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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081063/state-laws-requiring-hand-sanitation-stations-at-animal-contact-exhibits-united-states-march-april-2016
#1
Aila Hoss, Colin Basler, Lauren Stevenson, Kelly Gambino-Shirley, Misha Park Robyn, Megin Nichols
In the United States, animal contact exhibits, such as petting zoos and agricultural fairs, have been sources of zoonotic infections, including infections with Escherichia coli, Salmonella, and Cryptosporidium (1-4). The National Association of State Public Health Veterinarians recommends handwashing after contact with animals as an effective prevention measure to disease transmission at these exhibits (4). This report provides a list of states that have used law, specifically statutes and regulations, as public health interventions to increase hand sanitation at animal contact exhibits...
January 13, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077761/on-the-autorotation-of-animal-wings
#2
Victor Manuel Ortega-Jimenez, Antonio Martín-Alcántara, Ramon Fernandez-Feria, Robert Dudley
Botanical samaras spin about their centre of mass and create vertical aerodynamic forces which slow their rate of descent. Descending autorotation of animal wings, however, has never been documented. We report here that isolated wings from Anna's hummingbirds, and also from 10 species of insects, can stably autorotate and achieve descent speeds and aerodynamic performance comparable to those of samaras. A hummingbird wing loaded at its base with the equivalent of 50% of the bird's body mass descended only twice as fast as an unloaded wing, and rotated at frequencies similar to those of the wings in flapping flight...
January 2017: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28053075/refinement-reduction-and-replacement-of-animal-toxicity-tests-by-computational-methods
#3
Kevin A Ford
Widespread public and scientific interest in promoting the care and well-being of animals used for toxicity testing has given rise to improvements in animal welfare practices and views over time, as well as laws and regulations that support means to reduce, refine, and replace animal use (known as the 3Rs) in certain toxicity studies. One way these regulations continue to achieve their aim is by promoting the research, development, and application of alternative testing approaches to characterize potential toxicities either without animals or with minimal use...
December 2016: ILAR Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046891/we-fg-206-12-enhanced-laws-textures-a-potential-mri-surrogate-marker-of-hepatic-fibrosis-in-a-murine-model
#4
B Li, H Yu, H Jara, J Soto, S Anderson
PURPOSE: To compare enhanced Laws texture derived from parametric proton density (PD) maps to other MRI-based surrogate markers (T2, PD, ADC) in assessing degrees of liver fibrosis in a murine model of hepatic fibrosis using 11.7T scanner. METHODS: This animal study was IACUC approved. Fourteen mice were divided into control (n=1) and experimental (n=13). The latter were fed a DDC-supplemented diet to induce hepatic fibrosis. Liver specimens were imaged using an 11...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029405/distributed-learning-developing-a-predictive-model-based-on-data-from-multiple-hospitals-without-data-leaving-the-hospital-a-real-life-proof-of-concept
#5
Arthur Jochems, Timo M Deist, Johan van Soest, Michael Eble, Paul Bulens, Philippe Coucke, Wim Dries, Philippe Lambin, Andre Dekker
PURPOSE: One of the major hurdles in enabling personalized medicine is obtaining sufficient patient data to feed into predictive models. Combining data originating from multiple hospitals is difficult because of ethical, legal, political, and administrative barriers associated with data sharing. In order to avoid these issues, a distributed learning approach can be used. Distributed learning is defined as learning from data without the data leaving the hospital. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Clinical data from 287 lung cancer patients, treated with curative intent with chemoradiation (CRT) or radiotherapy (RT) alone were collected from and stored in 5 different medical institutes (123 patients at MAASTRO (Netherlands, Dutch), 24 at Jessa (Belgium, Dutch), 34 at Liege (Belgium, Dutch and French), 48 at Aachen (Germany, German) and 58 at Eindhoven (Netherlands, Dutch))...
October 28, 2016: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995964/an-unbiased-analysis-of-candidate-mechanisms-for-the-regulation-of-drosophila-wing-disc-growth
#6
Jannik Vollmer, Dagmar Iber
The control of organ size presents a fundamental open problem in biology. A declining growth rate is observed in all studied higher animals, and the growth limiting mechanism may therefore be evolutionary conserved. Most studies of organ growth control have been carried out in Drosophila imaginal discs. We have previously shown that the area growth rate in the Drosophila eye primordium declines inversely proportional to the increase in its area, which is consistent with a dilution mechanism for growth control...
