Read by QxMD icon Read


Wendy S Sprague, Ryan M Troyer, Xin Zheng, Britta A Wood, Martha Macmillian, Scott Carver, Susan VandeWoude
We previously showed that cats that were infected with non-pathogenic Puma lentivirus (PLV) and then infected with pathogenic feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) (co-infection with the host adapted/pathogenic virus) had delayed FIV proviral and RNA viral loads in blood, with viral set-points that were lower than cats infected solely with FIV. This difference was associated with global CD4⁺ T cell preservation, greater interferon gamma (IFN-γ) mRNA expression, and no cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses in co-infected cats relative to cats with a single FIV infection...
April 20, 2018: Viruses
Emmanuel Arriaga-Varela, Wioletta Tomaszewska, Lizhi Huo, Matthias Seidel
Intensive survey of museum collections and new field collecting resulted in discovery of six new, closely related species of the Neotropical Merophysiinae. A new species of the genus Lycoperdinella Champion, L. boliviensis sp. n ., from Bolivia and Brazil, and five new species from Mexico for which a new genus is proposed here as Rueckeria gen. n .: R. inecol (type species), R. nigrileonis , R. ocelotl , R. puma , R. skelleyi spp. n ., have been discovered. Lycoperdinella , Rueckeria gen. n ., L. subcaeca Champion and all new species are diagnosed, described, and illustrated...
2018: ZooKeys
Martina Maurelli, Roberto Bergamaschi, Ambra Antonini, Maria Concetta Fargnoli, Elisa Puma, Giulia Mallucci, Rocco Totaro, Giampiero Girolomoni
Interferon-beta (IFNβ) are effective treatments for relapsing multiple sclerosis. IFNβ treatment includes subcutaneous (sc) IFNβ-1b, intramuscular and sc IFNβ-1a, and sc pegylated IFNβ-1a (PEG-IFNβ-1a). PEG-IFNβ-1a offers the advantage of a prolonged duration of action with a less frequent administration (every 2 weeks) and a higher patient adherence. However, the use of subcutaneous interferons could be characterized by potential skin toxicity. Injection site reactions (ISRs), featured by erythema, edema, pain and pruritus, are the most common adverse reactions...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Dermatological Treatment
Wei Wu, Deepkamal Karelia, Kartick Pramanik, Shantu G Amin, Arun K Sharma, Cheng Jiang, Junxuan Lu
Previous studies have established the in vivo bioavailability and efficacious dosages of phenylbutyl isoselenocyanate (ISC-4), a selenium-substituted isothiocyanate, against mouse xenograft models of human melanoma and colorectal cancer. To explore its potential attributes against prostate cancer, we treated human LNCaP prostate cancer cells with ISC-4 and examined their apoptosis responses, and interrogated the signaling mechanisms through pharmacological and siRNA knockdown approaches. Our results show that ISC-4 was more potent at inducing apoptosis than its sulfur analog phenylbutyl isothiocyanate (PBITC) without suppressing protein kinase AKT Ser473 phosphorylation...
April 18, 2018: Molecular Carcinogenesis
Jiao Zhai, Yanwei Jia, Lina Zhao, Qing Yuan, Fuping Gao, Xiangchun Zhang, Pengju Cai, Liang Gao, Juanjuan Guo, Shuhong Yi, Zhifang Chai, Yuliang Zhao, Xueyun Gao
We reported two Au clusters with precisely controlled molecular size (Au5Peptide3 and Au22Peptide10) showing different anti-tumor effects. In vitro, both Au5Peptide3 and Au22Peptide10 were well taken up by human nasopharyngeal cancer cells (CNE1 cells). However, only Au5Peptide3 significantly induced CNE1 cell apoptosis. Further studies showed that CNE1 cells took up Au5Peptide3 (1.98*10-15 mol/cell) and 9% of them entered mitochondria (0.186*10-15 mol/cell). As a comparison, the uptake of Au22Peptide10 was only half the amount of Au5Peptide3 (1...
April 18, 2018: ACS Nano
Monika Ezerskyte, João A Paredes, Stefano Malvezzi, John A Burns, Geoffrey P Margison, Magnus Olsson, David A Scicchitano, Kristian Dreij
Altered protein function due to mutagenesis plays an important role in disease development. This is perhaps most evident in tumorigenesis and the associated loss or gain of function of tumor-suppressor genes and oncogenes. The extent to which lesion-induced transcriptional mutagenesis (TM) influences protein function and its contribution to the development of disease is not well understood. In this study, the impact of O 6 -methylguanine on the transcription fidelity of p53 and the subsequent effects on the protein's function as a regulator of cell death and cell-cycle arrest were examined in human cells...
