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Alum adjuvant

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913028/active-immunization-with-brucella-abortus-s19-phage-lysate-elicits-serum-igg-that-protects-guinea-pigs-against-virulent-b-%C3%A2-abortus-and-protects-mice-by-passive-immunization
#1
Lata Jain, Mayank Rawat, Saravanan Ramakrishnan, Bablu Kumar
Brucellosis is an economically important zoonosis of worldwide significance. Earlier (Jain et al., 2015) we reported methodology for generation of phage lysate preparations against Brucella abortus S19 using brucellaphage 'ϕLd'. In this study, using a fixed dose (Two mouse PD100) of lysates, the prophylactic efficacies of both plain and alum gel adjuvanted lysates were evaluated in guinea pig by direct virulent challenge and passive mouse protection test (PMPT). Strong humoral and cell mediated immune responses in guinea pigs and protection comparable to S19 vaccine was observed with low dose (1...
November 29, 2016: Biologicals: Journal of the International Association of Biological Standardization
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895176/the-syk-nfat-il-2-pathway-in-dendritic-cells-is-required-for-optimal-sterile-immunity-elicited-by-alum-adjuvants
#2
Hanif Javanmard Khameneh, Adrian W S Ho, Roberto Spreafico, Heidi Derks, Hazel Q Y Quek, Alessandra Mortellaro
Despite a long history and extensive usage of insoluble aluminum salts (alum) as vaccine adjuvants, the molecular mechanisms underpinning Ag-specific immunity upon vaccination remain unclear. Dendritic cells (DCs) are crucial initiators of immune responses, but little is known about the molecular pathways used by DCs to sense alum and, in turn, activate T and B cells. In this article, we show that alum adjuvanticity requires IL-2 specifically released by DCs, even when T cell secretion of IL-2 is intact. We demonstrate that alum, as well as other sterile particulates, such as uric acid crystals, induces DCs to produce IL-2 following initiation of actin-mediated phagocytosis that leads to Src and Syk kinase activation, Ca(2+) mobilization, and calcineurin-dependent activation of NFAT, the master transcription factor regulating IL-2 expression...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881702/roles-of-aluminum-hydroxide-and-monophosphoryl-lipid-a-adjuvants-in-overcoming-cd4-t-cell-deficiency-to-induce-isotype-switched-igg-antibody-responses-and-protection-by-t-dependent-influenza-vaccine
#3
Eun-Ju Ko, Young-Tae Lee, Ki-Hye Kim, Youri Lee, Yu-Jin Jung, Min-Chul Kim, Yu-Na Lee, Taeuk Kang, Sang-Moo Kang
Vaccine adjuvant effects in the CD4-deficient condition largely remain unknown. We investigated the roles of combined monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL) and aluminum hydroxide (Alum) adjuvant (MPL+Alum) in inducing immunity after immunization of CD4 knockout (CD4KO) and wild-type (WT) mice with T-dependent influenza vaccine. MPL+Alum adjuvant mediated IgG isotype-switched Abs, IgG-secreting cell responses, and protection in CD4KO mice, which were comparable to those in WT mice. In contrast, Alum adjuvant effects were dependent on CD4(+) T cells...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876908/effect-of-two-hydatid-cyst-antigens-on-the-growth-of-melanoma-cancer-in-c57-black-mice
#4
Milad Badri Chookami, Seyedeh Maryam Sharafi, Raheleh Rafiei Sefiddashti, Rasool Jafari, Mehran Bahadoran, Nader Pestechian, Hossein Yousofi Darani
Hydatid cyst is the larval stage of Echinococcus granulosus. In previous studies inhibitory effect of this parasite on cancer cell growth in culture medium has been shown. In this study effect of hydatid cyst antigens on tumor growth in experimental animals has been investigated. Two antigens of hydatid cyst including protoscolices excretory secretory antigen and hydatid fluid absorbed on alum as adjuvant were injected to two groups of C57/black mice as case groups. Control groups were injected with only saline and alum...
