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Tina R Goldstein, John Merranko, Megan Krantz, Matthew Garcia, Peter Franzen, Jessica Levenson, David Axelson, Boris Birmaher, Ellen Frank
OBJECTIVE: To conduct a pilot randomized trial of Interpersonal and Social Rhythm Therapy plus Data-Informed Referral (IPSRT + DIR) versus DIR-alone for adolescents at-risk for bipolar disorder (BP). METHOD: Eligible participants included youth (12-18) with a BP parent; youth with BP were excluded. Participants (n = 42) were randomized to receive IPSRT + DIR to treat any psychiatric disorders present at baseline, or DIR-alone. A blind evaluator assessed outcomes at baseline, 3- and 6-months...
April 7, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
Robert L Findling, Kiki D Chang
​​Reconsidering Insomnia as a Disorder Rather Than Just a Symptom in Psychiatric Practice Click to enlarge page Awareness of the prevalence and impact of bipolar disorder in pediatric patients has grown in recent years. Youths with this disorder are at risk for poor long-term outcomes, but with careful screening, clinicians may be able to detect early signs or subthreshold symptoms and provide a timely diagnosis and effective treatment. Although several pharmacologic options are available for patients aged 10 years and up, they differ in their safety and tolerability profiles...
March 27, 2018: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
Jennifer Glaus, Anna Van Meter, Lihong Cui, Ciro Marangoni, Kathleen R Merikangas
BACKGROUND: There is substantial evidence that bipolar disorder (BD) manifests on a spectrum rather than as a categorical condition. Detection of people with subthreshold manifestations of BD is therefore important. The Hypomania Checklist-32 (HCL-32) was developed as a tool to identify such people. PURPOSE: The aims of this paper were to: (1) investigate the factor structure of HCL-32; (2) determine whether the HCL-32 can discriminate between mood disorder subtypes; and (3) assess the familial aggregation and cross-aggregation of hypomanic symptoms assessed on the HCL with BD...
April 3, 2018: Comprehensive Psychiatry
Kinga K Borowicz-Reutt, Monika Popławska, Monika Banach, Dorota Wróblewska
BACKGROUND: The main mechanism of action of propafenone (antiarrhythmic drug) involves the inhibition of the fast inward sodium current during phase 0 of the action potential. Sodium channel-blocking activity is also characteristic for some antiepileptic drugs. Therefore, it could be assumed that propafenone may also affect seizures. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of propafenone on the protective effect of oxcarbazepine, lamotrigine, topiramate and pregabalin against the maximal electroshock-induced seizures in mice...
November 23, 2017: Pharmacological Reports: PR
Vassilios Papaleonidopoulos, Costas Papatheodoropoulos
The hippocampus is a functionally heterogeneous structure with the cognitive and emotional signal processing ascribed to the dorsal (DH) and the ventral hippocampus (VH) respectively. However, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Noradrenaline is released in hippocampus during emotional arousal modulating synaptic plasticity and memory consolidation through activation of β adrenergic receptors (β-ARs). Using recordings of field excitatory postsynaptic potentials from the CA1 field of adult rat hippocampal slices we demonstrate that long-term potentiation (LTP) induced either by theta-burst stimulation (TBS) that mimics a physiological firing pattern of hippocampal neurons or by high-frequency stimulation is remarkably more sensitive to β-AR activation in VH than in DH...
April 10, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
Masafumi Hamada, Kishiko Ohkoshi, Keiji Inagaki, Nobuyuki Ebihara, Akira Murakami
We evaluated subthreshold photocoagulation using endpoint management (EPM) for the treatment of diabetic macular edema (DME). The study enrolled 10 eyes from 10 patients (6 men and 4 women) with DME. The entry criteria included central macular thickness (CMT) ≥ 300  μ m and decimal visual acuity (VA) ≤ 0.5. The primary endpoints were VA (logMAR) and CMT at 6 months follow-up. Secondary endpoints included fundus autofluorescence, macular volume (MV), and macular sensitivity (MS). We used the PASCAL Streamline Yellow® (wavelength, 577 nm) system to perform grid pattern laser photocoagulation at 50% of the threshold (size, 100  μ m; duration, 0...
