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Bodybuilding Hypertrophy

Elena Vorona, Eberhard Nieschlag
Despite the fact that sports organizations and legislators have introduced various mechanisms to discourage athletes from using performance and appearance enhancing substances a high percentage of athletes admits to their unabated application. In competitive athletics, bodybuilding and in recreational sports anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) continue to be the substances most abused. This review summarizes the side effects of AAS abuse on organs and system functions in both sexes. High doses of AAS cause a significant increase of erythrocytes und haemoglobin concentration, which may lead to thromboembolism, intracardiac thrombosis and stroke...
February 19, 2018: Minerva Endocrinologica
Julius Fink, Brad Jon Schoenfeld, Koichi Nakazato
Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) and other hormones such as growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) have been shown to increase muscle mass in patients suffering from various diseases related to muscle atrophy. Despite known side-effects associated with supraphysiologic doses of such drugs, their anabolic effects have led to their widespread use and abuse by bodybuilders and athletes such as strength athletes seeking to improve performance and muscle mass. On the other hand, resistance training (RT) has also been shown to induce significant endogenous hormonal (testosterone (T), GH, IGF-1) elevations...
February 2018: Physician and Sportsmedicine
Octávio Barbosa Neto, Gustavo Ribeiro da Mota, Carla Cristina De Sordi, Elisabete Aparecida M R Resende, Luiz Antônio P R Resende, Marco Antônio Vieira da Silva, Moacir Marocolo, Rafael Silva Côrtes, Lucas Felipe de Oliveira, Valdo José Dias da Silva
OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were to examine the hypothesis that users of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) would have cardiac autonomic disorders and that there is a correlation between sympathetic modulation, high blood pressure (BP) and alterations to cardiac dimensions. METHODS: Forty-five male subjects were enrolled in the study. They were categorized into three groups comprising bodybuilders actively using AAS (AAS users; n = 15), bodybuilders who had never used AAS (nonusers; n = 15) and age-paired healthy sedentary controls (n = 15)...
April 2018: Clinical Autonomic Research: Official Journal of the Clinical Autonomic Research Society
L da Cunha Menezes Souza, L A da Cruz, E de Moraes Marcílio Cerqueira, Jrc Meireles
The use of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) has grown among practitioners of recreational bodybuilding, with significant contributions of designer steroids, aiming muscle hypertrophy in healthy subjects. The abusive use of AAS in general is associated with adverse effects; one of the most worrisome is cancer development. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the cytokinesis block micronucleus (CBMN) test in human lymphocytes in identifying risk groups for cancer development in users of AAS...
March 2017: Human & Experimental Toxicology
T Venckunas, J Simonavicius, J E Marcinkeviciene
Introduction Exercise training, besides many health benefits, may result in cardiac remodelling which is dependent on the type and amount of exercise performed. It is not clear, however, whether significant adaptation in cardiac structure is possible in females undergoing resistance type of exercise training. Rigorous high volume training of most muscle groups emphasising resistance exercises are being undertaken by athletes of some aesthetic sports such as female fitness (light bodybuilding). The impact of this type of training on cardiac adaptation has not been investigated until now...
March 2016: Physiology International
J P Meijer, R T Jaspers, J Rittweger, O R Seynnes, S Kamandulis, M Brazaitis, A Skurvydas, R Pišot, B Šimunič, M V Narici, H Degens
What is the central question of this study? Do the contractile properties of single muscle fibres differ between body-builders, power athletes and control subjects? What is the main finding and its importance? Peak power normalized for muscle fibre volume in power athletes is higher than in control subjects. Compared with control subjects, maximal isometric tension (normalized for muscle fibre cross-sectional area) is lower in body-builders. Although this difference may be caused in part by an apparent negative effect of hypertrophy, these results indicate that the training history of power athletes may increase muscle fibre quality, whereas body-building may be detrimental...
