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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203660/terminal-attack-trajectories-of-peregrine-falcons-are-described-by-the-proportional-navigation-guidance-law-of-missiles
#1
Caroline H Brighton, Adrian L R Thomas, Graham K Taylor
The ability to intercept uncooperative targets is key to many diverse flight behaviors, from courtship to predation. Previous research has looked for simple geometric rules describing the attack trajectories of animals, but the underlying feedback laws have remained obscure. Here, we use GPS loggers and onboard video cameras to study peregrine falcons, Falco peregrinus, attacking stationary targets, maneuvering targets, and live prey. We show that the terminal attack trajectories of peregrines are not described by any simple geometric rule as previously claimed, and instead use system identification techniques to fit a phenomenological model of the dynamical system generating the observed trajectories...
December 4, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201503/animal-ethics-in-laparoscopic-urology-training
#2
REVIEW
Eymen Gazel, Ayşegül Özgök, Ahmet Murat Bayraktar, Osman Ergün, Yaşar Özgök
Laparoscopic urologic operating techniques are in widespread use throughout the world and because of various advantages, over the years they have virtually become a gold standard surgical intervention method. As laparoscopy is a painstaking technique to learn, the training consists of different stages. Within these stages of training, wet laboratory training where animals are used, is the most sensitive stage. The widespread use of experimental animals in medical research necessitated standardization and the establishment of certain regulations...
December 2017: Turkish Journal of Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197401/neglected-zoonotic-agents-in-cattle-abortion-tackling-the-difficult-to-grow-bacteria
#3
Sara Vidal, Kristel Kegler, Gilbert Greub, Sebastien Aeby, Nicole Borel, Mark P Dagleish, Horst Posthaus, Vincent Perreten, Sabrina Rodriguez-Campos
BACKGROUND: Coxiella burnetii, Chlamydia abortus and Leptospira spp. are difficult to grow bacteria that play a role in bovine abortion, but their diagnosis is hampered by their obligate intracellular lifestyle (C. burnetii, C. abortus) or their lability (Leptospira spp.). Their importance is based on the contagious spread in food-producing animals, but also as zoonotic agents. In Switzerland, first-line routine bacteriological diagnostics in cattle abortions is regulated by national law and includes only basic screening by staining for C...
December 2, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29192036/animal-sentience-principle-of-article-13-must-be-enshrined-in-uk-law-say-vets
#4
Kathryn Clark
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2017: Veterinary Record
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190193/characterization-and-comparison-of-injuries-caused-by-spontaneous-versus-organized-dogfighting
#5
Nida P Intarapanich, Rachel M Touroo, Elizabeth A Rozanski, Robert W Reisman, Pichai P Intarapanich, Emily C McCobb
OBJECTIVE To characterize and compare injuries found in dogs involved in spontaneously occurring dogfights with those of dogs used in illegal organized dogfighting. DESIGN Retrospective case-control study. ANIMALS 36 medium-sized dogs evaluated following spontaneous fights with a dog of the same sex and similar weight (medium dog-medium dog [MDMD] fights), 160 small dogs examined following spontaneous fights with a larger dog (big dog-little dog [BDLD] fights), and 62 dogs evaluated after being seized in connection with dogfighting law enforcement raids...
December 15, 2017: Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186124/reconciling-taxon-senescence-with-the-red-queen-s-hypothesis
#6
Indrė Žliobaitė, Mikael Fortelius, Nils C Stenseth
In the fossil record, taxa exhibit a regular pattern of waxing and waning of occupancy, range or diversity between their origin and extinction. This pattern appears to contradict the law of constant extinction, which states that the probability of extinction in a given taxon is independent of that taxon's age. It is nevertheless well established for species, genera and higher taxa of terrestrial mammals, marine invertebrates, marine microorganisms, and recent Hawaiian clades of animals and plants. Here we show that the apparent contradiction between a stochastically constant extinction rate and the seemingly deterministic waxing and waning pattern of taxa disappears when we consider their peak of expansion rather than their final extinction...
November 29, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184849/giving-drugs-a-second-chance-overcoming-regulatory-and-financial-hurdles-in-repurposing-approved-drugs-as-cancer-therapeutics
#7
REVIEW
J Javier Hernandez, Michael Pryszlak, Lindsay Smith, Connor Yanchus, Naheed Kurji, Vijay M Shahani, Steven V Molinski
The repositioning or "repurposing" of existing therapies for alternative disease indications is an attractive approach that can save significant investments of time and money during drug development. For cancer indications, the primary goal of repurposed therapies is on efficacy, with less restriction on safety due to the immediate need to treat this patient population. This report provides a high-level overview of how drug developers pursuing repurposed assets have previously navigated funding efforts, regulatory affairs, and intellectual property laws to commercialize these "new" medicines in oncology...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183815/bioscavenger-is-effective-as-a-delayed-therapeutic-intervention-following-percutaneous-vx-poisoning-in-the-guinea-pig
#8
T M Mann, M E Price, C L Whitmore, R L Perrott, T R Laws, R R McColm, E R Emery, J E H Tattersall, A C Green, H Rice
The prolonged systemic exposure that follows skin contamination with low volatility nerve agents, such as VX, requires treatment to be given over a long time due to the relatively short half-lives of the therapeutic compounds used. Bioscavengers, such as butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), have been shown to provide effective post-exposure protection against percutaneous nerve agent when given immediately on signs of poisoning and to reduce reliance on additional treatments. In order to assess the benefits of administration of bioscavenger at later times, its effectiveness was assessed when administration was delayed for 2h after the appearance of signs of poisoning in guinea-pigs challenged with VX (4×LD50)...
