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Animal law

Alejandro Estrada, Paul A Garber, Russell A Mittermeier, Serge Wich, Sidney Gouveia, Ricardo Dobrovolski, K A I Nekaris, Vincent Nijman, Anthony B Rylands, Fiona Maisels, Elizabeth A Williamson, Julio Bicca-Marques, Agustin Fuentes, Leandro Jerusalinsky, Steig Johnson, Fabiano Rodrigues de Melo, Leonardo Oliveira, Christoph Schwitzer, Christian Roos, Susan M Cheyne, Maria Cecilia Martins Kierulff, Brigitte Raharivololona, Mauricio Talebi, Jonah Ratsimbazafy, Jatna Supriatna, Ramesh Boonratana, Made Wedana, Arif Setiawan
Primates occur in 90 countries, but four-Brazil, Madagascar, Indonesia, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC)-harbor 65% of the world's primate species (439) and 60% of these primates are Threatened, Endangered, or Critically Endangered (IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2017-3). Considering their importance for global primate conservation, we examine the anthropogenic pressures each country is facing that place their primate populations at risk. Habitat loss and fragmentation are main threats to primates in Brazil, Madagascar, and Indonesia...
2018: PeerJ
D P Jacobsen, A Moen, F Haugen, J Gjerstad
Aims Lumbar radicular pain following intervertebral disc herniation may be caused by a local inflammatory response induced by nucleus pulposus (NP) cells. Here in an animal model mimicking the clinical situation following disc herniation we investigated the effect of NP on the spinal nociceptive signaling and local gene expression. Methods In anaesthetized Lewis rats, extracellular single unit recordings of spinal nociceptive activity and qPCR were used to explore the effect of NP application onto the dorsal nerve roots (L3-L5)...
December 29, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
Wayne Lees
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2018: Canadian Veterinary Journal. la Revue Vétérinaire Canadienne
Maren Mylius, Johannes Dreesman, Matthias Pulz, Gerhard Pallasch, Konrad Beyrer, Katja Claußen, Franz Allerberger, Angelika Fruth, Christina Lang, Rita Prager, Antje Flieger, Sabine Schlager, Daniela Kalhöfer, Elke Mertens
Following a school ski-trip to Austria from 10 to 18/02/2017, nine of 25 participants of the group from Lower Saxony (Germany) developed gastroenteritis. The students and teachers (17-41 years) shared meals in a hotel. Active case finding revealed further cases among German school groups from North Rhine-Westphalia and Schleswig-Holstein, staying at the same hotel in February 2017. We conducted two retrospective cohort studies using self-administered questionnaires on clinical symptoms and food consumption...
May 29, 2018: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
Barbara Advena-Regnery, Hans-Georg Dederer, Franziska Enghofer, Tobias Cantz, Thomas Heinemann
Recent results from studies on animals suggest that functional germ cells may be generated from human pluripotent stem cells, giving rise to three possibilities: research with these so-called artificial gametes, including fertilization experiments in vitro; their use in vivo for therapy for the treatment of human infertility; and their use in assisted reproductive technologies in vitro. While the legal, philosophical, and ethical questions associated with these possibilities have been already discussed intensively in other countries, the debate in Germany is still at its beginning...
June 2018: Bioethics
Nutmethee Kruepunga, Theodorus B M Hakvoort, Jill P J M Hikspoors, S Eleonore Köhler, Wouter H Lamers
The size of the liver of terrestrial mammals obeys the allometric scaling law over a weight range of >3 ∗ 106 . Since scaling reflects adaptive changes in size or scale among otherwise similar animals, we can expect to observe more similarities than differences between rodent and human livers. Obvious differences, such as the presence (rodents) or absence (humans) of lobation and the presence (mice, humans) or absence (rats) of a gallbladder, suggest qualitative differences between the livers of these species...
