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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817630/pet-snakes-illegally-marketed-in-brazil-climatic-viability-and-establishment-risk
#1
Érica Fonseca, Mirco Solé, Dennis Rödder, Paulo de Marco
Invasive species are one among many threats to biodiversity. Brazil has been spared, generically, of several destructive invasive species. Reports of invasive snakes' populations are nonexistent, but the illegal pet trade might change this scenario. Despite the Brazilian laws forbid to import most animals, illegal trade is frequently observed and propagules are found in the wild. The high species richness within Brazilian biomes and accelerated fragmentation of natural reserves are a critical factors facilitating successful invasion...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815565/generation-of-animal-form-by-the-chordin-tolloid-bmp-gradient-100%C3%A2-years-after-d-arcy-thompson
#2
Edward M De Robertis, Yuki Moriyama, Gabriele Colozza
The classic book "On Growth and Form" by naturalist D'Arcy Thompson was published 100 years ago. To celebrate this landmark, we present experiments in the Xenopus embryo that provide a framework for understanding how simple, quantitative transformations of a morphogen gradient might have affected evolution and morphological diversity of organisms. D'Arcy Thompson proposed that different morphologies might be generated by modifying physical parameters in an underlying system of Cartesian coordinates that pre-existed in Nature and arose during evolutionary history...
August 16, 2017: Development, Growth & Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812656/experimental-evidence-for-homeostatic-sex-allocation-after-sex-biased-reintroductions
#3
Wayne Leslie Linklater, Peter Roy Law, Jay Vinson Gedir, Pierre du Preez
First principles predict negative frequency-dependent sex allocation, but it is unproven in field studies and seldom considered, despite far-reaching consequences for theory and practice in population genetics and dynamics as well as animal ecology and behaviour. Twenty-four years of rhinoceros calving after 45 reintroductions across southern Africa provide the first in situ experimental evidence that unbalanced operational sex ratios predicted offspring sex and offspring sex ratios. Our understanding of population dynamics, especially reintroduction and invasion biology, will be significantly impacted by these findings...
March 6, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800808/legal-and-ethical-challenges-part-1-general-population
#4
REVIEW
Britta Ostermeyer, Anim N Shoaib, Swapna Deshpande
Several federal and state laws and regulations, as well as ethical medical principles, govern the emergency clinician's practice of care. Although some common legal-medical and ethical principles are shared with other medical specialties, emergency medicine and emergency psychiatry have unique legal and ethical challenges. This article presents and discusses these challenges, including the physician-patient relationship, malpractice, confidentiality and privilege, duty to report, decision-making capacity and vicarious decision-making, the Emergency Medical Treatment and Labor Act, right to treatment, hospital admissions, involuntary commitment, forced medication administration, and child and elder abuse...
September 2017: Psychiatric Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800624/destabilizing-polymorphism-in-cervid-prion-protein-hydrophobic-core-determines-prion-conformation-and-conversion-efficiency
#5
Samia Hannaoui, Sara Amidian, Yo Ching Cheng, Camilo Duque Velásquez, Lyudmyla Dorosh, Sampson Law, Glenn Telling, Maria Stepanova, Debbie McKenzie, Holger Wille, Sabine Gilch
Prion diseases are infectious neurodegenerative disorders of humans and animals caused by misfolded forms of the cellular prion protein PrPC. Prions cause disease by converting PrPC into aggregation-prone PrPSc. Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is the most contagious prion disease with substantial lateral transmission, affecting free-ranging and farmed cervids. Although the PrP primary structure is highly conserved among cervids, the disease phenotype can be modulated by species-specific polymorphisms in the prion protein gene...
August 11, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789541/lattice-animals-in-diffusion-limited-binary-colloidal-system
#6
Zakiya Shireen, Sujin B Babu
In a soft matter system, controlling the structure of the amorphous materials has been a key challenge. In this work, we have modeled irreversible diffusion limited cluster aggregation of binary colloids, which serves as a model for chemical gels. Irreversible aggregation of binary colloidal particles leads to the formation of a percolating cluster of one species or both species which are also called bigels. Before the formation of the percolating cluster, the system forms a self-similar structure defined by a fractal dimension...
August 7, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782505/chronic-pesticide-exposure-and-consequential-keratectasia-corneal-neovascularisation
#7
Shalini Sanyal, Atrayo Law, Sujata Law
Ocular toxicity as a consequence of chronic pesticide exposure is one of the health hazards caused due to extended exposure to pesticides. The cornea, due to its position as the outer ocular layer and its role in protecting the internal layers of the eye; is gravely affected by this xenobiotic insult to the eye, leading to ocular irritation and damage to normal vision. The deleterious effects of chronic pesticide exposure on the various corneal layers and the ocular risks involved therein, were explored by mimicking the on-field scenario...