April 17, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Jie Liu, Chang-Qing Tong
OBJECTIVE: To explore inhibitory effect of miR-125b down-regulation on proliferation of leukemia cell K562. METHODS: miR-125b inhibitor and miR-125b NC were transfected into K562 cells by liposome LipofectamineTM 2000, the cell viability was measured by MTT assay, cell cloning ability was detected by agarose cloning assay, cell cycle was measured by flow cytometry. The expression of BCL-2, BCL-2 homology antagonist/liller 1(BAK1), p53 and p53 up-regulated modulator of apoptosis (Puma) was measured by Western blot...
April 2018: Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue za Zhi
Stan Boutin
In Focus: Blecha, K. A., Boone, R. B., & Alldredge, M. W. (2018). Hunger mediates apex predator's risk avoidance response in wildland-urban interface. Journal of Animal Ecology, 87, 609-622. Puma (Puma concolor), an apex predator, can live at the edge of cities where pockets of low-density human dwellings form residential patches in the wildland-urban interface. Blecha, Boone, and Alldredge () tracked puma via global positioning system (GPS) telemetry collars to determine when and where they hunted and made kills...
May 2018: Journal of Animal Ecology
Abigail J Sporer, Christopher Beierschmitt, Anastasia Bendebury, Katherine E Zink, Alexa Price-Whelan, Marisa C Buzzeo, Laura M Sanchez, Lars E P Dietrich
The activities of critical metabolic and regulatory proteins can be altered by exposure to natural or synthetic redox-cycling compounds. Many bacteria, therefore, possess mechanisms to transport or transform these small molecules. The opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA14 synthesizes phenazines, redox-active antibiotics that are toxic to other organisms but have beneficial effects for their producer. Phenazines activate the redox-sensing transcription factor SoxR and thereby induce the transcription of a small regulon, including the operon mexGHI-opmD, which encodes an efflux pump that transports phenazines, and PA14_35160 (pumA), which encodes a putative monooxygenase...
April 9, 2018: Microbiology
Rong Wei, Rufang Zhang, Hongmei Li, Hongyun Li, Saiji Zhang, Yewei Xie, Shen Li, Fang Chen
We previously demonstrate that microRNAs (miRNA) play an important role in hypothermic circulatory arrest (DHCA)-associated neural injury. However, the specific role of miRNAs in the pathogenesis of DHCA-induced neuron death is still unclear. Thus, in the present study, we investigated miR-29 expression and roles in neuronal HT-22 cells with oxygen-glucose deprivation/reoxygenation (OGD/R). In this study, the model of OGD/R was established using an airtight culture container and the anaeropack. Measurement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) was used the probes of JC-1 and H2DCFDA...
April 3, 2018: Current Neurovascular Research
Ales Tichy, Jan Marek, Radim Havelek, Jaroslav Pejchal, Martina Seifrtova, Lenka Zarybnicka, Alzbeta Filipova, Martina Rezacova, Zuzana Sinkorova
This review summarizes recent progress in understanding the role of p53-upregulated mediator of apoptosis (PUMA) in molecular pathways with respect to its potential therapeutic applications. Particular emphasis is given to the PUMA´s role in ionizing radiation-induced signalling as radiotoxicity of normal tissue is mediated mostly via apoptosis. PUMA and its p53-dependent and p53-independent induction is described and potential use as a new target for the development of radioprotective agents is suggested...
April 5, 2018: Current Drug Targets
Eric R Wolf, Ciarán P McAtarsney, Kristin E Bredhold, Amber M Kline, Lindsey D Mayo
The transcription factors p53 and p73 are critical to the induction of apoptotic cell death, particularly in response to cell stress that activates c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). Mutations in the DNA-binding domain of p53, which are commonly seen in cancers, result in conformational changes that enable p53 to interact with and inhibit p73, thereby suppressing apoptosis. In contrast, wild-type p53 reportedly does not interact with p73. We found that JNK-mediated phosphorylation of Thr81 in the proline-rich domain (PRD) of p53 enabled wild-type p53, as well as mutant p53, to form a complex with p73...
April 3, 2018: Science Signaling
Wei Tu, Qian Zhang, Yin Liu, Lianyong Han, Qin Wang, Panpan Chen, Shun Zhang, Aiguo Wang, Xue Zhou
There has been a great concern about the neurotoxicity of fluoride since it can pass through the blood-brain barrier and accumulate in the brain. It has been suggested that apoptosis plays a vital role in neurotoxicity of fluoride. However, whether p53-mediated apoptotic pathway is involved is still unclear. Our results showed that apoptosis was induced after treatment with 40 and 60 mg/L of NaF for 24 h in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. Exposure to 60 mg/L of NaF for 24 h significantly upregulated the levels of p53 and apoptosis-related proteins including PUMA, cytochrome c (cyto c), cleaved caspase-3 and cleaved PARP, whereas downregulated Bcl-2 in SH-SY5Y cells...
