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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754189/progress-and-works-in-progress-update-on-flavivirus-vaccine-development
#1
REVIEW
Matthew H Collins, Stefan W Metz
Most areas of the globe are endemic for at least one flavivirus, putting billions at risk for infection. This diverse group of viral pathogens causes a range of manifestations in humans from asymptomatic infection to hemorrhagic fever to encephalitis to birth defects and even death. Many flaviviruses are transmitted by mosquitos and have expanded in geographic distribution in recent years, with dengue virus being the most prevalent, infecting approximately 400 million people each year. The explosive emergence of Zika virus in Latin America in 2014 refocused international attention on this medically important group of viruses...
July 25, 2017: Clinical Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752214/prevalence-and-risk-factors-associated-with-theileria-parva-infection-in-cattle-in-three-regions-of-tanzania
#2
Isack I Kerario, Martin C Simuunza, Sebastian W Chenyambuga, Marja Koski, Seong-Gu Hwang, Walter Muleya
Ticks and tickborne diseases (TBDs) are serious constraints to cattle production in Tanzania and other tropical and subtropical countries. Among the TBDs, East Coast fever (ECF) is the most important as it causes significant economic losses to the cattle industry in Tanzania. However, control of ECF in Tanzania has continued to be a challenge due to inadequate epidemiological information. The main objective of this study was to determine the epidemiological situation of Theileria parva infections in cattle kept under pastoral and agro-pastoral farming systems in Mara, Singida, and Mbeya regions of Tanzania...
July 27, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749278/survey-of-anaplasma-phagocytophilum-antibodies-in-captive-przewalski-s-horses-equus-ferus-przewalskii
#3
Richard R Sim, Luis R Padilla, Priscilla H Joyner, Paul Anikis, Copper Aitken-Palmer
Anaplasma phagocytophilum (formerly Ehrlichia equi ) is a tickborne pathogen of domestic horses and the causative agent of equine granulocytic anaplasmosis. After the occurrence of clinical anaplasmosis in a Przewalski's horse ( Equus ferus przewalskii) housed at the Smithsonian Conservation Biology Institute in 2008, opportunistic serosurveillance of the herd was initiated. From 2008 to 2014, 57 serum samples were collected from 27 individuals (10 males; 17 females). Using indirect immunofluorescent antibody assays for anti- Anaplasma phagocytophilum antibodies, it was determined that prevalence was 53%...
June 2017: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726610/serologic-evidence-of-powassan-virus-infection-in-patients-with-suspected-lyme-disease-1
#4
Holly M Frost, Anna M Schotthoefer, Angela M Thomm, Alan P Dupuis, Sue C Kehl, Laura D Kramer, Thomas R Fritsche, Yvette A Harrington, Konstance K Knox
Powassan virus (POWV) lineage II is an emerging tickborne flavivirus with an unknown seroprevalence in humans. In a Lyme disease-endemic area, we examined the seroreactivity to POWV in 2 patient cohorts and described the clinical features of the POWV-seroreactive patients. POWV disease might be less neuroinvasive than previously thought.
August 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700843/autochthonous-crimean-congo-hemorrhagic-fever-in-spain
#5
Anabel Negredo, Fernando de la Calle-Prieto, Eduardo Palencia-Herrejón, Marta Mora-Rillo, Jenaro Astray-Mochales, María P Sánchez-Seco, Esther Bermejo Lopez, Javier Menárguez, Ana Fernández-Cruz, Beatriz Sánchez-Artola, Elena Keough-Delgado, Eva Ramírez de Arellano, Fátima Lasala, Jakob Milla, Jose L Fraile, Maria Ordobás Gavín, Amalia Martinez de la Gándara, Lorenzo López Perez, Domingo Diaz-Diaz, M Aurora López-García, Pilar Delgado-Jimenez, Alejandro Martín-Quirós, Elena Trigo, Juan C Figueira, Jesús Manzanares, Elena Rodriguez-Baena, Luis Garcia-Comas, Olaia Rodríguez-Fraga, Nicolás García-Arenzana, Maria V Fernández-Díaz, Victor M Cornejo, Petra Emmerich, Jonas Schmidt-Chanasit, Jose R Arribas
Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a widely distributed, viral, tickborne disease. In Europe, cases have been reported only in the southeastern part of the continent. We report two autochthonous cases in Spain. The index patient acquired the disease through a tick bite in the province of Ávila - 300 km away from the province of Cáceres, where viral RNA from ticks was amplified in 2010. The second patient was a nurse who became infected while caring for the index patient. Both were infected with the African 3 lineage of this virus...
July 13, 2017: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696196/tickborne-diseases-other-than-lyme-in-the-united-states
#6
REVIEW
Christa Eickhoff, Jason Blaylock
Tickborne diseases are increasing in the United States, and the geographic range of tick vectors is expanding. Tickborne diseases are challenging to diagnose, as they present with vague symptoms such as fever, constitutional symptoms, and nonspecific laboratory abnormalities. A high degree of clinical suspicion is required to make a diagnosis, as patients often do not recall a tick bite. The availability of laboratory testing for tickborne diseases is limited, especially in the acute setting. Therefore, if a tickborne disease is suspected, empiric therapy should often be initiated before laboratory confirmation of the disease is available...
