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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319153/a-general-model-for-metabolic-scaling-in-self-similar-asymmetric-networks
#1
Alexander Byers Brummer, Van M Savage, Brian J Enquist
How a particular attribute of an organism changes or scales with its body size is known as an allometry. Biological allometries, such as metabolic scaling, have been hypothesized to result from selection to maximize how vascular networks fill space yet minimize internal transport distances and resistances. The West, Brown, Enquist (WBE) model argues that these two principles (space-filling and energy minimization) are (i) general principles underlying the evolution of the diversity of biological networks across plants and animals and (ii) can be used to predict how the resulting geometry of biological networks then governs their allometric scaling...
March 20, 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316783/current-and-future-prospects-for-nanotechnology-in-animal-production
#2
REVIEW
Emily K Hill, Julang Li
Nanoparticles have been used as diagnostic and therapeutic agents in the human medical field for quite some time, though their application in veterinary medicine and animal production is still relatively new. Recently, production demands on the livestock industry have been centered around the use of antibiotics as growth promoters due to growing concern over microbial antibiotic resistance. With many countries reporting increased incidences of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, laws and regulations are being updated to end in-feed antibiotic use in the animal production industry...
2017: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297924/onset-of-anomalous-diffusion-from-local-motion-rules
#3
Sarah de Nigris, Timoteo Carletti, Renaud Lambiotte
Anomalous diffusion processes, in particular superdiffusive ones, are known to be efficient strategies for searching and navigation in animals and also in human mobility. One way to create such regimes are Lévy flights, where the walkers are allowed to perform jumps, the "flights," that can eventually be very long as their length distribution is asymptotically power-law distributed. In our work, we present a model in which walkers are allowed to perform, on a one-dimensional lattice, "cascades" of n unitary steps instead of one jump of a randomly generated length, as in the Lévy case, where n is drawn from a cascade distribution p_{n}...
February 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285792/new-allometric-scaling-laws-revealed-for-microorganisms
#4
Thomas L Kieft
Allometric scaling relationships based on microbial data sets are revealing novel biological principles; for example, the abundance and diversity of animal-associated microbes scale with individual animal mass. The global abundance of animal-associated microbes and biosphere species richness have also been estimated. The potential for further microbe-inclusive macroecological insights is high.
March 9, 2017: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279026/network-anatomy-controlling-abrupt-like-percolation-transition
#5
Hirokazu Kawamoto, Hideki Takayasu, Misako Takayasu
We virtually dissect complex networks in order to understand their internal structure, just as doctors do with the bodies of animals. Our novel method classifies network links into four categories: bone, fat, cartilage, and muscle, based on network connectivity. We derive an efficient percolation strategy from this new viewpoint of network anatomy, which enables abrupt-like percolation transition through removal of a small amount of cartilage links, which play a crucial role in network connectivity. Furthermore, we find nontrivial scaling laws in the relationships between four types of links in each cluster and evaluate power exponents, which characterize network structures as seen in the real large-scale network of trading business firms and in the Erdős-Rényi network...
December 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273915/big-data-analyses-reveal-patterns-and-drivers-of-the-movements-of-southern-elephant-seals
#6
Jorge P Rodríguez, Juan Fernández-Gracia, Michele Thums, Mark A Hindell, Ana M M Sequeira, Mark G Meekan, Daniel P Costa, Christophe Guinet, Robert G Harcourt, Clive R McMahon, Monica Muelbert, Carlos M Duarte, Víctor M Eguíluz
The growing number of large databases of animal tracking provides an opportunity for analyses of movement patterns at the scales of populations and even species. We used analytical approaches, developed to cope with "big data", that require no 'a priori' assumptions about the behaviour of the target agents, to analyse a pooled tracking dataset of 272 elephant seals (Mirounga leonina) in the Southern Ocean, that was comprised of >500,000 location estimates collected over more than a decade. Our analyses showed that the displacements of these seals were described by a truncated power law distribution across several spatial and temporal scales, with a clear signature of directed movement...
December 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28272418/emergence-of-linguistic-laws-in-human-voice
#7
Iván González Torre, Bartolo Luque, Lucas Lacasa, Jordi Luque, Antoni Hernández-Fernández
Linguistic laws constitute one of the quantitative cornerstones of modern cognitive sciences and have been routinely investigated in written corpora, or in the equivalent transcription of oral corpora. This means that inferences of statistical patterns of language in acoustics are biased by the arbitrary, language-dependent segmentation of the signal, and virtually precludes the possibility of making comparative studies between human voice and other animal communication systems. Here we bridge this gap by proposing a method that allows to measure such patterns in acoustic signals of arbitrary origin, without needs to have access to the language corpus underneath...
