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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914248/the-difficult-lives-of-individuals-with-bipolar-disorder-a-review-of-functional-outcomes-and-their-implications-for-treatment
#1
REVIEW
Michael J Gitlin, David J Miklowitz
BACKGROUND: Most longitudinal or treatment studies in bipolar disorder have used symptomatic or syndromal status as the primary outcome variable. More recently, psychosocial functioning has been highlighted as a key domain of outcome. Patients with bipolar disorder appear to be impaired in all functional domains, although the factors that cause impairment have not been clearly specified. METHODS: This paper reviews cross-sectional and longitudinal studies on functional impairment and its relationship to symptomatic, neurocognitive, personality, and stress variables in bipolar disorder; and the implications of these relationships for defining treatment targets...
November 22, 2016: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909841/the-shaping-of-intrinsic-membrane-potential-oscillations-positive-negative-feedback-ionic-resonance-amplification-nonlinearities-and-time-scales
#2
Horacio G Rotstein
The generation of intrinsic subthreshold (membrane potential) oscillations (STOs) in neuronal models requires the interaction between two processes: a relatively fast positive feedback that favors changes in voltage and a slower negative feedback that opposes these changes. These are provided by the so-called resonant and amplifying gating variables associated to the participating ionic currents. We investigate both the biophysical and dynamic mechanisms of generation of STOs and how their attributes (frequency and amplitude) depend on the model parameters for biophysical (conductance-based) models having qualitatively different types of resonant currents (activating and inactivating) and an amplifying current...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905095/electrical-properties-of-ultrathin-hf-ti-o-higher-k-gate-dielectric-films-and-their-application-in-etsoi-mosfet
#3
Yuhua Xiong, Xiaoqiang Chen, Feng Wei, Jun Du, Hongbin Zhao, Zhaoyun Tang, Bo Tang, Wenwu Wang, Jiang Yan
Ultrathin Hf-Ti-O higher k gate dielectric films (~2.55 nm) have been prepared by atomic layer deposition. Their electrical properties and application in ETSOI (fully depleted extremely thin SOI) PMOSFETs were studied. It is found that at the Ti concentration of Ti/(Ti + Hf) ~9.4%, low equivalent gate oxide thickness (EOT) of ~0.69 nm and acceptable gate leakage current density of 0.61 A/cm(2) @ (V fb - 1)V could be obtained. The conduction mechanism through the gate dielectric is dominated by the F-N tunneling in the gate voltage range of -0...
December 2016: Nanoscale Research Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902829/perceptual-interaction-of-local-motion-signals
#4
Eyal I Nitzany, Maren E Loe, Stephanie E Palmer, Jonathan D Victor
Motion signals are a rich source of information used in many everyday tasks, such as segregation of objects from background and navigation. Motion analysis by biological systems is generally considered to consist of two stages: extraction of local motion signals followed by spatial integration. Studies using synthetic stimuli show that there are many kinds and subtypes of local motion signals. When presented in isolation, these stimuli elicit behavioral and neurophysiological responses in a wide range of species, from insects to mammals...
November 1, 2016: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27900795/deferral-for-low-hemoglobin-is-not-associated-with-increased-risk-of-infection-in-danish-blood-donors
#5
Sebastian R Kotzé, Ole B Pedersen, Mikkel S Petersen, Erik Sørensen, Khoa Manh Dinh, Kathrine Agergård Kaspersen, Andreas S Rigas, Henrik Hjalgrim, Klaus Rostgaard, Gustaf Edgren, Henrik Ullum, Christian Erikstrup
BACKGROUND: Low hemoglobin (Hb) is associated with poor general health and adverse outcomes in a wide range of diseases. However, a link between Hb levels and the risk of infection among healthy individuals has yet to be investigated. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Using data from the Scandinavian Donations and Transfusions database, 497,390 donors were followed after 5,458,499 donations in health registers. With 1,339,362 person-years of follow-up, Andersen-Gill Cox regression was used to study the association of Hb levels below deferral thresholds, very low Hb levels (in the lowest 0...