May 26, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Tao Wu
The process of creating nonphotorealistic rendering images and animations can be enjoyable if a useful method is involved. We use an evolutionary algorithm to generate painterly styles of images. Given an input image as the reference target, a cloud model-based evolutionary algorithm that will rerender the target image with nonphotorealistic effects is evolved. The resulting animations have an interesting characteristic in which the target slowly emerges from a set of strokes. A number of experiments are performed, as well as visual comparisons, quantitative comparisons, and user studies...
2018: Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience
Cíntia Carol de Melo Costa, Alex Sandro Campos Maia, Tami M Brown-Brandl, Marcos Chiquitelli Neto, Vinicius de França Carvalho Fonsêca
The aim of this work was to evaluate the diurnal patterns of physiological responses and the thermal regulation of adult Nellore bulls. Six 30-mo-old Nellore bulls (669 ± 65 kg BW) were randomly assigned to four 6-h periods in a Latin Square design such that measurements of each animal cover a 24-h cycle. Meteorological variables (air temperature, relative humidity, local solar irradiance, ultraviolet radiation, wind speed and black globe temperature) were recorded at regular one-minute intervals with an automated weather station...
May 2018: Journal of Thermal Biology
Stephen L Thornton, Lisa Oller, Doyle M Coons
Introduction: This is the 2016 Annual Report of the University of Kansas Health System Poison Control Center (PCC). The PCC is one of 55 certified poison control centers in the United States and serves the state of Kansas 24-hours a day, 365 days a year, with certified specialists in poison information and medical toxicologists. The PCC receives calls from the public, law enforcement, health care professionals, and public health agencies. All calls to the PCC are recorded electronically in the Toxicall® data management system and uploaded in near real-time to the National Poison Data System (NPDS), which is the data repository for all poison control centers in the United States...
May 2018: Kansas Journal of Medicine
Vincent A Billock, Paul R Havig
When one sensory response occurs in the presence of a different sensory stimulation, the sensory response is often amplified. The variety of sensory enhancement data tends to obscure the underlying rules, but it has long been clear that weak signals are usually amplified more than strong ones (the Principle of Inverse Effectiveness). Here we show that for many kinds of sensory amplification, the underlying law is simple and elegant: the amplified response is a power law of the unamplified response, with a compressive exponent that amplifies weak signals more than strong...
May 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
Belinda M Brown, Stephanie R Rainey-Smith, Vincent Dore, Jeremiah J Peiffer, Samantha C Burnham, Simon M Laws, Kevin Taddei, David Ames, Colin L Masters, Christopher C Rowe, Ralph N Martins, Victor L Villemagne
Numerous animal studies have reported exercise reduces the accumulation of Alzheimer's disease pathology, including amyloid-β (Aβ) and tau. Furthermore, we previously reported a relationship between higher levels of physical activity (PA) and lower brain Aβ burden in a human population. The recent advent of tau positron emission tomography (PET) tracers enables us to extend our investigations into the evaluation of the relationship between PA and brain tau burden. Utilizing data from the Australian Imaging, Biomarkers and Lifestyle (AIBL) study, we have examined the cross-sectional relationship between habitual PA and PET-quantified tau burden...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Wayne Parrott
The advent of genome-edited products that are nearing commercialization in agriculture has highlighted that the USA biotechnology regulatory system has not kept pace with technological advances. Of the three agencies that regulate engineered crops and animals for agriculture, only one has indicated how it will regulate edited plants. The Food and Drug Administration can regulate any plant, but has not indicated if it will single out edited plants. The United States Department of Agriculture currently has no authority over edited plants when the edit is a deletion or does not contain any added DNA from a plant pest...
May 10, 2018: Physiologia Plantarum
Vanessa Zainzinger
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 11, 2018: Science
Marta Rychert, Chris Wilkins
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The short-lived regulated legal market for new psychoactive substances (NPS) in New Zealand marked a radical departure from the traditional prohibition-based approach. This paper aimed to enhance understanding of this policy change using Punctuated Equilibrium Theory (PET). METHODS: The analysis draws on three years of evaluative research, including interviews with key stakeholders, analysis of legislation and policy documents and academic and grey literature...