November 2015: Experimental Physiology
Paola Frati, Francesco P Busardò, Luigi Cipolloni, Enrico De Dominicis, Vittorio Fineschi
Anabolic androgenic steroids (AASs) represent a large group of synthetic derivatives of testosterone, produced to maximize anabolic effects and minimize the androgenic ones. AAS can be administered orally, parenterally by intramuscular injection and transdermally. Androgens act by binding to the nuclear androgen receptor (AR) in the cytoplasm and then translocate into the nucleus. This binding results in sequential conformational changes of the receptor affecting the interaction between receptor and protein, and receptor and DNA...
January 2015: Current Neuropharmacology
Stefan Baumann, Claude Jabbour, Aydin Huseynov, Martin Borggrefe, Dariusch Haghi, Theano Papavassiliu
INTRODUCTION: The self-administration intake of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) is a widespread practice in competitive bodybuilders. Structural changes within the myocardium following AAS abuse including hypertrophy, restricted diastolic function as well as systolic dysfunction and impaired ventricular inflow have been reported. CASE PRESENTATION: We present the case of a 39-year-old bodybuilder with a more than 20-year history of anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS) abuse presenting with increasing exertional dyspnoea and fatigue...
December 2014: Asian Journal of Sports Medicine
Vandré Casagrande Figueiredo, Paulo Rodrigo Pedroso da Silva
Doping is considered to be a major sports problem. This article describes a new threat and challenge to the sport of bodybuilding; the nonmedical use of a chemical in order to mimic muscle hypertrophy. Although muscle fillers are not new, being used for cosmetic purposes in medicine for a long time, the illegal use of muscle fillers has been increasing during the last few years and decades. The history of cosmetic doping, with particular attention to the Brazilian case, is discussed. Limitations are noted and future needed research is suggested...
July 2014: Substance Use & Misuse
Efren Martinez-Quintana, Beatriz Saiz-Udaeta, Natalia Marrero-Negrin, Xavier Lopez-Mérida, Fayna Rodriguez-Gonzalez, Vicente Nieto-Lago
INTRODUCTION: Anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS), a synthetic derivate of testosterone, have become a popular drug among athletes and bodybuilders to enhance muscle mass and improve the athletic performance. Many pathological effects such as hepatic and endocrine dysfunction, behavioural changes and cardiovascular complications have been reported. CASE REPORT: Within these ast ones, we find an increase in left ventricular muscle mass, concentric myocardial hypertrophy, left ventricular diastolic dysfunction, arterial hypertension, prothrombotic effects, changes in the concentration of cholesterol levels, particularly a reduction in HDL cholesterol concentration, myocardial infarctions in relation to endothelial dysfunction, vasospasms or thrombosis and sudden cardiac death...
October 2013: International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
Brad J Schoenfeld, Nicholas A Ratamess, Mark D Peterson, Bret Contreras, G T Sonmez, Brent A Alvar
Regimented resistance training has been shown to promote marked increases in skeletal muscle mass. Although muscle hypertrophy can be attained through a wide range of resistance training programs, the principle of specificity, which states that adaptations are specific to the nature of the applied stimulus, dictates that some programs will promote greater hypertrophy than others. Research is lacking, however, as to the best combination of variables required to maximize hypertophic gains. The purpose of this study was to investigate muscular adaptations to a volume-equated bodybuilding-type training program vs...
October 2014: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Peter J Angell, Tevfik F Ismail, Andrew Jabbour, Gillian Smith, Annette Dahl, Ricardo Wage, Greg Whyte, Daniel J Green, Sanjay Prasad, Keith George
PURPOSE: Anabolic steroid (AS) misuse is widespread amongst recreational bodybuilders; however, their effects on the cardiovascular system are uncertain. Our aim was to document the impact of AS use on cardiac structure, function and the presence of focal fibrosis using the gold standard cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging (CMR). METHODS: A cross-sectional cohort design was utilised with 21 strength-trained participants who underwent CMR imaging of the heart and speckle-tracking echocardiography...
May 2014: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Ehab Tousson
Boldenone (BOL) is a derivative of the testosterone that has dual effects on humans, both directly and indirectly; directly as injection to build muscles and indirectly as through consuming meat of animals that where treated with BOL. However, the action of these steroids on different body organs structures is still unclear; therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of the intramuscular injection of BOL undecylenate on the different organ structures. A total of 10 adult New Zealand rabbits were divided into two main groups, the first group was the control group, which includes animals that were injected intramuscularly with olive oil and the second group included animals that received two intramuscular injections of 5 mg/kg body weight BOL dissected after 6 weeks...