2018: Journal of Ophthalmology
Peixin Zhu, Jinwang Li, Phan Trong Tue, Satoshi Inoue, Tatsuya Shimoda
Solution processing of ternary and multinary amorphous metal oxide insulators at processing temperatures below 250 °C remains challenging. Here, we report that the synthesis of a hybrid cluster structure, where the metal oxide core is coordinated by ligands and the different metal elements are incorporated into one core, is an effective strategy for the low-temperature processing of the ternary LaZrO insulator. Solvothermal treatment at 160-180 °C facilitated the development of a cluster structure. From the cluster precursor, high-performance insulating LaZrO films were obtained at 200 °C under the irradiation of ultraviolet light...
April 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
Gabriele Ruffolo, Carlo Di Bonaventura, Pierangelo Cifelli, Cristina Roseti, Jinane Fattouch, Alessandra Morano, Cristina Limatola, Eleonora Aronica, Eleonora Palma, Anna Teresa Giallonardo
Epilepsy is one of the most common chronic neurological diseases, and its pharmacological treatment holds great importance for both physicians and national authorities, especially considering the high proportion of drug-resistant patients (about 30%). Lacosamide (LCM) is an effective and well-tolerated new-generation antiepileptic drug (AED), currently licensed as add-on therapy for partial-onset seizures. However, LCM mechanism of action is still a matter of debate, although its effect on the voltage sensitive sodium channels is by far the most recognized...
April 2, 2018: Neurobiology of Disease
Saju Balakrishnan, Sergej L Mironov
Hyperventilation is a known feature of Rett syndrome (RTT). However, how hyperventilation is related to other RTT symptoms such as hyperexcitability is unknown. Intense breathing during hyperventilation induces hypocapnia and culminates in respiratory alkalosis. Alkalinization of extracellular milieu can trigger epilepsy in patients who already have neuronal hyperexcitability. By combining patch-clamp electrophysiology and quantitative glutamate imaging, we compared excitability of CA1 neurons of WT and Mecp2 (-/y) mice, and analyzed the biophysical properties of subthreshold membrane channels...
2018: PloS One
Dapeng Wang, Wenjing Zhao, Hua Li, Mamoru Furuta
In this study, the initial electrical properties, positive gate bias stress (PBS), and drain current stress (DCS)-induced instabilities of amorphous indium gallium zinc oxide (a-IGZO) thin-film transistors (TFTs) with various active layer thicknesses ( T IGZO ) are investigated. As the T IGZO increased, the turn-on voltage ( V on ) decreased, while the subthreshold swing slightly increased. Furthermore, the mobility of over 13 cm²·V−1 ·s−1 and the negligible hysteresis of ~0...
April 5, 2018: Materials
Camilla Groth
Tourette syndrome (TS) is a childhood onset neurodevelopmental disorder characterised by motor and vocal tics and frequent associated comorbidities. The developmental trajectory of tic shows tic-onset in the age of 4-6, peak in the age of 10-12 and decline during adolescence, although only few and small longitudinal studies form the basis of this evidence. Recent studies suggest that comorbid obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and coexisting psychopathologies tend to persist and become more dominant in adolescence...
April 2018: Danish Medical Journal
W Alan C Mutch, Renée M El-Gabalawy, M Ruth Graham
Evidence of anesthetic neurotoxicity is unequivocal when studied in animal models. These findings have translated poorly to the clinical domain when equated to postoperative delirium (POD) in adults and postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) in either children or the elderly. In this perspective, we examine various reasons for the differences between animal modeling of neurotoxicity and the clinical situation of POD and POCD and make suggestions as to potential directions for ongoing research. We hypothesize that the animal anesthetic neurotoxicity models are limited, in part, due to failed scaling correction of physiological time...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Hongseok Oh, JunBeom Park, Woojin Choi, Heehun Kim, Youngbin Tchoe, Arpana Agrawal, Gyu-Chul Yi
The bottom-up integration of a 1D-2D hybrid semiconductor nanostructure into a vertical field-effect transistor (VFET) for use in flexible inorganic electronics is reported. Zinc oxide (ZnO) nanotubes on graphene film is used as an example. The VFET is fabricated by growing position- and dimension-controlled single crystal ZnO nanotubes vertically on a large graphene film. The graphene film, which acts as the substrate, provides a bottom electrical contact to the nanotubes. Due to the high quality of the single crystal ZnO nanotubes and the unique 1D device structure, the fabricated VFET exhibits excellent electrical characteristics...