November 29, 2016: Transfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896311/interfacing-with-neural-activity-via-femtosecond-laser-stimulation-of-drug-encapsulating-liposomal-nanostructures
#6
Takashi Nakano, Sean M Mackay, Eng Wui Tan, Keshav M Dani, Jeff Wickens
External control over rapid and precise release of chemicals in the brain potentially provides a powerful interface with neural activity. Optical manipulation techniques, such as optogenetics and caged compounds, enable remote control of neural activity and behavior with fine spatiotemporal resolution. However, these methods are limited to chemicals that are naturally present in the brain or chemically suitable for caging. Here, we demonstrate the ability to interface with neural functioning via a wide range of neurochemicals released by stimulating loaded liposomal nanostructures with femtosecond lasers...
November 2016: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894368/effects-of-behavioural-activation-on-the-neural-basis-of-other-perspective-self-referential-processing-in-subthreshold-depression-a-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-study
#7
S Shiota, Y Okamoto, G Okada, K Takagaki, M Takamura, A Mori, S Yokoyama, Y Nishiyama, R Jinnin, R I Hashimoto, S Yamawaki
BACKGROUND: It has been demonstrated that negatively distorted self-referential processing, in which individuals evaluate one's own self, is a pathogenic mechanism in subthreshold depression that has a considerable impact on the quality of life and carries an elevated risk of developing major depression. Behavioural activation (BA) is an effective intervention for depression, including subthreshold depression. However, brain mechanisms underlying BA are not fully understood. We sought to examine the effect of BA on neural activation during other perspective self-referential processing in subthreshold depression...
November 29, 2016: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893786/extending-integrate-and-fire-model-neurons-to-account-for-the-effects-of-weak-electric-fields-and-input-filtering-mediated-by-the-dendrite
#8
Florian Aspart, Josef Ladenbauer, Klaus Obermayer
Transcranial brain stimulation and evidence of ephaptic coupling have recently sparked strong interests in understanding the effects of weak electric fields on the dynamics of brain networks and of coupled populations of neurons. The collective dynamics of large neuronal populations can be efficiently studied using single-compartment (point) model neurons of the integrate-and-fire (IF) type as their elements. These models, however, lack the dendritic morphology required to biophysically describe the effect of an extracellular electric field on the neuronal membrane voltage...
November 2016: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867417/from-asperger-s-autistischen-psychopathen-to-dsm-5-autism-spectrum-disorder-and-beyond-a-subthreshold-autism-spectrum-model
#9
REVIEW
Liliana Dell'Osso, Riccardo Dalle Luche, Camilla Gesi, Ilenia Moroni, Claudia Carmassi, Mario Maj
Growing interest has recently been devoted to partial forms of autism, lying at the diagnostic boundaries of those conditions previously diagnosed as Asperger's Disorder. This latter includes an important retrieval of the European classical psychopathological concepts of adult autism to which Hans Asperger referred in his work. Based on the review of Asperger's Autistische Psychopathie, from first descriptions through the DSM-IV Asperger's Disorder and up to the recent DSM-5 Autism Spectrum Disorder, the paper aims to propose a Subthreshold Autism Spectrum Model that encompasses not only threshold-level manifestations but also mild/atypical symptoms, gender-specific features, behavioral manifestations and personality traits associated with Autism Spectrum Disorder...
2016: Clinical Practice and Epidemiology in Mental Health: CP & EMH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866355/the-descriptive-epidemiology-of-dsm-iv-adult-adhd-in-the-world-health-organization-world-mental-health-surveys
#10
John Fayyad, Nancy A Sampson, Irving Hwang, Tomasz Adamowski, Sergio Aguilar-Gaxiola, Ali Al-Hamzawi, Laura H S G Andrade, Guilherme Borges, Giovanni de Girolamo, Silvia Florescu, Oye Gureje, Josep Maria Haro, Chiyi Hu, Elie G Karam, Sing Lee, Fernando Navarro-Mateu, Siobhan O'Neill, Beth-Ellen Pennell, Marina Piazza, José Posada-Villa, Margreet Ten Have, Yolanda Torres, Miguel Xavier, Alan M Zaslavsky, Ronald C Kessler
We previously reported on the cross-national epidemiology of ADHD from the first 10 countries in the WHO World Mental Health (WMH) Surveys. The current report expands those previous findings to the 20 nationally or regionally representative WMH surveys that have now collected data on adult ADHD. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) was administered to 26,744 respondents in these surveys in high-, upper-middle-, and low-/lower-middle-income countries (68.5% mean response rate). Current DSM-IV/CIDI adult ADHD prevalence averaged 2...
