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Alum adjuvant

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399855/characterisation-of-a-murine-model-of-the-late-asthmatic-response
#1
Katie Baker, Kristof Raemdonck, Robert J Snelgrove, Maria G Belvisi, Mark A Birrell
BACKGROUND: The incidence of asthma is increasing at an alarming rate. While the current available therapies are effective, there are associated side effects and they fail to adequately control symptoms in all patient subsets. In the search to understand disease pathogenesis and find effective therapies hypotheses are often tested in animal models before progressing into clinical studies. However, current dogma is that animal model data is often not predictive of clinical outcome. One possible reason for this is the end points measured such as antigen-challenge induced late asthmatic response (LAR) is often used in early clinical development, but seldom in animal model systems...
April 11, 2017: Respiratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373994/neutrophil-extracellular-traps-and-microcrystals
#2
REVIEW
Balázs Rada
Neutrophil extracellular traps represent a fascinating mechanism by which PMNs entrap extracellular microbes. The primary purpose of this innate immune mechanism is thought to localize the infection at an early stage. Interestingly, the ability of different microcrystals to induce NET formation has been recently described. Microcrystals are insoluble crystals with a size of 1-100 micrometers that have different composition and shape. Microcrystals have it in common that they irritate phagocytes including PMNs and typically trigger an inflammatory response...
2017: Journal of Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28370521/efficacy-comparison-of-adjuvants-in-pcrv-vaccine-against-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-pneumonia
#3
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Saeko Hamaoka, Yoshifumi Naito, Hideya Katoh, Masaru Shimizu, Mao Kinoshita, Koichi Akiyama, Atsushi Kainuma, Kiyoshi Moriyama, Ken J Ishii, Teiji Sawa
Vaccination against the type III secretion system of P. aeruginosa is a potential prophylactic strategy for reducing the incidence and improving the poor prognosis of P. aeruginosa pneumonia. In this study, the efficacies of three different adjuvants, Freund's adjuvant (FA), aluminum hydroxide (alum) and CpG oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN), were examined from the viewpoint of inducing PcrV-specific immunity against virulent P. aeruginosa. Mice that had been immunized intraperitoneally with recombinant PcrV formulated with one of the above adjuvants were challenged intratracheally with a lethal dose of P...
February 2017: Microbiology and Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28352660/tlr7-8-adjuvant-overcomes-newborn-hyporesponsiveness-to-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine-at-birth
#4
David J Dowling, Simon D van Haren, Annette Scheid, Ilana Bergelson, Dhohyung Kim, Christy J Mancuso, Willemina Foppen, Al Ozonoff, Lynn Fresh, Terese B Theriot, Andrew A Lackner, Raina N Fichorova, Dmitri Smirnov, John P Vasilakos, Joe M Beaurline, Mark A Tomai, Cecily C Midkiff, Xavier Alvarez, James L Blanchard, Margaret H Gilbert, Pyone Pyone Aye, Ofer Levy
Infection is the most common cause of mortality in early life, and immunization is the most promising biomedical intervention to reduce this burden. However, newborns fail to respond optimally to most vaccines. Adjuvantation is a key approach to enhancing vaccine immunogenicity, but responses of human newborn leukocytes to most candidate adjuvants, including most TLR agonists, are functionally distinct. Herein, we demonstrate that 3M-052 is a locally acting lipidated imidazoquinoline TLR7/8 agonist adjuvant in mice, which, when properly formulated, can induce robust Th1 cytokine production by human newborn leukocytes in vitro, both alone and in synergy with the alum-adjuvanted pneumococcal conjugate vaccine 13 (PCV13)...
March 23, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28347293/comparison-of-a-novel-microcrystalline-tyrosine-adjuvant-with-aluminium-hydroxide-for-enhancing-vaccination-against-seasonal-influenza
#5
M D Heath, N J Swan, A C Marriott, N J Silman, B Hallis, C Prevosto, K E Gooch, M A Skinner
BACKGROUND: Vaccination against seasonal influenza strains is recommended for "high risk" patient groups such as infants, elderly and those with respiratory or circulatory diseases. However, efficacy of the trivalent influenza vaccine (TIV) is poor in many cases and in the event of an influenza pandemic, mono-valent vaccines have been rapidly developed and deployed. One of the main issues with use of vaccine in pandemic situations is the lack of a suitable quantity of vaccine early enough during the pandemic to exert a major influence on the transmission of virus and disease outcome...