April 3, 2018: Small
Adnan Al-Kaisy, Stefano Palmisani, David Pang, Karen Sanderson, Samuel Wesley, Ye Tan, Sheryl McCammon, Andrea Trescott
INTRODUCTION: The increasing use of high frequency paresthesia-free spinal cord stimulation has been associated with improved outcomes in the therapy of neuropathic pain. What is unknown is the effect of varying frequency on pain relief and the placebo effect. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a prospective, randomized, sham-controlled double blind crossover study. Subjects with predominantly axial low back pain undergoing spinal cord stimulation therapy for failed back surgery syndrome were randomized to sham, 1200 Hz, 3030 Hz, and 5882 Hz with a four-phase crossover design over 12 weeks...
April 2, 2018: Neuromodulation: Journal of the International Neuromodulation Society
Nadine P G Paans, Mariska Bot, Ingeborg A Brouwer, Marjolein Visser, Miquel Roca, Elisabeth Kohls, Ed Watkins, Brenda W J H Penninx
OBJECTIVE: Depression, one of the most prevalent and disabling disorders in Europe, is thought to be associated with unhealthy eating styles. As prevalence of depression and eating styles potentially differ across Europe, the current study aimed to investigate in a large, European sample, the associations of history of major depressive disorder and depression severity with unhealthy eating styles. METHODS: Baseline data of the MooDFOOD prevention study was used...
May 2018: Journal of Psychosomatic Research
Diego De La Vega, Lucas Giner, Philippe Courtet
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Historically, anxiety disorders have not been considered as important determinants of suicide, but in the last years, many works have challenged this assumption. Here, we will review the available evidence on the relationship between suicide and anxiety disorders (e.g., obsessive-compulsive disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, and body dysmorphic disorder), with special emphasis on findings published in the last years...
March 28, 2018: Current Psychiatry Reports
Sarah J Terrill, Kaylee D Wall, Nelson D Medina, Calyn B Maske, Diana L Williams
The hormone ghrelin promotes eating and is widely considered to be a hunger signal. Ghrelin receptors, growth hormone secretagogue receptors (GHSRs), are found in a number of specific regions throughout the brain, including the lateral septum (LS), an area not traditionally associated with the control of feeding. Here we investigated whether GHSRs in the LS play a role in the control of food intake. We examined the feeding effects of ghrelin and the GHSR antagonists ([D-Lys3]-GHRP-6 and JMV 2959), at doses subthreshold for effect when delivered to the lateral ventricle...
March 28, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
Zihan Yao, Jialun Liu, Kai Xu, Edmond K C Chow, Wenjuan Zhu
In this paper, we investigate the synthesis of WSe2 by chemical vapor deposition and study the current transport and device scaling of monolayer WSe2 . We found that the device characteristics of the back-gated WSe2 transistors with thick oxides are very sensitive to the applied drain bias, especially for transistors in the sub-micrometer regime. The threshold voltage, subthreshold swing, and extracted field-effect mobility vary with the applied drain bias. The output characteristics in the long-channel transistors show ohmic-like behavior, while that in the short-channel transistors show Schottky-like behavior...
March 27, 2018: Scientific Reports
Heng Zhang, Yan Chen, Shi-Jin Ding, Jianlu Wang, Wen-Zhong Bao, David Wei Zhang, Peng Zhou
In the past fifty years, the complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor(CMOS) integrated circuits have got great development, but Moore's law will soon come to an end. In order to break through the physical limit of Moore's law, two-dimensional materials have been widely used in many electronic devices because of its high mobility and large quantum capacitances. And the emergence of negative capacitance field-effect transistor(FET) could not only break the thermal limit of conventional devices, but also reduce operating voltage and power consumption...
March 27, 2018: Nanotechnology
Xiao Zou, Jingping Xu, Hao Huang, Ziqiang Zhu, Hongjiu Wang, Borui Li, Lei Liao, Guojia Fang
Top-gated and bottom-gated transistors with multilayer MoS2 channel fully encapsulated by stacked Al2O3/HfO2 (9 nm/6 nm) were fabricated and comparatively studied. Excellent electrical properties are demonstrated for the top-gated transistors with high on-off current ratio of 108, high field-effect mobility of 102 cm2V-1s-1, and low subthreshold swing of 93 mV/dec. Also, enhanced reliability has been achieved for the top-gated transistors with threshold voltage shift of 10-3-10-2 V/MV/cm after 6 MV/cm gate-biased stressing...
March 27, 2018: Nanotechnology
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