March 30, 2018: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
Libo Sun, Shoujun Yang, Guonan Chi, Xingyi Jin
Background: Glioblastoma is one of the most aggressive and common malignancies of the central nervous system in humans. Owing to the correlation of high Hsp90 expression with prognosis and clinical pathology features of diverse types of cancer, targeting Hsp90 with small-molecule inhibitors has become a promising anticancer strategy. Purpose: In this study, we aimed to explore the possibility of anticancer effect of NMS-E973 in giloblastoma and elucidate the mechanism...
2018: OncoTargets and Therapy
Matias Heino, Michael J Puma, Philip J Ward, Dieter Gerten, Vera Heck, Stefan Siebert, Matti Kummu
The El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) peaked strongly during the boreal winter 2015-2016, leading to food insecurity in many parts of Africa, Asia and Latin America. Besides ENSO, the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) and the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) are known to impact crop yields worldwide. Here we assess for the first time in a unified framework the relationships between ENSO, IOD and NAO and simulated crop productivity at the sub-country scale. Our findings reveal that during 1961-2010, crop productivity is significantly influenced by at least one large-scale climate oscillation in two-thirds of global cropland area...
March 28, 2018: Nature Communications
Young-Sun Lee, Dae-Hee Lee, Haroon A Choudry, David L Bartlett, Yong J Lee
Since its discovery in 2012, ferroptosis has been well-characterized by the accumulation of lipid peroxides due to the failure of glutathione-dependent antioxidant defenses. It is known as an iron-dependent form of programmed cell death, which is distinct from other forms of cell death such as apoptosis and necrosis. Nonetheless, little is known about the ferroptotic agent-induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response and its role in cell death. Recent studies reveal that the ferroptotic agent-induced ER stress response plays an important role in the crosstalk between ferroptosis and other types of cell death...
March 28, 2018: Molecular Cancer Research: MCR
Le Van Manh Hung, Yeon Woo Song, Somi Kim Cho
Acquired drug resistance constitutes an enormous hurdle in cancer treatment, and the search for effective compounds against resistant cancer is still advancing. Marine organisms are a promising natural resource for the discovery and development of anticancer agents. In this study, we examined whether gliotoxin (GTX), a secondary metabolite isolated from marine-derived Aspergillus fumigatus , inhibits the growth of adriamycin (ADR)-resistant non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines A549/ADR. We investigated the effects of GTX on A549/ADR cell viability with the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and the induction of apoptosis in A549/ADR cells treated with GTX via fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis, Hoechst staining, annexin V/propidium iodide staining, tetraethylbenzimidazolylcarbocyanine iodide (JC-1) staining, and western blotting...
March 27, 2018: Marine Drugs
Eric D Young, Kyle Strom, Ashley F Tsue, Joseph L Usset, Seth MacPherson, John T McGuire, Danny R Welch
Imaging is broadly used in biomedical research, but signal variation complicates automated analysis. Using the Pulmonary Metastasis Assay (PuMA) to study metastatic colonization by the metastasis suppressor KISS1, we cultured GFP-expressing melanoma cells in living mouse lung ex vivo for 3 weeks. Epifluorescence images of cells were used to measure growth, creating large datasets which were time consuming and challenging to quantify manually due to scattering of light from outside the focal plane. To address these challenges, we developed an automated workflow to standardize the measurement of disseminated cancer cell growth by applying statistical quality control to remove unanalyzable images followed and a filtering algorithm to quantify only in-focus cells...
March 26, 2018: Clinical & Experimental Metastasis
Dongshi Chen, Jingshan Tong, Liheng Yang, Liang Wei, Donna B Stolz, Jian Yu, Jianke Zhang, Lin Zhang
Necroptosis, a form of regulated necrotic cell death, is governed by RIP1/RIP3-mediated activation of MLKL. However, the signaling process leading to necroptotic death remains to be elucidated. In this study, we found that PUMA , a proapoptotic BH3-only Bcl-2 family member, is transcriptionally activated in an RIP3/MLKL-dependent manner following induction of necroptosis. The induction of PUMA, which is mediated by autocrine TNF-α and enhanced NF-κB activity, contributes to necroptotic death in RIP3-expressing cells with caspases inhibited...
March 26, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Michael M Lizardo, Poul H Sorensen
The pulmonary metastasis assay (PuMA) is an ex vivo lung explant and closed cell culture system that permits researchers to study the biology of lung colonization in osteosarcoma (OS) by fluorescence microscopy. This article provides a detailed description of the protocol, and discusses examples of obtaining image data on metastatic growth using widefield or confocal fluorescence microscopy platforms. The flexibility of the PuMA model permits researchers to study not only the growth of OS cells in the lung microenvironment, but also to assess the effects of anti-metastatic therapeutics over time...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"