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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444189/environmental-enrichment-in-the-21st-century
#1
Kristine Coleman, Melinda A Novak
More than a quarter of a century has elapsed since the Animal Welfare Act mandated that research facilities develop and follow a plan to promote the psychological well-being of captive primates. Since passage of this law, considerable effort and resources have been directed to designing environmental enrichment strategies in an effort to improve animal welfare. These plans typically consist of environmental enrichment and socialization efforts. While environmental enhancement has undergone a great deal of improvement in the past 25 years, it should be viewed as a continual work in progress, which takes advantage of emergent and future technologies...
April 21, 2017: ILAR Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436493/an-attenuated-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-clinical-strain-with-a-defect-in-esx-1-secretion-induces-minimal-host-immune-responses-and-pathology
#2
Helena Strand Clemmensen, Niels Peter Hell Knudsen, Erik Michael Rasmussen, Jessica Winkler, Ida Rosenkrands, Ahmad Ahmad, Troels Lillebaek, David R Sherman, Peter Lawætz Andersen, Claus Aagaard
Although Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) DK9897 is an attenuated strain, it was isolated from a patient with extrapulmonary tuberculosis and vaccination with a subunit vaccine (H56) induced poor protection against it. Both attenuation and lack of protection are because M.tb DK9897 cannot secrete the EsxA virulence factor nor induce a host response against it. Genome sequencing identified a frameshift mutation in the eccCa1 gene. Since the encoded EccCa1 protein provides energy for ESX-1 secretion, it suggested a defect in the ESX-1 type VII secretion system...
April 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423644/disulfide-bond-disrupting-agents-activate-the-unfolded-protein-response-in-egfr-and-her2-positive-breast-tumor-cells
#3
Renan B Ferreira, Mengxiong Wang, Mary E Law, Bradley J Davis, Ashton N Bartley, Paul J Higgins, Michael S Kilberg, Katherine E Santostefano, Naohiro Terada, Coy D Heldermon, Ronald K Castellano, Brian K Law
Many breast cancer deaths result from tumors acquiring resistance to available therapies. Thus, new therapeutic agents are needed for targeting drug-resistant breast cancers. Drug-refractory breast cancers include HER2+ tumors that have acquired resistance to HER2-targeted antibodies and kinase inhibitors, and "Triple-Negative" Breast Cancers (TNBCs) that lack the therapeutic targets Estrogen Receptor, Progesterone Receptor, and HER2. A significant fraction of TNBCs overexpress the HER2 family member Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR)...
March 7, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414619/how-the-nerves-reached-the-muscle-bernard-katz-stephen-w-kuffler-and-john-c-eccles-certain-implications-of-exile-for-the-development-of-twentieth-century-neurophysiology
#4
Frank W Stahnisch
This article explores the work by Bernard Katz (1911-2003), Stephen W. Kuffler (1913-1980), and John C. Eccles (1903-1997) on the nerve-muscle junction as a milestone in twentieth-century neurophysiology with wider scientific implications. The historical question is approached from two perspectives: (a) an investigation of twentieth-century solutions to a longer physiological dispute and (b) an examination of a new kind of laboratory and academic cooperation. From this vantage point, the work pursued in Sydney by Sir John Carew Eccles' team on the neuromuscular junction is particularly valuable, since it contributed a central functional element to modern physiological understanding regarding the function and structure of the human and animal nervous system...
April 17, 2017: Journal of the History of the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413809/preclinical-imaging-of-iridocorneal-angle-and-fundus-using-a-modified-integrated-flexible-handheld-probe
#5
Xun Jie Jeesmond Hong, Vengalathunadakal K Shinoj, Vadakke Matham Murukeshan, Mani Baskaran, Tin Aung
A flexible handheld imaging probe consisting of a [Formula: see text] charge-coupled device camera, light-emitting diode light sources, and near-infrared laser source is designed and developed. The imaging probe is designed with specifications to capture the iridocorneal angle images and posterior segment images. Light propagation from the anterior chamber of the eye to the exterior is considered analytically using Snell's law. Imaging of the iridocorneal angle region and fundus is performed on ex vivo porcine samples and subsequently on small laboratory animals, such as the New Zealand white rabbit and nonhuman primate, in vivo...
April 2017: Journal of Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407279/orangutan-trade-confiscations-and-lack-of-prosecutions-in-indonesia
#6
Vincent Nijman
Prosecuting and sentencing law breakers punishes the offender and acts as a deterrent for future law breakers. With thousands of Sumatran and Bornean orangutans (Pongo abelii and P. pygmaeus) having entered private and government rescue centers and facilities, I evaluate the role of successful prosecution in orangutan conservation in Indonesia. Orangutans have been protected in Indonesian since 1931 and they are not allowed to be traded or to be kept as pets. In the period 1993-2016 at least 440 orangutans were formally confiscated, and many more were "donated" to law enforcement agencies...
