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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324910/lacosamide-lowers-valproate-and-levetiracetam-levels
#1
Maria Tountopoulou, Bernhard Weschke, Angela M Kaindl
Lacosamide (LCM) due to no known drug interaction and the absence of metabolic enzyme induction is a good candidate for an add-on medication, especially in combination with lamotrigine, levetiracetam (LEV), oxcarbazepine, topiramate, and valproic acid (VPA). Here we report for the first time, to our knowledge, that LCM can lower VPA and LEV serum levels. At present, there are no known explicable mechanisms of action of LCM, which lowers VPA and LEV. Here observed drug interaction of LCM is of clinical significance, which might be useful for other colleagues in the field...
March 21, 2017: Neuropediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315465/early-preclinical-evaluation-of-dihydropyrimidin-thi-ones-as-potential-anticonvulsant-drug-candidates
#2
Mariana Matias, Gonçalo Campos, Samuel Silvestre, Amílcar Falcão, Gilberto Alves
Although significant advances are occurring in epilepsy research, about 30% of epileptic patients are still inadequately controlled by standard drug therapy. For this reason, it continues to be important to develop new chemical entities through which epilepsy could be effectively controlled. In this study, the anticonvulsant activity of forty-two dihydropyrimidin(thi)ones was explored and their efficacy was evaluated in rodents against the maximal electroshock seizure (MES) and subcutaneous pentylenetetrazole tests...
March 14, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301219/management-of-comorbid-bipolar-disorder-and-substance-use-disorders
#3
Ihsan M Salloum, Edson Sherwood Brown
BACKGROUND: The comorbidity of substance use disorders (SUDs) in bipolar disorder is among the highest in psychiatric disorders. Evidence-based controlled psychosocial or pharmacological interventions trials, which may guide treatment decisions, have not been systematically reviewed. OBJECTIVE: To present a narrative review of the public health and clinical significance of this condition, including diagnostic and treatment implications, and to evaluate controlled trials conducted to date...
March 16, 2017: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290134/animal-models-of-seizures-and-epilepsy-past-present-and-future-role-for-the-discovery-of-antiseizure-drugs
#4
Wolfgang Löscher
The identification of potential therapeutic agents for the treatment of epilepsy requires the use of seizure models. Except for some early treatments, including bromides and phenobarbital, the antiseizure activity of all clinically used drugs was, for the most part, defined by acute seizure models in rodents using the maximal electroshock and subcutaneous pentylenetetrazole seizure tests and the electrically kindled rat. Unfortunately, the clinical evidence to date would suggest that none of these models, albeit useful, are likely to identify those therapeutics that will effectively manage patients with drug resistant seizures...
March 13, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281497/management-of-brain-tumor-related-epilepsy
#5
REVIEW
Neil V Klinger, Aashit K Shah, Sandeep Mittal
Seizures are common in both primary and metastatic brain tumors, although the rate of seizures differ significantly between the different types of neoplasms. Patients with brain tumor-associated seizures need treatment with antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) to prevent recurrence, whereas strong clinical data exists to discourage routine prophylaxis in patients who have not had seizures. The newer AEDs, such as levetiracetam, lamotrigine, lacosamide, topiramate, or pregabalin, are preferable for various reasons, primarily related to the side-effect profile and limited interactions with other drugs...
2017: Neurology India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28280410/lamotrigine-an-antiepileptic-drug-inhibits-5-ht3-receptor-currents-in-ncb-20-neuroblastoma-cells
#6
Ki Jung Kim, Seung Hyun Jeun, Ki-Wug Sung
Lamotrigine is an antiepileptic drug widely used to treat epileptic seizures. Using whole-cell voltage clamp recordings in combination with a fast drug application approach, we investigated the effects of lamotrigine on 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)3 receptors in NCB-20 neuroblastoma cells. Co-application of lamotrigine (1~300 µM) resulted in a concentration-dependent reduction in peak amplitude of currents induced by 3 µM of 5-HT for an IC50 value of 28.2±3.6 µM with a Hill coefficient of 1.2±0.1. These peak amplitude decreases were accompanied by the rise slope reduction...