February 2016: Toxicology and Industrial Health
Daniel A Hackett, Nathan A Johnson, Chin-Moi Chow
Bodybuilding involves performing a series of poses on stage where the competitor is judged on aesthetic muscular appearance. The purpose of this study was to describe training practices and ergogenic aids used by competitive bodybuilders and to determine whether training practices comply with current recommendations for muscular hypertrophy. A web-based survey was completed by 127 competitive male bodybuilders. The results showed that during the off-season phase of training (OFF), the majority of respondents performed 3-6 sets per exercise (95...
June 2013: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Aaron C T Smith, Bob Stewart
In this article we explore the social constructions, body perceptions, and health experiences of a serious recreational and competitive bodybuilder and powerlifter community. Data were obtained from a discussion forum appearing within an online community dedicated to muscular development. Forum postings for a period of 36 months were transposed to QSR NVivo, in which a narrative-based analytical method employing Gee's coding approach was employed. We used a priori codes based on Bourdieu's multipronged conceptual categories of social field, habitus, and capital accumulation as a theoretical frame...
July 2012: Qualitative Health Research
Gary Slater, Stuart M Phillips
Strength and power athletes are primarily interested in enhancing power relative to body weight and thus almost all undertake some form of resistance training. While athletes may periodically attempt to promote skeletal muscle hypertrophy, key nutritional issues are broader than those pertinent to hypertrophy and include an appreciation of the sports supplement industry, the strategic timing of nutrient intake to maximize fuelling and recovery objectives, plus achievement of pre-competition body mass requirements...
2011: Journal of Sports Sciences
Brad J Schoenfeld
The quest to increase lean body mass is widely pursued by those who lift weights. Research is lacking, however, as to the best approach for maximizing exercise-induced muscle growth. Bodybuilders generally train with moderate loads and fairly short rest intervals that induce high amounts of metabolic stress. Powerlifters, on the other hand, routinely train with high-intensity loads and lengthy rest periods between sets. Although both groups are known to display impressive muscularity, it is not clear which method is superior for hypertrophic gains...
October 2010: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
Suraj Achar, Armand Rostamian, Sanjiv M Narayan
Recent surveys and reports suggest that many athletes and bodybuilders abuse anabolic-androgenic steroids (AAS). However, scientific data on the cardiac and metabolic complications of AAS abuse are divergent and often conflicting. A total of 49 studies describing 1,467 athletes were reviewed to investigate the cardiovascular effects of the abuse of AAS. Although studies were typically small and retrospective, some associated AAS abuse with unfavorable effects. Otherwise healthy young athletes abusing AAS may show elevated levels of low-density lipoprotein and low levels of high-density lipoprotein...
September 15, 2010: American Journal of Cardiology
Keith R Lodhia, Barunashish Brahma, John E McGillicuddy
Direct trauma, compression caused by muscle hypertrophy or other soft tissue changes, or excessive stretching of a peripheral nerve in the upper extremity may lead to uncommon-but potentially serious-complications. Clinicians are seeing more of these injuries as weight training, power lifting, bodybuilding, cross-training, and general physical conditioning with weights become more popular. Symptoms of pain, weakness, paresthesia, or palsy; physical exam findings; electromyography; and nerve conduction studies are used to make the diagnosis...
July 2005: Physician and Sportsmedicine
Gabriel J Wilson, Jacob M Wilson, Anssi H Manninen
The leucine metabolite beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) has been extensively used as an ergogenic aid; particularly among bodybuilders and strength/power athletes, who use it to promote exercise performance and skeletal muscle hypertrophy. While numerous studies have supported the efficacy of HMB in exercise and clinical conditions, there have been a number of conflicting results. Therefore, the first purpose of this paper will be to provide an in depth and objective analysis of HMB research. Special care is taken to present critical details of each study in an attempt to both examine the effectiveness of HMB as well as explain possible reasons for conflicting results seen in the literature...
January 3, 2008: Nutrition & Metabolism
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