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Animal law

Bret R Tallent, L Matthew Law, Rachel K Rowe, Jonathan Lifshitz
Aggression in mice often results in injury leading to unplanned euthanasia or the initiation of protocols to isolate animals, thereby increasing research costs and straining resources. Here, we tested if adding a partial cage divider into existing mouse cages affected aggressive-like behavior in group-housed male mice (18 mice; 3 per cage). Mice were randomly assigned to one of two groups upon arrival to the vivarium: (1) standard cage; (2) cage with a partial cage divider. Behavioral observation over 12 hours were conducted at day one, two, and seven after receipt at the facility in order to assess aggression during the course of establishing dominance hierarchies...
January 1, 2018: Laboratory Animals
K L Cooke, P Frenzer, S J Tucker, P C Crawford, S K Kirk, J K Levy
BACKGROUND: Dogs seized by law enforcement agencies during dogfighting investigations are at increased risk of Babesia gibsoni infection. A rapid and cost-effective diagnostic test would increase the feasibility of mass screening of dogs for infection and monitoring treatment efficacy in B. gibsoni-infected dogs. OBJECTIVE: To determine the performance of a point-of-need insulated isothermal PCR (iiPCR) test for diagnosis of B. gibsoni in dogs rescued in dogfighting investigations...
January 2018: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
Surya Amarachintha, Eleana Harmel-Laws, Kris A Steinbrecher
The guanylate cyclase C (GC-C) receptor regulates electrolyte and water secretion into the gut following activation by the E. coli enterotoxin STa, or by weaker endogenous agonists guanylin and uroguanylin. Our previous work has demonstrated that GC-C plays an important role in controlling initial infection as well as carrying load of non-invasive bacterial pathogens in the gut. Here, we use Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium to determine whether GC-C signaling is important in host defense against pathogens that actively invade enterocytes...
January 24, 2018: Scientific Reports
Chris S Pridgeon, Constanze Schlott, Min Wei Wong, Minne B Heringa, Tobias Heckel, Joe Leedale, Laurence Launay, Vitalina Gryshkova, Stefan Przyborski, Rachel N Bearon, Emma L Wilkinson, Tahera Ansari, John Greenman, Delilah F G Hendriks, Sue Gibbs, James Sidaway, Rowena L Sison-Young, Paul Walker, Mike J Cross, B Kevin Park, Chris E P Goldring
The development of improved, innovative models for the detection of toxicity of drugs, chemicals, or chemicals in cosmetics is crucial to efficiently bring new products safely to market in a cost-effective and timely manner. In addition, improvement in models to detect toxicity may reduce the incidence of unexpected post-marketing toxicity and reduce or eliminate the need for animal testing. The safety of novel products of the pharmaceutical, chemical, or cosmetics industry must be assured; therefore, toxicological properties need to be assessed...
January 23, 2018: Archives of Toxicology
Fernando J Ballesteros, Vicent J Martinez, Bartolo Luque, Lucas Lacasa, Enric Valor, Andrés Moya
The origin and shape of metabolic scaling has been controversial since Kleiber found that basal metabolic rate of animals seemed to vary as a power law of their body mass with exponent 3/4, instead of 2/3, as a surface-to-volume argument predicts. The universality of exponent 3/4 -claimed in terms of the fractal properties of the nutrient network- has recently been challenged according to empirical evidence that observed a wealth of robust exponents deviating from 3/4. Here we present a conceptually simple thermodynamic framework, where the dependence of metabolic rate with body mass emerges from a trade-off between the energy dissipated as heat and the energy efficiently used by the organism to maintain its metabolism...
January 23, 2018: Scientific Reports
Lai Nar Tung, Senchuan Song, Kin Tak Chan, Mei Yuk Choi, Ho Yu Lam, Chung Man Chan, Zhiyong Chen, Hector K Wang, Hoi Ting Leung, Simon Law, Yanmin Huang, Huacan Song, Nikki P Lee
Purpose: Tumor xenograft model is an indispensable animal cancer model. In esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) research, orthotopic tumor xenograft model establishes tumor xenograft in the animal esophagus, which allows the study of tumorigenesis in its native microenvironment. Materials and Methods: In this study, we described two simple and reproducible methods to develop tumor xenograft at the cervical or the abdominal esophagus in nude mice by direct injection of ESCC cells in the esophageal wall...