December 20, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27942753/cyanophycinase-cphe-from-p-alcaligenes-produced-in-different-compartments-of-n-benthamiana-degrades-high-amounts-of-cyanophycin-in-plant-extracts
#7
Henrik Nausch, Inge Broer
One of the major constraints in pig and poultry farming is the supply of protein-rich forage, containing sufficient amounts of key amino acids such as arginine (Ufaz and Galili 2008). Since these are underrepresented in plant proteins, the usage of plants as feed is limited. The heterologous production of the cyanobacterial storage polymer cyanophycin granule polypeptide (CGP) in plastids increases the amount of arginine substantially (Huhns et al. 2008; Huhns et al. 2009; Nausch et al. 2016a). CGP degradation releases arginine-aspartate dipeptides...
December 9, 2016: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27938416/active-animal-health-surveillance-in-european-union-member-states-gaps-and-opportunities
#8
B Bisdorff, B Schauer, N Taylor, V Rodríguez-Prieto, A Comin, A Brouwer, F Dórea, J Drewe, L Hoinville, A Lindberg, M Martinez Avilés, B Martínez-López, M Peyre, J Pinto Ferreira, J Rushton, G VAN Schaik, K D C Stärk, C Staubach, M Vicente-Rubiano, G Witteveen, D Pfeiffer, B Häsler
Animal health surveillance enables the detection and control of animal diseases including zoonoses. Under the EU-FP7 project RISKSUR, a survey was conducted in 11 EU Member States and Switzerland to describe active surveillance components in 2011 managed by the public or private sector and identify gaps and opportunities. Information was collected about hazard, target population, geographical focus, legal obligation, management, surveillance design, risk-based sampling, and multi-hazard surveillance. Two countries were excluded due to incompleteness of data...
December 12, 2016: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936094/lutein-attenuates-both-apoptosis-and-autophagy-upon-cobalt-ii-chloride-induced-hypoxia-in-rat-m%C3%A5-ller-cells
#9
Frederic K C Fung, Betty Y K Law, Amy C Y Lo
Retinal ischemia/reperfusion injury is a common feature of various retinal diseases such as glaucoma and diabetic retinopathy. Lutein, a potent anti-oxidant, is used to improve visual function in patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Lutein attenuates apoptosis, oxidative stress and inflammation in animal models of acute retinal ischemia/hypoxia. Here, we further show that lutein improved Műller cell viability and enhanced cell survival upon hypoxia-induced cell death through regulation of intrinsic apoptotic pathway...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932708/charity-reveals-the-difficulties-of-enforcing-animal-welfare-law
#10
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 10, 2016: Veterinary Record
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859354/public-challenge-and-endorsement-of-sex-category-ambiguity-in-online-debate-the-sooner-people-stop-thinking-that-gender-is-a-matter-of-choice-the-better
#11
Helen Sweeting, Matthew William Maycock, Laura Walker, Kate Hunt
Despite academic feminist debate over several decades, the binary nature of sex as a (perhaps the) primary social classification is often taken for granted, as is the assumption that individuals can be unproblematically assigned a biological sex at birth. This article presents analysis of online debate on the BBC news website in November 2013, comprising 864 readers' responses to an article entitled 'Germany allows 'indeterminate' gender at birth'. It explores how discourse reflecting Western essentialist beliefs about people having one sex or 'the other' is maintained in debates conducted in this online public space...
November 16, 2016: Sociology of Health & Illness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856399/enhanced-laws-textures-a-potential-mri-surrogate-marker-of-hepatic-fibrosis-in-a-murine-model
#12
Baojun Li, Hernan Jara, Heishun Yu, Michael O'Brien, Jorge Soto, Stephan W Anderson
PURPOSE: To compare enhanced Laws textures derived from parametric proton density (PD) maps to other MRI surrogate markers (T2, PD, apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC)) in assessing degrees of liver fibrosis in an ex vivo murine model of hepatic fibrosis imaged using 11.7T MRI. METHODS: This animal study was IACUC approved. Fourteen male, C57BL/6 mice were divided into control and experimental groups. The latter were fed a 3,5-dicarbethoxy-1,4-dihydrocollidine (DDC) supplemented diet to induce hepatic fibrosis...
November 14, 2016: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854052/laws-of-organization-and-chemical-analysis-blainville-and-m%C3%A3-ller
#13
François Duchesneau
When "general physiology" emerged as a basic field of research within biology in the early nineteenth century, Henri Ducrotay de Blainville (1777-1850) on the one hand and Johannes Peter Müller (1801-1858) on the other appealed to chemical analysis to account for the properties and operations of organisms that were observed to differ from what was found in inorganic compounds. Their aim was to establish laws of vital organization that would be based on organic chemical processes, but would also be of use to explain morphological and functional differences among life forms...