November 25, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29175278/animal-cruelty-as-an-indicator-of-family-trauma-using-adverse-childhood-experiences-to-look-beyond-child-abuse-and-domestic-violence
#9
Melissa A Bright, Mona Sayedul Huq, Terry Spencer, Jennifer W Applebaum, Nancy Hardt
Youth who engage in animal cruelty are known to be at increased risk of perpetrating violence on other people in their lives including peers, loved ones, and elder family members. These youths have often been exposed to family violence, including animal cruelty perpetrated on their beloved pets by violent adults. The current study utilizes a data set of 81,000 juvenile offenders whose adverse childhood experiences are known and includes 466 youth who self-report engaging in animal cruelty. Compared to the larger group of juvenile offenders, the children admitting to engaging in animal cruelty are younger at time of first arrest, more likely to be male, and more likely to be White...
November 22, 2017: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29169340/situational-analysis-of-antibiotic-use-and-resistance-in-ghana-policy-and-regulation
#10
Saviour Kwame Yevutsey, Kwame Ohene Buabeng, Moses Aikins, Berko Panyin Anto, Richard B Biritwum, Niels Frimodt-Møller, Martha Gyansa-Lutterodt
BACKGROUND: Antibiotics have played an essential role in decreasing morbidity and mortality from infectious diseases. However, indiscriminate use and unrestricted access is contributing to the emergence of bacterial resistance. This paper reports on a situational analysis of antimicrobial use and resistance in Ghana, with focus on policy and regulation. METHODS: Relevant policy documents, reports, regulations and enactments were reviewed. PubMed and Google search engines were used to extract relevant published papers...
November 23, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29158993/antimicrobial-consumption-on-austrian-dairy-farms-an-observational-study-of-udder-disease-treatments-based-on-veterinary-medication-records
#11
Clair L Firth, Annemarie Käsbohrer, Corina Schleicher, Klemens Fuchs, Christa Egger-Danner, Martin Mayerhofer, Hermann Schobesberger, Josef Köfer, Walter Obritzhauser
Background: Antimicrobial use in livestock production is an important contemporary issue, which is of public interest worldwide. Antimicrobials are not freely available to Austrian farmers and can only be administered to livestock by veterinarians, or by farmers who are trained members of the Animal Health Service. Since 2015, veterinarians have been required by law to report antimicrobials dispensed to farmers for use in food-producing animals. The study presented here went further than the statutory framework, and collected data on antimicrobials dispensed to farmers and those administered by veterinarians...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119231/a-valid-method-to-determine-the-site-of-drowning
#12
Rafael Carballeira, Duarte N Vieira, Manuel Febrero-Bande, José I Muñoz Barús
The diatom test is considered a useful aid in determining the site of death from drowning. Nevertheless, there is disagreement within the scientific community concerning its reliability, and its findings have been challenged and sometimes overturned in courts of law. Using a model based on animal experimentation, we have developed a diatom test to discriminate between the locations of drowning sites from different aquatic systems. We carried out a complementary combination of quantitative and qualitative analyses together with a statistical analysis based on the Kullback-Leibler distance of the samples...
November 8, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29062189/zoo-agent-s-measure-in-applying-the-five-freedoms-principles-for-animal-welfare
#13
Argyo Demartoto, Robertus Bellarminus Soemanto, Siti Zunariyah
BACKGROUND: Animal welfare should be prioritized not only for the animal's life sustainability but also for supporting the sustainability of living organism's life on the earth. However, Indonesian people have not understood it yet, thereby still treating animals arbitrarily and not appreciating either domesticated or wild animals. AIM: This research aimed to analyze the zoo agent's action in applying the five freedoms principle for animal welfare in Taman Satwa Taru Jurug (thereafter called TSTJ) or Surakarta Zoo and Gembira Loka Zoo (GLZ) of Yogyakarta Indonesia using Giddens structuration theory...
September 2017: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052384/-research-progress-of-serum-pharmacochemistry-of-traditional-chinese-medicine
#14
REVIEW
Fei-Xiang Ma, Pei-Feng Xue, Yuan-Yuan Wang, Yi-Nuo Wang, Shu-Yuan Xue
Serum pharmacochemistry of traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) is an effective method to rapidly screen the effective substances and reveal the compatibility law of compound by identification and analysis of constituents migrating to blood after oral administration. In the last two decades, it has been universally accepted and widely applied in the field. With the cross-fusion with other disciplines, such as serum pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, metabolomics, network pharmacology and systems biology, serum pharmacochemistry shows comprehensive superiority in explaining drug changes in vivo and in vitro, interactions between drugs, interactions between drug and body, which coincides with the complexity of TCM compatibility, multi-components, multi-targets and multi-mechanisms...