January 24, 2018: Cancer Research and Treatment: Official Journal of Korean Cancer Association
Helen A Harris-Fry, Puskar Paudel, Niva Shrestha, Tom Harrisson, B James Beard, Sonali Jha, Bhim P Shrestha, Dharma S Manandhar, Anthony M D L Costello, Mario Cortina-Borja, Naomi M Saville
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Understanding of the patterns and predictors of intra-household food allocation could enable nutrition programmes to better target nutritionally vulnerable individuals. This study aims to characterise the status and determinants of intra-household food and nutrient allocation in Nepal. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Pregnant women, their mothers-in-law and male household heads from Dhanusha and Mahottari districts in Nepal responded to 24-h dietary recalls, thrice repeated on non-consecutive days (n = 150 households; 1278 individual recalls)...
January 22, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Mark Bitsch Vestergaard, Otto Mølby Henriksen, Ulrich Lindberg, Niels Jacob Aachmann-Andersen, Kristian Lisbjerg, Søren Just Christensen, Niels Vidiendal Olsen, Ian Law, Henrik Bo Wiberg Larsson, Peter Rasmussen
Erythropoietin (EPO) is expressed in human brain tissue but the exact role is unknown. EPO may improve the efficiency of the oxidative metabolism and have neuroprotective properties against hypoxic injuries in animal models. We aimed to investigate the effect of recombinant human EPO (rHuEPO) administration on healthy cerebral metabolism in humans during normoxia and during metabolic stress by inhalation of 10% O2 hypoxic air. Twenty-four healthy males participated in a two-arm double-blind placebo-controlled trial...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
Hua-Hui Hu, Xiao-Long Huang, Ren-Fu Quan, Zong-Bao Yang, Jing-Jing Xu
OBJECTIVE: To establish the rat model of acute spinal cord injury, followed by aprimary study on this model with ¹H NMR based on metabonomics and to explore the metabonomics and biomarkers of spinal cord injury rat. METHODS: Twenty eight-week-old adult male SD rats of clean grade, with body weight of (200±10) g, were divided into sham operation group and model group in accordance with the law of random numbers, and every group had 10 rats. The rats of sham operation group were operated without damaging the spinal cord, and rats of model group were made an animal model of spinal cord incomplete injury according to the modified Allen's method...
February 25, 2017: Zhongguo Gu Shang, China Journal of Orthopaedics and Traumatology
Khalid Al-Saadon, Ghassan S Kassab, Gerard Finet, Rodrigo Bagur
AIMS: To address the limitations of the two-balloon system for kissing balloon inflation (KBI) for the treatment of coronary bifurcation lesions (CBL), we report a novel coronary dedicated bifurcated balloon (DBB) catheter system. METHODS AND RESULTS: The device has been developed to follow the bifurcation geometry according to scaling laws of coronary anatomy. In an in vivo study, the DBB catheter was compared to the KBI technique in post-stent deployment of a bifurcation of a normal swine...
January 16, 2018: EuroIntervention
Adrianna Nimer, Nashelly Meneses, Zachary D Watson, Stephen M Shuster, Russell Benford
The island of Saipan, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, is populated by free-roaming dogs who were introduced during World War II. The local nonhuman animal control agency manages this population; however, the demographic information and public perception of this population remain unknown. To characterize the free-roaming dog population, an island-wide survey on Saipan was conducted. Photographic, mark-recapture data were used to estimate the population size per land type. Age, sex, sociality, and behavior per land type were documented and associations between these variables were tested using G tests...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science: JAAWS
Andreas A Linninger, Colin Xu, Kevin Tangen, Grant Hartung
AIM: To quantify the exchange of water between cerebral compartments, specifically blood, tissue, perivascular pathways, and cerebrospinal fluid-filled spaces, on the basis of experimental data and to propose a dynamic global model of water flux through the entire brain to elucidate functionally relevant fluid exchange phenomena. METHODS: The mechanistic computer model to predict brain water shifts is discretized by cerebral compartments into nodes. Water and species flux is calculated between these nodes across a network of arcs driven by Hagen-Poiseuille flow (blood), Darcy flow (interstitial fluid transport), and Starling's Law (transmembrane fluid exchange)...
December 31, 2017: Croatian Medical Journal
Rebecca K Yau, Mallie J Paschall
BACKGROUND: From 2005 to 2014, the asphyxiation suicide rate in the United States (U.S.) increased by 45.7% from 2.45 to 3.57 per 100,000 population. The primary purpose of this cross-sectional study was to describe decedent and incident characteristics of asphyxiation suicides in the U.S. from 2005 to 2014. The secondary purpose of this study was to explore whether any demographic characteristics of asphyxia suicide decedents were associated with type of suicide incident. METHODS: Data from the National Violent Death Reporting System (NVDRS) were used to describe asphyxiation suicide mechanisms and means in 16 states...
