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Santosh Kumar Singh, James W Lillard, Rajesh Singh
The folate receptor (FR) is a valued target that is highly expressed in various cancers, which will expedite the development of ligand-receptor binding based cancer therapeutics. In the present investigation, through tissue microarray analysis, we report higher levels of folate receptor expression in prostate cancer (PCa) tissue derived from patients, which were minimal in normal tissue. For folate-receptor based targeted therapy of PCa, we generated novel planetary ball milled (PBM) nanoparticles (NPs) encapsulated with resveratrol (RES), and in combination with docetaxel (DTX) and conjugated with folic acid (FA) on the surface...
April 17, 2018: Cancer Letters
Bhaswati Choudhury, Raghuram Kandimalla, R Elancheran, Rupjyoti Bharali, Jibon Kotoky
A rapid rise in cancer cases worldwide, especially breast cancer in females, instigates the need for more effective and less side effect causing drugs from natural origin. Thereby, in the present study, Garcinia morella fruit was investigated for antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-breast cancer activity. Preliminary antioxidant and anticancer evaluation of different fractions and crude methanol extract of G. morella fruit suggested chloroform fraction as the bioactive fraction. Time course analysis (by 24 h, 48 h and 72 h) of the bioactive fraction (1...
April 17, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Kevin Dzobo, Naseeha Hassen, Dimakatso Alice Senthebane, Nicholas Ekow Thomford, Arielle Rowe, Hendrina Shipanga, Ambroise Wonkam, M Iqbal Parker, Shaheen Mowla, Collet Dandara
Background: Environmental pollution such as exposure to pro-carcinogens including benzo-α-pyrene is becoming a major problem globally. Moreover, the effects of benzo-α-pyrene (BaP) on drug pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and drug resistance warrant further investigation, especially in cancer outpatient chemotherapy where exposure to environmental pollutants might occur. Method: We report here on the effects of benzo-α-pyrene on esophageal cancer cells in vitro, alone, or in combination with chemotherapeutic drugs cisplatin, 5-flurouracil, or paclitaxel...
April 17, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Karen Legler, Charlotte Hauser, Jan-Hendrik Egberts, Anna Willms, Carola Heneweer, Susann Boretius, Christoph Röcken, Claus-Christian Glüer, Thomas Becker, Michael Kluge, Oliver Hill, Christian Gieffers, Harald Fricke, Holger Kalthoff, Johannes Lemke, Anna Trauzold
Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) has raised attention as a novel anticancer therapeutic as it induces apoptosis preferentially in tumor cells. However, first-generation TRAIL-receptor agonists (TRAs), comprising recombinant TRAIL and agonistic receptor-specific antibodies, have not demonstrated anticancer activity in clinical studies. In fact, cancer cells are often resistant to conventional TRAs. Therefore, in addition to TRAIL-sensitizing strategies, next-generation TRAs with superior apoptotic activity are warranted...
April 18, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
Jia-Yin Tong, Chong Wang, Yan-Fang Liu, Wei-Qiong Wang, Qian-Qian Hao, Jie Ma, Ling Sun, Hui Sun
OBJECTIVE: Metformin (Met) can inhibit the proliferation of tumor cells in vitro, its effects on multiple myeloma and action mechanisms have been not yet understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect and molecular mechanism of metformin on human myeloma cells U266. METHODS: U266 cells were treated with different concentration of Met, the MTT was used to detect cell proliferation, the PI staining was used to detect the cell cycle, and the protein expression of BCL-2 family and the release of cytochrome C were assessed by Western blot...
April 2018: Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue za Zhi
Fan-Jing Meng, Jiang Cao, Chong Chen, Qing-Yun Wu, Xu-Guang Song, Wei Chen, Kai-Lin Xu, Wan-Chuan Zhuang
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate biological effects of OCT4A gene on K562 cells and explore the molecular mechanism of K562 cell apoptosis. METHODS: Two recombinant lentiviral vectors were constructed, which could stablely up- regulate and down- regulate OCT4A protein. Recombinant lentivirus was generated by co-transfection of three-plasmids and transfec-ted into K562 cells. The experiments were divided into 5 groups: normal, pLVX-OCT4A-ZsGreen1, pLVX vector control, PLB-OCT4A shRNA and non-specific shRNA groups...
April 2018: Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue za Zhi
Ying Ma, Zhonghai Yan, Xiaomei Deng, Junqi Guo, Jinxia Hu, Yuan Yu, Fei Jiao
Despite huge advances in lung cancer treatment, resistance to cisplatin‑based chemotherapy remains one of the major obstacles, and the elucidation of cisplatin resistance remains challenging. As an important biological and pharmacological mediator, hydrogen sulfide (H2S) performs a variety of homeostatic functions related to cancer formation and development. However, the effects of H2S on cisplatin‑resistance lung cancer remain largely unknown. In the present study, we investigated the anticancer effects and relevant mechanisms of NaHS (an exogenous donor of H2S) on A549/DDP cells (cisplatin‑resistant)...