November 19, 2016: Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861914/a-unifying-hypothesis-for-m1-muscarinic-receptor-signalling-in-pyramidal-neurons
#11
Sameera Dasari, Corey Hill, Allan T Gulledge
Gq -coupled muscarinic acetylcholine (ACh) receptors (mAChRs) mediate two distinct electrophysiological responses in cortical pyramidal neurons: transient inhibition driven by calcium-dependent small conductance potassium ("SK") channels, and longer-lasting and voltage-dependent excitation involving non-specific cation channels. Here we examine the interaction of these two cholinergic responses with respect to their contributions to intracellular calcium dynamics, testing the unifying hypothesis that rundown of inhibitory SK responses at resting membrane potentials (RMPs) reflects depletion of intracellular calcium stores, while mAChR-driven excitation acts to refill those stores by promoting voltage-dependent entry of extracellular calcium...
November 12, 2016: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27849314/threshold-and-subthreshold-generalized-anxiety-disorder-gad-and-suicide-ideation
#12
Heather Gilmour
BACKGROUND: Subthreshold Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) has been reported to be at least as prevalent as threshold GAD and of comparable clinical significance. It is not clear if GAD is uniquely associated with the risk of suicide, or if psychiatric comorbidity drives the association. DATA AND METHODS: Data from the 2012 Canadian Community Health Survey-Mental Health were used to estimate the prevalence of threshold and subthreshold GAD in the household population aged 15 or older...
November 16, 2016: Health Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846559/subthreshold-schottky-barrier-thin-film-transistors-with-ultralow-power-and-high-intrinsic-gain
#13
Sungsik Lee, Arokia Nathan
The quest for low power becomes highly compelling in newly emerging application areas related to wearable devices in the Internet of Things. Here, we report on a Schottky-barrier indium-gallium-zinc-oxide thin-film transistor operating in the deep subthreshold regime (i.e., near the OFF state) at low supply voltages (<1 volt) and ultralow power (<1 nanowatt). By using a Schottky-barrier at the source and drain contacts, the current-voltage characteristics of the transistor were virtually channel-length independent with an infinite output resistance...
October 21, 2016: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846499/mos2-transistors-with-1-nanometer-gate-lengths
#14
Sujay B Desai, Surabhi R Madhvapathy, Angada B Sachid, Juan Pablo Llinas, Qingxiao Wang, Geun Ho Ahn, Gregory Pitner, Moon J Kim, Jeffrey Bokor, Chenming Hu, H-S Philip Wong, Ali Javey
Scaling of silicon (Si) transistors is predicted to fail below 5-nanometer (nm) gate lengths because of severe short channel effects. As an alternative to Si, certain layered semiconductors are attractive for their atomically uniform thickness down to a monolayer, lower dielectric constants, larger band gaps, and heavier carrier effective mass. Here, we demonstrate molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) transistors with a 1-nm physical gate length using a single-walled carbon nanotube as the gate electrode. These ultrashort devices exhibit excellent switching characteristics with near ideal subthreshold swing of ~65 millivolts per decade and an On/Off current ratio of ~10(6) Simulations show an effective channel length of ~3...
October 7, 2016: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27844056/hyperpolarization-activated-currents-and-subthreshold-resonance-in-granule-cells-of-the-olfactory-bulb
#15
Ruilong Hu, Katie A Ferguson, Christina B Whiteus, Dimphna H Meijer, Ricardo C Araneda
An important contribution to neural circuit oscillatory dynamics is the ongoing activation and inactivation of hyperpolarization-activated currents (Ih). Network synchrony dynamics play an important role in the initial processing of odor signals by the main olfactory bulb (MOB) and accessory olfactory bulb (AOB). In the mouse olfactory bulb, we show that Ih is present in granule cells (GCs), the most prominent inhibitory neuron in the olfactory bulb, and that Ih underlies subthreshold resonance in GCs. In accord with the properties of Ih, the currents exhibited sensitivity to changes in extracellular K(+) concentration and ZD7288 (4-ethylphenylamino-1,2-dimethyl-6-methylaminopyrimidin chloride), a blocker of Ih...