March 27, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343701/toll-like-receptor-8-agonist-nanoparticles-mimic-immunomodulating-effects-of-the-live-bcg-vaccine-and-enhance-neonatal-innate-and-adaptive-immune-responses
#6
David J Dowling, Evan A Scott, Annette Scheid, Ilana Bergelson, Sweta Joshi, Carlo Pietrasanta, Spencer Brightman, Guzman Sanchez-Schmitz, Simon D Van Haren, Jana Ninković, Dina Kats, Cristiana Guiducci, Alexandre de Titta, Daniel K Bonner, Sachiko Hirosue, Melody A Swartz, Jeffrey A Hubbell, Ofer Levy
BACKGROUND: Newborns display distinct immune responses, leaving them vulnerable to infections and impairing immunization. Targeting newborn dendritic cells (DCs), which integrate vaccine signals into adaptive immune responses, might enable development of age-specific vaccine formulations to overcome suboptimal immunization. OBJECTIVE: Small-molecule imidazoquinoline Toll-like receptor (TLR) 8 agonists robustly activate newborn DCs but can result in reactogenicity when delivered in soluble form...
March 14, 2017: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322289/poly-%C3%AE-glutamic-acid-chitosan-nanogel-greatly-enhances-the-efficacy-and-heterosubtypic-cross-reactivity-of-h1n1-pandemic-influenza-vaccine
#7
Jihyun Yang, Sang-Mu Shim, Thi Quyen Nguyen, Eun-Ha Kim, Kwang Kim, Yong Taik Lim, Moon-Hee Sung, Richard Webby, Haryoung Poo
In 2009, the global outbreak of an influenza pandemic emphasized the need for an effective vaccine adjuvant. In this study, we examined the efficacy of poly-γ-glutamic acid/chitosan (PC) nanogel as an adjuvant for the influenza vaccine. PC nanogel significantly enhanced antigen-specific cross-presentation and cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) activity. Compared with alum, the protective efficacy of the pandemic H1N1 influenza (pH1N1) vaccine was substantially increased by PC nanogel, with increased hemagglutination-inhibition titers, CTL activity, and earlier virus clearance after homologous and heterosubtypic [A/Philippines/2/82 (H3N2)] virus challenges...
March 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316602/toll-like-receptor-ligand-based-vaccine-adjuvants-require-intact-myd88-signaling-in-antigen-presenting-cells-for-germinal-center-formation-and-antibody-production
#8
Munir M Mosaheb, Michael L Reiser, Lee M Wetzler
Vaccines are critical in the fight against infectious diseases, and immune-stimulating adjuvants are essential for enhancing vaccine efficacy. However, the precise mechanisms of action of most adjuvants are unknown. There is an urgent need for customized and adjuvant formulated vaccines against immune evading pathogens that remain a risk today. Understanding the specific role of various cell types in adjuvant-induced protective immune responses is vital for an effective vaccine design. We have investigated the role of cell-specific MyD88 signaling in vaccine adjuvant activity in vivo, using Neisserial porin B (PorB), a TLR2 ligand-based adjuvant, compared with an endosomal TLR9 ligand (CpG) and toll-like receptor (TLR)-independent (alum, MF59) adjuvants...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295241/indirect-effects-of-immunological-tolerance-to-a-regular-dietary-protein-reduce-cutaneous-scar-formation
#9
Thiago Anselmo Cantaruti, Raquel Alves Costa, Kênia Soares de Souza, Nelson Monteiro Vaz, Cláudia Rocha Carvalho
Oral tolerance refers to the specific inhibition of immune responsiveness to T-cell dependent antigens contacted by the oral route before parenteral immunization. Oral tolerance to one protein does not inhibit immune responses to other unrelated proteins, but parenteral injection of tolerated antigens plus adjuvant into tolerant, but not normal mice inhibits immune responses to antigens injected concomitantly or soon thereafter. The inhibitory effect triggered by parenteral injection of tolerated proteins is known as bystander suppression or indirect effects of oral tolerance...
March 12, 2017: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289411/immunogenicity-of-a-bivalent-adjuvanted-glycoconjugate-vaccine-against-salmonella-typhimurium-and-salmonella-enteritidis
#10
Fabio Fiorino, Simona Rondini, Francesca Micoli, Luisa Lanzilao, Renzo Alfini, Francesca Mancini, Calman A MacLennan, Donata Medaglini
Salmonella enterica serovars Typhimurium and Enteritidis are the predominant causes of invasive non-typhoidal Salmonella (iNTS) disease. Considering the co-endemicity of S. Typhimurium and S. Enteritidis, a bivalent vaccine formulation against both pathogens is necessary for protection against iNTS disease, thus investigation of glycoconjugate combination is required. In the present work, we investigated the immune responses induced by S. Typhimurium and S. Enteritidis monovalent and bivalent glycoconjugate vaccines adjuvanted with aluminum hydroxide (alum) only or in combination with cytosine-phosphorothioate-guanine oligodeoxynucleotide (CpG)...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288639/rhesus-macaque-and-mouse-models-for-down-selecting-circumsporozoite-protein-based-malaria-vaccines-differ-significantly-in-immunogenicity-and-functional-outcomes
#11
Timothy W Phares, Anthony D May, Christopher J Genito, Nathan A Hoyt, Farhat A Khan, Michael D Porter, Margot DeBot, Norman C Waters, Philippe Saudan, Sheetij Dutta
BACKGROUND: Non-human primates, such as the rhesus macaques, are the preferred model for down-selecting human malaria vaccine formulations, but the rhesus model is expensive and does not allow for direct efficacy testing of human malaria vaccines. Transgenic rodent parasites expressing genes of human Plasmodium are now routinely used for efficacy studies of human malaria vaccines. Mice have however rarely predicted success in human malaria trials and there is scepticism whether mouse studies alone are sufficient to move a vaccine candidate into the clinic...