March 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268796/validity-of-the-small-swine-model-for-human-electrical-safety-risks
#8
Michael A Brave, Dhanunjaya R Lakkireddy, Mark W Kroll, Dorin Panescu
Small swine are the most common model now used for electrical safety studies. Because of the significant anatomical and electrophysiological differences and the effect of animal size on the ventricular fibrillation (VF) threshold, there are concerns that these differences may exaggerate the risks of electrical devices to humans. We chose, as an illustrative and relevant example, swine studies of the TASER® conducted electrical weapon (CEW) as it has numerous published VF studies. We reviewed the published electrical swine safety studies for CEWs and compared them to finite element modeling studies, electrical safety standards, and epidemiological experience from field usage...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266634/physics-of-chewing-in-terrestrial-mammals
#9
Emmanuel Virot, Grace Ma, Christophe Clanet, Sunghwan Jung
Previous studies on chewing frequency across animal species have focused on finding a single universal scaling law. Controversy between the different models has been aroused without elucidating the variations in chewing frequency. In the present study we show that vigorous chewing is limited by the maximum force of muscle, so that the upper chewing frequency scales as the -1/3 power of body mass for large animals and as a constant frequency for small animals. On the other hand, gentle chewing to mix food uniformly without excess of saliva describes the lower limit of chewing frequency, scaling approximately as the -1/6 power of body mass...
March 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263111/survey-of-attitudes-toward-and-experiences-with-animal-abuse-encounters-in-a-convenience-sample-of-us-veterinarians
#10
Lori R Kogan, Regina M Schoenfeld-Tacher, Peter W Hellyer, Mark Rishniw, Rebecca A Ruch-Gallie
OBJECTIVE To survey practicing veterinarians regarding their perceptions of and experiences with cases of suspected or confirmed animal abuse and related state laws. DESIGN Cross-sectional study. POPULATION Members of the Veterinary Information Network (VIN; n = 34,144) who were in veterinary practice at the time of the survey. PROCEDURES A survey was designed and distributed online to all VIN members from January 26 to February 28, 2015. Responses were compiled, and binary logistic regression analysis was performed to identify factors that influenced decisions or perceptions regarding animal abuse encounters and related legislation...
March 15, 2017: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28252010/extra-metabolic-energy-use-and-the-rise-in-human-hyper-density
#11
Joseph R Burger, Vanessa P Weinberger, Pablo A Marquet
Humans, like all organisms, are subject to fundamental biophysical laws. Van Valen predicted that, because of zero-sum dynamics, all populations of all species in a given environment flux the same amount of energy on average. Damuth's 'energetic equivalence rule' supported Van Valen´s conjecture by showing a tradeoff between few big animals per area with high individual metabolic rates compared to abundant small species with low energy requirements. We use metabolic scaling theory to compare variation in densities and individual energy use in human societies to other land mammals...
March 2, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226990/validity-of-the-small-swine-model-for-human-electrical-safety-risks
#12
Michael A Brave, Dhanunjaya R Lakkireddy, Mark W Kroll, Dorin Panescu, Michael A Brave, Dhanunjaya R Lakkireddy, Mark W Kroll, Dorin Panescu, Dhanunjaya R Lakkireddy, Mark W Kroll, Dorin Panescu, Michael A Brave
Small swine are the most common model now used for electrical safety studies. Because of the significant anatomical and electrophysiological differences and the effect of animal size on the ventricular fibrillation (VF) threshold, there are concerns that these differences may exaggerate the risks of electrical devices to humans. We chose, as an illustrative and relevant example, swine studies of the TASER(®) conducted electrical weapon (CEW) as it has numerous published VF studies. We reviewed the published electrical swine safety studies for CEWs and compared them to finite element modeling studies, electrical safety standards, and epidemiological experience from field usage...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192039/endemic-infection-of-stranded-southern-sea-otters-enhydra-lutris-nereis-with-novel-parvovirus-polyomavirus-and-adenovirus
#13
Juliana D Siqueira, Terry Ng, Melissa Miller, Linlin Li, Xutao Deng, Erin Dodd, Francesca Batac, Eric Delwart
Over the past century, the southern sea otter (SSO; Enhydra lutris nereis) population has been slowly recovering from near extinction due to overharvest. The SSO is a threatened species under federal law and a fully protected species under California law. Through a multiagency collaborative program, stranded animals are rehabilitated and released, while deceased animals are necropsied and tissues are cryopreserved to facilitate scientific study. Here, we processed archival tissues to enrich particle-associated viral nucleic acids, which we randomly amplified and deeply sequenced to identify viral genomes through sequence similarities...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188220/cannabinoids-activate-monoaminergic-signaling-to-modulate-key-c-elegans-behaviors
#14
Mitchell D Oakes, Wen Jing Law, Tobias Clark, Bruce A Bamber, Richard Komuniecki
Cannabis sativa, or marijuana, a popular recreational drug, alters sensory perception and exerts a range of potential medicinal benefits. The present study demonstrates that the endogenous cannabinoid receptor agonists 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) and anandamide (AEA) activate a canonical cannabinoid receptor in Caenorhabditis elegans and also modulate monoaminergic signaling at multiple levels. 2-AG or AEA inhibit nociception and feeding through a pathway requiring the cannabinoid-like receptor NPR-19. 2-AG or AEA activate NPR-19 directly and cannabinoid-dependent inhibition can be rescued in npr-19-null animals by the expression of a human cannabinoid receptor, CB1, highlighting the orthology of the receptors...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174218/knowledge-and-opinions-of-veterinary-students-in-italy-toward-animal-welfare-science-and-law
#15
D Magnani, N Ferri, A Dalmau, S Messori
Animal welfare (AW) is a growing concern worldwide and veterinary students are expected to demonstrate a high degree of professional interest in the welfare of animals. However, previous studies have highlighted gaps in the teaching of AW teaching in different countries, possibly impairing veterinary competency in the area. This survey aimed to assess the opinions of Italian veterinary students towards AW, as well as their knowledge on the issue. Questions were divided into different sections, investigating the definition of, and information on, AW, knowledge about AW legislation, and the level of tolerance towards AW in regard to the use of animals for different purposes...
