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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092438/biofunctionalization-of-nerve-interface-via-biocompatible-polymer-roughened-pt-black-on-cuff-electrode-for-chronic-recording
#1
Yi Jae Lee, Han-Jun Kim, Ji Yoon Kang, Sun Hee Do, Soo Hyun Lee
Peripheral nerve cuff electrodes with roughened Pt black (BPt) are coated with polyethylene glycol (PEG) and Nafion (NF). Although the influence of coated PEG and Nafion on roughened BPt on the electrical properties is weak, the cuff electrode with BPt/PEG and BPt/Nafion exhibits some very important properties. For example, it markedly decreases interfacial impedance, increases charge storage capacity (CSC) due to retaining the BPt surface structure, good stability without exfoliation in repetitive cyclic voltammetry scanning because it is protected by PEG or Nafion coating...
January 16, 2017: Advanced Healthcare Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074010/tumors-block-pain-with-cxcl12
#2
Nancy R Gough
The chemokine CXCL12 released from early stage pancreatic cancer recruits Schwann cells and suppresses pain signaling.
January 10, 2017: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073836/ionotropic-glutamate-receptors-activate-cell-signaling-in-response-to-glutamate-in-schwann-cells
#3
Wendy M Campana, Elisabetta Mantuano, Pardis Azmoon, Kenneth Henry, Michael A Banki, John H Kim, Donald P Pizzo, Steven L Gonias
In the peripheral nervous system, Schwann cells (SCs) demonstrate surveillance activity, detecting injury and undergoing trans-differentiation to support repair. SC receptors that detect peripheral nervous system injury remain incompletely understood. We used RT-PCR to profile ionotropic glutamate receptor expression in cultured SCs. We identified subunits required for assembly of N-methyl-d-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptors (NMDA-R), α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptors, and kainate receptors...
January 10, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072455/src-and-phospho-fak-kinases-are-activated-by-allopregnanolone-promoting-schwann-cells-motility-morphology-and-myelination
#4
Simona Melfi, Maria Magdalena Montt Guevara, Veronica Bonalume, Massimiliano Ruscica, Alessandra Colciago, Tommaso Simoncini, Valerio Magnaghi
Schwann cells' (SCs) development and maturation require coordinate and complementary interaction among several signals and intracellular pathways. Among factors controlling these processes, the signalling intermediates Src tyrosine kinase and focal adhesion kinase (FAK) are relevant for SCs' fate, participating in regulation of SC adhesion, motility and migration. Recently, the progesterone metabolite allopregnanolone (ALLO) was proved to be synthesized by SCs, whereas it acts autocrinally on SC motility and proliferation, which are crucial processes for nerve development, maturation and regeneration...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071741/loss-of-coupling-distinguishes-gjb1-mutations-associated-with-cns-manifestations-of-cmt1x-from-those-without-cns-manifestations
#5
Charles K Abrams, Mikhail Goman, Sarah Wong, Steven S Scherer, Kleopas A Kleopa, Alejandro Peinado, Mona M Freidin
CMT1X, an X-linked inherited neuropathy, is caused by mutations in GJB1, which codes for Cx32, a gap junction protein expressed by Schwann cells and oligodendrocytes. Many GJB1 mutations cause central nervous system (CNS) abnormality in males, including stable subclinical signs and, less often, short-duration episodes characterized by motor difficulties and altered consciousness. However, some mutations have no apparent CNS effects. What distinguishes mutations with and without CNS manifestations has been unclear...
January 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069797/oligodendrocyte-development-and-cns-myelination-are-unaffected-in-a-mouse-model-of-severe-spinal-muscular-atrophy
#6
Ryan W O'Meara, Sarah E Cummings, Yves De Repentigny, Emily McFall, John-Paul Michalski, Marc-Olivier Deguise, Sabrina Gibeault, Rashmi Kothary
The childhood neurodegenerative disease spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is caused by loss-of-function mutations or deletions in the Survival Motor Neuron 1 (SMN1) gene resulting in insufficient levels of survival motor neuron (SMN) protein. Classically considered a motor neuron disease, increasing evidence now supports SMA as a multi-system disorder with phenotypes discovered in cortical neuron, astrocyte, and Schwann cell function within the nervous system. In this study, we sought to determine whether Smn was critical for oligodendrocyte (OL) development and central nervous system myelination...