July 2017: Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28696189/appropriate-diagnosis-of-tickborne-infections
#7
EDITORIAL
Brian F Mandell
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 2017: Cleveland Clinic Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28683059/babesiosis-surveillance-wisconsin-2001-2015
#8
Elizabeth Stein, Lina I Elbadawi, James Kazmierczak, Jeffrey P Davis
Babesiosis is an emerging zoonotic disease caused primarily by Babesia microti, an intraerythocytic protozoan. Babesia microti, like the causal agents for Lyme disease and anaplasmosis, is endemic to the northeastern and upper midwestern United States where it is usually transmitted by the blacklegged tick, Ixodes scapularis. Although babesiosis is usually a mild to moderate illness, older or immunocompromised persons can develop a serious malaria-like illness that can be fatal without prompt treatment. The most common initial clinical signs and symptoms of babesiosis (fever, fatigue, chills, and diaphoresis) are nonspecific and present diagnostic challenges that can contribute to delays in diagnosis and effective treatment with atovaquone and azithromycin (1)...
July 7, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28663270/febrile-headache-and-leg-weakness-as-the-initial-symptoms-of-tickborne-encephalitis
#9
Pierrick Le Borgne, Claudia Brunhuber, Pascal Bilbault
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 28, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631423/pet-ownership-increases-human-risk-of-encountering-ticks
#10
E H Jones, A F Hinckley, S A Hook, J I Meek, B Backenson, K J Kugeler, K A Feldman
We examined whether pet ownership increased the risk for tick encounters and tickborne disease among residents of three Lyme disease-endemic states as a nested cohort within a randomized controlled trial. Information about pet ownership, use of tick control for pets, property characteristics, tick encounters and human tickborne disease were captured through surveys, and associations were assessed using univariate and multivariable analyses. Pet-owning households had 1.83 times the risk (95% CI = 1.53, 2.20) of finding ticks crawling on and 1...
June 19, 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544092/fever-and-multiple-eschars-after-an-african-safari-report-of-three-cases
#11
Fátima Albízuri Prado, Alba Sánchez, Marta Feito, Ander Mayor, Ana Rodriguez, Raúl de Lucas
African tick-bite fever (ATBF), a tickborne disease endemic in rural areas of sub-Saharan Africa and the West Indies caused by Rickettsia africae, has been recognized as an emerging health problem in recent years. ATBF has been reported as the second most commonly documented etiology of fever, after malaria, in travelers who return ill from sub-Saharan Africa. Most cases reported in the literature occurred in middle-aged adults, so the incidence of ATBF in children is unclear. We report a cluster of three cases of ATBF that occurred in children ages 7 to 16 years after returning from a game-hunting safari in South Africa...
May 25, 2017: Pediatric Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273010/post-babesiosis-warm-autoimmune-hemolytic-anemia
#12
Ann E Woolley, Mary W Montgomery, William J Savage, Maureen O Achebe, Kathleen Dunford, Sarah Villeda, James H Maguire, Francisco M Marty
Background Babesiosis, a tickborne zoonotic disease caused by intraerythrocytic protozoa of the genus babesia, is characterized by nonimmune hemolytic anemia that resolves with antimicrobial treatment and clearance of parasitemia. The development of warm-antibody autoimmune hemolytic anemia (also known as warm autoimmune hemolytic anemia [WAHA]) in patients with babesiosis has not previously been well described. Methods After the observation of sporadic cases of WAHA that occurred after treatment of patients for babesiosis, we conducted a retrospective cohort study of all the patients with babesiosis who were cared for at our center from January 2009 through June 2016...
March 9, 2017: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221107/use-of-mass-participation-outdoor-events-to-assess-human-exposure-to-tickborne-pathogens
#13
Jessica L Hall, Kathrin Alpers, Kevin J Bown, Stephen J Martin, Richard J Birtles
Mapping the public health threat of tickborne pathogens requires quantification of not only the density of infected host-seeking ticks but also the rate of human exposure to these ticks. To efficiently sample a high number of persons in a short time, we used a mass-participation outdoor event. In June 2014, we sampled ≈500 persons competing in a 2-day mountain marathon run across predominantly tick-infested habitat in Scotland. From the number of tick bites recorded and prevalence of tick infection with Borrelia burgdoferi sensu lato and B...
March 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28055326/prevalence-and-distribution-of-human-and-tick-infections-with-the-ehrlichia-muris-like-agent-and-anaplasma-phagocytophilum-in-wisconsin-2009-2015
#14
Darby S Murphy, Xia Lee, Scott R Larson, Diep K Hoang Johnson, Theoren Loo, Susan M Paskewitz
Ehrlichiosis and anaplasmosis are important emerging tickborne zoonoses that affect both humans and animals. Knowledge of the geographic distribution and prevalence of Ehrlichia spp. and Anaplasma phagocytophilum in Wisconsin is important information as a baseline for future comparisons. Reported human cases between 2009 and 2015 were identified using the Wisconsin Electronic Disease Surveillance System (WEDSS) and mapped by county of residence. Vector surveillance was established using ticks collected from animals by partners, including veterinary medical clinics, domestic animal shelters, and wildlife rehabilitation centers from 40 Wisconsin counties...