April 12, 2018: Oncology Reports
JinYing Jiao, YunQiao Yang, MingJiang Liu, JinGui Li, Yi Cui, ShaoJie Yin, JianPing Tao
Evasion strategies of intracellular parasites by hijacking cellular pathways, are necessary to ensure successful survival and replication. Eimeria tenella (E. tenella) has the ability to circumvent apoptosis of infected cells through increased expression of the transcriptional factor NF-κB and the anti-apoptotic factor Bcl-xL during the development of second generation schizonts. Artemisinin (ART) and its original plant, the dried leaves of Artemisia annua (LAA) have been shown to be effective against avian coccidiosis, however, the underlying mechanism remains unclear...
April 30, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
Yachong Jiao, Hongmei Ding, Shanshan Huang, Yixin Liu, Xuguo Sun, Wei Wei, Jun Ma, Fang Zheng
OBJECTIVES: Fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) play key roles in synovium hyperplasia and pannus formation in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The present study was undertaken to explore the mechanisms that calreticulin (CRT) promoted anti-apoptosis of RA FLS. METHODS: The expression of CRT and anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-XL and Mcl-1 in RA synovium were detected by immunohistochemistry. The expression of Bcl-XL and Mcl-1 in RA FLS by CRT were determined. The phosphorylation of Akt and STAT3 was detected by western blot...
April 13, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology
Valeria R Martínez, María V Aguirre, Juan S Todaro, Oscar E Piro, Gustavo A Echeverría, Luciana G Naso, Evelina G Ferrer, Patricia A M Williams
A new losartan [2-butyl-5-chloro-3-[[4-[2-(2H-tetrazol-5-yl)phenyl]phenyl]methyl]imidazol-4-yl]methanol zinc(II) complex [Zn(Los)Cl], was synthesized and characterized. The crystal structure was determined by x-ray diffraction methods. When aqueous solutions of the ligand and the metal were mixed, the known and more soluble powder [Zn(Los)2 ].3H2 O (ZnLos) complex has been obtained. The interactions with phosphatases showed a concerted mechanism displayed by the Zn ions and ZnLos up to 500 μM concentration: a decrease of the acid phosphatase (AcP) associated with an increase in the alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities...
April 12, 2018: Biological Trace Element Research
Linjie Zeng, Lu Li, Qiyan Zeng, Yong Deng, Lijun Yin, Liejun Liao
Lectins are a class of carbohydrate-binding proteins or glycoproteins and used in the purification and characterization of glycoproteins according to their specificity to carbohydrates. In the present study, the mitogenic activity of Artocarpus lingnanensis lectin (ALL) and its apoptosis induction in Jurkat T cells were explored. MTT assay revealed strong mitogenic potential of ALL. Meanwhile, the anti-cancer activity of ALL was also explored using the human leukemic Jurkat T cell line. ALL exhibited strong binding affinity (97%) to the cell membrane, which could be effectively inhibited by N-acetyl-D-galactosaminide (NAD)...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Natural Medicines
Monica J Chau, Todd C Deveau, Xiaohuan Gu, Yo Sup Kim, Yun Xu, Shan Ping Yu, Ling Wei
BACKGROUND: Stroke is a leading cause of death and disability worldwide, yet there are limited treatments available. Intranasal administration is a novel non-invasive strategy to deliver cell therapy into the brain. Cells delivered via the intranasal route can migrate from the nasal mucosa to the ischemic infarct and show acute neuroprotection as well as functional benefits. However, there is little information about the regenerative effects of this transplantation method in the delayed phase of stroke...
April 12, 2018: BMC Neuroscience
Shun Chen, Xinchen Li, Wenjie Zhang, Mengting Zi, Yuekang Xu
As professional antigen-presenting cells, dendritic cells (DCs) initiate and regulate immune responses against inflammation. The invasion of pathogens into the body, however, can in turn cause the change of DCs in both activity and viability, which ultimately affect immune homeostasis. The exact mechanisms that the bacteria utilize to alter the lifespan of DCs, however, are far from clear. In this study, we found that the bacterial wall compound lipopolysaccharide(LPS)can promote the survival of GM-CSF-differentiated DCs (GM-DCs)...
April 6, 2018: Immunology and Cell Biology
Yuefan Ma, Xin Wu, Zihan Xiu, Xin Liu, Bingyu Huang, Liang Hu, Jiao Liu, Zhiyuan Zhou, Xudong Tang
Cytochalasin H (CyH) has been shown to exhibit promising anticancer activities against various types of cancers; however, the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. In a previous study, we isolated CyH from the mangrove‑derived endophytic fungus Phomopsis sp. in Zhanjiang, China. In the present study, we further explored the effect of CyH on apoptosis and migration in the human lung adenocarcinoma cell line A549. Cell Counting kit‑8 (CCK‑8) assay was used to observe the effects of CyH on the growth of A549 cells...