March 13, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28267643/alum-adjuvanted-rabies-dna-vaccine-confers-80-protection-against-lethal-50-ld50-rabies-challenge-virus-standard-strain
#12
Rajni Garg, Manpreet Kaur, Ankur Saxena, Rajendra Prasad, Rakesh Bhatnagar
Rabies is a serious concern world-wide. Despite availability of rabies vaccines for long; their efficacy, safety, availability and cost effectiveness has been a tremendous issue. This calls for improvement of rabies vaccination strategies. DNA vaccination has immense potential in this regard. The DNA vaccine pgp.LAMP-1 conferred 60% protection to BALB/c mice against 20 LD50 rabies challenge virus standard (CVS) strain challenge. Upon supplementation with Emulsigen-D, the vaccine formulation conferred complete protection against lethal challenge...
March 3, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245781/endogenous-and-exogenous-natural-adjuvants-for-vaccine-development
#13
Azam Bolhassani, Somayeh Talebi, Ali Anvar
Various adjuvants are usually co-injected with an antigen for stimulation of effective immune responses. Their mechanisms of action in vaccine development include: a) enhancement of the total antibody titers; b) reduction of the antigen dose; c) induction of potent cell-mediated immunity; d) increase in the speed and duration of the protective response; e) stimulation of mucosal immunity; and f) cross-protection. Up to now, different exogenous adjuvants have been identified to boost immune responses including inorganic compounds (e...
February 28, 2017: Mini Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228587/prophylactic-herpes-simplex-virus-2-hsv-2-vaccines-adjuvanted-with-stable-emulsion-and-toll-like-receptor-9-agonist-induce-a-robust-hsv-2-specific-cell-mediated-immune-response-protect-against-symptomatic-disease-and-reduce-the-latent-viral-reservoir
#14
Michael T Hensel, Jason D Marshall, Michael R Dorwart, Darren S Heeke, Eileen Rao, Padmaja Tummala, Li Yu, Gary H Cohen, Roselyn J Eisenberg, Derek D Sloan
Several prophylactic vaccines targeting HSV-2 have failed in the clinic to demonstrate a sustained depression in viral shedding or protection from recurrences. Although these vaccines have generated high titers of neutralizing antibodies, their induction of robust CD8 T cells has largely been unreported, even though evidence for the importance of HSV-2 antigen-specific CD8 T cells is mounting in animal models and in translational studies involving subjects with active HSV-2-specific immune responses. We developed a subunit vaccine composed of the neutralizing antibody (nAb) targets gD and gB, the novel T cell antigen and tegument protein UL40, and we compared this to a whole-inactivated virus vaccine (FI-HSV-2)...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222998/dynamics-of-apc-recruitment-at-the-site-of-injection-following-injection-of-vaccine-adjuvants
#15
Susan van Aalst, Irene Stephanie Ludwig, Peter Johannes Sylvester van Kooten, Ruurd van der Zee, Willem van Eden, Femke Broere
Vaccines often contain adjuvants to strengthen the response to the vaccine antigen. However, their modes of action at the site of injection (SOI) are poorly understood. Therefore, we assessed the local effects of adjuvant on the innate immune system in mice. We investigated the safe, widely used adjuvants MF59 and aluminum hydroxide (alum), as well as trehalose-6,6'-dibehenate (TDB), Complete Freund's Adjuvant (CFA) and the Toll-Like-Receptor-ligands lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and Pam3CysSerLys4 (Pam3CSK4). We assessed muscle immune cell infiltration after adjuvant injection and observed 16h post immunization (hpi) an increased influx with CFA, MF59 and TDB, but not with alum, LPS or Pam3CSK4...
