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Animal law

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672769/legally-human-novel-beings-and-english-law
#1
David R Lawrence, Margaret Brazier
Novel beings-intelligent, conscious life-forms sapient in the same way or greater than are human beings-are no longer the preserve of science fiction. Through technologies such as artificial general intelligence, synthetic genomics, gene printing, cognitive enhancement, advanced neuroscience, and more, they are becoming ever more likely and by some definitions may already be emerging. Consideration of the nature of intelligent, conscious novel beings such as those that may result from these technologies requires analysis of the concept of the 'reasonable creature in being' in English law, as well as of the right to life as founded in the European Convention on Human Rights and the attempts to endow human status on animals in recent years...
April 17, 2018: Medical Law Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659561/origins-of-scale-invariance-in-vocalization-sequences-and-speech
#2
Fatemeh Khatami, Markus Wöhr, Heather L Read, Monty A Escabí
To communicate effectively animals need to detect temporal vocalization cues that vary over several orders of magnitude in their amplitude and frequency content. This large range of temporal cues is evident in the power-law scale-invariant relationship between the power of temporal fluctuations in sounds and the sound modulation frequency (f). Though various forms of scale invariance have been described for natural sounds, the origins and implications of scale invariant phenomenon remain unknown. Using animal vocalization sequences, including continuous human speech, and a stochastic model of temporal amplitude fluctuations we demonstrate that temporal acoustic edges are the primary acoustic cue accounting for the scale invariant phenomenon...
April 16, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29655677/an-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-study-of-a-4-herb-formula-on-the-management-of-diet-induced-metabolic-syndrome
#3
Elaine Wat, Yanping Wang, Ken Chan, Hon Wai Law, Chi Man Koon, Kit Man Lau, Ping Chung Leung, Choly Yan, Clara Bik San Lau
BACKGROUND: Metabolic syndrome is the cluster of risk factors that leads to increased episodes of cardiovascular disease (CVD). These risk factors include but are not limited to obesity, non-alcoholic fatty liver (NAFLD), dyslipidemia, and type 2 diabetes. Since the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome has multiple metabolic origins, there is no single treatment for it. Pharmacological approaches consist of separate drugs which target at individual risk factors which pose various side effects...
March 15, 2018: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29601478/did-harvey-learn-from-katrina-initial-observations-of-the-response-to-companion-animals-during-hurricane-harvey
#4
Steve Glassey
The aftermath of Hurricane Katrina in 2005 became the genesis of animal emergency management and created significant reforms in the US particularly the passage of the Pets Emergency and Transportation Standards Act in 2006 that required state and local emergency management arrangements to be pet- and service animal-inclusive. More than a decade later Hurricane Harvey struck the Gulf states with all 68 directly related deaths occurring in the state of Texas. In this study, six key officials involved in the response underwent a semi-structured interview to investigate the impact of the PETS Act on preparedness and response...
March 30, 2018: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29595249/criticality-in-the-brain-evidence-and-implications-for-neuromorphic-computing
#5
J Trastoy, Ivan K Schuller
We have discovered an unexpected correlation between the operational temperature of the brain and cognitive abilities across a wide variety of animal species. This correlation is extracted from available data in the literature of the temperature range Δ T at which an animal's brain can operate and its encephalization quotient EQ, which can be used as a proxy for cognitive ability. In particular, we found a power-law dependence between Δ T and EQ. These data support the theory that the brain behaves as a critical system where temperature is one of the critical parameters, tuning the performance of the neural network...
March 30, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29595092/comparative-safety-evaluation-of-riot-control-agents-of-synthetic-and-natural-origin
#6
Ravindra M Satpute, Pramod K Kushwaha, D P Nagar, P V L Rao
Riot control agents (RCA) are lachrymatory, irritating compounds which temporarily incapacitate the uncontainable crowd. Ortho-Chlorobenzylidene-malononitrile (CS), 2-chloroacetophenone (CN), dibenz[b,f]1:4-oxazepine (CR), and nonivamide (PAVA) are synthetic RCAs, while oleoresin extract of chili known as oleoresin capsicum (OC) a natural irritant has been in use by various law enforcement agencies. Though efficacy of these agents is beyond doubt, they suffer from certain drawbacks including toxicity, production cost, and ecological compatibility...
February 2018: Inhalation Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29570657/operationalizing-principle-based-standards-for-animal-welfare-indicators-for-climate-problems-in-pig-houses
#7
Herman M Vermeer, Hans Hopster
The Dutch animal welfare law includes so-called principle-based standards. This means that the objective is described in abstract terms, enabling farmers to comply with the law in their own way. Principle-based standards are, however, difficult for the inspection agency to enforce because strict limits are missing. This pilot project aimed at developing indicators (measurements) to assess the climate in pig houses, thus enabling the enforcement of principle-based standards. In total, 64 farms with weaners and 32 farms with growing-finishing pigs were visited...