March 30, 2018: Oncology Reports
Zhenbiao Zhang, Dandan Luo, Jianhui Xie, Guosheng Lin, Jiangtao Zhou, Weihai Liu, Huilin Li, Tiegang Yi, Ziren Su, Jianping Chen
The biological activity of curcumin (CUR), a promising naturally occurring dietary compound for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), was closely associated with its metabolite. Octahydrocurcumin (OHC) is the final hydrogenated metabolite of CUR and has been reported to have potential biological activities. However, difficulties in access have hampered its biological studies. In the current investigation, we designed an efficient synthesis method to produce OHC, and comparatively explored the anti-cancer effect and potential mechanism of OHC and CUR in an H22 ascites tumor-bearing mice model...
April 4, 2018: Food & Function
Z Zhou, Y Jing, Y Ran, J Zhao, L Zhou, B M Wang
Objective: To evaluate the changes of macrophages and expression of Rac1 in the inflammatory site of Crohn's disease, and to investigate the effects of 6-thioguanine (6-TG) and peptidoglycan on apoptosis of human peripheral blood monocyte-macrophage by regulating Rac1 signaling pathway. Methods: Ten patients with Crohn's disease and eight healthy controls diagnosed were enrolled at Department of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Tianjin Medical University General Hospital from January 2013 to January 2014. The number of macrophages, apoptosis and expression of Rac1 in the inflammation sites and non-inflammation sites of intestinal mucosa were detected in both patients and controls...
April 1, 2018: Zhonghua Nei Ke za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Internal Medicine]
Jacob I Contreras, Caroline M Robb, Hannah M King, Jared Baxter, Ayrianne J Crawford, Smit Kour, Smitha Kizhake, Yogesh A Sonawane, Sandeep Rana, Michael A Hollingsworth, Xu Luo, Amarnath Natarajan
The study presented here provides a framework for the discovery of unique inhibitor combinations that target the apoptosis network for cancer therapy. A pair of doxycycline (Dox) -inducible cell lines that specifically report on the ability of an inhibitor to induce apoptosis either by targeting the Mcl-1 arm or the Bcl-2/Bcl-xL/Bcl-w arm were used. Cell-based assays were optimized for high throughput screening (HTS) with caspase 3/7 as a read out. HTS with a 355-member kinase inhibitor library and the panel of Dox-inducible cell lines revealed that cyclin dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors induced apoptosis by targeting the Mcl-1 arm whereas PI3K inhibitors induced apoptosis by targeting the Bcl-2/Bcl-xL/Bcl-w arm...
April 2, 2018: ACS Chemical Biology
Miriam Peinhaupt, David Roula, Anna Theiler, Miriam Sedej, Rudolf Schicho, Gunther Marsche, Eva M Sturm, Ian Sabroe, Marc E Rothenberg, Akos Heinemann
Prostaglandin (PG) D2 is the ligand for the G-protein coupled receptors DP1 (D-type prostanoid receptor 1) and DP2 (also known as chemoattractant receptor homologous molecule, expressed on Th2 cells; CRTH2). Both, DP1 and DP2 are expressed on the cellular surface of eosinophils; although it has become quite clear that PGD2 induces eosinophil migration mainly via DP2 receptors, the role of DP1 in eosinophil responses has remained elusive. In this study, we addressed how DP1 receptor signaling complements the pro-inflammatory effects of DP2...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
Yosif El-Darawish, Wen Li, Kyosuke Yamanishi, Magdalena Pencheva, Naoto Oka, Hiromichi Yamanishi, Tomohiro Matsuyama, Yoshimasa Tanaka, Nagahiro Minato, Haruki Okamura
Combined stimulation by IL-2 and IL-18 effectively promotes proliferation of NK cells, whereas singular stimulation does not. In this study, synergistic effects of these cytokines on NK cells proliferation was analyzed, focusing on the roles of IL-18. In splenic resting NK cells from IL-18KO mice, IL-18 rapidly activated NF-κB independently of IL-2, and activated or up-regulated various molecules downstream of PI3K/AKT and mTOR, including S6, Bcl-XL, ATG5, and LC3II, accompanying increases in cell growth and survival...
March 30, 2018: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
Yarong Zhao, Haiyan Zhu, Haining Wang, Liang Ding, Lizhi Xu, Dai Chen, Sunan Shen, Yayi Hou, Huan Dou
Background: The liver is a vital target for sepsis-related injury, leading to inflammatory pathogenesis, multiple organ dysfunction and high mortality rates. Monocyte-derived macrophage transformations are key events in hepatic inflammation. N1 -[(4-methoxy)methyl]-4-methyl-1,2-benzenediamine (FC-99) previously displayed therapeutic potential on experimental sepsis. However, the underlying mechanism of this protective effect is still not clear. Results: FC-99 treatment attenuated the liver dysfunction in septic mice that was accompanied with reduced numbers of pro-inflammatory Ly6Chi monocytes in the peripheral blood and CD11b+ F4/80lo monocyte-derived macrophages in the liver...
March 13, 2018: Oncotarget
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