September 2016: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833532/ih-equalizes-membrane-input-resistance-in-a-heterogeneous-population-of-fusiform-neurons-in-the-dorsal-cochlear-nucleus
#16
Cesar C Ceballos, Shuang Li, Antonio C Roque, Thanos Tzounopoulos, Ricardo M Leão
In a neuronal population, several combinations of its ionic conductances are used to attain a specific firing phenotype. Some neurons present heterogeneity in their firing, generally produced by expression of a specific conductance, but how additional conductances vary along in order to homeostatically regulate membrane excitability is less known. Dorsal cochlear nucleus principal neurons, fusiform neurons, display heterogeneous spontaneous action potential activity and thus represent an appropriate model to study the role of different conductances in establishing firing heterogeneity...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832220/screening-for-drinking-problems-in-the-elderly-in-singapore-using-the-cage-questionnaire
#17
Clarissa Wy Ong, Vathsala Sagayadevan, Edimansyah Abdin, Saleha Binte Shafie, Anitha Jeyagurunathan, Goi Khia Eng, Louisa Picco, Janhavi Vaingankar, Siow Ann Chong, Mythily Subramaniam
INTRODUCTION: Given that past research on drinking problems has focused primarily on younger samples, the present study sought to examine the prevalence and correlates of alcohol use among the elderly in Singapore. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data were extracted from the Well-being of the Singapore Elderly (WiSE) study, a cross-sectional, epidemiological survey conducted among a nationally representative sample of Singapore residents (n = 2565) aged 60 years and above...
October 2016: Annals of the Academy of Medicine, Singapore
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832077/high-frequency-resonance-in-the-gerbil-medial-superior-olive
#18
Jason Mikiel-Hunter, Vibhakar Kotak, John Rinzel
A high-frequency, subthreshold resonance in the guinea pig medial superior olive (MSO) was recently linked to the efficient extraction of spatial cues from the fine structure of acoustic stimuli. We report here that MSO neurons in gerbil also have resonant properties and, based on our whole-cell recordings and computational modeling, that a low-voltage-gated potassium current, IKLT, underlies the resonance. We show that resonance was lost following dynamic clamp replacement of IKLT with a leak conductance and in the model when voltage-gating of IKLT was suppressed...
November 2016: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830449/understanding-early-age-of-onset-a-review-of-the-last-5%C3%A2-years
#19
REVIEW
Gabrielle A Carlson, Caroly Pataki
The age at onset of bipolar disorder ranging from childhood to adolescent to adult has significant implications for frequency, severity and duration of mood episodes, comorbid psychopathology, heritability, response to treatment, and opportunity for early intervention. There is increasing evidence that recognition of prodromal symptoms in at-risk populations and mood type at onset are important variables in understanding the course of this illness in youth. Very early childhood onset of symptoms including anxiety/depression, mood lability, and subthreshold manic symptoms, along with family history of a parent with early onset bipolar disorder, appears to predict the highest risk of early onset disorder with the most severe course...
December 2016: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830205/comparison-of-subthreshold-diode-laser-micropulse-therapy-versus-conventional-photocoagulation-laser-therapy-as-primary-treatment-of-diabetic-macular-edema
#20
Farhad Fazel, Majid Bagheri, Khodayar Golabchi, Hamidreza Jahanbani Ardakani
PURPOSE: The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of subthreshold diode laser micropulse (SDM) in comparison with conventional laser photocoagulation in the treatment of the diabetic macular edema (DME). METHODS: Sixty-eight eyes from 68 patients with clinically significant DME were divided randomly into two equal groups. In the first group, SDM photocoagulation was employed, while conventional laser photocoagulation was performed on the eyes of the second group...
December 2016: Journal of Current Ophthalmology
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