August 4, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774868/role-of-g-protein-coupled-receptors-microrna-interactions-in-gastrointestinal-pathophysiology
#8
Ivy Ka Man Law, David Miguel Padua, Dimitrios Ilopoulos, Charalabos Pothoulakis
G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) make up the largest transmembrane receptor superfamily in the human genome and are expressed in nearly all gastrointestinal (GI) cell types. Coupling of GPCRs and their respective ligands activates various phosphotransferase in the cytoplasm, and thus, activation of GPCR signaling in intestine regulates many cellular and physiological processes. Studies in microRNAs (miRNAs) demonstrate that they represent critical epigenetic regulators of different pathophysiologic responses in different organs and cell types in humans and animals...
August 3, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28756735/ethical-issues-in-the-use-of-animal-models-for-tissue-engineering-reflections-on-legal-aspects-moral-theory-3rs-strategies-and-harm-benefit-analysis
#9
Gabriel Romero Liguori, Bertus Filippus Jeronimus, Tácia Tavares de Aquinas Liguori, Luiz Felipe Pinho Moreira, Martin C Harmsen
Animal experimentation requires a solid and rational moral foundation. Objective and emphatic decision making and protocol evaluation by researchers and ethics committees remains a difficult and sensitive matter. The present paper presents three perspectives that facilitate a consideration of the minimally acceptable standard for animal experiments, in particular in Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine. Firstly, we review the boundaries provided by law and public opinion in America and Europe. Secondly, we review contemporary moral theory to introduce the Neo-Rawlsian contractarian theory to objectively evaluate the ethics of animal experiments...
July 29, 2017: Tissue Engineering. Part C, Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749058/conservationism-and-bioethic
#10
EDITORIAL
Gregory E Kaebnick
The lead article in this issue of the Hastings Center Report (July-August 2017) explores the ideas underpinning the Precision Medicine Initiative, the effort announced by President Obama in 2015 to promote the development of treatments adjusted to genetic and other variations. Authors Maya Sabatello and Paul Appelbaum hold that the effort works by appealing to a sense of collective identity and shared commitment-an understanding that they call the "PMI nation." But what are the moral implications of this idea? Sabatello and Appelbaum's question about the impact of an imagined community is an unusual way of exploring a set of values questions...
July 2017: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28745432/an-ectosteric-inhibitor-of-cathepsin-k-inhibits-bone-resorption-in-ovariectomized-mice
#11
Preety Panwar, Liming Xue, Kent Søe, Kamini Srivastava, Simon Law, Jean-Marie Delaisse, Dieter Brömme
The potent cathepsin K (CatK) inhibitor, Tanshinone IIA Sulfonic Sodium (T06), was tested for its in vitro and in vivo antiresorptive activities. T06 binds in an ectosteric site of CatK remote from its active site and selectively inhibits collagen degradation with an IC50 value of 2.7±0.2 μM (CatK:T06 molar ratio of 1:5). However, it does not suppress fluorogenic peptide cleavage and gelatinolysis at a 2,500-fold molar excess. Contrary to active site-directed CatK inhibitors, such as odanacatib, T06 suppresses bone resorption in both human and mouse osteoclasts equally well (IC50 value for human and mouse osteoclasts: 237±60 nM and 245±55 nM, respectively) and its antiresorptive activity is fully reversible in both cell types...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735340/alternative-approach-to-animal-testing-and-cell-cultures-according-to-european-laws
#12
Chiara Scanarotti, Costanza Rovida, Susanna Penco, Stefania Vernazza, Sara Tirendi, Rosagemma Ciliberti, Anna Maria Bassi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: ALTEX
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676297/inferring-synaptic-excitation-inhibition-balance-from-field-potentials
#13
Richard Gao, Erik J Peterson, Bradley Voytek
Neural circuits sit in a dynamic balance between excitation (E) and inhibition (I). Fluctuations in E:I balance have been shown to influence neural computation, working memory, and information flow, while more drastic shifts and aberrant E:I patterns are implicated in numerous neurological and psychiatric disorders. Current methods for measuring E:I dynamics require invasive procedures that are difficult to perform in behaving animals, and nearly impossible in humans. This has limited the ability to examine the full impact that E:I shifts have in cognition and disease...
July 1, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675250/effects-of-different-rest-stop-durations-at-control-posts-during-a-long-journey-on-the-welfare-of-sheep
#14
Stefano Messori, Cecilia Pedernera-Romano, Pedro Rodriguez, Shanis Barnard, Daniele Giansante, Diego Magnani, Antoni Dalmau, Antonio Velarde, Paolo Dalla Villa
All livestock transport within the European Union must comply with the EC Regulation 1÷2005. For sheep, this law prescribes a maximum journey of 29 hours after which animals must rest in control posts (CP) for 24 hours before further transportation. However, there is no scientific evidence de ning the effects of di erent stop duration on sheep recovery during long journeys. The aim of this study was to assess if a shorter stop could be provided without impairing ewes' welfare. Ninety-six adult ewes were divided into 4 homogenous groups...