February 17, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220116/cpg-odn-shapes-alum-adjuvant-activity-signaling-via-myd88-and-il-10
#16
Luciana Mirotti, Ricardo Wesley Alberca Custódio, Eliane Gomes, Florencia Rammauro, Eliseu Frank de Araujo, Vera Lucia Garcia Calich, Momtchilo Russo
Aluminum-containing adjuvants usually referred as Alum are considered as T helper type-2 (Th2) adjuvants, while agonists of toll-like receptors (TLRs) are viewed as adjuvants that favor Th1/Th17 immunity. Alum has been used in numerous vaccine formulations; however, its undesired pro-Th2 adjuvant activity constitutes a caveat for Alum-based vaccines. Combining Alum with TLR-dependent, pro-Th1/Th17 adjuvants might dampen the pro-Th2 activity and improve the effectiveness of vaccine formulations. Here, using the ovalbumin (OVA) model of allergic lung inflammation, we found that sensitization with the synthetic TLR9 agonist, which is composed of oligodeoxynucleotides containing CpG motifs adsorbed to Alum, inhibited the development of OVA-induced lung allergic Th2 responses without shifting toward a Th1 pattern...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28194450/assessment-of-the-adjuvant-activity-of-mesoporous-silica-nanoparticles-in-recombinant-mycoplasma-hyopneumoniae-antigen-vaccines
#17
Veridiana Gomes Virginio, Natalia Costantin Bandeira, Fernanda Munhoz Dos Anjos Leal, Marcelo Lancellotti, Arnaldo Zaha, Henrique Bunselmeyer Ferreira
The adjuvant potential of two mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs), SBa-15 and SBa-16, was assessed in combination with a recombinant HSP70 surface polypeptide domain from Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, the etiological agent of porcine enzootic pneumonia (PEP). The recombinant antigen (HSP70212-600), previously shown as immunogenic in formulation with classic adjuvants, was used to immunize BALB/c mice in combination with SBa-15 or SBa-16 MSNs, and the effects obtained with these formulations were compared to those obtained with alum, the adjuvant traditionally used in anti-PEP bacterins...
January 2017: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183282/enhanced-and-long-term-immunogenicity-of-a-her-2-neu-multi-epitope-vaccine-conjugated-to-the-carrier-crm197-in-conjunction-with-the-adjuvant-montanide
#18
Joshua Tobias, Joanna Jasinska, Karin Baier, Michael Kundi, Nicholas Ede, Christoph Zielinski, Ursula Wiedermann
BACKGROUND: We previously identified three short single peptides (P4, P6 and P7) representing different B-cell epitopes on the extracellular domain of Her-2/neu for a vaccine that was tested in a phase-I clinical trial. Here we describe the improvement of the multi peptide vaccine by fusing the single peptides to a hybrid peptide P467. METHODS: After coupling to either virosomes or to diphtheria toxoid CRM197 (CRM), the hybrid peptide was tested in different concentrations in combination with either Montanide or Aluminium hydroxide (Alum) in preclinical studies...
February 9, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161462/immune-response-and-protective-profile-elicited-by-a-multi-epitope-chimeric-protein-derived-from-leptospira-interrogans
#19
Luis G V Fernandes, Aline F Teixeira, Antonio F S Filho, Gisele O Souza, Silvio A Vasconcellos, Marcos B Heinemann, Eliete C Romero, Ana L T O Nascimento
INTRODUCTION: Pathogenic Leptospira is the causative agent of leptospirosis, a widely disseminated disease of human and veterinary concern. The development of vaccines that elicit cross-protective immunity through multiple leptospiral serovars has long been pursued. The aim of this study was to develop a novel chimeric multi-epitope fusion antigen, containing sequences of previously studied outer membrane proteins (OMPs) of Leptospira. METHODS: The chimeric protein was designed based on the amino acid sequences of the LigA, Mce, Lsa45, OmpL1, and LipL41 proteins, cloned into pAE vector, the protein expressed in Escherichia coli, and its immune response evaluated in the hamster infection model...
February 1, 2017: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149525/self-assembled-peg-b-pdpa-b-pgem-copolymer-nanoparticles-as-protein-antigen-delivery-vehicles-to-dendritic-cells-preparation-characterization-and-cellular-uptake
#20
Pan Li, Junhui Zhou, Pingsheng Huang, Chuangnian Zhang, Weiwei Wang, Chen Li, Deling Kong
Antigen uptake by dendritic cells (DCs) is a key step for initiating antigen-specific T cell immunity. In the present study, novel synthetic polymeric nanoparticles were prepared as antigen delivery vehicles to improve the antigen uptake by DCs. Well-defined cationic and acid-responsive copolymers, monomethoxy poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(2-(diisopropyl amino) ethyl methacrylate)-block-poly(2-(guanidyl) ethyl methacrylate) (mPEG-b-PDPA-b-PGEM, PEDG) were synthesized by reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer polymerization of 2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl methacrylate) and N-(tert-butoxycarbonyl) amino ethyl methacrylate monomers, followed by deprotection of tert-butyl protective groups and guanidinylation of obtained primary amines...
February 2017: Regenerative Biomaterials
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