April 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27999153/rhipicephalus-sanguineus-importation-into-the-uk-surveillance-risk-public-health-awareness-and-one-health-response
#15
K M Hansford, L P Phipps, B Cull, M E Pietzsch, J M Medlock
As part of Public Health England's assessment of vectorborne disease risk to public health in the UK, tick specimens are regularly submitted by veterinarians for identification via the Tick Surveillance Scheme. Recently, a number of these specimens have been identified as the brown dog tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus This species is non-endemic to the UK and presents a risk to both human and animal health due to its role in the transmission of various tickborne pathogens. Although current climatic conditions in the UK are unlikely to permit the survival of this species outdoors, indoor infestations can occur and this can present a risk of disease transmission within an infested property...
February 4, 2017: Veterinary Record
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27959685/screening-for-babesia-microti-in-the-u-s-blood-supply
#16
Erin D Moritz, Colleen S Winton, Laura Tonnetti, Rebecca L Townsend, Victor P Berardi, Mary-Ellen Hewins, Karen E Weeks, Roger Y Dodd, Susan L Stramer
BACKGROUND: Babesia microti, a tickborne intraerythrocytic parasite that can be transmitted by means of blood transfusion, is responsible for the majority of cases of transfusion-transmitted babesiosis in the United States. However, no licensed test exists for screening for B. microti in donated blood. We assessed data from a large-scale, investigational product-release screening and donor follow-up program. METHODS: From June 2012 through September 2014, we performed arrayed fluorescence immunoassays (AFIAs) for B...
December 8, 2016: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903055/local-landscape-effects-on-population-dynamics-of-ixodes-ricinus
#17
Naveed Asghar, Mona Petersson, Magnus Johansson, Patrik Dinnetz
Ixodes ricinus, a common tick in Europe, transmits severe tickborne pathogens (TBPs). In Sweden, both prevalence and incidence of tick-borne infections have increased during the last few decades, and a majority of the cases is reported from the area around Stockholm. Among ticks, transmission of TBPs involves co-feeding of susceptible larvae or nymphs with infected ticks on the same host. Seasonal synchrony of immature stages and total tick abundance are important factors for the probability of horizontal transmission of TBPs...
November 21, 2016: Geospatial Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880753/notes-from-the-field-community-based-prevention-of-rocky-mountain-spotted-fever-sonora-mexico-2016
#18
Anne Straily, Naomi Drexler, Denica Cruz-Loustaunau, Christopher D Paddock, Gerardo Alvarez-Hernandez
Rocky Mountain spotted fever (RMSF), a life-threatening tickborne zoonosis caused by Rickettsia rickettsii, is a reemerging disease in Mexico (1,2). R. rickettsii is an intracellular bacterium that infects vascular endothelium and can cause multisystem organ failure and death in the absence of timely administration of a tetracycline-class antibiotic, typically doxycycline. Epidemic RMSF, as described in parts of Arizona and Mexico, is associated with massive local infestations of the brown dog tick (Rhiphicephalus sanguineus sensu lato) on domestic dogs and in peridomestic settings that result in high rates of human exposure; for example, during 2003-2012, in Arizona the incidence of RMSF in the three most highly affected communities was 150 times the U...
November 25, 2016: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27789971/morgellons-disease-a-filamentous-borrelial-dermatitis
#19
REVIEW
Marianne J Middelveen, Raphael B Stricker
Morgellons disease (MD) is a dermopathy characterized by multicolored filaments that lie under, are embedded in, or project from skin. Although MD was initially considered to be a delusional disorder, recent studies have demonstrated that the dermopathy is associated with tickborne infection, that the filaments are composed of keratin and collagen, and that they result from proliferation of keratinocytes and fibroblasts in epithelial tissue. Culture, histopathological and molecular evidence of spirochetal infection associated with MD has been presented in several published studies using a variety of techniques...
2016: International Journal of General Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27787203/the-pcr-and-nested-pcr-detection-of-borrelia-burgdorferi-sensu-lato-anaplasma-phagocytophilum-and-babesia-microti-in-dermacentor-reticulatus-f-collected-in-a-new-location-in-poland-trzciel-western-poland
#20
Patrycja Opalińska, Anna Wierzbicka, Marek Asman
The study was performed in the Trzciel Forest Districts which is located in the west part of Poland. The Scots pine is the main tree species creating forest landscape there. Dermacentor reticulatus, usually found in wet, boggy and damp habitat, in this case was discovered in fresh mixed coniferous forest and fresh coniferous forest. In Central Europe the Dermacentor reticulatus is after Ixodes ricinus the second most important vector for tick-borne diseases in Europe. The ticks were collected by flagging from lower vegetation during the autumn peak of their activity...
December 1, 2016: Acta Parasitologica
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