying Tang, Miriam Merad, Scott J Russo
Studies suggest that heightened peripheral inflammation contributes to the pathogenesis of major depressive disorder. We investigated the effect of chronic social defeat stress, a mouse model of depression, on blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability and infiltration of peripheral immune signals. We found reduced expression of the endothelial cell tight junction protein claudin-5 (Cldn5) and abnormal blood vessel morphology in nucleus accumbens (NAc) of stress-susceptible but not resilient mice. CLDN5 expression was also decreased in NAc of depressed patients...
December 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180675/protein-kinase-m%C3%AE-in-medial-prefrontal-cortex-mediates-depressive-like-behavior-and-antidepressant-response
#13
W Yan, J-F Liu, Y Han, W Zhang, Y-X Luo, Y-X Xue, W-L Zhu, C Yang, W-H Chen, H-L Guo, Y-N Ma, K Yuan, J-S Wang, J Shi, L Lu
Neuronal atrophy and alterations of synaptic structure and function in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of depression, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are largely unknown. The protein kinase Mζ (PKMζ), a brain-specific atypical protein kinase C isoform, is important for maintaining long-term potentiation and storing memory. In the present study, we explored the role of PKMζ in mPFC in two rat models of depression, chronic unpredictable stress (CUS) and learned helplessness...
November 28, 2017: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29177712/laser-photocoagulation-as-treatment-of-non-exudative-age-related-macular-degeneration-state-of-the-art-and-future-perspectives
#14
Giuseppe Querques, Maria Vittoria Cicinelli, Alessandro Rabiolo, Luigi de Vitis, Riccardo Sacconi, Lea Querques, Francesco Bandello
PURPOSE: To give an updated review of laser approaches to non-exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD). METHODS: PubMed and Medline database searches were carried out using the terms "laser" and "photocoagulation" associated with "age-related macular degeneration", and latest publications up to May 2017 have been reviewed. Moreover, the design of an ongoing single-center, non-randomized, phase I-II, pilot study, the PASCAL-GA trial, coordinated by F. Bandello, MD and G...
November 25, 2017: Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173080/eating-disorder-mental-health-literacy-what-do-psychologists-naturopaths-and-fitness-instructors-know
#15
Kate A Worsfold, Jeanie K Sheffield
At present, there are no known studies investigating the eating disorder mental health literacy (ED-MHL) of common frontline health providers such as psychologists, naturopaths, and fitness instructors. Little research also exists around practitioner knowledge for the spectrum of eating disorders. The current study sought to fill these research gaps and comprised 115 health practitioners who completed an online survey. A fictional vignette describing a female (Sarah) experiencing a subthreshold bulimic variant without purging was presented alongside common ED-MHL items...
November 27, 2017: Eating Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29172099/associations-between-adhd-and-eating-disorders-in-relation-to-comorbid-psychiatric-disorders-in-a-nationally-representative-sample
#16
Hannah Ziobrowski, Timothy D Brewerton, Alexis E Duncan
The objective of this study was to examine whether previously observed associations of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with eating disorders (EDs) are at least partially attributable to other underlying psychopathology. Data came from 4719 participants aged 18-44 years in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication and the National Survey of American Life. DSM-IV diagnoses were assessed using the World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Multinomial logistic regression assessed associations between DSM-IV lifetime and past-12 month diagnoses of ADHD with EDs in unadjusted models and in models adjusted for demographic variables and other psychopathology...
November 16, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29172073/intrinsic-sodium-currents-and-excitatory-synaptic-transmission-influence-spontaneous-firing-in-up-and-down-activities
#17
Yihong Wang, Xuying Xu, Rubin Wang
Periodic up and down transitions of membrane potentials are considered to be a significant spontaneous activity. These kinds of oscillations always accompany with some spontaneous firing in up state. Our previous theoretical studies mainly looked at the subthreshold up and down transitions and characteristics of up and down dynamics. In this paper, we focus on suprathreshold spontaneous firing of up and down transitions based on improved network model and its stimulations. The simulated results indicate that fast sodium current is critical to the generation of spontaneous neural firing...
November 8, 2017: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29171917/increasing-motor-neuron-excitability-to-treat-weakness-in-sepsis
#18
Paul Nardelli, Randall Powers, Tim C Cope, Mark M Rich
OBJECTIVE: Weakness induced by critical illness (intensive care unit acquired weakness) is a major cause of disability in patients and is currently untreatable. We recently identified a defect in repetitive firing of lower motor neurons as a novel contributor to intensive care unit acquired weakness. In order to develop therapy for intensive care unit acquired weakness, it was necessary to determine the mechanism underlying the defect in repetitive firing. METHODS: Both computer simulation and in vivo dynamic voltage clamp of spinal motor neurons in septic rats were employed to explore potential mechanisms underlying defective repetitive firing...
November 24, 2017: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29171196/clinical-and-subclinical-distress-quality-of-life-and-psychological-well-being-after-cardiac-rehabilitation
#19
Sara Gostoli, Renzo Roncuzzi, Stefano Urbinati, Chiara Rafanelli
BACKGROUND: The literature has outlined positive effects of cardiac rehabilitation (CR) on clinical psychological distress (DSM depression and anxiety) and quality of life (QoL). In cardiac settings, subclinical distress (subthreshold depressive and anxious symptomatology) and psychological well-being also showed relevant clinical implications. This research explored these psychological variables, their changes over time and cardiac course of CR patients. METHODS: Clinical and subclinical distress, QoL, and psychological well-being were assessed in 108 consecutive patients undergoing CR, at baseline and up to 12 months after the program's completion...
November 2017: Applied Psychology. Health and Well-being
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167040/delirium-in-the-intensive-care-setting-and-the-richmond-agitation-and-sedation-scale-rass-drowsiness-increases-the-risk-and-is-subthreshold-for-delirium
#20
Soenke Boettger, David Garcia Nuñez, Rafael Meyer, André Richter, Susana Franco Fernandez, Alain Rudiger, Maria Schubert, Josef Jenewein
INTRODUCTION: Sedation is a core concept in the intensive care setting, however, the impact of sedation on delirium has not yet been studied to date. METHODS: In this prospective cohort study, 225 patients with Richmond Agitation and Sedation (RASS) scores of -1 - drowsiness and 0 - alert- and calmness were assessed with the Delirium Rating Scale-Revised 1998 (DRS-R-98) and DSM-IV-TR-determined diagnosis of delirium assessing drowsiness versus alertness. RESULTS: By itself, drowsiness increased the odds for developing delirium eightfold (OR 7...
December 2017: Journal of Psychosomatic Research
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