May 9, 2018: Addiction
Genzou Takemura, Hiromitsu Kanamori, Hideshi Okada, Nagisa Miyazaki, Takatomo Watanabe, Akiko Tsujimoto, Kazuko Goto, Rumi Maruyama, Takako Fujiwara, Hisayoshi Fujiwara
Anti-apoptotic therapy for cardiomyocytes could be an effective strategy for preventing or treating heart failure. Notably, however, morphological evidence definitively demonstrating cardiomyocyte apoptosis has been very rare in actual heart diseases such as acute myocardial infarction and heart failure. By contrast, within the postinfarction heart, interstitial noncardiomyocytes such as granulation tissue cells do die via apoptosis to form scar tissue. Blockade of this apoptosis improves survival and mitigates ventricular remodeling and dysfunction during the chronic stage...
May 8, 2018: Heart Failure Reviews
J Laws, D T Juniper, I J Lean, E Amusquivar, E Herrera, P F Dodds, L Clarke
The supplementing of sow diets with lipids during pregnancy and lactation has been shown to reduce sow condition loss and improve piglet performance. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of supplemental palm oil (PO) on sow performance, plasma metabolites and hormones, milk profiles and pre-weaning piglet development. A commercial sow ration (C) or an experimental diet supplemented with 10% extra energy in the form of PO, were provided from day 90 of gestation until weaning (24 to 28 days postpartum) in two groups of eight multiparous sows...
May 2, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
Joseph V Gulfo, Jason Briggeman, Asmaa Gamie
BACKGROUND: Divisions within the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) often convene meetings of advisory committees, also known as AdComm or Panel meetings. The purpose of many AdComm meetings is for the FDA to obtain outside advice and recommendations on whether to approve a new drug or medical device. Laws and regulations indicate that such Panels are to provide recommendations regarding the approvability of the drug or device by FDA. METHODS: We examine recent AdComm meetings, including a systematic review of drugs and biologics AdComms between 2011 and 2016, to find whether FDA is obtaining Panel recommendations on drug and device approvability in accordance with these laws and regulations...
January 1, 2018: Therapeutic Innovation & Regulatory Science
Loree K Kalliainen, Ian Wisecarver, Allison Cummings, Jennifer Stone
It has been long recognized that sex-based biases related to participant inclusion exist in research. To help address inequities in research participation, the National Institutes of Health Revitalization Act was passed into law in 1993. Although this act was primarily designed to increase inclusion of females and minorities in research funded by National Institutes of Health, it has also helped raise global awareness of the value of routinely including females and minority groups in research. Subsequent work has demonstrated a continued gap in inclusion of females in medical and surgical research and female animals and cell lines in basic science research...
April 24, 2018: Journal of Hand Surgery
Isabella Pali-Schöll, Regina Binder, Yves Moens, Friedrich Polesny, Susana Monsó
While seeking novel food sources to feed the increasing population of the globe, several alternatives have been discussed, including algae, fungi or in vitro meat. The increasingly propagated usage of farmed insects for human nutrition raises issues regarding food safety, consumer information and animal protection. In line with law, insects like any other animals must not be reared or manipulated in a way that inflicts unnecessary pain, distress or harm on them. Currently, there is a great need for research in the area of insect welfare, especially regarding species-specific needs, health, farming systems and humane methods of killing...
April 25, 2018: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
David R Lawrence, Margaret Brazier
Novel beings-intelligent, conscious life-forms sapient in the same way or greater than are human beings-are no longer the preserve of science fiction. Through technologies such as artificial general intelligence, synthetic genomics, gene printing, cognitive enhancement, advanced neuroscience, and more, they are becoming ever more likely and by some definitions may already be emerging. Consideration of the nature of intelligent, conscious novel beings such as those that may result from these technologies requires analysis of the concept of the 'reasonable creature in being' in English law, as well as of the right to life as founded in the European Convention on Human Rights and the attempts to endow human status on animals in recent years...
May 1, 2018: Medical Law Review
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