March 2017: Korean Journal of Physiology & Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279926/determination-of-drugs-in-plasma-samples-by-disposable-pipette-extraction-with-c18-bsa-phase-and-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#7
Mônia Ap Lemos Pinto, Israel D de Souza, Maria Eugênia C Queiroz
This work describes restricted access material (RAM) constituted of porous octadecylsilane particles with the outer surface covered with bovine serum albumin (C18-BSA) as a stationary phase to extract drugs from plasma samples by disposable pipette extraction (DPX) for further analysis by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The C18-BSA phase simultaneously excluded macromolecules by chemical diffusion barrier (BSA network) and enrichment of the interior phase (C18) with drug traces by sorption...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279891/efficacy-and-tolerability-of-adjunctive-brivaracetam-in-patients-with-prior-antiepileptic-drug-exposure-a-post-hoc-study
#8
Ali A Asadi-Pooya, Michael R Sperling, Steve Chung, Pavel Klein, Anyzeila Diaz, Sami Elmoufti, Jimmy Schiemann, John Whitesides
Brivaracetam (BRV), a selective, high-affinity ligand for synaptic vesicle protein 2A, is a new antiepileptic drug (AED) for adjunctive treatment of focal (partial-onset) seizures in adults with epilepsy. This post-hoc analysis was conducted to explore the efficacy of adjunctive BRV in patients with prior levetiracetam (LEV) exposure and whether changes in efficacy were related to the similar mechanism of action of these two drugs. Data were pooled from three Phase III studies (NCT00490035; NCT00464269; NCT01261325) of adults with focal seizures taking 1-2 AEDs who received placebo or BRV 50-200mg/day without titration over a 12-week treatment period...
February 27, 2017: Epilepsy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277872/assessing-the-stability-of-lamotrigine-dispersible-chewable-tablets-when-stored-in-blister-punch-cards
#9
Héctor R Loscertales, Pilar Modamio, Cecilia F Lastra, Eduardo L Mariño
OBJECTIVES: To determine the stability of lamotrigine dispersible/chewable tablets (DCT) when stored in blister punch cards (BPCs). METHODS: Lamotrigine 100 mg DCT were randomly repackaged into a U.S. Pharmacopeia Class A one-week cold-sealed BPC. Chemical and physical stability were evaluated over a 60-day period, in controlled conditions corresponding to Climatic Zones I/II (25°C ± 2°C; 60% ± 5% relative humidity). At scheduled times, various tests were performed on tablets in their primary packaging (reference samples) and on tablets repackaged (BPC samples)...
February 20, 2017: Current Medical Research and Opinion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28258204/mechanism-of-sodium-channel-block-by-local-anesthetics-antiarrhythmics-and-anticonvulsants
#10
Denis B Tikhonov, Boris S Zhorov
Local anesthetics, antiarrhythmics, and anticonvulsants include both charged and electroneutral compounds that block voltage-gated sodium channels. Prior studies have revealed a common drug-binding region within the pore, but details about the binding sites and mechanism of block remain unclear. Here, we use the x-ray structure of a prokaryotic sodium channel, NavMs, to model a eukaryotic channel and dock representative ligands. These include lidocaine, QX-314, cocaine, quinidine, lamotrigine, carbamazepine (CMZ), phenytoin, lacosamide, sipatrigine, and bisphenol A...
March 3, 2017: Journal of General Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255953/correlation-between-prescribed-daily-dose-seizure-freedom-and-defined-daily-dose-in-antiepileptic-drug-treatment
#11
László Horváth, Klára Fekete, Sándor Márton, István Fekete
Background Although defined daily doses (DDD) for antiepileptic drugs (AED) have been assigned only in combination therapy, based on the literature, most patients take them in monotherapy. Furthermore, discrepancies between DDD and prescribed daily dose (PDD) were observed. Objective First, to determine PDDs of AEDs and to reveal PDD/DDD ratio among seizure free versus not seizure free patients in everyday clinical practice. Second, to test the applicability of 75% cut-off of DDD to achieve seizure freedom...
March 2, 2017: International Journal of Clinical Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28243149/antiepileptic-drugs-prescribed-in-pregnancy-and-prevalence-of-major-congenital-malformations-comparative-prevalence-studies
#12
Irene Petersen, Shuk-Li Collings, Rachel L McCrea, Irwin Nazareth, David P Osborn, Phil J Cowen, Cormac J Sammon
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine the prevalence of major congenital malformations associated with antiepileptic drug (AED) treatment in pregnancy. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Using data from The Health Improvement Network, we identified women who have given live birth and their offspring. Four subgroups were selected based on the AED treatment in early pregnancy, valproate, carbamazepine, lamotrigine and women not receiving AED treatment. We compared the prevalence of major congenital malformations within children of these four groups and estimated prevalence ratios (PRs) using Poisson regression adjusted for maternal age, sex of child, quintiles of Townsend deprivation score and indication for treatment...
2017: Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242476/an-investigation-of-the-characteristics-of-outpatients-with-epilepsy-and-antiepileptic-drug-utilization-in-a-multicenter-cross-sectional-study-in-china
#13
Peimin Yu, Dong Zhou, Weiping Liao, Xin Wang, Yuping Wang, Tiancheng Wang, Yuan Wu, Senyang Lang, Weihong Lin, Yijun Song, Heqing Zhao, Meng Cai, Zhen Hong
OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to describe the distribution of seizure types, clinical characteristics, and antiepileptic drug (AED) utilization in patients with epilepsy visiting tertiary hospitals in China. METHODS: This was an observational, cross-sectional epidemiology study conducted at 11 tertiary hospitals across China from May 2014 to November 2014. A total of 1603 patients, of either sex or any age with confirmed diagnosis of epilepsy, visiting outpatient clinics at tertiary hospitals were screened and enrolled...