February 7, 2017: Veterinary Record
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169362/allometric-scaling-in-vitro
#16
Arti Ahluwalia
About two decades ago, West and coworkers established a model which predicts that metabolic rate follows a three quarter power relationship with the mass of an organism, based on the premise that tissues are supplied nutrients through a fractal distribution network. Quarter power scaling is widely considered a universal law of biology and it is generally accepted that were in-vitro cultures to obey allometric metabolic scaling, they would have more predictive potential and could, for instance, provide a viable substitute for animals in research...
February 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163884/touchdown-to-take-off-at-the-interface-of-flight-and-surface-locomotion
#17
REVIEW
William R T Roderick, Mark R Cutkosky, David Lentink
Small aerial robots are limited to short mission times because aerodynamic and energy conversion efficiency diminish with scale. One way to extend mission times is to perch, as biological flyers do. Beyond perching, small robot flyers benefit from manoeuvring on surfaces for a diverse set of tasks, including exploration, inspection and collection of samples. These opportunities have prompted an interest in bimodal aerial and surface locomotion on both engineered and natural surfaces. To accomplish such novel robot behaviours, recent efforts have included advancing our understanding of the aerodynamics of surface approach and take-off, the contact dynamics of perching and attachment and making surface locomotion more efficient and robust...
February 6, 2017: Interface Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149703/expanding-our-understanding-of-the-trade-in-marine-aquarium-animals
#18
Andrew L Rhyne, Michael F Tlusty, Joseph T Szczebak, Robert J Holmberg
The trade of live marine animals for home and public aquaria has grown into a major global industry. Millions of marine fishes and invertebrates are removed from coral reefs and associated habitats each year. The majority are imported into the United States, with the remainder sent to Europe, Japan, and a handful of other countries. Despite the recent growth and diversification of the aquarium trade, to date, data collection is not mandatory, and hence comprehensive information on species volume and diversity is lacking...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120807/the-speed-curvature-power-law-in-drosophila-larval-locomotion
#19
Myrka Zago, Francesco Lacquaniti, Alex Gomez-Marin
We report the discovery that the locomotor trajectories of Drosophila larvae follow the power-law relationship between speed and curvature previously found in the movements of human and non-human primates. Using high-resolution behavioural tracking in controlled but naturalistic sensory environments, we tested the law in maggots tracing different trajectory types, from reaching-like movements to scribbles. For most but not all flies, we found that the law holds robustly, with an exponent close to three-quarters rather than to the usual two-thirds found in almost all human situations, suggesting dynamic effects adding on purely kinematic constraints...
October 2016: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093294/strehler-mildvan-correlation-is-a-degenerate-manifold-of-gompertz-fit
#20
Andrei E Tarkhov, Leonid I Menshikov, Peter O Fedichev
Gompertz empirical law of mortality is often used in practical research to parametrize survival fraction as a function of age with the help of just two quantities: the Initial Mortality Rate (IMR) and the Gompertz exponent, inversely proportional to the Mortality Rate Doubling Time (MRDT). The IMR is often found to be inversely related to the Gompertz exponent, which is the dependence commonly referred to as Strehler-Mildvan (SM) correlation. In this paper, we address fundamental uncertainties of the Gompertz parameters inference from experimental Kaplan-Meier plots and show, that a least squares fit often leads to an ill-defined non-linear optimization problem, which is extremely sensitive to sampling errors and the smallest systematic demographic variations...
January 16, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
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