January 8, 2018: Injury Epidemiology
Alex James, Jeanette C McLeod, Carlos Rouco, Kyle S Richardson, Daniel M Tompkins
While heterogeneity in social behaviour has been described in many human contexts it is often assumed to be less common in the animal kingdom even though scale-free networks are observed. This homogeneity raises the question of whether the patterns of behaviour necessary to account for scale-free social contact networks, where the degree distribution follows a power law, i.e. a few individuals are very highly connected but most have only a few connections, occur in animals, or whether other mechanisms are needed to produce realistic contact network architectures...
December 2017: Royal Society Open Science
Monyque Palagano da Rocha, Priscila Leocadia Rosa Dourado, Claudia Andrea Lima Cardoso, Liliam Silva Cândido, Joelson Gonçalves Pereira, Kelly Mari Pires de Oliveira, Alexeia Barufatti Grisolia
Anthropic activities are directly related to the contamination of aquatic ecosystems owing to the release of numerous chemicals from agricultural and urban waste. These contaminants cause environmental degradation and a decrease in the availability of water quality. The objective of this search was to evaluate the efficiency of physicochemical, chemical, and microbiological tests; extraction of chlorophyll a; and genetic parameters to identify anthropic activities and weather condition effects on the stream water quality and the consequences of its use by the population...
January 5, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Bernard D Goldstein
Sutton's Law urges the medical practitioner to utilize the test that goes directly to the problem. When applied to exposure science, Sutton's Law would argue that the major emphasis should be on techniques that directly measure exposure in or close to the human, animal or ecosystem receptors of concern. Exposure science largely and appropriately violates Sutton's Law by estimating exposure based on information on emissions or measurements obtained at a distance from the receptors of concern. I suggest four criteria to help determine whether Sutton's law should be violated for an innovative technology, and explore these criteria in relation to potential human exposure resulting from unconventional gas drilling (UGD): (1) The technological processes possibly leading to release of the chemical or physical agents of concern are reasonably understood; (2) the agents of concern are known; (3) the source and geographical location of the releases can be reasonably identified; and (4) there is information about the likely temporal pattern of the releases and resulting pollutant levels in relation to the temporal patterns of receptor susceptibility...
January 4, 2018: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
I Bloch
The development of animal ethics and animal rights from the antiquity up to modern times is described. The relationship of humans to animals was primarily based on fear and animal cult, developed by the domestication to a partnership. The philosophers of the early modern age denied the animals the reason, what was disadvantageous to the position of the animals in the society and the behavior of humans to the animals. By the end of the 19th century the animal protection concept developed with numerous postulates for legal regulations...
January 2018: Schweizer Archiv Für Tierheilkunde
S Häsler
A group of leading veterinary experts engaged by the league of the Nations created three new Veterinary Conventions focusing at consequently controlling the import, export and transit of animals and animal products. The aim was on one hand to facilitate trade and on the other hand to make sure that livestock epidemic laws were respected. The outbreak of war prevented the laws from coming into effect. Nevertheless they became the basis for veterinary regulations of the World Trade Organisation and of the European Union...
January 2018: Schweizer Archiv Für Tierheilkunde
Esteban Mora-Chavarría, Rodolfo Umaña-Castro, Noha Abou-Madi, Stefany Solano-González, Mónica Retamosa-Izaguirre, Mauricio Jiménez-Soto, Kinndle Blanco-Peña
With stricter laws regulating the capture and possession of wild animals in Costa Rica, local wildlife-rescue centers have been overwhelmed by an influx of confiscated or relinquished illegal pets, specifically of psittacine species. As part of a nationwide health-assessment program targeting these centers, 122 birds representing five psittacine species ( Ara macao, Amazona autumnalis, Amazona auropalliata, Amazona farinosa, Aratinga finschi) and one hybrid macaw ( Ara macao × Ara ambiguus) were examined and tested between January 2011 and October 2012...
December 2017: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
S Helene Richter
The scientific literature is full of articles discussing poor reproducibility of findings from animal experiments as well as failures to translate results from preclinical animal studies to clinical trials in humans. Critics even go so far as to talk about a "reproducibility crisis" in the life sciences, a novel headword that increasingly finds its way into numerous high-impact journals. Viewed from a cynical perspective, Fett's law of the lab "Never replicate a successful experiment" has thus taken on a completely new meaning...
August 31, 2017: Lab Animal
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