March 23, 2018: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29567225/analysis-of-veterinary-drug-residue-monitoring-results-for-commercial-livestock-products-in-taiwan-between-2011-and-2015
#8
Hsin-Chun Lee, Chi-Min Chen, Jen-Ting Wei, Hsiu-Yi Chiu
Antibiotics have been widely used in the treatment of livestock diseases. However, the emergence of issues related to drug resistance prompted governments to enact a series of laws regulating the use of antibiotics in livestock. Following control of the problem of drug resistant bacteria, public attention has shifted to the recurring incidence of human health and safety issues caused by residual veterinary drugs in livestock products. To guarantee the safety and hygiene of meat, milk, and eggs from food-producing animals, governments and relevant agencies established laws and regulations for the use of veterinary drugs...
April 2018: Journal of Food and Drug Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29564228/official-controls-according-to-integrated-regional-plan-in-campania-region-2011-2014
#9
Diletta Mandato, Germana Colarusso, Roberta Pellicanò, Loredana Baldi, Achille Guarino, Paolo Sarnelli
Due to EU law, European citizens enjoy one of the highest worldwide food safety standards. Along the entire food supply chain, mandatory controls are made to ensure that plant and animal products healthiness and food and feed safety are properly labeled and comply with the strictly EU rules. The process of review of European legislation began with the promulgation of the Regulation 178/2002/EC (Official Journal of the EC no. L31 of 01/02/2002) and was completed with the hygiene package . Regulation No. 178/2002/EC (the General Food Law) laying down the general principles and requirements of food law, establishing the European Food Safety Authority and laying down procedures in matters of food safety ...
October 20, 2017: Italian Journal of Food Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29559748/toward-a-harmonized-approach-to-animal-welfare-law-in-canada
#10
REVIEW
David Fraser, Katherine E Koralesky, Geoff Urton
Animal protection law in Canada varies across the country. Federal animal protection law exists in the Criminal Code, in regulations for the transport of animals, and in regulations for humane handling and slaughter at abattoirs that are inspected by the Canadian Food Inspection Agency. Provincial animal protection laws often include provisions that i) describe a duty of care toward animals; ii) prohibit causing or permitting animal "distress;" iii) specify exemptions from prosecution; and iv) reference various national and other standards...
March 2018: Canadian Veterinary Journal. la Revue Vétérinaire Canadienne
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29559253/a-comparison-of-hatchery-rearing-in-exercise-to-wild-animal-physiology-and-reflex-behavior-in-aplysia-californica
#11
Lynne A Fieber, Nicholas S Kron, Justin B Greer, Hailey Rooney, Rachel A Prostko, John D Stieglitz, Martin Grosell, Phillip R Gillette
Aplysia californica was hatchery-reared in two turbulence protocols intended to imitate the intermittent turbulence of the native habitat and to promote development of the foot muscle from the exercise of adhering to the substrate. Hatchery-reared animals in turbulence regimes were compared to siblings reared in quiet water, and to wild animals, using noninvasive assessments of the development of the foot muscle. The objective was to learn if the turbulence-reared phenotype mimicked laboratory-targeted aspects of the wild phenotype, that is, reflex behavior, swim tunnel performance, and resting oxygen consumption (MO2 )...
March 17, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29553796/the-myth-of-replacement-and-the-legal-reality
#12
Edwina Bowles
Despite EU law being in force, animals are often used where alternative methods already exist and are readily available.
March 2018: Alternatives to Laboratory Animals: ATLA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29550512/c-elegans-as-a-model-in-developmental-neurotoxicology
#13
Joanna A Ruszkiewicz, Adi Pinkas, Mahfuzur R Miah, Rebecca L Weitz, Michael J A Lawes, Ayodele J Akinyemi, Omamuyovwi M Ijomone, Michael Aschner
Due to many advantages Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) has become a preferred model of choice in many fields, including neurodevelopmental toxicity studies. This review discusses the benefits of using C. elegans as an alternative to mammalian systems and gives examples of the uses of the nematode in evaluating the effects of major known neurodevelopmental toxins, including manganese, mercury, lead, fluoride, arsenic and organophosphorus pesticides. Reviewed data indicates numerous similarities with mammals in response to these toxins...