January 9, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068329/the-primacy-of-nf1-loss-as-the-driver-of-tumorigenesis-in-neurofibromatosis-type-1-associated-plexiform-neurofibromas
#7
A Pemov, H Li, R Patidar, N F Hansen, S Sindiri, S W Hartley, J S Wei, A Elkahloun, S C Chandrasekharappa, J F Boland, S Bass, J C Mullikin, J Khan, B C Widemann, M R Wallace, D R Stewart
Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) is a common tumor-predisposition disorder due to germline mutations in the tumor suppressor gene NF1. A virtually pathognomonic finding of NF1 is the plexiform neurofibroma (PN), a benign, likely congenital tumor that arises from bi-allelic inactivation of NF1. PN can undergo transformation to a malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor, an aggressive soft-tissue sarcoma. To better understand the non-NF1 genetic contributions to PN pathogenesis, we performed whole-exome sequencing, RNASeq profiling and genome-wide copy-number determination for 23 low-passage Schwann cell cultures established from surgical PN material with matching germline DNA...
January 9, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067783/stem-cell-transplantation-for-peripheral-nerve-regeneration-current-options-and-opportunities
#8
REVIEW
Liangfu Jiang, Salazar Jones, Xiaofeng Jia
Peripheral nerve regeneration is a complicated process highlighted by Wallerian degeneration, axonal sprouting, and remyelination. Schwann cells play an integral role in multiple facets of nerve regeneration but obtaining Schwann cells for cell-based therapy is limited by the invasive nature of harvesting and donor site morbidity. Stem cell transplantation for peripheral nerve regeneration offers an alternative cell-based therapy with several regenerative benefits. Stem cells have the potential to differentiate into Schwann-like cells that recruit macrophages for removal of cellular debris...
January 5, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067631/schwann-cells-are-activated-by-atp-released-from-neurons-in-an-in-vitro-cellular-model-of-miller-fisher-syndrome
#9
Umberto Rodella, Samuele Negro, Michele Scorzeto, Elisanna Bergamin, Kees Jalink, Cesare Montecucco, Nobuhiro Yuki, Michela Rigoni
The neuromuscular junction is exposed to different types of insults including mechanical traumas, toxins or autoimmune antibodies and, accordingly, has retained through evolution a remarkable ability to regenerate. Regeneration is driven by multiple signals that are exchanged among the cellular components of the junction. These signals are largely unknown.Miller Fisher syndrome is a variant of Guillain-Barré syndrome caused by autoimmune antibodies specific for epitopes of peripheral axon terminals. Using an animal model of Miller Fisher syndrome, we recently reported that a monoclonal anti-polysialoganglioside GQ1b antibody plus complement damages nerve terminals with production of mitochondrial hydrogen peroxide, that activates Schwann cells...
January 6, 2017: Disease Models & Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065675/altered-expression-of-irs2-and-grb2-in-demyelination-of-peripheral-neurons-implications-in-diabetic-neuropathy
#10
Mallahalli S Manu, Kuruvanthe S Rachana, Gopal M Advirao
Demyelination of the peripheral nerves and dysfunction of Schwann cells (SCs) are the chronic complications involved in the development of peripheral neuropathy among diabetic patients. Insulin signaling plays an important role in restoring the myelin proteins in diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN). Since insulin levels are altered in diabetes, it becomes of great interest to appreciate the role and regulation of docking and adaptor protein, how these proteins respond to variations in the levels of insulin as experienced in juvenile diabetes...