April 13, 2017: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400519/balance-of-microtubule-stiffness-and-cortical-tension-determines-the-size-of-blood-cells-with-marginal-band-across-species
#7
Serge Dmitrieff, Adolfo Alsina, Aastha Mathur, François J Nédélec
The fast bloodstream of animals is associated with large shear stresses. To withstand these conditions, blood cells have evolved a special morphology and a specific internal architecture to maintain their integrity over several weeks. For instance, nonmammalian red blood cells, mammalian erythroblasts, and platelets have a peripheral ring of microtubules, called the marginal band, that flattens the overall cell morphology by pushing on the cell cortex. In this work, we model how the shape of these cells stems from the balance between marginal band rigidity and cortical tension...
April 11, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391488/selective-auditory-grouping-by-zebra-finches-testing-the-iambic-trochaic-law
#8
Michelle Spierings, Jeroen Hubert, Carel Ten Cate
Humans have a strong tendency to spontaneously group visual or auditory stimuli together in larger patterns. One of these perceptual grouping biases is formulated as the iambic/trochaic law, where humans group successive tones alternating in pitch and intensity as trochees (high-low and loud-soft) and alternating in duration as iambs (short-long). The grouping of alternations in pitch and intensity into trochees is a human universal and is also present in one non-human animal species, rats. The perceptual grouping of sounds alternating in duration seems to be affected by native language in humans and has so far not been found among animals...
April 8, 2017: Animal Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389221/welfare-law-and-ethics-in-the-veterinary-intensive-care-unit-a-discussion-of-the-different-types-of-suffering-that-patients-may-endure-in-the-veterinary-intensive-care-unit-the-legal-limits-to-that-suffering-and-the-ethics-underpinning-at-what-point-that-suffering
#9
REVIEW
Peter S Fordyce
OBJECTIVES: In UK law, allowing an animal protected under the Animal Welfare Act 2006 (AWA 2006) (as devolved) to suffer 'unnecessarily' may render the person responsible for it to prosecution. The act does not define suffering, although 'case law' suggests that suffering encompasses more than pain. Clinicians responsible for animals under their care in the intensive care unit (ICU) are likely to also be responsible in law for the welfare of those animals, and may be called upon to justify why any suffering was necessary, or more likely, why they did not act to end any suffering when it became 'unnecessary'...
January 11, 2017: Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382972/bio-inspired-murray-materials-for-mass-transfer-and-activity
#10
Xianfeng Zheng, Guofang Shen, Chao Wang, Yu Li, Darren Dunphy, Tawfique Hasan, C Jeffrey Brinker, Bao-Lian Su
Both plants and animals possess analogous tissues containing hierarchical networks of pores, with pore size ratios that have evolved to maximize mass transport and rates of reactions. The underlying physical principles of this optimized hierarchical design are embodied in Murray's law. However, we are yet to realize the benefit of mimicking nature's Murray networks in synthetic materials due to the challenges in fabricating vascularized structures. Here we emulate optimum natural systems following Murray's law using a bottom-up approach...
April 6, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28378196/eco-friendly-control-of-the-poultry-red-mite-dermanyssus-gallinae-dermanyssidae-using-the-%C3%AE-thujone-rich-essential-oil-of-artemisia-sieberi-asteraceae-toxic-and-repellent-potential
#11
Mohaddeseh Abouhosseini Tabari, Mohammad Reza Youssefi, Giovanni Benelli
The poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae, represents a key threat for the poultry industry worldwide. The control of D. gallinae is mainly achieved by continuous applications of acaricides. However, the fast-growing development of resistance, and the strict laws concerning chemicals admitted for treatments on food animals, highlighted the importance of alternative control tools. Here, we explored the potential of Artemisia sieberi essential oil against D. gallinae. In this study, the A. sieberi essential oil was analyzed using GC and GC-MS...
April 5, 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345059/health-and-disease-imprinted-in-the-time-variability-of-the-human-microbiome
#12
Jose Manuel Martí, Daniel Martínez-Martínez, Teresa Rubio, César Gracia, Manuel Peña, Amparo Latorre, Andrés Moya, Carlos P Garay
The animal microbiota (including the human microbiota) plays an important role in keeping the physiological status of the host healthy. Research seeks greater insight into whether changes in the composition and function of the microbiota are associated with disease. We analyzed published 16S rRNA and shotgun metagenomic sequencing (SMS) data pertaining to the gut microbiotas of 99 subjects monitored over time. Temporal fluctuations in the microbial composition revealed significant differences due to factors such as dietary changes, antibiotic intake, age, and disease...