March 14, 2018: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29540595/role-of-the-e2-hypervariable-region-hvr1-in-the-immunogenicity-of-a-recombinant-hcv-vaccine
#14
John L M Law, Michael Logan, Jason Wong, Juthika Kundu, Darren Hockman, Amir Landi, Chao Chen, Kevin Crawford, Mark Wininger, Janelle Johnson, Catalina Mesa Prince, Elzbieta Dudek, Ninad Mehta, D Lorne Tyrrell, Michael Houghton
Current evidence supports a protective role for virus neutralizing antibodies in immunity against HCV infection. Many cross-neutralizing monoclonal antibodies have been identified. These antibodies have been shown to protect or clear infection in animal models. Previous clinical trials have shown a gpE1/gpE2 vaccine can induce antibodies that neutralize the in vitro infectivity of all the major HCVcc genotypes around the world. However, cross-neutralization appeared to favour certain genotypes with significant but lower neutralization against others...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29538459/collision-based-energetic-comparison-of-rolling-and-hopping-over-obstacles
#15
Fabio Giardina, Fumiya Iida
Locomotion of machines and robots operating in rough terrain is strongly influenced by the mechanics of the ground-machine interactions. A rolling wheel in terrain with obstacles is subject to collisional energy losses, which is governed by mechanics comparable to hopping or walking locomotion. Here we investigate the energetic cost associated with overcoming an obstacle for rolling and hopping locomotion, using a simple mechanics model. The model considers collision-based interactions with the ground and the obstacle, without frictional losses, and we quantify, analyse, and compare the sources of energetic costs for three locomotion strategies...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29532401/hunting-with-lead-ammunition-is-not-sustainable-european-perspectives
#16
Niels Kanstrup, John Swift, David A Stroud, Melissa Lewis
Much evidence demonstrates the adverse effects of lead ammunition on wildlife, their habitats and human health, and confirms that the use of such ammunition has no place within sustainable hunting. We identify the provisions that define sustainable hunting according to European law and international treaties, together with their guidance documents. We accept the substantial evidence for lead's actual and potential effects on wildlife, habitats and health as persuasive and assess how these effects relate to stated provisions for sustainability and hunting...
March 12, 2018: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29531351/psychophysical-laws-and-the-superorganism
#17
Andreagiovanni Reina, Thomas Bose, Vito Trianni, James A R Marshall
Through theoretical analysis, we show how a superorganism may react to stimulus variations according to psychophysical laws observed in humans and other animals. We investigate an empirically-motivated honeybee house-hunting model, which describes a value-sensitive decision process over potential nest-sites, at the level of the colony. In this study, we show how colony decision time increases with the number of available nests, in agreement with the Hick-Hyman law of psychophysics, and decreases with mean nest quality, in agreement with Piéron's law...
March 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29530079/identifying-non-traditional-stakeholders-with-whom-to-engage-when-mitigating-antimicrobial-resistance-in-foodborne-pathogens-canada
#18
Shannon E Majowicz, E Jane Parmley, Carolee Carson, Katarina Pintar
OBJECTIVE: Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a critical public health issue that involves interrelationships between people, animals, and the environment. Traditionally, interdisciplinary efforts to mitigate AMR in the food chain have involved public health, human and veterinary medicine, and agriculture stakeholders. Our objective was to identify a more diverse range of stakeholders, beyond those traditionally engaged in AMR mitigation efforts, via diagramming both proximal and distal factors impacting, or impacted by, use and resistance along the Canadian food chain...
March 12, 2018: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29527952/study-of-the-pharmacokinetics-of-polymerized-porcine-hemoglobin-ppolyhb
#19
Yuesheng Shen, Wenjin Zhu, Mengye Zhao, Guige Zhao, Geng Niu, Yuwei Bai, Bo Yang, Chao Chen, Hongli Zhu
Polymerized porcine hemoglobin (pPolyHb), a kind of glutaraldehyde-polymerized haemoglobin-based oxygen carrier, was developed as a potential red blood substitute for clinical applications. Assessment of its absorption, distribution, and metabolism is a major determinant of its safety and efficacy. In this study, a series of pharmacokinetic parameters of pPolyHb were measured and calculated in different animal models, such as the top-load model, the 50% exchange transfusion model and the haemorrhagic shock model...
March 11, 2018: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29513700/probabilistic-models-of-individual-and-collective-animal-behavior
#20
Katarína Bod'ová, Gabriel J Mitchell, Roy Harpaz, Elad Schneidman, Gašper Tkačik
Recent developments in automated tracking allow uninterrupted, high-resolution recording of animal trajectories, sometimes coupled with the identification of stereotyped changes of body pose or other behaviors of interest. Analysis and interpretation of such data represents a challenge: the timing of animal behaviors may be stochastic and modulated by kinematic variables, by the interaction with the environment or with the conspecifics within the animal group, and dependent on internal cognitive or behavioral state of the individual...
2018: PloS One
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