April 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046579/a-general-scaling-law-reveals-why-the-largest-animals-are-not-the-fastest
#15
Myriam R Hirt, Walter Jetz, Björn C Rall, Ulrich Brose
Speed is the fundamental constraint on animal movement, yet there is no general consensus on the determinants of maximum speed itself. Here, we provide a general scaling model of maximum speed with body mass, which holds across locomotion modes, ecosystem types and taxonomic groups. In contrast to traditional power-law scaling, we predict a hump-shaped relationship resulting from a finite acceleration time for animals, which explains why the largest animals are not the fastest. This model is strongly supported by extensive empirical data (474 species, with body masses ranging from 30 μg to 100 tonnes) from terrestrial as well as aquatic ecosystems...
August 2017: Nature Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045015/the-small-molecule-mertk-inhibitor-unc2025-decreases-platelet-activation-and-prevents-thrombosis
#16
Brian R Branchford, Timothy J Stalker, Luke Law, Gilbert Acevedo, Susan Sather, Christine Brzezinski, Katina M Wilson, Katherine Minson, Alisa B Lee-Sherick, Pavel Davizon-Castillo, Christopher Ng, Weihe Zhang, Keith B Neeves, Steven R Lentz, Xiaodong Wang, Stephen V Frye, H Shelton Earp, Deborah DeRyckere, Lawrence F Brass, Douglas K Graham, Jorge A Di Paola
BACKGROUND: Gas6 signals through the TAM (TYRO-3, AXL, MERTK) receptor family mediating platelet activation and thrombus formation via activation of the aggregate-stabilizing αIIb β3 integrin. OBJECTIVE: Here we describe anti-thrombotic effects mediated by UNC2025, a small molecule MERTK tyrosine kinase inhibitor. METHODS: MERTK phosphorylation and downstream signaling were assessed by immunoblot. Light transmission aggregometry, flow cytometry, and microfluidic analysis were used to evaluate the impact of MERTK inhibition on platelet activation and stability of aggregate formation in vitro...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis: JTH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044369/law-as-a-fixture-between-the-one-health-interfaces-of-emerging-diseases
#17
Alexandra L Phelan, Lawrence O Gostin
A One Health approach calls for multisectoral and multi-institutional cooperation and partnership across the interfaces of human, animal and ecosystem health risks. Without strong governance, these interfaces risk detaching, leaving gaps in capacities to prevent, detect and respond to emerging and persisting public health threats. As a crucial component of governance, law can act as the fixture between interfaces. We examine some of the many forms and foci of law and propose that the process of law-making, implementation and evaluation can provide a benefit for strengthening law as a fixture between One Health interfaces...
June 1, 2017: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040049/recent-trends-in-common-chemical-feed-and-food-contaminants-in-israel
#18
J A Shimshoni, Y Chen, E Sobol, I Maz, S Barel
In February 2014 a new law was approved by the Israeli parliament, namely the Control of Animal Feed Law. The law intends to regulate the production and marketing of animal feed. In preparation for the law's implementation in 2017, we have assessed the current feed and food safety challenges in Israel in recent years in association with the presence of common undesirable contaminants in various common feed and food commodities. Tight collaboration between regulatory authorities and fee/food industry, enhanced feed and food quality monitoring, transparency of survey results and readily accessible and reliable information for the public about health hazards of chemical contaminants, will guarantee the safety and quality of food and feed...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part C, Environmental Carcinogenesis & Ecotoxicology Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027681/the-drivers-of-sea-lice-management-policies-and-how-best-to-integrate-them-into-a-risk-management-strategy-an-ecosystem-approach-to-sea-lice-management
#19
D Jackson, O Moberg, E M Stenevik Djupevåg, F Kane, H Hareide
The control of sea lice infestations on cultivated Atlantic salmon is a major issue in many regions of the world. The numerous drivers which shape the priorities and objectives of the control strategies vary for different regions/jurisdictions. These range from the animal welfare and economic priorities of the producers, to the mitigation of any potential impacts on wild stocks. Veterinary ethics, environmental impacts of therapeutants, and impacts for organic certification of the produce are, amongst others, additional sets of factors which should be considered...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Fish Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991316/-epidemiological-characterization-of-bites-on-people-as-emergency-care-record-province-of-los-andes-chile
#20
Vania Villagra, Dante Cáceres, Sergio Alvarado, Elizabeth Salinas, M Loreto Caldera, Erick Lucero, Paola Viviani, Marisa Torres
BACKGROUND: Bites constitute a public health problem worldwide. AIM: To characterize epidemiologically bites by animals happened in the province of Los Andes (2005-2007). METHOD: Descriptive, retrospective epidemiological study. Studied variables: Bitten person (BP), accident by bite, biting animal and bite. It was not feasible to obtain more updated information by law of patient protection. RESULTS: 2,360 BP were assisted in the emergency unit of San Juan de Dios Hospital and Rio Blanco clinic...
June 2017: Revista Chilena de Infectología: órgano Oficial de la Sociedad Chilena de Infectología
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