December 2016: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876902/evaluation-of-the-alum-naloxone-adjuvant-activity-against-experimental-murine-leishmaniasis-due-to-l-major
#5
REVIEW
Arezoo Bozorgomid, Habib Mohammadzadeh Hajipirloo, Khosrow Hazrati Tappeh, Naser Nazari, Seyed Ahmad Karamati, Samira Shirooie
Leishmaniasis is caused by intracellular parasites of Leishmania species, which are transmitted by the bite of the sandfly. Recovery and protection against the infection depends on the induction of a strong Th1 type of immune response. Vaccination of mice with the opioid antagonist naloxone can promote the activation of the Th1 responses. We studied the efficacy of the mixture of naloxone and alum, as an adjuvant, to enhance immune responses and induce protection against Leishmania major infection in BALB/c as a susceptible mouse model...
December 2016: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865948/neuronal-fc-epsilon-receptor-i-contributes-to-antigen-evoked-pruritus-in-a-murine-model-of-ocular-allergy
#6
Fan Liu, Lubin Xu, Naze Chen, Mo Zhou, Chunyan Li, Qian Yang, Yikuan Xie, Yuguang Huang, Chao Ma
Pruritus is the major symptom of ocular allergy but currently available treatments are often ineffective. Previous studies demonstrated that subpopulations of primary sensory neurons express Fc receptors and may contribute to antigen-specific pain. We investigated the role of neuronal Fc-epsilon Receptor I (FcεRI) in allergic ocular pruritus. Ovalbumin (OVA) was used as allergen together with alum adjuvant (OVA+alum) to produce a mouse model of ocular allergy with a significant elevation in the serum levels of both antigen-specific IgE and IgG...
November 16, 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27860553/developing-an-inactivated-rotavirus-vaccine-and-evaluating-the-immunogenicity-against-a-commercially-available-attenuated-rotavirus-vaccine-using-a-mice-animal-model
#7
Ayaa S M Hashim, Khaled M A Aboshanab, Aly F M El-Sayed
There is a high demand for public immunization against Rotavirus (RV), especially in Africa. In Africa, the attenuated RV vaccination is contraindicated in patients with immune diseases and nutrition deficiency. Therefore, the inactivated RV vaccine (IRVV) could be an alternative. In this study, we aimed to develop a pentavalent-IRVV using the most circulating RV strains in Egypt and evaluate it against the commercially available Rotarix(®) vaccine. Trial-IRVV was developed with 5% sucrose, 2% polysorbate-80, and adsorbed on Alum to potentiate the vaccine immune response...
November 18, 2016: Viral Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858706/adjuvants-for-clostridium-tetani-and-clostridium-diphtheriae-vaccines-updating
#8
Fatimah M Alshanqiti, Saad B Al-Masaudi, Ahmed M Al-Hejin, Elrashdy M Redwan
It's known that diphtheria and tetanus are a contagious lethal disease over the years, they caused by pathogenic microbes corynebacterium diphtheria and Clostridium tetani, respectively. The diseases result from the production of bacterial toxin. Vaccination with bacterial toxoid vaccines adsorbed on particulates adjuvants still are the best way to prevent this epidemic diseases from spread. The particulate vaccines have been shown to be more efficient than soluble one for the induction of the immune responses...
November 4, 2016: Human Antibodies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856263/rational-design-of-protamine-nanocapsules-as-antigen-delivery-carriers
#9
José Vicente González-Aramundiz, Elena Presas, Inmaculada Dalmau-Mena, Susana Martínez-Pulgarín, Covadonga Alonso, José M Escribano, María J Alonso, Noemi Stefánia Csaba
: Current challenges in global immunization indicate the demand for new delivery strategies, which could be applied to the development of new vaccines against emerging diseases, as well as to improve safety and efficacy of currently existing vaccine formulations. Here, we report a novel antigen nanocarrier consisting of an oily core and a protamine shell, further stabilized with pegylated surfactants. These nanocarriers, named protamine nanocapsules, were rationally designed to promote the intracellular delivery of antigens to immunocompetent cells and to trigger an efficient and long-lasting immune response...