March 2017: MSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344897/testing-of-microsatellite-multiplexes-for-individual-identification-of-cape-parrots-poicephalus-robustus-paternity-testing-and-monitoring-trade
#13
Willem G Coetzer, Colleen T Downs, Mike R Perrin, Sandi Willows-Munro
BACKGROUND: Illegal trade in rare wildlife species is a major threat to many parrot species around the world. Wildlife forensics plays an important role in the preservation of endangered or threatened wildlife species. Identification of illegally harvested or traded animals through DNA techniques is one of the many methods used during forensic investigations. Natural populations of the South African endemic Cape Parrot (Poicephalus robustus) are negatively affected by the removal of eggs and chicks for the pet trade...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335392/conscientious-objection-to-animal-experimentation-in-italian-universities
#14
Ilaria Baldelli, Alma Massaro, Susanna Penco, Anna Maria Bassi, Sara Patuzzo, Rosagemma Ciliberti
In Italy, Law 413/1993 states that public and private Italian Institutions, including academic faculties, are obliged to fully inform workers and students about their right to conscientious objection to scientific or educational activities involving animals, hereafter written as "animal CO". However, little monitoring on the faculties' compliance with this law has been performed either by the government or other institutional bodies. Based on this premise, the authors have critically reviewed the existing data and compared them with those emerging from their own investigation to discuss limitations and inconsistencies...
March 13, 2017: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319153/a-general-model-for-metabolic-scaling-in-self-similar-asymmetric-networks
#15
Alexander Byers Brummer, Van M Savage, Brian J Enquist
How a particular attribute of an organism changes or scales with its body size is known as an allometry. Biological allometries, such as metabolic scaling, have been hypothesized to result from selection to maximize how vascular networks fill space yet minimize internal transport distances and resistances. The West, Brown, Enquist (WBE) model argues that these two principles (space-filling and energy minimization) are (i) general principles underlying the evolution of the diversity of biological networks across plants and animals and (ii) can be used to predict how the resulting geometry of biological networks then governs their allometric scaling...
March 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316783/current-and-future-prospects-for-nanotechnology-in-animal-production
#16
REVIEW
Emily K Hill, Julang Li
Nanoparticles have been used as diagnostic and therapeutic agents in the human medical field for quite some time, though their application in veterinary medicine and animal production is still relatively new. Recently, production demands on the livestock industry have been centered around the use of antibiotics as growth promoters due to growing concern over microbial antibiotic resistance. With many countries reporting increased incidences of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, laws and regulations are being updated to end in-feed antibiotic use in the animal production industry...
2017: Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297924/onset-of-anomalous-diffusion-from-local-motion-rules
#17
Sarah de Nigris, Timoteo Carletti, Renaud Lambiotte
Anomalous diffusion processes, in particular superdiffusive ones, are known to be efficient strategies for searching and navigation in animals and also in human mobility. One way to create such regimes are Lévy flights, where the walkers are allowed to perform jumps, the "flights," that can eventually be very long as their length distribution is asymptotically power-law distributed. In our work, we present a model in which walkers are allowed to perform, on a one-dimensional lattice, "cascades" of n unitary steps instead of one jump of a randomly generated length, as in the Lévy case, where n is drawn from a cascade distribution p_{n}...
February 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285792/new-allometric-scaling-laws-revealed-for-microorganisms
#18
Thomas L Kieft
Allometric scaling relationships based on microbial data sets are revealing novel biological principles; for example, the abundance and diversity of animal-associated microbes scale with individual animal mass. The global abundance of animal-associated microbes and biosphere species richness have also been estimated. The potential for further microbe-inclusive macroecological insights is high.
March 9, 2017: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28279026/network-anatomy-controlling-abrupt-like-percolation-transition
#19
Hirokazu Kawamoto, Hideki Takayasu, Misako Takayasu
We virtually dissect complex networks in order to understand their internal structure, just as doctors do with the bodies of animals. Our novel method classifies network links into four categories: bone, fat, cartilage, and muscle, based on network connectivity. We derive an efficient percolation strategy from this new viewpoint of network anatomy, which enables abrupt-like percolation transition through removal of a small amount of cartilage links, which play a crucial role in network connectivity. Furthermore, we find nontrivial scaling laws in the relationships between four types of links in each cluster and evaluate power exponents, which characterize network structures as seen in the real large-scale network of trading business firms and in the Erdős-Rényi network...
December 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273915/big-data-analyses-reveal-patterns-and-drivers-of-the-movements-of-southern-elephant-seals
#20
Jorge P Rodríguez, Juan Fernández-Gracia, Michele Thums, Mark A Hindell, Ana M M Sequeira, Mark G Meekan, Daniel P Costa, Christophe Guinet, Robert G Harcourt, Clive R McMahon, Monica Muelbert, Carlos M Duarte, Víctor M Eguíluz
The growing number of large databases of animal tracking provides an opportunity for analyses of movement patterns at the scales of populations and even species. We used analytical approaches, developed to cope with "big data", that require no 'a priori' assumptions about the behaviour of the target agents, to analyse a pooled tracking dataset of 272 elephant seals (Mirounga leonina) in the Southern Ocean, that was comprised of >500,000 location estimates collected over more than a decade. Our analyses showed that the displacements of these seals were described by a truncated power law distribution across several spatial and temporal scales, with a clear signature of directed movement...
December 2017: Scientific Reports
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