December 29, 2016: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064059/par1-activation-affects-the-neurotrophic-properties-of-schwann-cells
#11
Elena Pompili, Cinzia Fabrizi, Francesca Somma, Virginia Correani, Bruno Maras, Maria Eugenia Schininà, Viviana Ciraci, Marco Artico, Francesco Fornai, Lorenzo Fumagalli
Protease-activated receptor-1 (PAR1) is the prototypic member of a family of four G-protein-coupled receptors that signal in response to extracellular proteases. In the peripheral nervous system, the expression and/or the role of PARs are still poorly investigated. High PAR1 mRNA expression was found in the rat dorsal root ganglia and the signal intensity of PAR1 mRNA increased in response to sciatic nerve transection. In the sciatic nerve, functional PAR1 receptor was reported at the level of non-compacted Schwann cell myelin microvilli of the nodes of Ranvier...
January 4, 2017: Molecular and Cellular Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060689/-schwannoma-of-the-upper-extremity-retrospective-analysis-of-17-cases
#12
Ângelo Sá, Leandro Nobre Azevedo, Luísa Cunha
INTRODUCTION: Schwannoma or neurilemmoma is a benign peripheric nerve tumor that usually presents as a slow growing single lesion; it has origin in Schwann cells proliferation. Although it represents a small percentage of the benign tumors of the upper arm, it is the most frequent of neural origin. We present a retrospective study of upper limb schwannomas; our aim is establish the appropriate preoperative approach, to recognise the efficiency of the treatment and the pos-operative follow-up...
September 2016: Acta Médica Portuguesa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28059646/irreversible-changes-occurring-in-long-term-denervated-schwann-cells-affect-delayed-nerve-repair
#13
Giulia Ronchi, Michele Cillino, Giovanna Gambarotta, Benedetta Elena Fornasari, Stefania Raimondo, Pierfrancesco Pugliese, Pierluigi Tos, Adriana Cordova, Francesco Moschella, Stefano Geuna
OBJECTIVE Multiple factors may affect functional recovery after peripheral nerve injury, among them the lesion site and the interval between the injury and the surgical repair. When the nerve segment distal to the lesion site undergoes chronic degeneration, the ensuing regeneration (when allowed) is often poor. The aims of the current study were as follows: 1) to examine the expression changes of the neuregulin 1/ErbB system during long-term nerve degeneration; and 2) to investigate whether a chronically denervated distal nerve stump can sustain nerve regeneration of freshly axotomized axons...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28055968/bh3-mimetics-suppress-cxcl12-expression-in-human-malignant-peripheral-nerve-sheath-tumor-cells
#14
Christopher D Graham, Niroop Kaza, Hawley C Pruitt, Lauren M Gibson, Barbara J Klocke, Lalita A Shevde, Steven L Carroll, Kevin A Roth
Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs) are aggressive, Schwann cell-derived neoplasms of the peripheral nervous system that have recently been shown to possess an autocrine CXCL12/CXCR4 signaling loop that promotes tumor cell proliferation and survival. Importantly, the CXCL12/CXCR4 signaling axis is driven by availability of the CXCL12 ligand rather than CXCR4 receptor levels alone. Therefore, pharmacological reduction of CXCL12 expression could be a potential chemotherapeutic target for patients with MPNSTs or other pathologies wherein the CXCL12/CXCR4 signaling axis is active...
December 31, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054637/salidroside-promotes-peripheral-nerve-regeneration-based-on-tissue-engineering-strategy-using-schwann-cells-and-plga-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#15
Hui Liu, Peizhen Lv, Yongjia Zhu, Huayu Wu, Kun Zhang, Fuben Xu, Li Zheng, Jinmin Zhao
Salidriside (SDS), a phenylpropanoid glycoside derived from Rhodiola rosea L, has been shown to be neuroprotective in many studies, which may be promising in nerve recovery. In this study, the neuroprotective effects of SDS on engineered nerve constructed by Schwann cells (SCs) and Poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) were studied in vitro. We further investigated the effect of combinational therapy of SDS and PLGA/SCs based tissue engineering on peripheral nerve regeneration based on the rat model of nerve injury by sciatic transection...