November 14, 2016: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843506/promotion-of-nickel-ni-allergy-by-anamnestic-sensitization-with-a-bacterial-component-lipopolysaccharide-lps-in-mice
#10
Norimasa Adachi, Eiji Takayama, Makoto Adachi, Masako Mizuno-Kamiya, Harumi Kawaki, Hiroko Takeuchi, Shuri Kubo, Hajime Ishigami, Masakazu Kurachi, Nobuo Kondoh
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) promote allergic responses to nickel (Ni) both in the sensitization and elicitation steps. In this study, we examine the effect of pre-sensitization to LPS on the occurrence of Ni allergy using a mouse model. METHOD: A 100 mg of LPS was injected into C57BL/6J mice intraperitoneally (ip). Three weeks later, the mice were subsequently injected with 0.3 μ moles of nickel dichloride (NiCl2) and 100 μg of CpG-DNA, which acted as an adjuvant...
2016: Open Dentistry Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814377/antibody-persistence-and-booster-responses-to-split-virion-h5n1-avian-influenza-vaccine-in-young-and-elderly-adults
#11
Rajeka Lazarus, Sarah Kelly, Matthew D Snape, Corinne Vandermeulen, Merryn Voysey, Karel Hoppenbrouwers, Annick Hens, Pierre Van Damme, Stephanie Pepin, Isabel Leroux-Roels, Geert Leroux-Roels, Andrew J Pollard
: Avian influenza continues to circulate and remains a global health threat not least because of the associated high mortality. In this study antibody persistence, booster vaccine response and cross-clade immune response between two influenza A(H5N1) vaccines were compared. Participants aged over 18-years who had previously been immunized with a clade 1, A/Vietnam vaccine were re-immunized at 6-months with 7.5 μg of the homologous strain or at 22-months with a clade 2, alum-adjuvanted, A/Indonesia vaccine...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803788/potentiation-of-human-papilloma-vaccine-candidate-using-naloxone-alum-mixture-as-an-adjuvant-increasing-immunogenicity-of-hpv-16e7d-vaccine
#12
Mahsa Yasaghi, Mehdi Mahdavi
OBJECTIVES: Many types of human papillomaviruses (HPVs) have been identified, with some leading to cancer and others to skin lesions such as anogenital warts. Studies have demonstrated an association between oncogenic HPV and cervical cancer and many researchers have focused on therapeutic vaccines development. At present, the modulatory effect of opioids on the innate and acquired immune system is characterized. Antagonists of opioid receptors such as naloxone (NLX) can contribute to the shifting Th2 response toward Th1...
September 2016: Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27797937/induction-of-humoural-and-cellular-immunity-by-immunisation-with-hcv-particle-vaccine-in-a-non-human-primate-model
#13
Hiroshi Yokokawa, Atsunori Higashino, Saori Suzuki, Masaki Moriyama, Noriko Nakamura, Tomohiko Suzuki, Ryosuke Suzuki, Koji Ishii, Kouji Kobiyama, Ken J Ishii, Takaji Wakita, Hirofumi Akari, Takanobu Kato
OBJECTIVE: Although HCV is a major cause of chronic liver disease worldwide, there is currently no prophylactic vaccine for this virus. Thus, the development of an HCV vaccine that can induce both humoural and cellular immunity is urgently needed. To create an effective HCV vaccine, we evaluated neutralising antibody induction and cellular immune responses following the immunisation of a non-human primate model with cell culture-generated HCV (HCVcc). DESIGN: To accomplish this, 10 common marmosets were immunised with purified, inactivated HCVcc in combination with two different adjuvants: the classically used aluminum hydroxide (Alum) and the recently established adjuvant: CpG oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) wrapped by schizophyllan (K3-SPG)...