February 24, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28240305/increased-pkc-activity-and-altered-gsk3%C3%AE-nmdar-function-drive-behavior-cycling-in-hint1-deficient-mice-bipolarity-or-opposing-forces
#14
Javier Garzón-Niño, María Rodríguez-Muñoz, Elsa Cortés-Montero, Pilar Sánchez-Blázquez
Mice with histidine triad nucleotide-binding protein 1 (HINT1) deletion exhibit manic-like symptoms that evolve into depressive-like behavior in response to stressful paradigms. Molecular and electrophysiological studies have indicated that HINT1(-/-) mice exhibit increased PKC, PKA, and GSK3β activities, as well as glutamate N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR)/α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic receptor (AMPAR) and NR2B/NR2A subunit ratios. Pharmacological interventions stabilized their behavior but through different mechanisms...
February 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28239547/unmasking-of-myoclonus-by-lacosamide-in-generalized-epilepsy
#15
Daniel Birnbaum, Mohamad Koubeissi
Lacosamide is a new-generation antiseizure medication that is approved for use as an adjunctive treatment and monotherapy in focal epilepsy. Its use in generalized epilepsy, however, has not been adequately evaluated in controlled trials. We report a 67-year-old woman who experienced new-onset myoclonic seizures after initiation of lacosamide. We presume that she had an undiagnosed generalized epilepsy syndrome, likely juvenile myoclonic epilepsy. Myoclonic seizures were not reported before introducing lacosamide and completely resolved after lacosamide was discontinued...
2017: Epilepsy & Behavior Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237319/epilepsy-treatment-in-adults-and-adolescents-expert-opinion-2016
#16
REVIEW
Jerry J Shih, Julia B Whitlock, Nicole Chimato, Emily Vargas, Steven C Karceski, Ryan D Frank
INTRODUCTION: There are over twenty anti-seizure medications and anti-seizure devices available commercially in the United States. The multitude of treatment options for seizures can present a challenge to clinicians, especially those who are not subspecialists in the epilepsy field. Many clinical questions are not adequately answered in double-blind randomized controlled studies. In the presence of a knowledge gap, many clinicians consult a respected colleague with acknowledged expertise in the field...
February 22, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235655/association-between-antiepileptic-drug-dose-and-long-term-response-in-patients-with-refractory-epilepsy
#17
Nicholas P Poolos, Christina E Castagna, Stephen Williams, Alison B Miller, Tyler J Story
Seizures in patients with medically refractory epilepsy remain a substantial clinical challenge, not least because of the dearth of evidence-based guidelines as to which antiepileptic drug (AED) regimens are the most effective, and what doses of these drugs to employ. We sought to determine whether there were regions in the dosage range of commonly used AEDs that were associated with superior efficacy in patients with refractory epilepsy. We retrospectively analyzed treatment records from 164 institutionalized, developmentally disabled patients with refractory epilepsy, averaging 17years of followup per patient...
February 21, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225977/identifying-the-incidence-of-rash-stevens-johnson-syndrome-and-toxic-epidermal-necrolysis-in-patients-taking-lamotrigine-a-systematic-review-of-122-randomized-controlled-trials
#18
Romi Bloom, Kyle T Amber
Lamotrigine is an antiepileptic drug used for the treatment of epilepsy, bipolar disorder and numerous off-label uses. The development of rash significantly affects its use. The most concerning of these adverse reactions is Stevens-Johnson syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolysis. We performed a systematic review of randomized controlled trials using lamotrigine as a monotherapy to quantify the incidence of cutaneous reactions, particularly Stevens-Johnson syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolysis. Of a total of 4,364 papers regarding lamotrigine, 122 studies met our inclusion and exclusion criteria...
January 2017: Anais Brasileiros de Dermatologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222856/acute-respiratory-distress-syndrome-and-lamotrigine-a-case-report
#19
Masahiro Takeshima, Hiroyasu Ishikawa, Tetsuo Shimizu
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 18, 2016: Psychosomatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215909/eslicarbazepine-acetate-for-neuropathic-pain-headache-and-cranial-neuralgia-evidence-and-experience
#20
A Alcántara Montero, C I Sánchez Carnerero
INTRODUCTION: Eslicarbazepine acetate (ESL), together with carbamazepine and oxcarbazepine, belongs to the dibenzazepine family. According to the latest clinical practice guidelines, tricyclic antidepressants, dual antidepressants (venlafaxine, duloxetine), and some antiepileptics (gabapentin, pregabalin) are first-line drugs for neuropathic pain; tramadol, lidocaine 5% patches, and capsaicin 8% patches are considered second-line drugs; and strong opioids constitute a third line of treatment...
February 16, 2017: Neurología: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Neurología
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