June 30, 2017: Veterinaria Italiana
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669255/a-simple-and-inexpensive-way-to-document-simple-husbandry-in-animal-care-facilities-using-qr-code-scanning
#15
Tyler Green, Terry Smith, Richard Hodges, W Mark Fry
Record keeping within research animal care facilities is a key part of the guidelines set forth by national regulatory bodies and mandated by federal laws. Research facilities must maintain records of animal health issues, procedures and usage. Facilities are also required to maintain records regarding regular husbandry such as general animal checks, feeding and watering. The level of record keeping has the potential to generate excessive amounts of paper which must be retained in a fashion as to be accessible...
January 1, 2017: Laboratory Animals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649473/focus-expansion-and-stability-of-the-spread-parameter-estimate-of-the-power-law-model-for-dispersal-gradients
#16
Peter S Ojiambo, David H Gent, Lucky K Mehra, David Christie, Roger Magarey
Empirical and mechanistic modeling indicate that pathogens transmitted via aerially dispersed inoculum follow a power law, resulting in dispersive epidemic waves. The spread parameter (b) of the power law model, which is an indicator of the distance of the epidemic wave front from an initial focus per unit time, has been found to be approximately 2 for several animal and plant diseases over a wide range of spatial scales under conditions favorable for disease spread. Although disease spread and epidemic expansion can be influenced by several factors, the stability of the parameter b over multiple epidemic years has not been determined...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631623/morphological-self-stabilization-of-locomotion-gaits-illustration-on-a-few-examples-from-bio-inspired-locomotion
#17
Christine Chevallereau, Frédéric Boyer, Mathieu Porez, Johan Mauny, Yannick Aoustin
To a large extent, robotics locomotion can be viewed as cyclic motions, named gaits. Due to the high complexity of the locomotion dynamics, to find the control laws that ensure an expected gait and its stability with respect to external perturbations, is a challenging issue for feedback control. To address this issue, a promising way is to take inspiration from animals that intensively exploit the interactions of the passive degrees of freedom of their body with their physical surroundings, to outsource the high-level exteroceptive feedback control to low-level proprioceptive ones...
June 20, 2017: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626749/a-century-spent-combating-rabies-in-morocco-1911-2015-how-much-longer
#18
Sami Darkaoui, Florence Cliquet, Marine Wasniewski, Emmanuelle Robardet, Nadia Aboulfidaa, Mohammed Bouslikhane, Ouafaa Fassi-Fihri
Rabies has no known beginning in Morocco and to date, government control efforts and plans fail to eradicate the disease. A review and analysis of available epidemiological data are crucial to learn lessons from the past and to propose effective actions. Legally, animal rabies is a notifiable disease since 1913 and legislation has been updated periodically since. Dogs have always been considered as both the disease's vector and reservoir, while cattle, other herbivores, and humans are victims. Animal rabies cases evolution from 1942 to 2015 is characterized by ascending phase then decreasing one following structured rabies control plan implementation in 1980s...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28615133/platelet-rich-plasma-with-keratinocytes-and-fibroblasts-enhance-healing-of-full-thickness-wounds
#19
Jia Xian Law, Shiplu Roy Chowdhury, Aminuddin Bin Saim, Ruszymah Bt Hj Idrus
Advances in tissue engineering led to the development of various tissue-engineered skin substitutes (TESS) for the treatment of skin injuries. The majority of the autologous TESS required lengthy and costly cell expansion process to fabricate. In this study, we determine the possibility of using a low density of human skin cells suspended in platelet-rich plasma (PRP)-enriched medium to promote the healing of full-thickness skin wounds. To achieve this, full-thickness wounds of size 1.767 cm(2) were created at the dorsum part of nude mice and treated with keratinocytes (2 × 10(4) cells/cm(2)) and fibroblasts (3 × 10(4) cells/cm(2)) suspended in 10% PRP-enriched medium...
June 7, 2017: Journal of Tissue Viability
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571799/human-body-may-produce-bacteria
#20
Alen J Salerian
"Human body may produce bacteria" proposes that human body may produce bacteria and represent an independent source of infections contrary to the current paradigm of infectious disorders proposed by Louis Pasteur in 1880. The following observations are consistent with this hypothesis: A. Bidirectional transformations of both living and nonliving things have been commonly observed in nature. B. Complex multicellular organisms harbor the necessary properties to produce bacteria (water, nitrogen and oxygen). C...
June 2017: Medical Hypotheses
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