October 26, 2016: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27794001/il-18-and-subcapsular-lymph-node-macrophages-are-essential-for-enhanced-b-cell-responses-with-tlr4-agonist-adjuvants
#14
Anthony L Desbien, Natasha Dubois Cauwelaert, Steven J Reed, Hilton R Bailor, Hong Liang, Darrick Carter, Malcolm S Duthie, Christopher B Fox, Steven G Reed, Mark T Orr
Designing modern vaccine adjuvants depends on understanding the cellular and molecular events that connect innate and adaptive immune responses. The synthetic TLR4 agonist glycopyranosyl lipid adjuvant (GLA) formulated in a squalene-in-water emulsion (GLA-SE) augments both cellular and humoral immune responses to vaccine Ags. This adjuvant is currently included in several vaccines undergoing clinical evaluation including those for tuberculosis, leishmaniasis, and influenza. Delineation of the mechanisms of adjuvant activity will enable more informative evaluation of clinical trials...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27787625/immunization-of-rhesus-macaques-with-echinococcus-multilocularis-recombinant-14-3-3-antigen-leads-to-specific-antibody-response
#15
Karen Lampe, B Gottstein, T Becker, C Stahl-Hennig, F-J Kaup, K Mätz-Rensing
E. multilocularis (Em) is the etiologic agent of alveolar echinococcosis (AE), a severe and potentially fatal disease, primarily affecting the liver of and occurring in aberrant intermediate hosts, e.g., humans and non-human primates. Due to increasing numbers of spontaneous cases of AE in the Old World monkey colonies of the German Primate Center, the question arose as to whether vaccination of non-human primates may represent a useful prophylactic approach. In this pilot study, the recombinant antigen Em14-3-3, which has provided a 97 % protection against E...
October 27, 2016: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27781036/modulation-of-primary-immune-response-by-different-vaccine-adjuvants
#16
Annalisa Ciabattini, Elena Pettini, Fabio Fiorino, Gabiria Pastore, Peter Andersen, Gianni Pozzi, Donata Medaglini
Adjuvants contribute to enhancing and shaping the vaccine immune response through different modes of action. Here early biomarkers of adjuvanticity after primary immunization were investigated using four different adjuvants combined with the chimeric tuberculosis vaccine antigen H56. C57BL/6 mice were immunized by the subcutaneous route with different vaccine formulations, and the modulation of primary CD4(+) T cell and B cell responses was assessed within draining lymph nodes, blood, and spleen, 7 and 12 days after priming...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27745952/an-inflammatory-response-is-essential-for-the-development-of-adaptive-immunity-immunogenicity-and-immunotoxicity
#17
Tetsuo Nakayama
The humoral and cellular immune responses of adaptive immunity are induced following immunization with effective vaccines. They induce functional cytokines and chemokines through the binding of vaccine components or adjuvants to innate immune receptors. Alum-adjuvanted vaccines induce local inflammatory nodules at injection sites, and the systemic and local production of the inflammatory cytokines, IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α, has been reported to occur three hours after vaccinations. Furthermore, G-CSF levels increase at injection sites...
October 13, 2016: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27718200/determination-of-protein-content-in-alhydrogel-%C3%A2-based-vaccines-by-o-phthalaldehyde-assay
#18
Kelly M Rausch, Daming Zhu
The quantification of antigens adsorbed to aluminum-based adjuvants (alum) typically involves a method that first extracts antigen from the alum followed by the quantification of the antigen available in the extract. Extraction procedures often result in less than 100 % desorption of the antigen from the alum adjuvant and may alter the conformation of the antigen, reducing the accuracy of the subsequent method used for quantification. There is no generic method available for directly assessing the protein content when formulated on alum...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27718183/development-of-the-cpg-adjuvant-1018-a-case-study
#19
John D Campbell
The development of aluminum salts (alum) as vaccine adjuvants was an empirical process with little understanding of the mechanism of action and, with decades of use, it has become clear that there is a need for alternatives where alum-based adjuvants are suboptimal. Oligonucleotides containing unmethylated CpG sequences represent one alternative as they are potent stimulators of the vertebrate innate immune system through activation of Toll-like receptor-9. This chapter outlines the methods used by Dynavax Technologies to progress a CpG-containing oligonucleotide sequence termed 1018 through preclinical and clinical testing as an adjuvant for immunization against hepatitis B virus (HBV)...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27718182/overview-of-vaccine-adjuvants-introduction-history-and-current-status
#20
Ruchi R Shah, Kimberly J Hassett, Luis A Brito
Adjuvants are included in sub-unit or recombinant vaccines to enhance the potency of poorly immunogenic antigens. Adjuvant discovery is as complex as it is a multidiscplinary intersection of formulation science, immunology, toxicology, and biology. Adjuvants such as alum, which have been in use for the past 90 years, have illustrated that adjuvant research is a methodical process. As science advances, new analytical tools are developed which allows us to delve deeper into the various mechanisms that generates a potent immune response...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
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