December 2016: History and Philosophy of the Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837058/action-plan-for-improving-enforcement-of-animal-welfare-law-in-northern-ireland
#14
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 12, 2016: Veterinary Record
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822501/inhibition-of-ikk%C3%AE-reduces-ethanol-consumption-in-c57bl-6j-mice
#15
Jay M Truitt, Yuri A Blednov, Jillian M Benavidez, Mendy Black, Olga Ponomareva, Jade Law, Morgan Merriman, Sami Horani, Kelly Jameson, Amy W Lasek, R Adron Harris, R Dayne Mayfield
Proinflammatory pathways in neuronal and non-neuronal cells are implicated in the acute and chronic effects of alcohol exposure in animal models and humans. The nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) family of DNA transcription factors plays important roles in inflammatory diseases. The kinase IKKβ mediates the phosphorylation and subsequent proteasomal degradation of cytosolic protein inhibitors of NF-κB, leading to activation of NF-κB. The role of IKKβ as a potential regulator of excessive alcohol drinking had not previously been investigated...
September 2016: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27805823/it-takes-a-village-stakeholder-participation-is-essential-to-transforming-science
#16
REVIEW
Kristie Sullivan
Efforts toward replacing the use of animals in toxicology testing have begun to make significant headway in the last several years, due to co-operative and pragmatic efforts on the part of many stakeholders, and the public pressure that non-governmental advocacy organisations represent. Science-focused advocacy organisations have a unique role to play in these efforts, as they often have flexibility to adapt quickly to keep a project going and forge connections among different kinds of stakeholders to help encourage buy-in...
October 2016: Alternatives to Laboratory Animals: ATLA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795422/native-folding-of-a-recombinant-gpe1-gpe2-heterodimer-vaccine-antigen-from-a-precursor-protein-fused-with-fc-igg
#17
Michael Logan, John Law, Jason Alexander Ji-Xhin Wong, Darren Hockman, Amir Landi, Chao Chen, Kevin Crawford, Juthika Kundu, Lesley Baldwin, Janelle Johnson, Anita Dahiya, Gerald LaChance, Joseph Marcotrigiano, Mansun Law, Steven Foung, Lorne Tyrrell, Michael Houghton
: A recombinant strain HCV1 (hepatitis C virus [HCV] genotype 1a) gpE1/gpE2 (E1E2) vaccine candidate was previously shown by our group to protect chimpanzees and generate broad cross-neutralizing antibodies in animals and humans. In addition, recent independent studies have highlighted the importance of conserved neutralizing epitopes in HCV vaccine development that map to antigenic clusters in E2 or the E1E2 heterodimer. E1E2 can be purified using Galanthis nivalis lectin agarose (GNA), but this technique is suboptimal for global production...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27779423/changing-attitudes-and-animal-welfare-in-small-island-developing-states-dogs-on-new-providence-the-bahamas
#18
William J Fielding
This article compares results from a study in 2014 with a similar study from 1998 (Fielding, 1999 ) to examine changes in the care of dogs in New Providence, The Bahamas. The results from a survey of 379 residents indicated a general lack of improvement in matters associated with the care of dogs during the past 16 years. For example, in 1998, it was estimated that 35% of caregivers had at least 1 dog sterilized, and in 2014, the corresponding figure was 37%. In 1998, 14% of households with dogs allowed their dogs to roam compared with 41...
January 2017: Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science: JAAWS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27767390/exceptionalist-naturalism-human-agency-and-the-causal-order
#19
John Turri
This paper addresses a fundamental question in folk metaphysics: how do we ordinarily view human agency? According to the transcendence account, we view human agency as standing outside of the causal order and imbued with exceptional powers. According to a naturalistic account, we view human agency as subject to the same physical laws as other objects and completely open to scientific investigation. According to exceptionalist naturalism, the truth lies somewhere in between: we view human agency as fitting broadly within the causal order while still being exceptional in important respects...
October 21, 2016: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27761352/exclusions-for-resolving-urban-badger-damage-problems-outcomes-and-consequences
#20
Alastair I Ward, Jason K Finney, Sarah E Beatham, Richard J Delahay, Peter A Robertson, David P Cowan
Increasing urbanisation and growth of many wild animal populations can result in a greater frequency of human-wildlife conflicts. However, traditional lethal methods of wildlife control are becoming less favoured than non-lethal approaches, particularly when problems involve charismatic species in urban areas. Eurasian badgers (Meles meles) excavate subterranean burrow systems (setts), which can become large and complex. Larger setts within which breeding takes place and that are in constant use are known as main setts...
2016: PeerJ
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