January 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052540/engineered-neural-tissue-with-schwann-cell-differentiated-human-dental-pulp-stem-cells-potential-for-peripheral-nerve-repair
#16
Kathleen Sanen, Wendy Martens, Melanie Georgiou, Marcel Ameloot, Ivo Lambrichts, James Phillips
Despite the spontaneous regenerative capacity of the peripheral nervous system, large gap peripheral nerve injuries (PNIs) require bridging strategies. The limitations and suboptimal results obtained with autografts or hollow nerve conduits in the clinic urge the need for alternative treatments. Recently, we have described promising neuroregenerative capacities of Schwann cells derived from differentiated human dental pulp stem cells (d-hDPSCs) in vitro. Here, we extended the in vitro assays to show the pro-angiogenic effects of d-hDPSCs, such as enhanced endothelial cell proliferation, migration and differentiation...
January 4, 2017: Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050327/isolated-schwannoma-of-the-upper-eyelid-margin-in-a-50-year-old-male
#17
Mehmet Serdar Dervişoğulları, Yüksel Totan, Ümran Yıldırım
Schwannomas (neurilemmomas) are benign neurogenic tumours of peripheral nerves. They originate from Schwann cells, which form the neural sheath. Although Schwannomas and neurofibromas are the most common primary peripheral nerve tumours, Schwannomas are rarely observed in ophthalmic areas. When they occur, ocular Schwannomas are usually located in the orbit, uveal tract and conjunctiva. Isolated eyelid Schwannomas are reported infrequently. Herein, we describe a case of eyelid Schwannoma in a 50-year-old man...
December 2016: Turkish Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049116/schwannoma-of-the-tongue
#18
Jakob Kavčič, Marko Božič
Schwannoma, neurilemmoma or neurinoma is a rare, benign nerve sheath neoplasm composed of Schwann cells. It is usually solitary, slow growing and asymptomatic. Approximately 1-12% of the tumours occur intraorally with the tongue being the most common location. We report a rare case of lingual schwannoma in a 20-year-old female patient involving the tip of the tongue, which was slow growing and asymptomatic. For diagnosis histopathological examination and also immunohistochemistry testing were carried out to confirm the nature of tissue fragments...
October 8, 2016: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28032743/sustained-local-release-of-ngf-from-a-chitosan-sericin-composite-scaffold-for-treating-chronic-nerve-compression
#19
Lei Zhang, Wen Yang, Kaixiong Tao, Yu Song, Hongjian Xie, Jian Wang, Xiaolin Li, Xiaoming Shuai, Jinbo Gao, Panpan Chang, Guobin Wang, Zheng Wang, Lin Wang
Chronic nerve compression (CNC), such as carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS), is a common cause of peripheral nerve dysfunction and chronic peripheral nerve pain. Current available treatments for CNC are ineffective as they usually aim to alleviate symptoms at the acute phase with limited capability towards restoring injured nerve function. New approaches for effective recovery of CNC injury are highly desired. Here we report for the first time a tissue-engineered approach for the repair of CNC. A genipin cross-linked chitosan-sericin 3D scaffold for delivering nerve growth factor (NGF) was designed and fabricated...
December 29, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28028376/schwannoma-in-the-hepatoduodenal-ligament-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#20
Shao-Yan Xu, Ke Sun, Hai-Yang Xie, Lin Zhou, Shu-Sen Zheng, Wei-Lin Wang
Schwannomas are mesenchymal neoplasms with low malignant potential that arise from Schwann cells. They can occur almost anywhere, although the most common locations are the head, neck and extremities. Primary benign schwannoma of the hepatoduodenal ligament is rare. To date, only three cases have been reported in the English literature. In the present study, we report a case of hepatoduodenal ligament schwannoma in a 43-year-old male, who was admitted to our hospital because of a abdominal mass found by physical examination...
December 14, 2016: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
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